Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Mandibular DiseasesRadiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Jaw, Edentulous: The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Mandibular Injuries: Injuries to the lower jaw bone.Retrognathia: A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Odontogenic Tumors: Neoplasms produced from tooth-forming tissues.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Jaw Fixation Techniques: The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Jaw Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE unspecified. For neoplasms of the maxilla, MAXILLARY NEOPLASMS is available and of the mandible, MANDIBULAR NEOPLASMS is available.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Facial Asymmetry: Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Ameloblastoma: An immature epithelial tumor of the JAW originating from the epithelial rests of Malassez or from other epithelial remnants of the ENAMEL from the developmental period. It is a slowly growing tumor, usually benign, but displays a marked propensity for invasive growth.Maxillary DiseasesOsteoradionecrosis: Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Malocclusion, Angle Class III: Malocclusion in which the mandible is anterior to the maxilla as reflected by the first relationship of the first permanent molar (mesioclusion).Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Micrognathism: Abnormally small jaw.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Denture, Overlay: Removable prosthesis constructed over natural teeth or implanted studs.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Odontogenic Cysts: Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Vertical Dimension: The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Malocclusion, Angle Class II: Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Jaw Cysts: Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Alveolar Ridge Augmentation: Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Extraoral Traction Appliances: Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Orthodontic Appliances, Functional: Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)Pterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Occlusal Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.Pierre Robin Syndrome: Congenital malformation characterized by MICROGNATHIA or RETROGNATHIA; GLOSSOPTOSIS and CLEFT PALATE. The mandibular abnormalities often result in difficulties in sucking and swallowing. The syndrome may be isolated or associated with other syndromes (e.g., ANDERSEN SYNDROME; CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA). Developmental mis-expression of SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene on chromosome 17q and its surrounding region is associated with the syndrome.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Odontoma: A mixed tumor of odontogenic origin, in which both the epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibit complete differentiation, resulting in the formation of tooth structures. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Osteoma: A benign tumor composed of bone tissue or a hard tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone (homoplastic osteoma) or on other structures (heteroplastic osteoma). (From Dorland, 27th ed)Orthognathic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed to repair or correct the skeletal anomalies of the jaw and its associated dental and facial structures (e.g. CLEFT PALATE).Prognathism: A condition marked by abnormal protrusion of the mandible. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteolysis, Essential: Syndromes of bone destruction where the cause is not obvious such as neoplasia, infection, or trauma. The destruction follows various patterns: massive (Gorham disease), multicentric (HAJDU-CHENEY SYNDROME), or carpal/tarsal.Stomatognathic System: The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Jaw DiseasesModels, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Anatomic Landmarks: Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Cementoma: An odontogenic fibroma in which cells have developed into cementoblasts and which consists largely of cementum.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Activator Appliances: Loose-fitting removable orthodontic appliances which redirect the pressures of the facial and masticatory muscles onto the teeth and their supporting structures to produce improvements in tooth arrangements and occlusal relations.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Mandibular Osteotomy: Intraoral OSTEOTOMY of the lower jaw usually performed in order to correct MALOCCLUSION.Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Zygoma: Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.Malocclusion, Angle Class I: Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.Overbite: A malocclusion in which maxillary incisor and canine teeth project over the mandiblar teeth excessively. The overlap is measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane and is also called vertical overlap. When the overlap is measured parallel to the occlusal plane it is referred to as overjet.Gingival NeoplasmsFossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Craniology: The scientific study of variations in size, shape, and proportion of the cranium.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Granuloma, Giant Cell: A non-neoplastic inflammatory lesion, usually of the jaw or gingiva, containing large, multinucleated cells. It includes reparative giant cell granuloma. Peripheral giant cell granuloma refers to the gingiva (giant cell epulis); central refers to the jaw.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Dental Occlusion, Centric: Contact between opposing teeth during a person's habitual bite.Craniofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Palatal Expansion Technique: An orthodontic method used for correcting narrow or collapsed maxillary arches and functional cross-bite. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry),Dentition, Mixed: The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Jaw Fractures: Fractures of the upper or lower jaw.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Centric Relation: The location of the maxillary and the mandibular condyles when they are in their most posterior and superior positions in their fossae of the temporomandibular joint.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Cherubism: A fibro-osseous hereditary disease of the jaws. The swollen jaws and raised eyes give a cherubic appearance; multiple radiolucencies are evident upon radiographic examination.Radiographic Magnification: Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.Free Tissue Flaps: A mass of tissue that has been cut away from its surrounding areas to be used in TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Orthodontic Retainers: Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)Anatomic Variation: Peculiarities associated with the internal structure, form, topology, or architecture of organisms that distinguishes them from others of the same species or group.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Orthodontics, Interceptive: Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Serial Extraction: The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fibroma, Desmoplastic: A extremely rare bone tumor characterized by abundant collagen formation and a fibrous stroma, without evidence of mitosis or pleomorphism. It appears on x-rays as an osteolytic lesion with well-defined margins and must be differentiated from primary fibrosarcoma of bone. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1441)Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Osteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Orthodontics, Corrective: The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).Fibrous Dysplasia, Monostotic: FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE involving only one bone.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Tooth Attrition: The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Blade Implantation: Insertion of an endosseous implant with a narrow wedge-shaped infrastructure extending through the oral mucosa into the mouth and bearing openings or vents through which tissue grows to obtain retention.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Denture, Complete: A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Tooth, Supernumerary: An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures: Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Osteotomy, Le Fort: Transverse sectioning and repositioning of the maxilla. There are three types: Le Fort I osteotomy for maxillary advancement or the treatment of maxillary fractures; Le Fort II osteotomy for the treatment of maxillary fractures; Le Fort III osteotomy for the treatment of maxillary fractures with fracture of one or more facial bones. Le Fort III is often used also to correct craniofacial dysostosis and related facial abnormalities. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1203 & p662)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Denture Retention: The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Oral Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the blood vessels of the mouth, which may occur as a result of injuries to the mouth, accidents in oral surgery, or diseases of the gums.Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Diastema: An abnormal opening or fissure between two adjacent teeth.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Maxillary Fractures: Fractures of the upper jaw.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Anodontia: Congenital absence of the teeth; it may involve all (total anodontia) or only some of the teeth (partial anodontia, hypodontia), and both the deciduous and the permanent dentition, or only teeth of the permanent dentition. (Dorland, 27th ed)Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal: A rare aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma, characterized by a biphasic histologic pattern of small compact cells intermixed with islands of cartilaginous matrix. Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas have a predilection for flat bones; long tubular bones are rarely affected. They tend to occur in the younger age group and are highly metastatic. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1456)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Jaw Relation Record: A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)OsteomyelitisBone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Hyperostosis, Cortical, Congenital: A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Branchial Region: A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Myofibroma: A benign tumor that consists chiefly of fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE, with variable numbers of MUSCLE CELLS forming portions of the neoplasm (From Stedman's, 27th ed).Periapical Diseases: Diseases of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE surrounding the root of the tooth, which is distinguished from DENTAL PULP DISEASES inside the TOOTH ROOT.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Humpback Whale: The species Megaptera novaeangliae, in the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by its huge flippers and the arching of their back when diving. They are also known for their breaching and singing.Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed: X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.Maxillofacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).Open Bite: A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Mouth FloorMouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Glossectomy: Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone: A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex by fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Sotos Syndrome: Congenital or postnatal overgrowth syndrome most often in height and occipitofrontal circumference with variable delayed motor and cognitive development. Other associated features include advanced bone age, seizures, NEONATAL JAUNDICE; HYPOTONIA; and SCOLIOSIS. It is also associated with increased risk of developing neoplasms in adulthood. Mutations in the NSD1 protein and its HAPLOINSUFFICIENCY are associated with the syndrome.Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Gingival Hyperplasia: Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400)Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.

