A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.
Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.

Clinically safe dosage of felypressin for patients with essential hypertension. (1/166)

Hemodynamic changes were evaluated in patients with essential hypertension when felypressin of various concentrations was administered. The parameters studied were systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, heart rate, left ventricular systolic phase, and endocardial viability ratio. Results showed that blood pressure tended to increase, and the value of 1/pre-ejection period2 (PEP2) tended to decrease, upon administration of 3 ml of 2% propitocaine containing 0.06 international units/ml (IU/ml) of felypressin. Significant increase of blood pressure and decrease in 1/PEP2 was noted upon administration of 3 ml of anesthetic solution containing 0.13 IU/ml of felypressin. No ischemic change of the myocardium was detected even with the highest felypressin concentration (3 ml of 2% propitocaine containing 0.25 IU/ml of felypressin). These results suggest that the clinically safe dosage of felypressin for patients with essential hypertension is approximately 0.18 IU. This amount is equivalent to 6 ml of 3% propitocaine with 0.03 IU/ml of felypressin, which is a commercially available local anesthetic for dental use. It seems that the decrease in 1/PEP2 that occurred during blood pressure increase was due to the increase in afterload caused by contraction of the arterioles. Although in the present study no ischemic change was noted, special care should be taken to prevent myocardial ischemia in patients with severe hypertension.  (+info)

Prolonged diplopia following a mandibular block injection. (2/166)

A case is presented in which a 14-yr-old girl developed diplopia after injection of the local anesthetic Xylotox E 80 A (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine). Since the complication had a relatively slow onset and lasted for 24 hr, the commonly suggested explanations based on vascular, lymphatic, and neural route theories do not adequately fit the observations. No treatment, other than reassurance, was necessary, and the patient recovered fully.  (+info)

Efficacy of mandibular topical anesthesia varies with the site of administration. (3/166)

This study compared the threshold of pain sensitivity in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold with the posterior. This was followed by a comparison of the reduction of needle insertion pain in the anterior mucobuccal fold and the pterygo-temporal depression by either topical anesthesia or nitrous oxide inhalation. The pain threshold was determined by an analgometer, a pain-measuring device that depends on pressure readings; additionally, pain caused by a needle inserted by a normal technique was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). The threshold of pain was significantly lower in the incisor and canine regions than in the premolar and the molar regions (P < 0.001). Compared to a placebo, topical anesthesia significantly reduced the pain from needle insertion in the mucobuccal fold adjacent to the mandibular canine (P < 0.001), but did not significantly reduce pain in the pterygotemporal depression. The addition of 30% nitrous oxide did not significantly alter pain reduction compared to a control of 100% oxygen. These results suggest that topical anesthesia application may be effective in reducing the pain of needle insertion in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold, but may not be as effective for a standard inferior alveolar nerve block. The addition of 30% nitrous oxide did not lead to a significant improvement.  (+info)

Neural modulation of inflammatory reactions in dental tissues incident to orthodontic tooth movement. A review of the literature. (4/166)

This article reviews the current knowledge of the biological aspects of dental tissue changes incident to orthodontic tooth movement. The inflammatory nature of these tissue changes was first recognized in the early 1970s, and since then a number of morphological and quantitative investigations have been published in support of this view. The studies dealing with vascular and cellular dental tissue changes, as well as those concerned with inflammatory mediators present at sites of orthodontic tooth movement are systematized and presented accordingly. Special emphasis is placed upon the role of the sensory nerve fibres and their neuropeptides in the control, and development of an inflammatory process, i.e. their role in tooth movement.  (+info)

Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 min following an inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection. (5/166)

To determine whether a repeated intraosseous (IO) injection would increase or prolong pulpal anesthesia, we measured the degree of anesthesia obtained by a repeated IO injection given 30 min following a combination inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection (IAN/IO) in mandibular second premolars and in first and second molars. Using a repeated-measures design, we randomly assigned 38 subjects to receive two combinations of injections at two separate appointments. The combinations were an IAN/IO injection followed approximately 30 min later by another IO injection of 0.9 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and a combination IAN/IO injection followed approximately 30 min later by a mock IO injection. The second premolar, first molar, and second molar were blindly tested with an Analytic Technology pulp tester at 2-min cycles for 120 min postinjection. Anesthesia was considered successful when two consecutive readings of 80 were obtained. One hundred percent of the subjects had lip numbness with IAN/IO and with IAN/IO plus repeated IO techniques. Rates of anesthetic success for the IAN/IO and for the IAN/IO plus repeated IO injection, respectively, were 100% and 97% for the second premolar, 95% and 95% for the first molar, and 87% and 87% for the second molar. The repeated IO injection increased pulpal anesthesia for approximately 14 min in the second premolar and for 6 min in the first molar, but no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) were shown. In conclusion, the repeated IO injection of 0.9 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine given 30 min following a combination IAN/IO injection did not significantly increase pulpal anesthesia in mandibular second premolars or in first and second molars.  (+info)

Course and composition of the nerves that supply the mandibular teeth of the rat. (6/166)

