Jaw Fixation Techniques
Fracture Fixation, Internal
Dental Occlusion, Traumatic
Femoral Neck Fractures
Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary
Vertical-split fracture of mandibular condyle and its sequelae. (1/105)A case of vertical-split fracture of the right mandibular condyle and its sequelae is presented. The patient was a 16-year-old female being assessed for orthodontic treatment. Orthopantomograph and plain joint view radiographs showed a remodelled condyle which had suffered trauma 10 years previously. This type of fracture is unusual in nature but has not led to any secondary lack of growth, restriction of movement or facial asymmetry. (+info)
The epidemiology of mandibular fractures treated at the Toronto general hospital: A review of 246 cases. (2/105)BACKGROUND: Mandibular fractures constitute a substantial proportion of cases of maxillofacial trauma. This study investigated the incidence, causes and treatment of mandibular fractures at a hospital in Toronto. METHODS: The medical records and radiographs for 246 patients treated for mandibular fracture at the Toronto General Hospital over a 51 2-year period (from 1995 to 2000) were reviewed. Data on the patients age, sex, smoking status, alcohol and drug use, mechanism of injury, treatment modality, and post-operative complications were recorded and assessed. RESULTS: Men 21 to 30 years of age sustained the most mandibular fractures. The ratio of males to females was 5:1. Most fractures were caused by violent assault (53.5%), followed by falls (21.5%) and sports activities (12.2%). Alcohol was a contributing factor at the time of injury in 20.6% of fractures for which this information was available. Nearly half of all cases were treated by open reduction (49.1%). Complications occurred in 5.3% of patients. CONCLUSION: The incidence and causes of mandibular fracture reflect trauma patterns within the community and, as such, can provide a guide to the design of programs geared toward prevention and treatment. (+info)
Management of traumatic dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa. (3/105)Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare complication of facial trauma that can have neurological and life-threatening implications. This article discusses the anatomic features that predispose patients to this type of injury, as well as the clinical features and mechanism of injury for this rare type of condylar deformity, to help practitioners recognize this easily overlooked injury and avoid disastrous complications. The article summarizes previously published case reports of this rare complication of condylar trauma and presents a case for which initial diagnosis and a management protocol are described. (+info)
Principle and stability of locking plates. (4/105)A new internal Mini-Locking-System was tested compared with conventional 2.0 mm Miniplates. Standardised osteotomies in the angular region of 16 human cadaver mandibles were fixed with a 6-hole-plate at the oblique line. Osteosynthesis and stability of fixation was proofed in a three-dimensional in-vitro-model in which functional load was simulated. Comparison of the different osteosynthesis techniques showed that in the case of Miniplate fixation torsion and gapping of the bone fragments occurred following plate application and screw tightening when the plates were pressed onto the bone, so last incongruences between bone surface and plate were transferred to the mobile bone fragments resulting in more extended gaps and torsion. This was only observed to a much lesser extent with the Mini-Locking-System due to the fixation principle avoiding pressure to the bone. During functional loading the Mini-Locking-System showed also a significant higher stability in comparison to conventional Miniplates. Due to the fixation method imitating the principles of a fixateur the screws form together with the plate and the cortical bone a frame construction. Loading forces are transmitted without the need of plate friction directly from bone over the screws to the plate resulting in higher stability. (+info)
New innovations in craniomaxillofacial fixation: the 2.0 lock system. (5/105)Rigid internal fixation with plates and screws is now standard for the treatment of fractures, osteotomies and reconstruction of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. The latest innovations are self-drilling, self-tapping screws and locking miniplates. These screws offer the prospect of less instrumentation and faster application. Preclinical testing has shown them to be substantially more retentive in cancellous bone, a significant advance in cancellous block bone grafting. Locking 2.0 miniplates utilize double threaded screws which both lock to the bone and the plate creating a mini-internal fixator. This results in a more rigid construct with less distortion of the fracture or osteotomy, screws which do not loosen and less interference with bone circulation since the plate is not pressed tightly against the bone. Locking miniplates are designed for midface application in the repair of fractures, osteotomies and defects. Three configurations in a variety of shapes and lengths are available for mandibular surgery. The thinner and medium varieties are useful in transoral plating of fractures utilizing the Champy technique. The heavier, longer variety are used in unilateral edentulous fractures in the symphysis and parasymphysis as well as an aid to tumor resection and reconstruction with both free and vascularized grafts. They are not designed to replace the heavier 2.4 locking reconstruction plates designed for complex fractures or extensive reconstructions. (+info)