The development and structure of the chimpanzee mandible. (1/1956)

The sites of growth and remodeling, and the associated changes in cortical bone structure, have been studied in the chimpanzee mandible and compared with those previously reported in the human and macaque mandibles. The location of the principal sites of growth, and the distribution of the areas of deposition and resorption in the ramus, were found to be similar in all three species. In the chimpanzee, unlike Man, the bone being deposited at the condyle, posterior border of the ramus and coronoid process was plexiform in nature, indicating very rapid growth. The pattern of remodeling in the mandibular body, on the other hand, showed marked species differences at the chin and on the submandibular lingual surface, which account for the contrasts seen in the adult morphology of these regions. Although the pattern of distribution of cortical densities differed from that of surface remodeling, the information they give is complementary in analysing bone growth. The densest regions were found to coincide with sites of consistent lamellar deposition, while the least dense regions were those where plexiform bone was formed. Areas where remodeling led to the greatest reorientation of bone tissue within the cortex showed the greatest disparity between the two patterns.  (+info)

Modified cuspal relationships of mandibular molar teeth in children with Down's syndrome. (2/1956)

A total of 50 permanent mandibular 1st molars of 26 children with Down's syndrome (DS) were examined from dental casts and 59 permanent mandibular 1st molars of normal children were examined from 33 individuals. The following measurements were performed on both right and left molars (teeth 46 and 36 respectively): (a) the intercusp distances (mb-db, mb-d, mb-dl, db-ml, db-d, db-dl, db-ml, d-dl, d-ml, dl-ml); (b) the db-mb-ml, mb-db-ml, mb-ml-db, d-mb-dl, mb-d-dl, mb-dl-d angles; (c) the area of the pentagon formed by connecting the cusp tips. All intercusp distances were significantly smaller in the DS group. Stepwise logistic regression, applied to all the intercusp distances, was used to design a multivariate probability model for DS and normals. A model based on 2 distances only, mb-dl and mb-db, proved sufficient to discriminate between the teeth of DS and the normal population. The model for tooth 36 for example was as follows: p(DS) = (e(30.6-5.6(mb-dl)+25(mb-db)))/(1 + e(30.6 5.6(mb-dl)+25(mb db))). A similar model for tooth 46 was also created, as well as a model which incorporated both teeth. With respect to the angles, significant differences between DS and normals were found in 3 out of the 6 angles which were measured: the d-mb-dl angle was smaller than in normals, the mb-d-dl angle was higher, and the mb-dl-d angle was smaller. The dl cusp was located closer to the centre of the tooth. The change in size occurs at an early stage, while the change in shape occurs in a later stage of tooth formation in the DS population.  (+info)

Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development. (3/1956)

Pitx1 is a Bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the hindlimb, as well as expression in the developing anterior pituitary gland and first branchial arch. Here, we report that Pitx1 gene-deleted mice exhibit striking abnormalities in morphogenesis and growth of the hindlimb, resulting in a limb that exhibits structural changes in tibia and fibula as well as patterning alterations in patella and proximal tarsus, to more closely resemble the corresponding forelimb structures. Deletion of the Pitx1 locus results in decreased distal expression of the hindlimb-specific marker, the T-box factor, Tbx4. On the basis of similar expression patterns in chick, targeted misexpression of chick Pitx1 in the developing wing bud causes the resulting limb to assume altered digit number and morphogenesis, with Tbx4 induction. We hypothesize that Pitx1 serves to critically modulate morphogenesis, growth, and potential patterning of a specific hindlimb region, serving as a component of the morphological and growth distinctions in forelimb and hindlimb identity. Pitx1 gene-deleted mice also exhibit reciprocal abnormalities of two ventral and one dorsal anterior pituitary cell types, presumably on the basis of its synergistic functions with other transcription factors, and defects in the derivatives of the first branchial arch, including cleft palate, suggesting a proliferative defect in these organs analogous to that observed in the hindlimb.  (+info)

Canine sexual dimorphism in Egyptian Eocene anthropoid primates: Catopithecus and Proteopithecus. (4/1956)

Two very small late Eocene anthropoid primates, Catopithecus browni and Proteopithecus sylviae, from Fayum, Egypt show evidence of substantial sexual dimorphism in canine teeth. The degree of dimorphism suggests that these early anthropoids lived in social groups with a polygynous mating system and intense male-male competition. Catopithecus and Proteopithecus are smaller in estimated body size than any living primates showing canine dimorphism. The origin of canine dimorphism and polygyny in anthropoids was not associated with the evolution of large body size.  (+info)

A modern human pattern of dental development in lower pleistocene hominids from Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain). (5/1956)

The study of life history evolution in hominids is crucial for the discernment of when and why humans have acquired our unique maturational pattern. Because the development of dentition is critically integrated into the life cycle in mammals, the determination of the time and pattern of dental development represents an appropriate method to infer changes in life history variables that occurred during hominid evolution. Here we present evidence derived from Lower Pleistocene human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 level (Aurora stratum) of the Gran Dolina site in the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain. These hominids present a pattern of development similar to that of Homo sapiens, although some aspects (e.g., delayed M3 calcification) are not as derived as that of European populations and people of European origin. This evidence, taken together with the present knowledge of cranial capacity of these and other late Early Pleistocene hominids, supports the view that as early as 0.8 Ma at least one Homo species shared with modern humans a prolonged pattern of maturation.  (+info)

Hindlimb patterning and mandible development require the Ptx1 gene. (6/1956)

The restricted expression of the Ptx1 (Pitx1) gene in the posterior half of the lateral plate mesoderm has suggested that it may play a role in specification of posterior structures, in particular, specification of hindlimb identity. Ptx1 is also expressed in the most anterior ectoderm, the stomodeum, and in the first branchial arch. Ptx1 expression overlaps with that of Ptx2 in stomodeum and in posterior left lateral plate mesoderm. We now show that targeted inactivation of the mouse Ptx1 gene severely impairs hindlimb development: the ilium and knee cartilage are absent and the long bones are underdeveloped. Greater reduction of the right femur size in Ptx1 null mice suggests partial compensation by Ptx2 on the left side. The similarly sized tibia and fibula of mutant hindlimbs may be taken to resemble forelimb bones: however, the mutant limb buds appear to have retained their molecular identity as assessed by forelimb expression of Tbx5 and by hindlimb expression of Tbx4, even though Tbx4 expression is decreased in Ptx1 null mice. The hindlimb defects appear to be, at least partly, due to abnormal chondrogenesis. Since the most affected structures derive from the dorsal side of hindlimb buds, the data suggest that Ptx1 is responsible for patterning of these dorsal structures and that as such it may control development of hindlimb-specific features. Ptx1 inactivation also leads to loss of bones derived from the proximal part of the mandibular mesenchyme. The dual role of Ptx1 revealed by the gene knockout may reflect features of the mammalian jaw and hindlimbs that were acquired at a similar time during tetrapod evolution.  (+info)

Cognitive function and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (7/1956)