The rodent dentition has become an important model for investigations of interactions between dental tissues and peripheral neurons. Although experimental nerve injury has been widely used for such studies, there is uncertainty about the courses of nerve fibers supplying the mandibular teeth. In order to clarify this, we used a mixture of monoclonal antibodies against neurofilament proteins to enhance demonstration of nerve fibers so that small nerves could be readily traced in serial frozen sections of mandibles of Sprague Dawley rats ranging in age from embryonic day (E) 18 to postnatal day (P) 90. The 1st molar and anterior portion of the 2nd molar were innervated by small nerves that emerged as distinct branches of the IAN trunk at or near the mandibular foramen. In contrast, the nerve supply to the 3rd molar and posterior part of the 2nd molar was a branch of the lingual nerve that bypassed the mandibular canal altogether. The IAN trunk split into the mental nerve and a large branch to the incisor about 2 mm anterior to the mandibular foramen. Thick branches of the incisor nerve descended into the incisor socket to form a dense plexus of nerve fiber bundles extending along the length of the incisor periodontium. The sparse pulpal innervation of the incisor was provided by a few thin fascicles that emerged from the caudal portion of the periodontal plexus to enter the incisor apex. The dental branches of the IAN and lingual nerve seen in the adult were well established and readily identifiable at age E18 even though their targets were limited to the follicles of the developing teeth. These studies show that the trigeminal branches that supply the mandibular teeth can be identified at a wide range of ages as distinct nerves at a considerable distance proximal to their targets. This detailed information on the courses taken by the dental nerves can provide an anatomical basis for increased precision in characterization and perturbation of neural pathways from the molars and incisor.  (+info)

Primary afferent synaptic responses recorded from trigeminal caudal neurons in a mandibular nerve-brainstem preparation of neonatal rats. (7/166)

1. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from the neurons in the superficial trigeminal caudal nucleus (substantia gelatinosa) visually identified in a parasagittal brainstem slice of neonatal rat with the mandibular nerve attached. 2. Stimulation of the mandibular nerve at 0.03 Hz evoked compound excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) or currents (EPSCs) in trigeminal caudal neurons. When stimulated at higher frequency (> 0.5 Hz), compound synaptic responses were largely attenuated and a small component remained. This component had a monosynaptic nature, following high-frequency stimulation (33-50 Hz) with a stable synaptic latency. 3. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5, 50 microM) largely attenuated the slow polysynaptic EPSCs. The AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, 10 microM) largely attenuated monosynaptic EPSCs, but only weakly attenuated slow polysynaptic EPSCs. Simultaneous application of CNQX and D-AP5 completely abolished EPSCs. The monosynaptic EPSCs isolated by repetitive stimulation had both NMDA and non-NMDA components. 4. Monosynaptic EPSCs having high threshold had a relatively long latency. During repetitive stimulation (0.5-5.0 Hz), EPSCs having high threshold and long latency underwent a stepwise potentiation in an activity-dependent manner. The conduction velocity estimated for these EPSCs fell into the range of C-fibres. The activity-dependent potentiation was observed for both non-NMDA and NMDA EPSCs and was accompanied by a significant decrease in the coefficient of variation of EPSC amplitude. 5. We suggest that the activity-dependent potentiation of EPSCs is induced presynaptically and that it may underlie the wind-up phenomenon, an activity-dependent hyperexcitability of the primary afferent C-fibres.  (+info)

Effects of different types of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve on the behavior of Schwann cells during the regeneration of periodontal nerve fibers of rat incisor. (8/166)

The present study reports on different regeneration patterns of axons and Schwann cells in the periodontal ligament of the rat incisor using immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and S-100 protein. Three kinds of injury (transection, crush and segmental resection) were applied to the inferior alveolar nerve. In normal animals, PGP 9.5- and S-100-immunoreactivities were detected in the axons and Schwann cell elements of periodontal Ruffini endings, respectively. They were restricted to the alveolus-related part, occurring only rarely in the tooth-related part and in the shear zone (the border between the alveolus-related and tooth-related parts). Both transection and segmental resection caused the complete disappearance of PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the periodontal ligament, while a small number of them could be found following the crush injury. Regenerating PGP 9.5-reactive nerve fibers appeared at 5 days and 21 days following the transection and segmental resection, respectively. The regeneration of periodontal nerve fibers completed in a period of 21-28 days and 14-21 days following the transection and crush, respectively, but was not completed even at 56 days following the segmental resection. The behavior of Schwann cells during regeneration was similar after the different nerve injuries; spindle-shaped S-100-immunoreactive cells, presumably Schwann cells, appeared in the shear zone and the tooth-related part. These cells disappeared 5-7 days prior to the completion of the regeneration of axonal elements of the periodontal ligament following the transection and crush. Following the segmental resection, in contrast, spindle-shaped S-100-positive cells disappeared from the tooth-related part at 42 days, although the axonal regeneration of periodontal Ruffini endings proceeded even until 56 days. We thus conclude that the duration of the migration of Schwann cells depends on the state of the regeneration of axons.  (+info)

The mandibular nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The mandibular nerve provides both sensory and motor innervation to the lower third of the face, below the eye and nose down to the chin.

More specifically, it carries sensory information from the lower teeth, lower lip, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as the skin over the jaw and chin. It also provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication (chewing), which include the masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid muscles.

Damage to the mandibular nerve can result in numbness or loss of sensation in the lower face and mouth, as well as weakness or difficulty with chewing and biting.

The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). It provides general sensory innervation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, including taste sensation from the same region. It also supplies sensory innervation to the floor of the mouth and the lingual gingiva (gum tissue). The lingual nerve is closely associated with the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands and their ducts.

The pterygoid muscles are a pair of muscles located in the deep part of the lateral aspect of the nasopharynx, in the human head. They are part of the group of muscles known as the muscles of mastication, which are involved in the chewing process.

There are two sets of pterygoid muscles: the medial and lateral pterygoids. The medial pterygoids are located deep within the jaw, near the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). They originate from the medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone and insert onto the inner aspect of the angle of the mandible (lower jawbone). The main function of the medial pterygoids is to assist in closing the jaw and moving it forward during chewing.