Spontaneous mandibular fracture in a partially edentulous patient: case report. (6/105)This article describes the case of a 78-year-old patient whose mandibular fracture was treated with miniplate osteosynthesis. After initial treatment, panoramic radiography revealed a fracture of the miniplate, and at follow-up, a loosening of the replacement plate. For the dental practitioner, this clinical case highlights the importance of panoramic radiography and occlusal analysis and stabilization for diagnosis of mandibular fracture, evaluation of miniplate fracture and treatment, especially in the absence of trauma. (+info)
Spontaneous bone regeneration of the mandible in an elderly patient: a case report and review of the literature. (7/105)Spontaneous bone regeneration is an unexpected phenomenon that may take place in large mandibular defects secondary to trauma and tumor resection. One explanation for this unusual healing course is that it may be derived from the mechanism of fracture healing. A review of the literature presents several factors that may influence this process, such as the presence of periosteum and bony fragments, mandibular stabilization, soft tissue protection, the presence of infection, and a young age. Previous reports of spontaneous mandibular regeneration have all taken place in relatively young patients (5-35 years old). This paper reports a case of spontaneous bone regeneration in a 58-year-old woman who sustained an injury to her mandible from an explosive blast, and presents some explanations on how such an event could take place. (+info)
MR imaging of traumatic lesions of the inferior alveolar nerve in patients with fractures of the mandible. (8/105)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess whether MR imaging can image the neurovascular bundle in patients with fractures of the mandible. In addition, an attempt was made to evaluate whether MR images provide information regarding the continuity of the inferior alveolar nerve before surgery and regarding signal intensity changes after trauma. METHODS: We analyzed preoperative MR images of 23 patients with mandibular fractures. Object-oriented sagittal view proton density- and T1-weighted sequences (before and after the administration of contrast agent) were used not only in an attempt to obtain purely qualitative information regarding nerve continuity in the neurovascular bundle (inferior alveolar nerve, artery, vein) but also to perform quantitative region-of-interest measurements of signal intensities at four defined measurement sites. The measurements were compared with those obtained for a patient population with healthy mandibles. RESULTS: It was possible to interpret MR images in 21 cases. MR imaging findings showed that the neurovascular bundle had been cut in two patients and was intact in the remaining 19 patients. These MR imaging findings were confirmed intraoperatively in all cases. Although we found no significant signal intensity differences between patients with intact nerves and patients with cut nerves, we found significant differences between patients with mandibular fractures and patients with unremarkable mandibles. CONCLUSION: It is possible to diagnose the interruption of nerve continuity by using MR imaging. Signal intensity measurements in the neurovascular bundle provide no information regarding nerve continuity. (+info)
Mandibular fractures can be classified into different types based on their location and severity. Some common types of mandibular fractures include:
1. Symphyseal fracture: This type of fracture occurs in the joint portion of the mandible, where the two bone parts meet.
2. Body fracture: This type of fracture occurs in the main body of the mandible.
3. Condylar fracture: This type of fracture occurs in the part of the mandible that forms the jaw joint, called the condyle.
4. Angle fracture: This type of fracture occurs near the angle of the mandible, where it meets the maxilla (the bone of the upper jaw).
5. Subcondylar fracture: This type of fracture occurs below the condyle, in the lower part of the mandible.
The symptoms of mandibular fractures can vary depending on the severity of the injury, but may include:
* Pain and tenderness in the jaw and facial area
* Swelling and bruising around the affected eye
* Difficulty opening or closing the mouth
* Numbness or tingling in the lower jaw and tongue
* Difficulty speaking or eating
Treatment for mandibular fractures usually involves immobilizing the jaw with a splint or brace to allow the bone to heal properly. In some cases, surgery may be required to realign the bones and secure them in place with plates, screws, or wires.
Complications of mandibular fractures can include:
* Nerve damage
* Facial asymmetry
* Difficulty speaking or eating
* Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction
It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you have a mandibular fracture, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Open fracture: The bone breaks through the skin, exposing the bone to the outside environment.
Closed fracture: The bone breaks, but does not penetrate the skin.
Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into many pieces.
Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone that does not fully break it.
Non-displaced fracture: The bone is broken, but remains in its normal position.
Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of its normal position.
Stress fracture: A small crack in the bone caused by repetitive stress or overuse.
There are several types of hip fractures, including:
1. Femoral neck fracture: A break in the thin neck of the femur just above the base of the thigh bone.
2. Subtrochanteric fracture: A break between the lesser trochanter (a bony prominence on the upper end of the femur) and the neck of the femur.
3. Diaphyseal fracture: A break in the shaft of the femur, which is the longest part of the bone.
4. Metaphyseal fracture: A break in the area where the thigh bone meets the pelvis.
Hip fractures can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Osteoporosis: A condition that causes brittle and weak bones, making them more susceptible to fractures.