Among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), impairment of cognitive function, i.e. deficits in memory, attention, and visuconstructive abilities are common. We applied different forms of treatment for patients with newly diagnosed OSAS in a randomized study with a one-year follow-up. Patients with BMI > 40 kg/m2 were excluded. After the initial diagnostic work-up, male patients were considered to be candidates for either nasal continuous airway pressure (nCPAP) (27 patients) or surgical treatment (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with or without mandibular osteotomy) (23 patients). Within the groups, the patients were then randomized to active treatment (nCPAP/surgery) or to conservative management. Cognitive function and severity of OSAS were assessed prior to treatment and 3 and 12 months later. At 12 months, all patients on nCPAP had a normal ODI4 index (< 10), and were significantly less somnolent than their controls; 3/11 of the surgically treated patients had a normal ODI4 index. Daytime somnolence was significantly less severe in the surgically treated patients than in their controls. Cognitive function did not correlate importantly with daytime sleepiness or severity of OSAS; the best Pearson pairwise correlation coefficient was between ODI4 and the Bourdon-Wiersma (r = 0.36). Success in treatment of OSAS did not affect neuropsychological outcome. We concluded that the standard cognitive test battery is insufficiently sensitive to identify positive changes in patients with OSAS, especially among those with a high level of overall mental functioning.  (+info)

Clinical characteristics of CHARGE syndrome. (8/1956)

CHARGE syndrome, first described by Pagon, was named for its six major clinical features. They are: coloboma of the eye, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retarded growth and development including CNS anomalies, genital hypoplasia and/or urinary tract anomalies, and ear anomalies and/or hearing loss. We experienced three cases of CHARGE syndrome who displayed ocular coloboma, heart defects, retarded growth and development, and external ear anomalies, and we also review the previously reported literature concerning CHARGE syndrome.  (+info)

*Mental nerve

The nerve emerges at the mental foramen in the mandible, and divides beneath the Depressor anguli oris muscle into three ...

*Chin augmentation

They usually stay in place, but may move, buckle and cause bone resorption where they contact the mandible in some cases. Since ... Some chin implants are fixed to the mandible, while others are held in place by the pocket itself. Another surgical chin ... Chin augmentation may be achieved by manipulation of the jaw bone (mandible) and augmentation utilizing this technique usually ... the procedure involves cutting a horseshoe-shaped piece of bone from the lower border of the mandible known as an osteotomy. ...

*Keratocystic odontogenic tumour

It most often affects the posterior mandible. It most commonly presents in the third decade of life. In the WHO/IARC ...

*Mandible

The mandible sits beneath the maxilla. The mandible is the only movable bone of the skull besides the ossicles of the middle ... Figure 3: Mandible of human embryo 24 mm. long. Outer aspect. Figure 4: Mandible of human embryo 24 mm. long. Inner aspect. ... Figure 5: Mandible of human embryo 95 mm. long. Outer aspect. Nuclei of cartilage stippled. Figure 5: Mandible of human embryo ... the rami rise up from the body of the mandible and meet with the body at the angle of the mandible or the gonial angle. The ...

*Edward Mandible

Mandible was born in Woolloomooloo, Sydney. Mandible was selected on the first Wallaby 1908-09 Australia rugby union tour of ... Edward Francis Mandible (11 May 1885 - c. 1936) was an Australian national representative rugby union fly-half and one of the ... Edward Mandible died in Perth, Western Australia in April 1934.He was buried at Karrakatta Cemetery, in Perth, Western ... Facing reprisals from rugby union for playing in this non-sanctioned series, Mandible switched codes in 1910 to play rugby ...

*Mandible (disambiguation)

The mandible is the lower jawbone of a vertebrate animal. Mandible may also refer to: Mandible (arthropod mouthpart), one of ... several mouthparts in arthropods Mandible (insect mouthpart), one of several mouthparts in insects Human mandible, the lower ...

*Peninj Mandible

The Peninj Mandible (Peninj 1) is the fossilized lower jaw and teeth of a male Australopithecus boisei. It was discovered in ... The mandible was discovered by Kamoya Kimeu in 1964, during an expedition conducted by Richard Leakey and Glynn Isaac. Virginia ...

*Lingula of mandible

Tuli A, Choudhry R, Choudhry S, Raheja S, Agarwal S (2000). "Variation in shape of the lingula in the adult human mandible". J ... the lingula of the mandible which gives attachment to the sphenomandibular ligament; at its lower and back part is a notch from ...

*Mandible (arthropod mouthpart)

Some ants use mandibles to injure the enemy and squirt poison into the wound. Harvester ants use their mandibles to collect and ... Caterpillars use sharp mandibles to cut leaves in side-to-side motions. Only a few moths have functional mandibles in the adult ... Mandibles are often simply referred to as jaws. Mandibles are present in the extant subphyla Myriapoda (millipedes and others ... Most butterflies and moths lack mandibles as they mainly feed on nectar from flowers. Queen bees have mandibles with sharp ...

*Mandible (insect mouthpart)

Males of these beetles use their mandibles to grasp or displace each other as they compete for mates. The mandibles in ... Most adult Hymenoptera have mandibles that follow the general form, as in grasshoppers. The mandibles are used to clip pieces ... Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect's mouth, and the most anterior of the three pairs of oral appendages ... The mandibles are therefore instrumental in piercing the plant or animal tissues upon which these insects feed, and in helping ...

*Alveolar part of mandible

The alveolar part of mandible is the part of the mandible, adjacent to the teeth, containing the dental alveolus. Alveolar ... Przystańska, A; Bruska M. (May 2005). "Foramina on the internal aspect of the alveolar part of the mandible". Folia Morphol ( ... Alveolar part of mandible. http://orthodontics.case.edu/facialgrowth/html/gofmand1.htm. ...

*Angle of the mandible

Mandible bone. Position of angle shown in red. Mandible. Outer surface. Side view. (Angle labeled at bottom right.) Mandible. ... Mandible. Inner surface. Angle of mandible labeled at bottom right. This article incorporates text in the public domain from ... is located at the posterior border at the junction of the lower border of the ramus of the mandible. The angle of the mandible ... Angle visible at bottom left.) The Pterygoidei; the zygomatic arch and a portion of the ramus of the mandible have been removed ...

*Digastric fossa of Mandible

The digastric fossa of the mandible is an anatomical structure which occupies a space on the inner surface of the inferior ... border of the body of the mandible, near the midline bilaterally. Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice ( ...

*Coronoid process of the mandible

Position of coronoid process in mandible (shown in red). Animation. Mandible. Outer surface. Side view. (Coronoid process ... The mandible's coronoid process (from Greek korone, "like a crown") is a thin, triangular eminence, which is flattened from ... Mandible fractures are common injuries. However, coronoid process fractures are very rare. Isolated fractures of the coronoid ... Coronoid process of mandible Mandibular nerve and bone. Deep dissection. Anterior view. Infratemporal fossa. Lingual and ...

*The Mandibles

... : A Family, 2029-2047 is a 2016 novel, the thirteenth by American author Lionel Shriver. It was first published in ... One family, the Mandibles, are hit particularly hard by the devaluation of American currency, as they were all expecting to ... I feel as if that bullet is still whizzing around the planet." Baume, Sarah (14 May 2016). "The Mandibles review: future shock ... Kalfus, Ken (12 July 2016). "'The Mandibles,' by Lionel Shriver: A vision of America in a downward spiral". The Washington Post ...