The lateral pterygoids, on the other hand, are located more superficially than the medial pterygoids and are situated near the TMJ. They have two heads: the upper head originates from the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, while the lower head arises from the lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate. The lateral pterygoids insert onto the front part of the neck of the mandible and the disc of the TMJ. Their main function is to assist in opening the jaw and moving it sideways during chewing.

Together, the pterygoid muscles play a crucial role in the movement and function of the jaw, allowing us to chew food effectively and speak clearly.

Glossectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the partial or total removal of the tongue. This type of surgery may be performed for various reasons, such as treating certain types of cancer (like oral or tongue cancer) that have not responded to other forms of treatment, or removing a portion of the tongue that's severely damaged or injured due to trauma.

The extent of the glossectomy depends on the size and location of the tumor or lesion. A partial glossectomy refers to the removal of a part of the tongue, while a total glossectomy involves the complete excision of the tongue. In some cases, reconstructive surgery may be performed to help restore speech and swallowing functions after the procedure.

It is essential to note that a glossectomy can significantly impact a patient's quality of life, as the tongue plays crucial roles in speaking, swallowing, and taste sensation. Therefore, multidisciplinary care involving speech therapists, dietitians, and other healthcare professionals is often necessary to help patients adapt to their new conditions and optimize their recovery process.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