2. Trauma: A fall or injury that causes a direct blow to the hip.
3. Overuse: Repetitive strain on the bone, such as from sports or repetitive movements.
4. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as osteopenia (low bone density) or Paget's disease (a condition that causes abnormal bone growth), can increase the risk of hip fractures.
Treatment for hip fractures typically involves surgery to realign and stabilize the bones. This may involve inserting plates, screws, or rods to hold the bones in place while they heal. In some cases, a total hip replacement may be necessary. After surgery, physical therapy is often recommended to help regain strength and mobility in the affected limb.
Preventive measures for hip fractures include:
1. Exercise: Regular exercise, such as weight-bearing activities like walking or running, can help maintain bone density and reduce the risk of hip fractures.
2. Diet: A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D can help support bone health.
3. Fall prevention: Taking steps to prevent falls, such as removing tripping hazards from the home and using handrails, can help reduce the risk of hip fractures.
4. Osteoporosis treatment: If you have osteoporosis, medications or other treatments may be recommended to help strengthen your bones and reduce the risk of hip fractures.
The term "maxillofacial" refers to the bones of the skull and face, including the maxilla (the bone that forms the upper jaw), the zygoma (cheekbone), and the mandible (lower jaw). Injuries to these bones can be complex and may require specialized medical attention.
Maxillofacial injuries can range from mild to severe and may include:
1. Fractures of the skull or face bones
2. Soft tissue injuries (such as lacerations, bruises, or burns)
3. Injuries to the teeth, jaw, or tongue
4. Eye injuries
5. Nose and sinus injuries
6. Facial paralysis or nerve damage
7. Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Maxillofacial injuries can be caused by a variety of mechanisms, such as:
1. Blunt trauma (e.g., car accidents, falls, or sports injuries)
2. Penetrating injuries (e.g., gunshot wounds or stabbing injuries)
3. Blows to the head or face
4. Sports-related injuries (e.g., facial hits or falls)
5. Assault or violence
Treatment for maxillofacial injuries may involve a combination of medical and surgical interventions, such as:
1. Immobilization of broken bones with casts or splints
2. Repair of soft tissue lacerations or avulsions (tearing away of tissues)
3. Drainage of blood or fluid accumulation
4. Treatment of associated injuries, such as concussion or other forms of TBI
5. Reconstruction or repair of damaged facial structures (e.g., nose, jaw, or eye sockets)
6. Plastic surgery to restore form and function to the face
7. Dental procedures to repair damaged teeth or jaw structure
8. Antibiotics to prevent or treat infection
9. Pain management with medication and other therapies.
The specific treatment plan for a patient with a maxillofacial injury will depend on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the individual needs and medical history of the patient.
It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you experience any signs or symptoms of a maxillofacial injury, such as:
1. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
2. Numbness or weakness in the face
3. Severe pain or tenderness in the head or face
4. Swelling or bruising of the face or neck
5. Difficulty opening or closing the mouth
6. Changes in vision or hearing
7. Cuts or lacerations to the face or mouth.
The symptoms of a femoral fracture may include:
* Severe pain in the thigh or groin area
* Swelling and bruising around the affected area
* Difficulty moving or straightening the leg
* A visible deformity or bone protrusion
Femoral fractures are typically diagnosed through X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs. Treatment for these types of fractures may involve immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or in some cases, surgical plate and screws or rods may be used to hold the bone in place as it heals.
In addition to surgical intervention, patients may also require physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected leg after a femoral fracture.
There are several types of spinal fractures, including:
1. Vertebral compression fractures: These occur when the vertebrae collapses due to pressure, often caused by osteoporosis or trauma.
2. Fracture-dislocations: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and displaced from its normal position.
3. Spondylolysis: This is a type of fracture that occurs in the spine, often due to repetitive stress or overuse.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a type of fracture where a vertebra slips out of its normal position and into the one below it.
5. Fracture-subluxation: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and partially dislocated from its normal position.
The diagnosis of spinal fractures typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI to confirm the presence of a fracture and determine its severity and location. Treatment options for spinal fractures depend on the severity of the injury and may include pain management, bracing, physical therapy, or surgery to stabilize the spine and promote healing. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to realign the vertebrae and prevent further damage.
Overall, spinal fractures can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Comminuted fractures are often more complex and difficult to treat than other types of fractures because they involve multiple breaks that may require different treatment approaches. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bone fragments, and the healing process can take longer for comminuted fractures compared to simple fractures.
Comminuted fractures are classified based on the number and distribution of the breaks in the bone. For example, a comminuted fracture may be described as being "segemental" if it involves multiple breaks in the same segment of the bone, or "non-segmental" if it involves breaks in multiple segments.