*Operation Mandibles

During World War II, Operation Mandibles was a planned 1940/1941 British amphibious assault on Rhodes, Leros and the Dodecanese ... mandibles+wwii&source=bl&ots=_PTGGnHHEl&sig=go7opAbpu-OSQ7qz9xNidgkHyC0&hl=en&ei=sau5TYnjJ-W10QHyzujXDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct= ...

*Submandibular gland

... inferior and posterior to the body of the mandible, moving inward from the inferior border of the mandible near its angle with ... Mandible. Inner surface. Side view. Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. Mucus ...

*Submandibular fovea

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) "Mandible of Intact Skull: ... "Mandible". Tufts University Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology. Retrieved 2008-09-26. ... is an impression on the medial side of the body of the mandible below the mylohyoid line. It is the location for the ...

*Lateral pterygoid muscle

Mandible. Inner surface. Side view. Plan of branches of internal maxillary artery. Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular ... A concerted effort of the lateral pterygoid muscles helps in lowering the mandible and open the jaw whereas unilateral action ... the lateral pterygoid is the only muscle of mastication that assists in depressing the mandible (opening the jaw). At the ... muscle is to pull the head of the condyle out of the mandibular fossa along the articular eminence to protrude the mandible. ...

*Sublingual gland

Mandible. Inner surface. Side view. Sublingual gland Sublingual gland Sublingual gland Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology ...

*Medial pterygoid muscle

Elevation of the mandible (closes the jaw) Minor contribution to protrusion of the mandible Assistance in mastication Excursion ... Mandible. Inner surface. Side view. Plan of branches of internal maxillary artery. Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular ... pterygoid plate and the insertion is from the internal surface of the ramus of the mandible down to the angle of the mandible, ... into the lower and back part of the medial surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible, as high as the mandibular foramen. ...

*Depressor labii inferioris muscle

This muscle arises from the oblique line of the mandible, and inserts on the skin of the lower lip, blending in with the ... Facial muscles Depressor anguli oris Position of depressor labii inferioris muscle (red). Mandible. Outer surface. Side view. ...

*Maxillary artery

It branches from the external carotid artery just deep to the neck of the mandible. The maxillary artery, the larger of the two ... Mandible. Outer surface. Side view. Lateral head anatomy detail Head anatomy anterior view Maxillary artery Maxillary artery ... The first or mandibular portion (or bony portion) passes horizontally forward, between the neck of the mandible and the ... runs obliquely forward and upward under cover of the ramus of the mandible and insertion of the temporalis, on the superficial ...

*Stag-moose

http://laignoranciadelconocimiento.blogspot.com.es/2011/12/cervalces.html (in Spanish) "Cervalces Scotti." Maxilla & Mandible. ...