Ophthalmic nerve Maxillary nerve Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve Alveolar nerve (Dental nerve) Dermatome ... distribution of the trigeminal nerve The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck. Mandibular nerve Mandibular nerve Rodella ... The mandibular nerve also innervates the muscles of mastication. The large sensory root of mandibular nerve emerges from the ... the mandibular nerve (V3) is the largest of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve (CN V). Unlike ...
The meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve (also known as the nervus spinosus) is a sensory branch of the mandibular nerve ( ... Mandibular nerve, Meninges, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs). ... The anterior branch communicates with the meningeal branch of the maxillary nerve. The posterior branch also supplies the ...
The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve arises from the facial nerve (CN VII) in the parotid gland at the parotid ... It communicates with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar nerve.[citation needed] The marginal mandibular nerve may be ... The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve is found superficial to the facial artery and (anterior) facial vein. Thus ... ISBN 978-0-443-06952-9. Batra APS, Mahajan A, Gupta K. Marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve: An anatomical study. ...
... into which the mandibular nerve enters to become the inferior alveolar nerve. The mandibular canal often runs close to the ... A trifid mandibular canal variation has also been described. Mandibular nerve and bone. Deep dissection. Anterior view. ... It carries branches of the inferior alveolar nerve and artery. The mandibular canal is continuous with tow foramina: the mental ... In human anatomy, the mandibular canal is a canal within the mandible that contains the inferior alveolar nerve, inferior ...
The medial pterygoid nerve is a slender branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3) (itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V ... The medial pterygoid nerve (nerve to medial pterygoid, or internal pterygoid nerve[citation needed]) is a nerve of the head. It ... Mandibular nerve". Manual Therapy for the Cranial Nerves. Churchill Livingstone. pp. 139-146. doi:10.1016/B978-0-7020-3100- ... is a branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3). It supplies the medial pterygoid muscle, the tensor veli palatini muscle, and the ...
It is innervated by the mandibular nerve. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's ... The mandibular prominence is an embryological structure which gives rise to the lower portion of the face. The mandible and ... The mesenchymal cells within the mandibular prominence condense to form Meckel's cartilage. ...
Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. Mandibular division of the trifacial nerve ... It is part of the mandibular canal. It transmits the terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental vessels. ... It is at the end of the mandibular canal, which begins at the mandibular foramen on the posterior surface of the mandible. It ... The mental nerve may be anaesthetized as it leaves the mental foramen. This causes loss of sensation to the lower lip and chin ...
Mandibular division of the trifacial nerve. Masseter muscle. Deep dissection. Mummification process. Horizontal MRI scan of a ... the masseter is innervated by the anterior division of the mandibular division (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. The innervation ... Its function is believed to be the retraction of the mandible and the stabilization of the mandibular coronoid process. Along ... head, at the level of the mandibular teeth, showing the masseter muscle and neighbors. Zygomasseteric system The word masseter ...
Mandibular division of trifacial nerve, seen from the middle line. Inferior alveolar nerve Mandibular nerve and bone. Deep ... Alveolar nerve (Dental nerve) Superior alveolar nerve (Superior dental nerve) Anterior superior alveolar nerve (Anterior ... via its mental nerve). The inferior alveolar nerve arises from the mandibular nerve.: 543 After branching from the mandibular ... The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) (also the inferior dental nerve) is a sensory[contradictory] branch of the mandibular nerve ( ...
... they are innervated by the mandibular branch, or V3. The Mandibular nerve is both sensory and motor. This is a testament to ... Unlike most of the other facial muscles, which are innervated by the facial nerve (or CN VII), the muscles of mastication are ... innervated by the trigeminal nerve (or CN V). More specifically, ...
Mandibular division of the trifacial nerve. Mandibular division of trifacial nerve, seen from the middle line. Plan of the ... Lingual nerve Lingual nerve Mandibular nerve and bone. Deep dissection. Anterior view. Infratemporal fossa. Lingual and ... It contains fibres from both the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3) and from the facial nerve (CN VII). The ... The lingual nerve arises from the posterior trunk of mandibular nerve (CN V3) within the infratemporal fossa.[citation needed] ...
The inferior alveolar nerve, which is a branch of the mandibular nerve, must be identified during surgery and worked around ... Teerijoki-Oksa T, Jääskeläinen SK, Forssell K, Forssell H (2004). "Recovery of nerve injury after mandibular sagittal split ... There can also be some post operative facial numbness due to nerve damage. Diagnostics for nerve damage consist of: brush- ... mental nerve blink reflex (BR), nerve conduction study (NCS), and cold (CDT) and warm (WDT) detection thresholds. ...
Derivatives of this pouch are supplied by Mandibular nerve. Contributes the middle ear, palatine tonsils, supplied by the ... The main nerve supply to the derivatives of this pouch is Cranial Nerve IX, glossopharyngeal nerve. Derivatives include: ... Nerve supply is by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Pharyngeal arch (often called branchial arch although this is more ... Nerve supplying these derivatives is Superior laryngeal nerve. Rudimentary structure, becomes part of the fourth pouch ...
The masseteric nerve is a nerve of the face. It is a branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3). It passes through the mandibular ... The masseteric nerve is a branch of (the anterior division of) the mandibular nerve (CN V3) (itself a branch of the trigeminal ... The masseteric nerve may be harvested and used to repair paralysis of the facial nerve (CN VII). Masseteric artery This article ... Spira, M (1978-03-01). "Anastomosis of masseteric nerve to lower division of facial nerve for correction of lower facial ...
The tensor veli palatini muscle receives motor innervation from the mandibular nerve (CN V3) (a branch of the trigeminal nerve ... Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve, seen from the middle line. Levator veli palatini This article incorporates text in the ... Anatomy of the Trigeminal Nerve". Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Vol. 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics. ... CN V)) via the nerve to medial pterygoid. It is the only muscle of the palate not innervated by the pharyngeal plexus, which is ...
The medial pterygoid nerve is a main trunk from the mandibular nerve, before the division of the trigeminal nerve - this is ... Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. Mandibular division of trifacial nerve, ... The medial pterygoid muscle is supplied by the medial pterygoid nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve, itself a branch of the ... It is supplied by the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (V). It is important in mastication (chewing). The medial ...
Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve, seen from the middle line. External carotid artery with branches This article ... to come to pass anterior-ward within the mandibular canal alongside the inferior alveolar nerve. Within the canal, it provides ... It enters the mandibular foramen (of the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible[citation needed]) ... through the infratemporal fossa as part of a neurovascular bundle with the inferior alveolar nerve and vein to the mandibular ...
Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. This article incorporates text in the ... The two pterygopalatine nerves (or sphenopalatine branches) descend to the pterygopalatine ganglion. Although it is closely ... Perineural Spread of Tumor Along the Fifth and Seventh Cranial Nerves : Article by Charles Lee". Retrieved 2008-02-28. Hiatt, ... related to the pterygopalatine ganglion, it is still considered a branch of the maxillary nerve and does not synapse in the ...
... mandibular nerve (CN V3) (a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)) accessory meningeal artery lesser petrosal nerve (a branch ... It transmits the mandibular nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve. The foramen ovale is an opening in the greater wing of the ... meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve: 364, 496 In a study conducted on 100 skulls, the foramen ovale was divided into 2 or ... typically the Mandibular) to relieve pain. This entry point is also used to surgically place local electrodes directly on the ...
The mandibular nerve is one of three branches of the trigeminal nerve, and the only one having motor innervation. One branch of ... It allows for divisions of the mandibular nerve and blood vessels to pass through. The mandibular foramen is an opening on the ... Local anaesthetic can be injected around the mandibular foramen to anaesthetise the mandibular nerve, and thereby the mandible ... It allows for divisions of the mandibular nerve and blood vessels to pass through. There are two distinct anatomies to its rim ...
Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. Mucus cell are identifiable by the lack of ... arteries and nerves of neck.Newborn dissection. Muscles, arteries and nerves of neck.Newborn dissection. Muscles, nerves and ... a branch of the facial nerve, that becomes part of the trigeminal nerve's lingual nerve prior to synapsing on the submandibular ... The excretory ducts are then crossed by the lingual nerve, and ultimately drain into the sublingual caruncles - small ...
Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and ... lingual nerve, vena comitans of hypoglossal nerve, and the hypoglossal nerve. Note, posteriorly, the lingual nerve is superior ... It is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII). It acts to depress and retract the tongue. It forms a part of ... Structures that are medial/deep to the hyoglossus are the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), the stylohyoid ligament and the ...
It is supplied by pterygoid branches of the maxillary artery, and the lateral pterygoid nerve (from the mandibular nerve, CN V3 ... a branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3), itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The primary function of the lateral ... Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. Murray, Greg M.; Bhutada, Manish; Peck, ... The lateral pterygoid muscle is supplied by the lateral pterygoid nerve, ...
There were separate foramina (holes) for the maxillary and mandibular nerves. Next to the crista interfenestralis there was a ...
Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. The otic ganglion and its branches. The ... The middle meningeal artery is intimately associated with the auriculotemporal nerve, which wraps around the artery making the ... supplies the facial nerve, and anastomoses with the stylomastoid branch of the posterior auricular artery. A superior tympanic ... and between the two roots of the auriculotemporal nerve to the foramen spinosum of the sphenoid bone, through which it enters ...
Here it joins the lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3). Traveling with the lingual nerve, the fibers of ... Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. Plan of the facial and intermediate nerves ... The chorda tympani carries two types of nerve fibers from their origin from the facial nerve to the lingual nerve that carries ... and vagus nerves. When the greater petrosal and glossopharyngeal nerves are cut, regardless of age, the chorda tympani nerve ...
... an effective treatment for marginal mandibular nerve paralysis". British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 57 (6): 502-510. doi: ... Nerve. 47 (6): 878-883. doi:10.1002/mus.23693. ISSN 1097-4598. PMID 23519888. S2CID 39807522. Deuschl, Günther; Fasano, Alfonso ...
Damage to the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve may cause paralysis of the depressor anguli oris muscle. This may ... The depressor anguli oris muscle is supplied by the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve. The depressor anguli oris ... an effective treatment for marginal mandibular nerve paralysis". British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 57 (6): 502-510. doi: ...
2. The lingual nerve (one right and one left), which branches off the mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve and courses ... The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN), a branch of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), is a nerve that runs through the ... Two nerves are typically of concern, and are found in duplicate (one left and one right): 1. the inferior alveolar nerve, which ... Sarikov R, Juodzbalys G (2014-12-29). "Inferior alveolar nerve injury after mandibular third molar extraction: a literature ...
This asymmetry can be caused by paralysis of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve on one side, so the healthy ... The depressor labii inferioris muscle is supplied by the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve. The depressor labii ... an effective treatment for marginal mandibular nerve paralysis". British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 57 (6): 502-510. doi: ... Local anaesthesia may be used, such as by blocking the mental nerve. This operation tends to be successful. The depressor labii ...
Ophthalmic nerve Maxillary nerve Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve Alveolar nerve (Dental nerve) Dermatome ... distribution of the trigeminal nerve The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck. Mandibular nerve Mandibular nerve Rodella ... The mandibular nerve also innervates the muscles of mastication. The large sensory root of mandibular nerve emerges from the ... the mandibular nerve (V3) is the largest of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve (CN V). Unlike ...
... and lingual nerves. It results in anesthesia of the following areas: Ipsilateral mandibular teeth up to the midline Buccal and ... Mandibular nerve block involves blockage of the auriculotemporal, inferior alveolar, buccal, mental, incisive, mylohyoid, ... The mandibular nerve area is generally blocked by using more specific nerve blocks rather than by performing a complete nerve ... Alternative mandibular nerve block techniques: a review of the Gow-Gates and Akinosi-Vazirani closed-mouth mandibular nerve ...