Treatment for comminuted fractures typically involves immobilization of the affected limb to allow the bone fragments to heal, as well as pain management and physical therapy to restore strength and range of motion. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bone fragments or to remove any loose pieces of bone that may be causing complications.
1. The star quarterback suffered a serious athletic injury during last night's game and is out for the season.
2. The athlete underwent surgery to repair a torn ACL, one of the most common athletic injuries in high-impact sports.
3. The coach emphasized the importance of proper technique to prevent athletic injuries among his team members.
4. After suffering a minor sprain, the runner was advised to follow the RICE method to recover and return to competition as soon as possible.
Osteoporotic fractures can occur in any bone, but they most commonly affect the spine, hips, and wrists. The risk of developing osteoporotic fractures increases with age, and certain factors such as family history, lifestyle habits (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption), and medical conditions (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis) can also contribute to the development of osteoporosis and associated fractures.
There are several types of osteoporotic fractures, including:
1. Vertebral compression fractures: These occur when the vertebrae in the spine collapse due to weakened bone density, causing back pain, loss of height, and a stooped posture.
2. Hip fractures: These are breaks in the thigh bone (femur) or pelvis that can be caused by falls or other injuries, and can lead to complications such as blood clots, pneumonia, and surgical intervention.
3. Wrist fractures: These occur when the bones of the wrist break due to a fall or other injury, and can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
4. Fractures of the ribs and long bones: These are less common but can still cause significant pain and disability.
The diagnosis of osteoporotic fractures is typically made through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs, and may also involve blood tests to assess bone mineral density (BMD) and other factors. Treatment for osteoporotic fractures typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle modifications, and surgical interventions to help restore bone strength and prevent further fractures.
Types of Radius Fractures:
1. Stable fracture: The bone is broken but still in place.
2. Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of place.
3. Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into several pieces.
4. Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone.
1. Pain in the arm or forearm.
2. Swelling and bruising.
3. Limited mobility or deformity of the arm.
4. Difficulty moving the arm or wrist.
1. Physical examination and medical history.
2. Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans.
1. Minor fractures may be treated with immobilization in a cast or brace.
2. Displaced or comminuted fractures may require surgical intervention to realign and stabilize the bone.
3. Physical therapy may be necessary to regain strength and mobility in the arm.
2. Nerve damage.
3. Delayed healing.
4. Malunion or nonunion of the fracture, which can cause long-term complications.
1. Wear protective gear during sports and physical activities.
2. Use proper lifting techniques to avoid strain on the arm.
3. Maintain good bone density through a balanced diet and exercise.
Examples of spontaneous fractures include:
1. Pathological fractures: Fractures that occur in the presence of a bone-weakening condition such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, or bone cancer.
2. Stress fractures: Small cracks in the bone that occur due to repetitive stress or overuse, often seen in athletes or individuals engaged in high-impact activities.
3. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Osteoporotic fractures: Fractures that occur due to bone loss and weakening associated with osteoporosis.
5. Frailty fractures: Fractures that occur in individuals who are frail or have a low bone mineral density, often seen in older adults.
Symptoms of spontaneous fractures may include pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for these fractures depends on the underlying cause and may involve immobilization, medication, or surgery.
Stress fractures can occur in any bone, but are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower extremities (such as the femur, tibia, and fibula). They can also occur in the bones of the upper extremities (such as the humerus, ulna, and radius) and in the spine.
Symptoms of stress fractures may include pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness over the affected area. In some cases, a individual may experience a snapping or popping sensation when bending or twisting. If left untreated, stress fractures can progress to more severe fractures and lead to chronic pain, limited mobility, and other complications.
Treatment for stress fractures typically involves rest, physical therapy, and medication to manage pain and inflammation. In some cases, a brace or cast may be used to immobilize the affected area and allow it to heal. Surgery may be necessary in more severe cases or if the fracture does not heal properly with conservative treatment.
Preventing stress fractures involves taking steps to reduce the amount of repetitive stress placed on bones, such as increasing training intensity gradually, wearing proper footwear and protective gear, and incorporating strengthening exercises into one's workout routine. Proper nutrition and hydration can also help support bone health and reduce the risk of fractures.
Symptoms of femoral neck fractures can include pain in the knee and thigh, swelling and bruising, and difficulty moving the leg. Treatment for these fractures may involve immobilizing the leg in a cast or brace, or surgery to realign and stabilize the bone. In some cases, the fracture may be treated with a combination of both methods.
The main types of femoral neck fractures are:
* Transverse fractures: These fractures occur horizontally across the femoral neck and can be stabilized with a plate or screws.