*Subluxation

... may also occur in the mandible from the articular groove of the temporal bone. The mandible can dislocate in the ... "Mandible dislocation". Medscape Reference. WebMD LLC. Retrieved March 12, 2013. Haddon, Robert & Peacock IV, W Franklin (2003 ... of a tooth is a dental traumatic injury in which the tooth has increased mobility but has not been displaced from the mandible ...
Define ascending ramus. ascending ramus synonyms, ascending ramus pronunciation, ascending ramus translation, English dictionary definition of ascending ramus. n. pl. ra·mi 1. A branch, as of a nerve or blood vessel, or a projecting part, as of a rotifer or crustacean. 2. A bony process extending like a branch from...
The results of this investigation may support the fact that the dentoalveolar compensatory mechanism aims to maintain a functional occlusion in connection with craniofacial growth. In the high-angle group, the alveolar bone had to grow more in order to compensate or partly compensate for the vertical craniofacial growth, and therefore, the bodies of the maxilla and mandible became higher. The fact that the arches became narrower in the midline of the mandible might be due to the difference in loading. It can be hypothesised that the alveolar bone in the high-angle subjects are less loaded than the bone in the low-angle group. In the low-angle group, the root resides in most of the arch, whereas in the high angle group, the root resides only in part of the body, which according to Wolffs law will result in a less developed bone [29].. In orthodontic treatment, it is very important to understand how the development of the lower third of the face is closely linked to the dentoalveolar compensatory ...
Fractures of the mandibular body may be classified by anatomic location, condition and position of teeth relative to the fracture, favorableness, or type. Body fractures occur between the distal aspect of the canines and a hypothetical line corresponding to the anterior attachment of the masseter.
Definition: Acrorenal mandibular syndrome is characterized by the combination of unusual limb deficiencies (split feet or/and hands), renal anomalies (polycystic kidneys, renal agenesis, etc.), mandibular hypoplasia, genital anomalies(uterine anomalies in females) and some other, minor anomalies. have severe mandibular hypoplasia ...
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play an essential role in development and patterning of the vertebrate embryo. Despite extensive literature documenting the diverse roles of FGF signalling during craniofacial development, comparatively little is known about the specific downstream effectors through which FGFs influence gene expression. A previous study in our laboratory reported exogenous FGF elicited differential chondrogenic responses in frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme (Bobick et al., 2007). Pea3 transcription factors are crucial components of the downstream effector pathway through which FGFs influence gene expression (Raible and Brand, 2001). Therefore, the purpose of my research was to examine whether differences in pea3, erm, and er81 gene expression profiles underlie the distinct responses of the frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme cells to FGF. The present study demonstrates that FGF2 treatment differentially affects chondrogenesis in micromass cultures of frontonasal and ...
Origin: The 1st Pharyngeal arch (mandibular processes)à two lateral lingual processes+ one tuberculum imparà meet à fuse à anterior 2/3 of the tongueà U shaped sulcusà mobile tongue leaving frenulum linguae. ...
Medical literature is not unified in the description of the morphology of the mental foramen. Different anatomy and radiology text books give contradicting statements regarding the morphometric characteristics of the mental foramen; thereby depicting variable racial trends. 6 Africans: The mental foramen was observed to exhibit dimorphism; it was 14.89 mm above the lower border of the mandible in males and 14.21 mm in females. Also, it was 16.16 mm below the alveolar ridge in males and 15.66 mm in females. The average size of the long and the short axis of the foramen were 5.66mm and 3.97mm respectively in the male and 4.99 mm and 3.87 mm respectively in the female mandibles.]12These measurements were statistically similar to another study on mandibles from Alagoas state.18 Tanzanians: The mental foramen was frequently located below the apex of the second premolar and between the 2 nd premolar and 1st molar. A significantly less common location was between 1 st and 2 nd premolars and below 1 st ...
J:37482 Kronmiller JE, Nguyen T, Spatial and temporal distribution of Indian hedgehog mRNA in the embryonic mouse mandible. Arch Oral Biol. 1996 Jun;41(6):577-83 ...
The epididymis, composed of a much-convoluted tube some 20 feet long, is applied to the posterior border of the testicle, from which it is separated by an involution of the serous covering, forming a ...
Definition of mandibular process. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Some anatomic patterns formed by the anterior border of the ascending ramus relative to the mandibular canal can cause nerve complications during surgery. We determined the frequency of obstructive anatomy in patients undergoing jaw surgery, and we described a perioperative method for a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy that ensured inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) protection. The anatomy of the anterior border of the ascending ramus of the mandible was examined on axial and cross-sectional cone beam computed tomographic images of 114 consecutive patients undergoing bilateral sagittal split osteotomies. The thickness of the anterior border of the ascending ramus determined whether the mandibular foramen could be visualized (pattern A) or was obscured (pattern B). Patients with pattern B anatomy received a perioperative procedure. Direct visualization of the mandibular foramen was achieved in 100% of patients with pattern A anatomy. We examined 228 anterior borders of the ascending ramus of the ...
Clenched Hands, Congenital Heart Disease, Congenital Mandibular Hypoplasia Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Patau Syndrome, Trisomy 18, Pierre Robin Syndrome. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
The mandibular condyles represent important growth sites within the facial skeleton. Condylar growth is not a pacemaker of mandibular development, but it provides regional adaptive growth that is of considerable clinical significance, as the condyles upward and backward growth movement regulates the anteriorly and inferiorly directed displacement of the mandible as a whole.. Orthopedic problems of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), such as displacement of the TMJ disk, are common in the adolescent population. Clinical studies of mandibular asymmetry and mandibular retrognathia in adults as well as in children and adolescents, have reported an association with coexisting non-reducing displacement of the TMJ disk without identifying the cause and effect. Through experimental studies causality has been established, and unilateral affliction during growth has been shown to retard ipsilateral mandibular development with facial asymmetry as the sequel. It was hypothesized that bilateral non-reducing ...
In this study, the buccolingual inclination of the lower incisors represented the long axis of alveolar symphysis. The cephalometric measurements which contributed to this evaluation were IMPA, FMIA, IIiAIi.POM and IIiAIiMe. In general, the lower incisors were implanted perpendicular to the mandibular base (IMPA = 92.78º), buccally in relation to the Frankfurt horizontal plane (FMIA = 61.13º) and lower occlusal plane (IIiAIi.MOP= 63.10º) and the projection of the long axis of these teeth is about 9.51 mm after the Me point (Table 3). The amount of buccal and lingual bone at the apex of the lower incisor was measured by BBD and LBD widths, respectively. In this sample, the amount of buccal bone (BBD = 5.12 mm) was thicker than the amount found for lingual bone (LBD= 3.55 mm) (Table 3). The long axis of the basal and alveolar symphyses was not aligned. The basal symphysis was inclined 22º lingually in terms of the dentoalveolar symphysis in relation to both the mandibular and Frankfurt planes ...
Investigations seeking to understand the relationship between mandibular form, function, and dietary behavior have focused on the mandibular corpus and symphysis. African apes vary along a gradient of folivory/frugivory, yet few studies have evaluated the morphology of the mandibular corpus and symphysis in these taxa, and the investigations have yielded mixed results. Specifically, studies using external metrics have identified differences in mandibular proportions that analysis of cortical bone distribution has not substantiated. I contribute to the ongoing debate on the relationship between jaw form and dietary behavior by comparing mandibular corporal and symphyseal shapes in African apes. Importantly, and in contrast to previous studies of African ape internal geometry, I include the Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), the ape most specialized toward a folivorous diet. I test the hypotheses that 1) Gorilla beringei beringei always has significantly more robust mandibular ...
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.6210 Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between mandibular bone structure parameters measured on preimplant cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and primary implant stability. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one hemimandibles were scanned on the 3D Accuitomo 170 CBCT. Next, an implant was placed in each hemimandible, after which insertion torque and implant stability quotient (ISQ) measurements were acquired. The following measurements were performed on the preimplant CBCT scans: bone surface, bone volume, fractal dimension, connectivity, trabecular thickness and spacing, and skeleton analysis. Measurements were performed using various regions of interest in the vicinity of the implant site. In addition, cortical thickness was measured. The correlation between bone structure parameters, insertion torque, and ISQ was calculated. Results: The overall correlation was low to medium (,R, = 0.002 0.723). For the bone around the entire implant site, the highest correlation ...
