Mandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.Jaw Fixation Techniques: The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Maxillofacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).Dental Occlusion, Traumatic: An occlusion resulting in overstrain and injury to teeth, periodontal tissue, or other oral structures.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Osteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.Radius FracturesTooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fractures, Stress: Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.Ulna Fractures: Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Rib FracturesSkull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Orthognathic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed to repair or correct the skeletal anomalies of the jaw and its associated dental and facial structures (e.g. CLEFT PALATE).Maxillary Fractures: Fractures of the upper jaw.Pterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Pubic Symphysis: A slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.IranOsteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.

Vertical-split fracture of mandibular condyle and its sequelae. (1/105)

A case of vertical-split fracture of the right mandibular condyle and its sequelae is presented. The patient was a 16-year-old female being assessed for orthodontic treatment. Orthopantomograph and plain joint view radiographs showed a remodelled condyle which had suffered trauma 10 years previously. This type of fracture is unusual in nature but has not led to any secondary lack of growth, restriction of movement or facial asymmetry.  (+info)

The epidemiology of mandibular fractures treated at the Toronto general hospital: A review of 246 cases. (2/105)

BACKGROUND: Mandibular fractures constitute a substantial proportion of cases of maxillofacial trauma. This study investigated the incidence, causes and treatment of mandibular fractures at a hospital in Toronto. METHODS: The medical records and radiographs for 246 patients treated for mandibular fracture at the Toronto General Hospital over a 51 2-year period (from 1995 to 2000) were reviewed. Data on the patients age, sex, smoking status, alcohol and drug use, mechanism of injury, treatment modality, and post-operative complications were recorded and assessed. RESULTS: Men 21 to 30 years of age sustained the most mandibular fractures. The ratio of males to females was 5:1. Most fractures were caused by violent assault (53.5%), followed by falls (21.5%) and sports activities (12.2%). Alcohol was a contributing factor at the time of injury in 20.6% of fractures for which this information was available. Nearly half of all cases were treated by open reduction (49.1%). Complications occurred in 5.3% of patients. CONCLUSION: The incidence and causes of mandibular fracture reflect trauma patterns within the community and, as such, can provide a guide to the design of programs geared toward prevention and treatment.  (+info)

Management of traumatic dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa. (3/105)

Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare complication of facial trauma that can have neurological and life-threatening implications. This article discusses the anatomic features that predispose patients to this type of injury, as well as the clinical features and mechanism of injury for this rare type of condylar deformity, to help practitioners recognize this easily overlooked injury and avoid disastrous complications. The article summarizes previously published case reports of this rare complication of condylar trauma and presents a case for which initial diagnosis and a management protocol are described.  (+info)

Principle and stability of locking plates. (4/105)

A new internal Mini-Locking-System was tested compared with conventional 2.0 mm Miniplates. Standardised osteotomies in the angular region of 16 human cadaver mandibles were fixed with a 6-hole-plate at the oblique line. Osteosynthesis and stability of fixation was proofed in a three-dimensional in-vitro-model in which functional load was simulated. Comparison of the different osteosynthesis techniques showed that in the case of Miniplate fixation torsion and gapping of the bone fragments occurred following plate application and screw tightening when the plates were pressed onto the bone, so last incongruences between bone surface and plate were transferred to the mobile bone fragments resulting in more extended gaps and torsion. This was only observed to a much lesser extent with the Mini-Locking-System due to the fixation principle avoiding pressure to the bone. During functional loading the Mini-Locking-System showed also a significant higher stability in comparison to conventional Miniplates. Due to the fixation method imitating the principles of a fixateur the screws form together with the plate and the cortical bone a frame construction. Loading forces are transmitted without the need of plate friction directly from bone over the screws to the plate resulting in higher stability.  (+info)

New innovations in craniomaxillofacial fixation: the 2.0 lock system. (5/105)