* Spiral fractures: These fractures occur when the bone is twisted and can be more challenging to treat.
* Compression fractures: These fractures occur when the bone is crushed due to pressure and can be treated with surgery to relieve the compression.
* Oblique fractures: These fractures occur at an angle and can be stabilized with a plate or screws.
The recovery time for femoral neck fractures can vary depending on the severity of the injury, but it usually takes several months for the bone to fully heal. Physical therapy may be necessary to regain strength and mobility in the affected leg.
Types of Ulna Fractures:
There are several types of ulna fractures, depending on the location and severity of the injury. These include:
1. Distal Humerus-Ulna (DHU) fracture: A break between the ulna and humerus bones near the wrist joint.
2. Mid-shaft ulna fracture: A break in the middle portion of the ulna bone.
3. Proximal ulna fracture: A break at the base of the ulna bone, nearest to the elbow joint.
4. Monteggia fracture: A combination of a proximal ulna fracture and a dislocation of the radial head (a bone in the forearm).
Symptoms of Ulna Fractures:
Patients with ulna fractures may experience pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility and difficulty grasping objects. In some cases, there may be an audible snapping or popping sound when the injury occurs.
Diagnosis of Ulna Fractures:
Ulna fractures are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, X-rays and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. In some cases, an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bones.
Treatment of Ulna Fractures:
The treatment for ulna fractures depends on the severity and location of the injury. Non-surgical treatments may include immobilization with a cast or splint, pain management with medication and physical therapy to regain strength and range of motion. Surgical intervention may be necessary in more severe cases or those that do not respond to non-surgical treatment.
Complications of Ulna Fractures:
As with any fracture, there is a risk of complications with ulna fractures including infection, nerve damage, and poor healing. In some cases, the fracture may not properly align, leading to long-term functional issues such as loss of grip strength or limited mobility.
Prevention of Ulna Fractures:
While it is not possible to completely prevent ulna fractures, there are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of injury. These include wearing protective gear during sports and physical activities, maintaining good bone density through a balanced diet and exercise, and taking steps to prevent falls such as removing tripping hazards from the home environment.
Prognosis for Ulna Fractures:
The prognosis for ulna fractures is generally good, with most patients experiencing a full recovery within 6-8 weeks. However, in some cases, complications may arise and long-term functional issues may persist. It is important to follow the treatment plan recommended by your healthcare provider and attend all scheduled follow-up appointments to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.
Ulna fractures are a common injury that can occur as a result of sports, falls, or other traumatic events. The prognosis for ulna fractures is generally good, but it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper treatment and follow-up care, most patients experience a full recovery within 6-8 weeks. However, in some cases, complications may arise and long-term functional issues may persist, so it is important to be aware of the risk factors and seek medical attention if any concerns or symptoms arise.
There are different types of rib fractures, including:
1. Linear fractures: These are simple cracks in the ribs without any displacement of the bone fragments.
2. Compression fractures: These occur when the rib is crushed due to pressure, causing the vertebrae to collapse.
3. Stress fractures: These are small cracks that develop over time due to repetitive stress or strain on the ribs.
4. Hairline fractures: These are very thin cracks in the ribs that do not necessarily displace the bone fragments.
Rib fractures can cause significant pain and discomfort, especially when taking deep breaths or coughing. Other symptoms may include bruising, swelling, and difficulty moving the chest wall. In severe cases, rib fractures can lead to complications such as pneumonia, respiratory failure, or even cardiac arrest.
Diagnosis of rib fractures is typically made through X-rays or CT scans, which can reveal the location and severity of the fracture. Treatment may involve pain management with medication, rest, and breathing exercises, as well as immobilization of the affected area with a cast or brace. In severe cases, surgery may be required to stabilize the bones or repair any damage to organs or blood vessels.
Overall, rib fractures can be serious injuries that require prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure proper healing.
There are several different types of skull fractures, including:
1. Linear skull fractures: These are fractures that occur in a straight line and do not involve the brain.
2. Depressed skull fractures: These are fractures that cause the bone to be pushed inward, creating a depression in the skull.
3. Comminuted skull fractures: These are fractures that involve multiple pieces of bone breaking off and fragmenting.
4. Basilar skull fractures: These are fractures that occur at the base of the skull and can involve the brainstem or cranial nerves.
5. Cerebral edema: This is a condition in which fluid accumulates in the brain as a result of a head injury or other traumatic event.
6. Epidural hematoma: This is a collection of blood between the skull and the dura mater, which is the membrane that covers the brain.