INTRODUCTION. Anatomical structures such as mylohyoid sulcus, lingula of the mandible and mandibular foramen are important in dental practice and allow the professional to execute surgical and anesthetic procedures with more safety and less damages (Reitzik et al., 1976; Figún & Garino, 1989; Minarelli & Ramalho, 1991; Carvalho et al., 2003; Madeira, 2004).. The interest in locating the mandibular foramen dates from the beginning of local anesthesia for the desensitization of the inferior alveolar nerve that enabled the advance of anesthetic techniques (Figún & Garino; Madeira). According to Marzola et al. (2005), the literature is scarce regarding the measurement parameters (anatomical reference points) for locating the mandibular foramen in the medial surface of the mandibular ramus, what would allow professionals to improve the anesthetic technique in the region.. With the physiological growth, the facial bones suffer a remodeling process, causing changes in the foramen position over the ...
200. Study Of Age Related Changes In Dentate And Edentate Mandible. Sangeeta.J.Rajani. Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat.. 80 mandibles [40 dentulous and 40 edentulous] were examined for the position of mental foramen and angle of mandible. Radiological position of mandibular canal is studied and all findings compared with other authors. In present study -A) Dentulous mandible: position of mental foramen is. found midway between the borders of the body in 60% of the cases, in 28% cases, it is near the lower border, in 12% cases, it is near the upper border, angle of mandible found between 100 to 130 degrees.. B) Edentulous Mandible: in 84% cases, position of mental foramen is near upper border, in 13% of the cases position of mental foramen is midway between the upper and lower border, in 3% of the cases position of mental foramen is near the lower border, angle found between 120 to 140 degrees. All these observations suggest that as age advances,. in majority of the cases, mental foramen ...
The CXB set of recombinant inbred mouse strains provided an opportunity to observe the effects of reassorted subsets of genes on the shape of the mandible. The distances between 12 landmarks in all paired combinations were calculated to evaluate genetic control in small regions. The genetic relationships between interlandmark distances revealed genes to have most of their effects in localized regions, and the greater heritabilities usually to apply to those distances between adjacent landmarks. Interrelationships between measurements are usually explicable on a developmental basis. It is proposed that genes of this sort bring about the changes seen in organ shape during evolution. A model plan for the organization of gene activation during morphogenesis is described.
S02.652 is a non-billable code, consider using a code with a higher level of specificity for a diagnosis of fracture of angle of left mandible.
The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of space available distal to the most posterior tooth in the mandibular arch for complete arch distalization. Methods: CBCT scans from 146 (110 after exclusion criteria) patients were rendered using InVivo DentalTM Software. A 1:1 ratio panoramic image was reconstructed from each scan. A horizontal measurement, parallel to the functional occlusal plane, was recorded from the distal height of contour of the most posterior tooth to the ascending ramus. The advantages of using a CBCT reconstruction are: (1) A traditional panoramic radiograph uses an arbitrary focal trough; (2) There is inherent error and distortion due to the magnification in the traditional panoramic radiograph; (3) The magnification from traditional radiographs makes measurements very unreliable; (4) Contrast is improved with CBCT and blurring and overlapping is eliminated. Results: There was an average of 7.27 mm [7.24 mm (left) and 7.29 mm (right)] distal to lower second ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of space available distal to the most posterior tooth in the mandibular arch for complete arch distalization. Methods: CBCT scans from 146 (110 after exclusion criteria) patients were rendered using InVivo DentalTM Software. A 1:1 ratio panoramic image was reconstructed from each scan. A horizontal measurement, parallel to the functional occlusal plane, was recorded from the distal height of contour of the most posterior tooth to the ascending ramus. The advantages of using a CBCT reconstruction are: (1) A traditional panoramic radiograph uses an arbitrary focal trough; (2) There is inherent error and distortion due to the magnification in the traditional panoramic radiograph; (3) The magnification from traditional radiographs makes measurements very unreliable; (4) Contrast is improved with CBCT and blurring and overlapping is eliminated. Results: There was an average of 7.27 mm [7.24 mm (left) and 7.29 mm (right)] distal to lower second ...
Whether or not there is an increase in size or acceleration of growth of the mandible is one of the major controversies in functional appliance therapy. Although many researchers have claimed that the FR causes extra mandibular growth, this study showed that there were no significant differences between the FR and control groups as far as mandibular movement is concerned, the mean FR movement being 4.1 mm, standard deviation 3.0 mm; the control 5.0 mm, and standard deviation 2.6 mm. As the 5.0-mm change in the control was due to normal growth, it can be assumed that the 4.1-mm change in the FR group was no more than normal growth rather than any effect of the appliance. The maximum value seen in the control was 14.2 mm and for the FR it was 12.8 mm; again, because this change in the controls was due to normal growth it must be assumed that even the maximum FR change was no more than normal growth change. That the size of the mandible is unaffected with the FR is supported by evidence from ...
Abstract We describe a severe first branchial arch abnormality including nearly complete absence of mandible, hypoplasia of the maxilla and the zygomatic arches, and complete gingi..
The lingula of the mandible (also known as Spix spine) is a triangular bony projection or ridge on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible, immediately superior to the mandibular foramen. It provides attachment for the sphenomandibular li...
Holotype: TL 7.1, HL 1.25, HW 1.31 (CI 105), ML 0.71 (MI57), MLO 1.26, SL l.ll (SI85), EL 0.33, WL 2.16, hind femur L 1.25, hind tibia L 1.20 mm. Paratypes (n = 6 of 42 from 4 colonies, including largest and smallest specimens): TL 6.5-8.6, HL 1.17-1.43, HW 1.21-1.47 (CI 100-105), ML 0.67-0.81 (MI 53-66), SL 1.00-1.24 (SI 83-88), EL 0.30-0.40, WL 2.00-2.46 mm. Head broader than long, with sides convex, broadest immediately behind eyes, and narrowed slightly in front of eyes; posterior border broadly and shallowly concave. (The head can be lengthened slightly by tilting it forward from the full-face plane; this has the effect of foreshortening the mandibles and deepening the concavity of the posterior margin, and of course decreasing CI.) Eyes large and convex, with about 18-19 ommatidia in the longest diagonal row, each eye occupying nearly 3/10 of the length of its side of the head, situated about 2/3 its own length from mandibular insertion. Clypeal lobe distinctly projecting but short, ...
The worker is a moderate sized (total length 13 mm) black ant with a yellow-tipped funiculus. The mandibles are elongated (total length 2.05 mm); the clypeus is broadly rounded anteriorly. The head is widest near the eyes and noticeably narrowed both anteriorly and posteriorly. The post-erior margin of the head is nearly straight. The malar carina is well developed; the eye is large (maximum diameter 0.8 mm). The eye is located slightly posteriorly to the middle of the head when viewed in full-face view (measured from the anterior edge of the clypeus). It is located slightly less then one maximum diameter from the anterior edge of the head (as seen in side view). The head length is 2.54 mm; the head width is 2.14 mm. The scape is relatively long (2.74 mm) and extends about 2½ funicular segments past the posterior lateral corner of the head. The pronotal shoulder forms a carina, which slightly overhangs the side of the pronotum. The metanotal suture is depressed on the dorsum of the mesosoma ...
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In 90% cases All four 3rd molar dont there specific dirction of erruption.they errup in any direction,due to that many pbls created-1-Accum
Background Crocodilians exhibit a spectrum of rostral shape from long snouted (longirostrine), through to short snouted (brevirostrine) morphologies. The proportional length of the mandibular symphysis correlates consistently with rostral shape, forming as much as 50% of the mandibles length in longirostrine forms, but 10% in brevirostrine crocodilians. Here we analyse the structural consequences of an elongate mandibular symphysis in relation to feeding behaviours. Methods/Principal Findings Simple beam and high resolution Finite Element (FE) models of seven species of crocodile were analysed under loads simulating biting, shaking and twisting. Using beam theory, we statistically compared multiple hypotheses of which morphological variables should control the biomechanical response. Brevi- and mesorostrine morphologies were found to consistently outperform longirostrine types when subject to equivalent biting, shaking and twisting loads. The best predictors of performance for biting and twisting
The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of experimental occlusal hypofunction, and recovery, on mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) using peripheral quantitative computed tomography.. A metal cap was inserted between the upper and lower incisors of 40 male Wistar rats (aged 6 weeks) to prevent the molars from biting. The rats were divided into two equal groups: hypofunction and recovery animals. In addition, there was a third group comprising 20 control animals. The recovery animals were anaesthetized at 4 weeks in order to remove the metal cap using pliers. The rats were killed under deep anaesthesia, after which the mandibles were immediately removed and fixed in 10 per cent neutral formalin. After 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, BMD was measured in the cancellous and cortical bone in the first molar region. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance.. At 6 and 8 weeks, in the hypofunction group, cancellous bone density decreased on the buccal and lingual sides, at the ...