... and lingual nerves. It results in anesthesia of the following areas: Ipsilateral mandibular teeth up to the midline Buccal and ... Mandibular nerve block involves blockage of the auriculotemporal, inferior alveolar, buccal, mental, incisive, mylohyoid, ... The mandibular nerve area is generally blocked by using more specific nerve blocks rather than by performing a complete nerve ... Alternative mandibular nerve block techniques: a review of the Gow-Gates and Akinosi-Vazirani closed-mouth mandibular nerve ...
... and lingual nerves. It results in anesthesia of the following areas: Ipsilateral mandibular teeth up to the midline Buccal and ... Mandibular nerve block involves blockage of the auriculotemporal, inferior alveolar, buccal, mental, incisive, mylohyoid, ... The mandibular nerve area is generally blocked by using more specific nerve blocks rather than by performing a complete nerve ... Alternative mandibular nerve block techniques: a review of the Gow-Gates and Akinosi-Vazirani closed-mouth mandibular nerve ...
We report a case of complete facial nerve palsy during a mandibular nerve block anesthesia in a 63-year-old woman. The full ... Facial nerve palsy after mandibular anesthesia technique. Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac. [online]. 2010, vol.10, n.2, pp ... Facial nerve palsy has many etiologies, such as viruses, facial trauma, iatrogenesis, tumors, idiopathic conditions, cerebral ... prolonged surgical procedure for the removal of mandibular molars and infections of dental origin. ...
... and mental nerves are the 3 major cutaneous branches of the mandibular nerve. The auriculotemporal nerve sends sensory fibers ... The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve has a superficial course near the mandible and chin. This nerve usually lies ... Mandibular branch. In general, the marginal mandibular nerve does not have anastomotic connections. It innervates the ... Sensory Nerves. The trigeminal nerve, or cranial nerve (CN) V, is primarily responsible for the sensory innervation of the face ...
... and approach to performing the more commonly used oral nerve blocks. ... An oral nerve block is a simple and effective way to manage orofacial pain without distorting the anatomy of a wound and ... Landmarks: Locate the buccal nerve 1 mm lateral to mandibular molar 3 at the anterior border of the ramus in the occlusive ... Infraorbital nerve block. An infraorbital nerve block, which branches from the maxillary nerve, anesthetizes the lower eyelid, ...
... neurologic examination found diminished sensation to light touch over the distribution of her left trigeminal mandibular nerve ... One possible mechanism is that the virus crosses the blood-brain barrier by way of the peripheral nerves (12). Although we ... Her other cranial and peripheral nerve functions and higher cortical functions were grossly intact. Ear, nose, and throat ... cannot confirm the entry portal of the virus, we note that when the patient sought care, she had a peripheral cranial nerve ...
growth: consider also MAXILLOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT; /innerv: consider also MANDIBULAR NERVE. Allowable Qualifiers:. AB ... agujero mandibular linea milohioidea maxilar inferior surco milohioideo Scope note:. El hueso más grande y robusto de la CARA, ...
Mandibular division trigeminal nerve injuries following primary endodontic treatment. A case series. Devine, Maria; Modgill, ... for diagnosis of post-traumatic pain and altered sensation of the maxillary and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve: a ...
... with respect to the mandible is very important as it reduces the potential for injury to the marginal mandibular nerve, a motor ... Injury to the nerve presents as an asymmetrical smile due to paresis of lip depressor muscles ...
Mandibular Nerve/injuries Mandibular Nerve Injuries Radio Waves/therapeutic use Radiofrequency Therapy ...
The clinical value of multislice CT for measuring the anatomical position of the mandibular nerve canal [J]. Shanghai Journal ... Mandibular two implant telescopic overdenture[J]. Clin Oral Implants Res, 2004, 15(5): 560-569.. [4] Schnabl D. Prosthetic ... Effect of different implant positions on strain developed around four implants supporting a mandibular overdenture with rigid ... Effect of dislodging forces on mandibular implant attachment-retained overdenture [J].Implant Dent, 2011, 20(3): 246-254.. [17 ...
How To Do a Mental Nerve Block - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... The mental nerve is a terminus of the inferior alveolar nerve, which itself is a branch of the mandibular nerve. ... A nerve block of the mental nerve anesthetizes the ipsilateral lower lip and skin of the chin, as well as the lateral (buccal) ... Nerve block may fail if the anesthetic is not placed sufficiently close to the nerve. ...
The pain is typically restricted to one or more branches of the nerve and does not spread beyond the nerve.. Physical exam: ... Pain from the third branch (mandibular) is felt in the lower lip, teeth, gum, jaw, and outer, edge of the tongue. If the ... Blood vessels that are compressing the trigeminal nerve are then dissected, and a Teflon pad is used to separate the nerve from ... In some cases, the trigeminal nerve is compressed by blood vessels (vascular compression), and less often by a tumor. The nerve ...
Involvement of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve may manifest as hypesthesia along the mandible or wasting of the ... Sensory and secretomotor fibers from the maxillary (V-II) branch of the trigeminal nerve and pterygopalatine ganglion traverse ... Palatal hypesthesia indicates trigeminal nerve involvement in the sphenopalatine foramen or pterygopalatine fossa extension. ...
The mandibular nerve is injected immediately beyond its exit from the foramen ovale, which lies 4 cm. from the skin in the same ... The relations of the maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve have become of increased importance to the ... the nerve being reached as it enters the inferior alveolar canal: the lingual nerve, which lies a little anterior to the ... The nerve may be paralysed by wounds of the cheek and by malignant tumours of the parotid, as also by intra-cranial and middle- ...
Many of the children developed severe infections with clinical diagnoses such as cervical lymphadenitis and mandibular or ... Complications from their infections included permanent tooth loss, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, and incision fibrosis. ...
Opticoacoustic nerve atrophy with dementia, see Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome. *Opticospinal MS, see ... Oral-mandibular-auricular syndrome, see Craniofacial microsomia. *ORAS, see Otulipenia. *Ormond disease, see Retroperitoneal ...
Many of the children developed severe infections with clinical diagnoses such as cervical lymphadenitis and mandibular or ... Complications from their infections included permanent tooth loss, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, and incision fibrosis. ...
Nerve #Regeneration #Neuropathy #Optic #Nerve #Atrophy #Osteochondrosis #Osteoporosis #Pain #Pancreatitis #Parkinsons #Disease ... Mandibular #Osteomyelitis #Maxillofacial #Disorders #Migraine #Enhances #Meditation #Multiple Sclerosis #Muscle Rehabilitation ... PEMFs can mostly help reduce pain, swelling, and the impatience of nerves. They could relax your muscular tissues, boost ... Nerve #Neuropathy #Paralysis #Fibromyalgia #Glaucoma #Gynecology #Headache #Hepatitis #Hearing #Loss #Heart Disease #Herpetic ...
Cranial Nerves, an overview of the cranial nerves with special emphasis on the branches that are important to the dental ... This course can be used as a reference for the location and function of the nerves of the head and neck. This is the last part ... Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Nerve*. V1 - Ophthalmic Nerve. *. V2 - Maxillary Nerve. *. V3 - Mandibular Nerve ... As the pathways of the nerves refer to both bones and muscles plus the endpoint of motor nerves is skeletal muscle you should ...