7. Subdural hematoma: This is a collection of blood between the dura mater and the brain.
8. Intracerebral hematoma: This is a collection of blood within the brain tissue.
Skull fractures can be diagnosed using a variety of imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for skull fractures may involve observation, medication, or surgery, depending on the severity of the injury and any other complications that may have arisen.
Complications of skull fractures can include:
1. Cerebral edema
2. Epidural hematoma
3. Subdural hematoma
4. Intracerebral hematoma
5. Brain contusion
6. Skull base fractures
7. Facial trauma
8. Sinus fractures
9. Orbital blowout fractures
10. Meningitis or sepsis.
It is important to seek medical attention immediately if any of the following symptoms are present:
1. Severe headache
2. Confusion or disorientation
3. Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
4. Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
5. Vision changes, such as double vision or blurred vision
6. Difficulty with balance or coordination
7. Seizures or convulsions
9. Stiff neck
10. Loss of consciousness or coma.
Müller AO Classification of fractures
Coronoid process of the mandible
Robert G. Hale
Inferior alveolar nerve
Bone segment navigation
Professional Medical Film
Dislocation of jaw
Osteomyelitis of the jaws
Hyoid bone fracture
Back to the Yokohama Arena
Sex differences in human physiology
List of MeSH codes (C07)
Root canal treatment
Paleontology in Oklahoma
Vessel speed restrictions to reduce ship collisions with North Atlantic right whales
Broken jaw (disambiguation)
Mandibular Fracture Imaging: Practice Essentials, Radiography, Computed Tomography
Mandibular fracture: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image
Therapeutic Approach to Mandibular and Maxillary Fractures in Captive Cetaceans (Historical Cases Review) - IAAAM Archive - VIN
Treatment of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures: a case report
Unifocal versus multifocal mandibular fractures and injury location. | Emerg Radiol;23(2): 161-7, 2016 Apr. | MEDLINE |...
immobilization of mandibular fractures in tooth bearing areas | JuniorDentist.com
Surgical management of condylar fracture associated with body mandibular fracture: case report
Pattern of Mandibular Fracture at Universal College of Medical Sciences (UCMS), Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal
View of Association between Mandibular Angle Fracture with Third Molar Positioning and Residual Bone Height
Computer vision based hairline mandibular fracture detection from computed tomography images<...
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
Osteoradionecrosis of the Mandible: Practice Essentials, Epidemiology, Etiology
Portal Regional da BVS
How to Avoid the Iatrogenic Jaw Fracture - Veterinary Practice News
Clinical Practice Guidelines : Dental trauma
Patterns of Facial Bone Fractures in Western Region of Nepal | Nepalese Journal of ENT Head and Neck Surgery
Long-term trend of antibiotic use at public health care institutions in northwest China, 2012-20 -- a case study of Gansu...
wiring | Intelligent Dental
Table of Contents page: Journal of Endodontics
JCDR - Facial nerve, Intermaxillary fixation, Maxillofacial fractures, Occlusion
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Overview, Hyperbaric Physics and Physiology, Contraindications
Experimental Infection of Horses with Hendra Virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands - Volume 17, Number 12-December 2011 -...
Research | THANC Foundation - Page 7
MH DELETED MN ADDED MN
Bone to get fractured2
- The treatment of a mandibular condylar fracture is a subject of much controversy in the literature regarding indications and contraindications to the surgical or conservative approach. (bvsalud.org)
- In this clinical report, the authors present a case of bilateral mandibular condylar fracture in which the retromandibular approach was used for the reduction and fixation of the fracture. (bvsalud.org)
- Fractures of the alveolar process of the mandible are uncommon. (medscape.com)
- Periapical dental radiographs are often helpful in providing precise information about the status of teeth within a fractured segment of the alveolar process. (medscape.com)
- Reduction and immobilization of the fracture is mandated for alveolar process fractures. (medscape.com)
- Class III fractures, however, typically offer the most challenges, likely because the encompassing portion of the mandible is intact, and to reduce the displaced segment of the alveolar process one must overcome the resistance produced by the interaction of the small irregularities of the bony surfaces. (medscape.com)
- Clark's classes of alveolar fractures are depicted below. (medscape.com)
- The various classes of alveolar fractures (per Clark). (medscape.com)
- Alveolar ridge fractures were exclusively seen in unifocal mandibular fractures . (bvsalud.org)
- As pertains to the prevalence of facial fractures in the United States, the mandible is second only to the nose. (medscape.com)
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and injury patterns of unifocal and multifocal mandibular fractures using thin-section imaging. (bvsalud.org)
- Most of the reported prevalence of mandibular fracture is due to a variety of contributing factors such as the age and sex of patients, environment and socio-economic status of the patient, alcohol or drug abuse as well as mode of trauma. (lupinepublishers.com)
- While multifocal and unifocal fractures occurred in near equal frequency, bilateral multifocal fractures were much more common than unilateral multifocal mandibular fractures . (bvsalud.org)