Looking for Alveolar process of maxilla? Find out information about Alveolar process of maxilla. The ridge of bone surrounding the alveoli of the teeth Explanation of Alveolar process of maxilla
Definition of functional mandibular movements in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is functional mandibular movements? Meaning of functional mandibular movements as a legal term. What does functional mandibular movements mean in law?
0006]Referring to FIG. 1A to FIG. 1c, FIG. 1A illustrates a lateral cephalogram 10 and a posteroanterior cephalogram 12; FIG. 1B illustrates a tracing 20 of the lateral cephalogram 10, and a tracing 22 of the posteroanterior cephalogram 12; and FIG. 1c illustrates the tracing 20 of the lateral cephalogram 10 with landmarks shown thereon. When at least one cephalograms (such as the lateral cephalogram 10 and the posteroanterior cephalogram 12) are in use, the anatomical features and landmarks of the cephalograms have to be drawn on tracing papers, thereby obtaining tracings (such as the tracing 20 and the tracing 22). The so-called "landmarks" stand for a set of feature points defined from anatomical viewpoints for use in marking an anatomical structure, and can be used for analyzing the geometrical features of the anatomical structure, such as landmarks S, Po, Na, PNS, UIA, ANS, A, MI, LIE, UIE, LIA, B, Pog, Gn, Me, etc. as shown in FIG. 1c. Those landmarks are well known to those who are ...
The Meckelian Cartilage, also known as "Meckels Cartilage", is a piece of cartilage from which the mandibles (lower jaws) of vertebrates evolved. Originally it was the lower of two cartilages which supported the first branchial arch in early fish. Then it grew longer and stronger, and acquired muscles capable of closing the developing jaw.[1]. In early fish and in chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish such as sharks), the Meckelian Cartilage continued to be the main component of the lower jaw. But in the adult forms of osteichthyans (bony fish) and their descendants (amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals), the cartilage was covered in bone - although in their embryos the jaw initially develops as the Meckelian Cartilage. In all tetrapods the cartilage partially ossifies (changes to bone) at the rear end of the jaw and becomes the articular bone, which forms part of the jaw joint in all tetrapods except mammals.[1]. In some extinct mammal groups like eutriconodonts, the Meckels cartilage still ...
Looking for functional mandibular movements? Find out information about functional mandibular movements. 1. a. the evacuation of the bowels b. the matter evacuated 2. Music a principal self-contained section of a symphony, sonata, etc., usually having its own... Explanation of functional mandibular movements
Background and Objectives: Mandibular incisors anatomy presents a challenge when making endodontic access because of its small size and high prevalence of two canals and isthmus within them. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the root canal anatomy and its aberrant morphology in mandibular central incisors. Knowing the variations in canal anatomy such as two canals, presence of isthmus, type, its prevalence, and position in the mandibular central incisors, which help improve the procedure of successful root canal treatment. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty extracted human mandibular central incisor teeth were collected. Two different studies have been performed. Sixty teeth were studied through tooth clearing and dye penetration technique. Teeth were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, dehydrated with increasing concentrations of alcohol and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. Hematoxylin dye was inserted in access cavity and canals. The samples were ...
Background and Objectives: Mandibular incisors anatomy presents a challenge when making endodontic access because of its small size and high prevalence of two canals and isthmus within them. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the root canal anatomy and its aberrant morphology in mandibular central incisors. Knowing the variations in canal anatomy such as two canals, presence of isthmus, type, its prevalence, and position in the mandibular central incisors, which help improve the procedure of successful root canal treatment. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty extracted human mandibular central incisor teeth were collected. Two different studies have been performed. Sixty teeth were studied through tooth clearing and dye penetration technique. Teeth were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, dehydrated with increasing concentrations of alcohol and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. Hematoxylin dye was inserted in access cavity and canals. The samples were ...
INPROCEEDINGS{klein-1997-geometrtic, author = {Klein, Reinhard and Kr{\a}mer, J. and F{\u}tterling, S.}, pages = {73--80}, title = {Geometric modelling and finite element analysis of dental implants in the human mandible}, booktitle = {HERBSTTAGUNG 97 3D Bildanalyse und -synthese}, year = {1997}, month = nov ...
2 出生缺陷( Birth defect ):即先天性疾病 Malformation 畸形 is a primary morphologic defect of an organ or body part resulting from an intrinsically 本质上 abnormal developmental process (e.g., cleft lip 唇裂, polydactyly 多指趾 ). Dysplasia 发育异常 is a primary defect involving abnormal organization of cells into tissue (e.g., vascular malformation 血管畸形 ). Sequence 序列征 is a primary defect with its secondary structural changes (e.g., Pierre Robin sequence, a disorder in which a primary defect in mandibular 下颌骨 development produces a small jaw, secondary glossoptosis 舌后坠, and a cleft palate 腭裂 ) Syndrome 综合征 is a pattern of multiple primary malformations with a single etiology (e.g., trisomy 13 syndrome). Deformation 变形 is alteration of the form, shape, or position of a normally formed body part by mechanical forces 机械力. It usually occurs in the fetal period, not in embryogenesis 胚胎发生. It is a secondary alteration. ...
PubMed journal article A Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Study on Mandibular First Molars in a Chinese Subpopulatio were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Cartilage cells are formed by the division of chondrocytes, which produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage. At E16.5, chondrocytes in the middle portion of Meckels cartilage become hypertrophic and degenerate.. ...
View Notes - IMG_0090 from BIO 102 at Harvard. mastoid notch fi fll J. k. t. e.*-=----21. Label the following illustration ramus mental foramen coronoid process H using the terms provided. mandibular
A chin that sags over the line of the jaw (chin bone) is called chin ptosis. (ptosis is medically defined as a sagging of a body part) While some people have this naturally, most of the time it is due to the soft tissues of the chin sliding downward for a reason. This can occur from simple aging, loss of ones lower front teeth, and due to different surgical procedures of the chin. A few people actually have pseudo- or perceived chin ptosis which occurs as a result of a natural deep crease below the lower lip (submental crease) which makes the chin look ptotic (particularly when smiling) even though it is not. Successful correction of chin ptosis can usually be done for those problems caused by prior surgeries. Chin surgeries that are well known to cause soft tissue sagging include the intraoral placement of implants, removal of an overly large implant and bony reductions. Other less common causes include intraoral access for repair of mandibular symphysis and parasymphyseal fractures and ...
Tyrannoneustes lythrodectikos is one of numerous metriorhynchid crocodylomorph species known from the Oxford Clay Formation of England (Callovian-Oxfordian; Middle-Late Jurassic). This taxon is of evolutionary importance, as it is the oldest and most basal known macrophagous metriorhynchid. It has a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived feeding related characteristics, including: teeth with microscopic, poorly formed and non-contiguous denticles; increased tooth apicobasal length; ventrally displaced dentary tooth row (increased gape); reduced dentary tooth count; and a proportionally long mandibular symphysis. However the type specimen, and current referred specimens, all lack a preserved cranium. As such, the craniofacial morphology of this taxon, and its potential feeding ecology, remains poorly understood. Here we describe two skulls and two lower jaws which we refer to T. lythrodectikos. Previously these specimens were referred to Metriorhynchus brachyrhynchus. They share with the T. lythrodectikos
The retromolar space (RMS), defined in paleoanthropology as a space posterior to the third molar, between the distal edge of the tooth and the anterior margin of the ascending ramus when the mandible is held in lateral view, has been described as an autapomorphic trait unique to Neandertals despite its presence in anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This study examined RMS prevalence in a sample of Protohistoric Arikara and Mandan Amerindians to determine what craniofacial morphology is correlated with the RMS. It was hypothesized that the feature would be present in the Amerindians studied and associated with a long cranial length, a large nasal height, midfacial prognathism, a broad mandible, and dental wear. The results indicated that RMSs were present in the Arikara and Mandan and significantly correlated with cranial length, cranial breadth, nasal height, bizygomatic breadth, basion-nasion length, basion-nasiospinale, mandible length, gonial angle, bigonial breadth, and dental wear. Thus, ...
The horseshoe shaped Mandible consists of a horizontal body and an ascending ramus on each side. At the body of the mandible, the tooth-bearing alveolar part rests on the well developed lower part (base of the mandible). The mandibular ramus arises from the body of the mandible at the angle of the jaw (mandibular angle). The angle of the jaw provides outer and inner attachment sites for the masseter and the medial pterygoid, respectively. The ramus divides at its upper end into an anterior pointed muscular process (coronoid), and a posterior articular process (condylar), which bears the articular condyle (head) and slender neck of the mandibular. Between the two processes is the mandibular notch. The Zygomatic Arch is inserted between the maxilla, temporal, and frontal bones. Its temporal process adjoins the zygomatic process of the temporal squama at the temporozygomatic suture and forms the zygomatic arch.. ...