Relief from Tooth Nerve Pain: Effective Strategies and.... April 11, 2024. Say Goodbye to Bad Breath: **Effective Strategies ... Sex differences and age-related changes in the mandibular…. March 28, 2024. ... Sex differences and age-related changes in the mandibular…. March 28, 2024. ... Sex differences and age-related changes in the mandibular…. March 28, 2024. ...
Hand Surgery - hand trauma, tendon surgeries, peripheral nerve surgeries, congenital hand anomalies treatment, replantation, ... Head and Neck cancer surgery and reconstruction including oral cavity and mandibular reconstruction ...
Many of the children developed severe infections with clinical diagnoses such as cervical lymphadenitis and mandibular or ... Complications from their infections included permanent tooth loss, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, and incision fibrosis. ...
  • They can offer a detailed view of the sinus areas as well as the nasal areas and mandibular nerve. (martinezdentalsolutions.com)
  • A panoramic X-ray is not conducted to give a detailed view of each tooth, but rather to provide a better view of the sinus areas, nasal areas and mandibular nerve. (pediatricdentistryofaurora.com)
  • Needle placement with respect to the mandible is very important as it reduces the potential for injury to the marginal mandibular nerve, a motor branch of the facial nerve. (revivemedspamurphytx.com)
  • The most common nerve at risk is the marginal mandibular nerve which moves the muscles around the mouth. (entslc.com)
  • The large sensory root of mandibular nerve emerges from the lateral part of the trigeminal ganglion and exits the cranial cavity through the foramen ovale. (wikipedia.org)
  • The motor root (Latin: radix motoria s. portio minor), the small motor root of the trigeminal nerve, passes under the trigeminal ganglion and through the foramen ovale to unite with the sensory root just outside the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mandibular nerve is the largest division of the trigeminal nerve, with sensory roots from the trigeminal ganglion and motor roots from the pons and the medulla. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment was USGDN alone or combined with trigeminal ganglion/mandibular nerve pulsed radiofrequency (PRF), followed by yoga mudras to stretch masticatory and facial muscles. (integrativedn.com)
  • As the inferior alveolar nerve splits deep to the mental foramen, it gives rise to the mental nerve which runs superficially, and the incisive branch, which remains in the substance of the mandible. (elsevier.com)
  • The mental nerve runs anteriorly through the mental foramen to reach the anterior surface of the mandible where it splits into branches to the chin and lower labia. (elsevier.com)
  • Class III BMCs were observed uni- the mandible from the mandibular fora- in 4200 panoramic radiographs of Syr- laterally in eight cases (19.5%), five on men to the mental foramen, involving ian subjects (1899 women and 2301 the right side and three on the left side. (who.int)
  • Involvement of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve may manifest as hypesthesia along the mandible or wasting of the temporalis or masseter muscles. (medscape.com)
  • eral bifid canals that extend to the servers and the classification proposed mandibular third molar area or the by Langlias et al. (who.int)
  • Budenz AW, Osterman SR. A review of mandibular anesthesia nerve block techniques. (medscape.com)
  • The "ART" mandibular nerve block: a new approach to accomplishing regional anesthesia. (medscape.com)
  • We report a case of complete facial nerve palsy during a mandibular nerve block anesthesia in a 63-year-old woman. (bvsalud.org)
  • the inferior alveolar dental nerve block is the method most commonly used by endodontists to achieve local anesthesia during treatments. (bvsalud.org)
  • In neuroanatomy, the mandibular nerve (V3) is the largest of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve (CN V). Unlike the other divisions of the trigeminal nerve (ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve) which contain only afferent fibers, the mandibular nerve contains both afferent and efferent fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is characterized by recurrent electric shock-like (paroxysmal) pains in one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve (maxillary, mandibular, and/or ophthalmic branches), each supplying a different portion of the face. (tnnme.com)
  • Of the 12 cranial nerves that control motor and sensory functions of the head and neck, the trigeminal nerve or fifth cranial nerve is responsible for sending pain signals to the brain. (oral-surgeon-miami.com)
  • Sensory nerves from the anterior division include the buccal nerve, which is sensory to the mucosa of the mouth and gums and the skin on the cheek. (medscape.com)
  • Its sensory branch enters the mandibular canal and is sensory to the lower teeth and gums. (medscape.com)
  • It then exits via the mental foramen as the mental and incisive nerves, which are sensory to the chin and the lower teeth. (medscape.com)
  • 2. Which of the following nerves has no sensory supply to the auricle? (damsdelhi.com)
  • Anatomy of the sensory nerves of the external ear are shown in the image below. (damsdelhi.com)
  • The mandibular nerve also innervates the muscles of mastication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve to the medial pterygoid is a motor branch that innervates the medial pterygoid muscle. (medscape.com)
  • It also innervates the labial gingiva of the mandibular incisors and canines. (elsevier.com)
  • The lesser occipital nerve innervates a small portion of the helix. (damsdelhi.com)
  • The auricular branch of the vagus nerve innervates the concha and most of the area around the auditory meatus. (damsdelhi.com)
  • The nerve then divides into a small anterior division and a large posterior division. (wikipedia.org)
  • After giving off 2 branches, the mandibular nerve bifurcates into anterior and posterior divisions (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • In this situation, it may be associated with the injection of a local anesthetic, prolonged surgical procedure for the removal of mandibular molars and infections of dental origin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Martínez-Martínez A, Freyle-Granados E, Senior-Carmona N. Efficacy of 2% lidocaine and 4% articaine in mandibular molars with different pulp diagnoses in the mandibular technique. (bvsalud.org)
  • These nerve fibers innervate structures of the lower jaw and face, such as the tongue, lower lip, and chin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mental nerve conveys general sense fibers from the skin of the chin and lower lip, as well as the mucosa lining of the lower lip and the labial gingiva of the mandibular incisors and canines. (elsevier.com)
  • Anesthetizing the mental nerve rostral to where it exits the mental foramen desensitizes the skin of the ipsilateral lip and chin. (elsevier.com)
  • A nerve block of the mental nerve anesthetizes the ipsilateral lower lip and skin of the chin, as well as the lateral (buccal) gingiva and mucosa anterior to the mental foramen up to the midline. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It consists of making, with an intraoral approach, a cut in the chin area (anterior region of the jaw), under the dental roots and chin nerve. (tibhealth.com)
  • The maxillary nerve and mandibular nerve sections of the trigeminal nerve relay pain signals from the upper and lower teeth. (oral-surgeon-miami.com)