- One of the main indications for surgical reduction is the inability to establish a satisfactory dental occlusion by conservative treatment, usually associated with bilateral fractures. (bvsalud.org)
- This study reports a case of surgical reduction of bilateral condyle fracture associated with fracture of the mandibular body, focusing on aspects related with indications and complications of this treatment. (bvsalud.org)
- Patients may also undergo transcutaneous mandibular resection with wound closure and mandibular fixation with an external fixator or maxillomandibular fixation. (medscape.com)
- In case of a severely displaced fracture the treatment option can vary from intermaxillary fixation, cap splints to plating with mini plates or resorbable plates. (intelligentdental.com)
- Trauma that causes an open skull fracture allows organisms to seed directly in the brain. (medscape.com)
- Mandibular fractures are frequently encountered in the trauma setting and comprise a significant number of facial injuries . (bvsalud.org)
- Mandibular Injuries. (bvsalud.org)
- 7 Studies have shown that overjets over 3 mm have twice the risk of trauma to anterior teeth compared with those less than 3 mm. 8 Trauma can result in a range of injuries from enamel fracture to avulsion of a front tooth. (nature.com)
- Found in both dogs and cats, fractured and worn teeth are not uncommon injuries. (upenn.edu)
- Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). (lookformedical.com)
- tissue injury, bone fractures, and traumatic dental Data were expressed as absolute and relative fre- injuries were investigated. (bvsalud.org)
- In this work, the 2D CT image slices of a mandible with hairline fractures are first identified from the input sequence of a fractured craniofacial skeleton. (elsevierpure.com)
- The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. (lookformedical.com)
- A total 252 patients with fractures of the facial skeleton were seen out of which 174 (69) presented with mandibular fractures over a period of two years. (bvsalud.org)
- The usual presenting reports with any fracture of the mandible as a result of trauma are localized tenderness, swelling, and malocclusion. (medscape.com)
- Iatrogenic fractures in dogs may also occur during extraction of a mandibular first molar tooth, especially in small breed dogs where the apices of the roots may extend to the most ventral aspect of the mandible. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- Immediate Implant Placement in Fresh Mandibular Molar Extraction Socket: 8-Year Results. (allenpress.com)
- In this case report, we present the results of an immediate implant placement in a fresh extraction socket of a mandibular molar with simultaneous bone regeneration using a nonresorbable membrane and no other graft materials. (allenpress.com)
- Herein, a case is described in which a single implant is placed in the interradicular bone of a mandibular molar extraction socket. (allenpress.com)
- The mean duration of hospital stay was 8.72±2.91 days (range, 5-20 days) in which maximum hospital stays were with patients associated with craniofacial fracture and associated intracranial injury. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Rest of 338 patients had multiple facial bone fractures with zygomatic bone fracture (79.2%) being commonest. (nepjol.info)
- Circum-mandibular wiring was opted for patient who were in mixed dentition period. (lupinepublishers.com)
- The root of the mandibular canine tooth of dogs and cats makes up a large portion of the rostral mandible and it is nearly twice as long as the crown of the tooth. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- Radiograph of an iatrogenic jaw fracture that occurred during attempted extraction of the left mandibular canine tooth in a cat. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- Iatrogenic jaw fractures that occur during canine tooth extraction tend to be parasymphyseal fractures rather than symphyseal separations. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- Forces required to deliver this tooth root may also, in some cases, be sufficient to result in fracture of the bone. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- Endodontics is a minimally invasive method for treating fractured teeth, and though the concept of performing root canal therapy on their pet seems novel to some owners, once you show them a clear dental model and how long the tooth roots are, they get it. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- Iatrogenic fractures are more likely to occur in cats than dogs due to the thin bone medial to the mandibular canine tooth root ( Figure 1 ). (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- Tooth #30 had a vertical fracture and therefore was scheduled for extraction ( Figure 1A ). (allenpress.com)
- A) Fracture of the distal root of tooth #30. (allenpress.com)
- Tooth fractures result when excessive force causes a tooth to break. (upenn.edu)
- Once there is a fracture in a tooth, bacteria can enter directly into the pulp cavity or through a worn crown. (upenn.edu)
- Parameters recorded were personal details of patients including age, sex, day and month of fracture, mode of trauma, alcohol abuse, site of mandibular fracture, treatment done, duration of hospital stay, and need for intensive care unit (ICU) stay. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Majority of trauma for mandibular fracture were seen on Wednesday and Friday in the month of June followed by February and December. (lupinepublishers.com)