Rigid internal fixation with plates and screws is now standard for the treatment of fractures, osteotomies and reconstruction of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. The latest innovations are self-drilling, self-tapping screws and locking miniplates. These screws offer the prospect of less instrumentation and faster application. Preclinical testing has shown them to be substantially more retentive in cancellous bone, a significant advance in cancellous block bone grafting. Locking 2.0 miniplates utilize double threaded screws which both lock to the bone and the plate creating a mini-internal fixator. This results in a more rigid construct with less distortion of the fracture or osteotomy, screws which do not loosen and less interference with bone circulation since the plate is not pressed tightly against the bone. Locking miniplates are designed for midface application in the repair of fractures, osteotomies and defects. Three configurations in a variety of shapes and lengths are available for mandibular surgery. The thinner and medium varieties are useful in transoral plating of fractures utilizing the Champy technique. The heavier, longer variety are used in unilateral edentulous fractures in the symphysis and parasymphysis as well as an aid to tumor resection and reconstruction with both free and vascularized grafts. They are not designed to replace the heavier 2.4 locking reconstruction plates designed for complex fractures or extensive reconstructions.  (+info)

Spontaneous mandibular fracture in a partially edentulous patient: case report. (6/105)

This article describes the case of a 78-year-old patient whose mandibular fracture was treated with miniplate osteosynthesis. After initial treatment, panoramic radiography revealed a fracture of the miniplate, and at follow-up, a loosening of the replacement plate. For the dental practitioner, this clinical case highlights the importance of panoramic radiography and occlusal analysis and stabilization for diagnosis of mandibular fracture, evaluation of miniplate fracture and treatment, especially in the absence of trauma.  (+info)

Spontaneous bone regeneration of the mandible in an elderly patient: a case report and review of the literature. (7/105)

Spontaneous bone regeneration is an unexpected phenomenon that may take place in large mandibular defects secondary to trauma and tumor resection. One explanation for this unusual healing course is that it may be derived from the mechanism of fracture healing. A review of the literature presents several factors that may influence this process, such as the presence of periosteum and bony fragments, mandibular stabilization, soft tissue protection, the presence of infection, and a young age. Previous reports of spontaneous mandibular regeneration have all taken place in relatively young patients (5-35 years old). This paper reports a case of spontaneous bone regeneration in a 58-year-old woman who sustained an injury to her mandible from an explosive blast, and presents some explanations on how such an event could take place.  (+info)

MR imaging of traumatic lesions of the inferior alveolar nerve in patients with fractures of the mandible. (8/105)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess whether MR imaging can image the neurovascular bundle in patients with fractures of the mandible. In addition, an attempt was made to evaluate whether MR images provide information regarding the continuity of the inferior alveolar nerve before surgery and regarding signal intensity changes after trauma. METHODS: We analyzed preoperative MR images of 23 patients with mandibular fractures. Object-oriented sagittal view proton density- and T1-weighted sequences (before and after the administration of contrast agent) were used not only in an attempt to obtain purely qualitative information regarding nerve continuity in the neurovascular bundle (inferior alveolar nerve, artery, vein) but also to perform quantitative region-of-interest measurements of signal intensities at four defined measurement sites. The measurements were compared with those obtained for a patient population with healthy mandibles. RESULTS: It was possible to interpret MR images in 21 cases. MR imaging findings showed that the neurovascular bundle had been cut in two patients and was intact in the remaining 19 patients. These MR imaging findings were confirmed intraoperatively in all cases. Although we found no significant signal intensity differences between patients with intact nerves and patients with cut nerves, we found significant differences between patients with mandibular fractures and patients with unremarkable mandibles. CONCLUSION: It is possible to diagnose the interruption of nerve continuity by using MR imaging. Signal intensity measurements in the neurovascular bundle provide no information regarding nerve continuity.  (+info)

  • Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) underwent mandibular osteotomy, and a 2.1-mm fixed gap was set. (
  • They hypothesized that despite the haversian-based, highly cortical structure of the mandible, the vascular response after fracture healing will return to nearly normal levels soon after bony union, mirroring the results of endochondral, highly trabecular long bones. (
  • On this side the fracture was reduced and fixated with a 4-hole with center space noncompression titanium miniplate (Synthes, Michigan, USA) along the external oblique ridge according to Champy et al. (