  • A nerve block is used instead of local anesthetic infiltration when accurate approximation of wound edges is important (eg, skin or lip repair), because a nerve block does not distort the tissue as does local infiltration. (msdmanuals.com)
  • better source needed] The mandibular nerve immediately passes between tensor veli palatini, which is medial, and lateral pterygoid, which is lateral, and gives off a meningeal branch (nervus spinosus) and the nerve to medial pterygoid from its medial side. (wikipedia.org)
  • It divides into 2 branches, which are the nerves to the tensor tympani and the tensor veli palatini. (medscape.com)
  • Facial nerve palsy has many etiologies, such as viruses, facial trauma, iatrogenesis, tumors, idiopathic conditions, cerebral infarction and pseudobulbar palsy, as a result of which it is rarely observed during dental treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lateral to the styloid process is the facial nerve (CN VII) and the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). (statpearls.com)
  • Complications from their infections included permanent tooth loss, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, and incision fibrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The motor branch to the mylohyoid is given off before the nerve enters the mandibular canal and serves as motor supply to the mylohyoid muscle. (medscape.com)
  • What structure(s) passes through the mandibular canal? (freezingblue.com)
  • Class IV BMCs were identified of the mandibular canal. (who.int)
  • five were in fid mandibular canal (BMC). (who.int)
  • However, other more complex procedures, such as surgical scaling and root canal therapy, require nerve blocking in combination with relaxation therapy. (oral-surgeon-miami.com)
  • For invasive procedures such as wisdom teeth extraction, biopsies, and complex root canal surgery, nerve blockers are often administered. (oral-surgeon-miami.com)
  • This type of CT scanner uses a special type of technology to generate three-dimensional (3D) images of dental structures, soft tissues, nerve paths, and bones. (martinezdentalsolutions.com)
  • Mandibular division trigeminal nerve injuries following primary endodontic treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • The greater auricular nerve (option '4') is a branch of the cervical plexus. (damsdelhi.com)
  • The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve. (damsdelhi.com)
  • ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to classify the different routes of the bifid mandibular canals (BMCs) on 2400 panoramic radiographs in a Syrian population. (who.int)
  • An oral nerve block is a simple and effective way to manage orofacial pain without distorting the anatomy of a wound and without the use of narcotics. (medscape.com)
  • Indeed, vessels and nerve fibers are present in the dental pulp, located in the center of the tooth and present in the dentin. (y-brush.com)
  • The cause of trigeminal neuralgia is unknown, although one theory suggests that the pain stems from abnormal high-frequency impulses generated by areas of nerve fibers in which the fatty covering of the nerves (myelin) has been destroyed (demyelination) (Burchiel). (tnnme.com)
  • The internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery, and glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), vagus nerve (CN X), and accessory nerve (CN XI) lie medial to the styloid process. (statpearls.com)
  • On the medial aspect, particularly surrounding the internal jugular vein, one will find the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), the vagus nerve (CN X), and the accessory nerve (CN XI). (statpearls.com)
  • Many of the children developed severe infections with clinical diagnoses such as cervical lymphadenitis and mandibular or maxillary osteomyelitis, and required hospitalization, treatments such as intravenous antibiotics, and surgical procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • The occipital artery and hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) run along its lateral side. (statpearls.com)
  • Origin: Inferior alveolar nerve. (elsevier.com)
  • The mental nerve originates as one of two terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve. (elsevier.com)
  • the inferior alveolar nerve, artery and men), ranging in age from 18 to 55 Five cases were males while three were vein. (who.int)
  • Definition Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a very painful disorder of the portion of the fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve) that supplies sensation to the face. (tnnme.com)
  • Pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia occasionally occurs in individuals with brain stem damage resulting from multiple sclerosis or in individuals with blood vessel abnormalities involving the root of the fifth cranial nerve (vascular anomaly). (tnnme.com)
  • The mandibular nerve area is generally blocked by using more specific nerve blocks rather than by performing a complete nerve block. (medscape.com)
  • This article highlights the indications, equipment, contraindications, complications, and approach to performing the more commonly used oral nerve blocks. (medscape.com)
  • Mandibular Nerve Blocks: are they a thing of the past? (edu.gr)
  • a mandibular block injection produces numbness of the lower jaw, teeth and half of the tongue. (deltadentalco.com)
  • This involves the injection of an anesthetic to block sensations to the nerve that sends pain signals to the brain. (oral-surgeon-miami.com)
  • Mandibular nerve block is a safe procedure. (medscape.com)
  • The mandibular nerve block has a success rate of 95%-98%, whereas the IAN block is successful in only 65%-85% of cases. (medscape.com)
  • Base - Cement placed under a dental restoration to insulate the pulp (nerve chamber). (deltadentalco.com)
  • Significant vessels and nerves surround the styloid process. (statpearls.com)
  • In some cases, the trigeminal nerve is compressed by blood vessels (vascular compression), and less often by a tumor. (tnnme.com)
  • The nerve may be damaged by dental or surgical procedures, facial injury, or infection. (tnnme.com)
  • The pressure caused by the mucus build-up on the nerves in the area can cause pain in various places, including the head and teeth. (y-brush.com)
  • By administering an anesthetic to the nerve, the dentist can numb the area that requires treatment for a specific period. (oral-surgeon-miami.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is the most frequent of all the painful disorders affecting nerves (neuralgias), but is still relatively rare Incidence is15,000 cases each year, with a prevalence of 15 per 100,000 (Lenaerts). (tnnme.com)
  • Which mentoplasty technique is most recommended for mandibular asymmetries? (tibhealth.com)
  • The mandibular region lies anterior to the masseter and inferior to the lower lip . (medscape.com)
  • and mandibular lower border. (who.int)
  • Because of the oral cavity's proximity to the brain, as well as the complex nerve structure of the head and neck, dental pain is often more severe than pain in other parts of the body. (oral-surgeon-miami.com)
  • no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la eficacia anestésica entre la lidocaína al pulpa dental, 2% y la articaína al 4% en molares inferiores con pulpa vital. (bvsalud.org)
  • Comparison of implant-retained mandibular overdentures and conventional complete dentures: a 10-year prospective study of clinical aspects and patient satisfaction[J]. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, 2003, 18(6): 879-885. (sjos.cn)
  • The mental nerve gives rise to three branches, the mental, inferior labial, and gingival branches. (elsevier.com)