- It has been well documented that mandibular fractures account for 36% to 59% of all maxillofacial trauma [5-7]. (lupinepublishers.com)
- If you extract enough firmly rooted mandibular canine teeth in your lifetime, basic anatomy suggests that you may find yourself to be the creator of an iatrogenic jaw fracture. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- Class II fractures that need reduction may require a great deal of force to move into anatomic position. (medscape.com)
- The mechanism of injury correlates significantly with the anatomic location of fracture and knowledge of these associations should guide the surgeons for appropriate and timely management. (lupinepublishers.com)
- During mandibular fracture, either single or multiple anatomic sites can be involved simultaneously by the impact caused by various means. (lupinepublishers.com)
- The extra-oral approaches described in the literature for the treatment of condylar fractures are the preauricular, submandibular, ritidectomy and retromandibular (hinds).The intra-oral access, with the aid of endoscopy, can also be used for the same purpose. (bvsalud.org)
- In addition, many doubts remain regarding the optimal surgical approach for treating this type of fracture when the open technique is chosen. (bvsalud.org)
- I have seen a case where a feline jaw was fractured in an attempt to extract a root that was no longer present radiographically, but since the practitioner who broke the jaw didn't have dental radiography, he did not know that a crown amputation (coronectomy) would have been the desired approach. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- The patterns of mandibular fracture differ significantly among different study populations. (lupinepublishers.com)
Moderate to severe1
- Surgery is often required for moderate to severe fractures to align and immobilize the bone so it can heal. (medlineplus.gov)
- Following IRB approval, 220 patients with mandibular fractures identified on maxillofacial CT scans performed between October 2008 and February 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. (bvsalud.org)
- Fractures were unifocal in 108/220 (49 %) and multifocal in 112/220 (51 %) patients . (bvsalud.org)
- 27.1% of patients with mandibular fractures were under the influence of alcohol. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Prescribing intravenous or intraosseous BP to cile en rapport avec la gravité de cette pathologie et la patients has become more and more frequent these complexité de ses lésions. (who.int)
- Middle aged male patients are usually involved in facial bone fractures with road traffic accident and physical assault being common modes of injury. (nepjol.info)
- 2 of them became permanent- ly paraplegic and 2 others who had severe thoracic vertebral fractures and paraplegia on first observation were transferred to other hospitals for treatment. (who.int)
- Fractures of mandible are considered to be the most common fractures occuring in the body, and Angle of the mandible is the most common area in the mandible prone to fractures. (juniordentist.com)
- Fractures involving the parasymphysis, the mandibular body, or ramus were significantly associated with the presence of additional mandibular fractures (p (bvsalud.org)
- sal sinuses contribute to reducing the frequency of are essential for the control of accidents and develop- facial fractures in this age group4,15. (bvsalud.org)
- Unfortunately, their treatment is often fraught with problems, and uninitiated surgeons tend to underestimate these types of fractures and their challenges. (medscape.com)
- Hippocrates advocated the use of bandages and interdental wiring for the treatment of mandibular fractures. (medscape.com)
- [ 2 ] The treatment options are somewhat limited by the lack of room for drill holes and associated hardware when the fracture involves a dentulous segment. (medscape.com)
- 199 cases of mandibular fractures who were admitted and undergone conservative or surgical treatment were enrolled in the study. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Open or Closed Treatment of Adult Condylar Fractures? (thancfoundation.org)
- The aim of this study was to determine pattern of facial bones fracture in western region of Nepal. (nepjol.info)
- Unifocal versus multifocal mandibular fractures and injury location. (bvsalud.org)
- A pathologic fracture was evident on examination. (medscape.com)
- There were 288(46.0%) cases with isolated facial bone fracture. (nepjol.info)
- Direct extension usually causes a single brain abscess and may occur from necrotic areas of osteomyelitis in the posterior wall of the frontal sinus, the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, mandibular dental infections, as well as from subacute and chronic otitis media and mastoiditis. (medscape.com)
- Maxillofacial fractures results from the variable modes of injury such as road traffic accidents (RTA), interpersonal violence or physical assaults and fall from height [3,4]. (lupinepublishers.com)
- A descriptive retrospective study was carried out and evaluated the pattern of mandibular fractures in western region of Nepal at Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Rupandehi. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Fractures of the lower jaw. (bvsalud.org)
- Despite of many published reports about the incidence and pattern of mandibular fractures, there are limited literatures about the specific type or pattern of mandibular fractures related to RTA in developing and underdeveloped Asian countries. (lupinepublishers.com)