This review of the effect of presences of third molars on mandibular fractures includes 35 observational studies. The findings suggest that the presence of third molars increases the change of mandibular angle fractures. [read the full story...] ...
Randomized. 392 patients, treated with TAH/BSO, selective PLN and PALND. Originally included "intermediate risk" -- stages IB, IC, and II (occult), any grade, with negative LN. Revised during the course of study to enroll only "high intermediate risk" group expected to have 25% recurrence risk based on increasing age, G2-3 tumor, LVI, or outer 1/3 myometrial invasion: 1) ≥70 yrs old with only 1 other risk factor, 2) ≥50 yrs old with 2 risk factors; 3) any age with 3 risk factors. Randomized to Arm 1) no additional treatment vs Arm 2) postoperative pelvic EBRT. Fields: superior border at L4/L5, lateral borders 1cm beyond pelvis, posterior border at posterior border of S3, ant border at symphysis pubis. Dose: 50.4 Gy. No ...
Discussion The mental foramen has been used as a point of reference in morphometric analyses of the mandible, by virtue of its stable relation with the base of this bone (Neiva et al., 2004). In this study, the mean values of the distances between the image of the mental foramen and the mandible base (D1), and of this foramen to the alveolar crest (D2) had no statistically significant differences between the analyzed age groups, confirming the stability of this relation throughout the individuals adult life. The mean values of R1 (D1/D2) did not differ statistically between the four studied groups indicating that it is constant. There are records in the literature that the stability of D1 not depend on the reabsorption of the alveolar process in the region above of the foramen, and that the vertical measurements in panoramic radiography are clinically applicable for quantification of the height of the alveolar bone in this region (Lindh et al.; Güller et al.). The mean values of the ratios ...
Cell-generated mechanical forces play a critical role during tissue morphogenesis and organ formation in the embryo. Despite their relevance in sculpting functional embryonic structures, very little is known about the mechanisms by which cellular forces affect/control developmental processes, mainly because it has not been possible to measure cellular forces within developing tissues in vivo. In this talk, I will present a new technique that permits direct quantification of cellular mechanical stresses in situ within living tissues and developing organs. Using this novel technique, we quantify the stresses generated by mammary epithelial cells cultured within 3D aggregates (3.4 nN/µm2) and confirm that these stresses are dependent on myosin II activity and more than two-fold larger than the stresses generated by cells of embryonic tooth mesenchyme when analyzed within similar cultured aggregates or in developing whole mouse mandibles.. ...
Prognathism dominant symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Prognathism dominant (Prognathism dominant) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
Systemic complications in patients after renal or liver transplantation may be localized in the oral cavity. Calcium-phosphate disturbances may affect the structure and metabolism of mandible bones, promote calcification of dental pulp, and in childr
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Need orthognatic Surgery in Beverly Hills? The doctors at Tahiri Plastic Surgery can help resolve issues with the maxillar and mandible bones. ☎ (310) 385-6090
The MacEwen triangle (also called the suprameatal triangle or mastoid fossa) is a small triangular depression affecting the inner table of the temporal bone. The lines forming the triangle are: anterior: posterior border of the external acousti...
So where does Oryctodromeus figure in all this? Well surprisingly not that close to any of the other groups mainly due to a ventral expansion along the posterior border of the scapula blade. The authors hypothesise that since this is the attachment site for the deltoideus muscle there is a chance that this can be seen as an adaption for digging since extant mammals that burrow today use that very same muscle. I asked the other question that has bugged the burrowing dinosaur theory - was there enough flexibility in the tail for the animal to be able to turn in such a tight area? Jamie Fearon believes that there probably was although she took great pains to point out they were only looking at the forelimb in this current study. ...
Hello, I am a 42 year old female and about 2 weeks ago I noticed a tender spot under my lower jaw bone. It became increasingly tender and then I noticed a lump on the bone under the lower jaw and it is...
Max*il`lo-man*dibu*lar (?), a. [Maxilla + mandibular.] Anatomy|Anat. Pertaining to the maxilla and mandible; as, the maxillo-mandi...
(a) An orthopantomogram of case 1 revealing ground-glass appearance in the left mandible and having a fusiform shape. (b) A mandibular right lateral cross-secti
Marc needed a second molar removed, so he came to our office in Leominster, MA, for his extraction. Hear about his positive experience with Dr. Colarusso.
A double chin is a fatty deposit located on the fleshy area just below the chin. This fatty deposit causes the appearance of having two chins. There are...
Hi all my LO is 8 weeks old with weak chin , I used to have very bad sore nipple & start bottle feed. I dont know if all newborn gets weak chin in...
Answers to the question, Do Cleft Chins Look Good On Girls? Answers to Questions from People Who Know at Ask Experience Project.
Have you ever wondered why some people have a dimple in the middle of their chins? This indentation-also called a cleft chin-is a genetic trait.
Cercis chin.Avondale. Buy Top Navigation Categories from Notcutts, a leading collection of Garden Centres spread across the country.
Mamlakatimiz mustaqilligining 26 yilligi munosabati bilan Ozbekiston Respublikasi Prezidenti Shavkat Mirziyoyev nomiga xorijiy davlatlar va hukumatlar, nufuzli xalqaro tashkilotlar rahbarlaridan samimiy qutlovlar kelishi davom etmoqda. Ularda davlatimiz rahbariga baxt-saodat, omonlik va muvaffaqiyatlar, Ozbekiston xalqiga tinchlik-osoyishtalik, ravnaq hamda farovonlik tilab, chin dildan ezgu istaklar izhor etilgan ...
Introduction: Mandibular prognathism is one of the most common skeletal disorders in Iranian population and so mandibular setback surgery is one of the most common surgeries in Oral & Maxilllofacial area. Ramus Sagittal Osteotomy is one of the surgeries which is done for the purpose of mandibular setback or advancement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progress of maximum mouth opening (MMO) after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) surgery in patients with mandibular prognathism. Materials & Methods: In this study, 36 patients undergone BSSO surgery with Hunsck technique in order to correct mandibular prognathism, were taken into consideration. In all patients, fixation was done with three titanium screw in each side. Maximum mouth opening was measured before surgery and within 1, 3, 6 months after surgery. Repeated measurement was performed for data analysis (a=0.05). Results: In the patients 81.32 of maximum mouth opening was gained after one mouth, 92.1 after ...
Define dehiscent mandibular canal. dehiscent mandibular canal synonyms, dehiscent mandibular canal pronunciation, dehiscent mandibular canal translation, English dictionary definition of dehiscent mandibular canal. n. 1. Botany The spontaneous opening at maturity of a plant structure, such as a fruit, anther, or sporangium, to release its contents. 2. Medicine A...
The alveolar process (/ælˈviːələr/) (alveolar bone) is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets (dental alveoli) on bones that hold teeth. In humans, the tooth-bearing bones are the maxillae and the mandible. On the maxillae, the alveolar process is a ridge on the inferior surface, and on the mandible it is a ridge on the superior surface. It makes up the thickest part of the maxillae. The alveolar process contains a region of compact bone adjacent to the periodontal ligament (PDL), which is called the lamina dura when viewed on radiographs. It is this part which is attached to the cementum of the roots by the periodontal ligament. It is uniformly radiopaque (or lighter). Integrity of the lamina dura is important when studying radiographs for pathological lesions. The alveolar bone or process is divided into the alveolar bone proper and the supporting alveolar bone. Microscopically, both the alveolar bone proper and the supporting alveolar bone have the same components: ...
OBJECTIVES: To establish a rat model of a one-piece mandible using the principles of gingivoperiosteoplasty and guided bone regeneration to fuse the midline symphyseal area. MATERIALS & METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into two groups: 12 experimental and 12 control. Both groups were imaged using in vivo micro-computed tomography at baseline and at end point (5 months). The experimental group received regenerative surgery at the symphysis area; the control group received no treatment. Outcomes were evaluated by radiographic examination of gross and volumetric bony changes in the symphyseal region of interest marked between the mental foramina bilaterally and the two central incisors near the most coronal margin of the alveolar crests. These landmarks were chosen as they can be reproduced on the computed tomography images at baseline and end point. Histologic examination was performed on all samples at a level 5 mm apical to the alveolar bone crest. RESULTS: Radiologic ...
The objective of this cephalometric study was to evaluate skeletal stability and time course of postoperative changes in 80 consecutive mandibular prognathism patients operated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and rigid fixation. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 6 occasions: immediately preoperative, immediately postoperative, 2 and 6 months postoperative, and 1 and 3 years postoperative. The results indicate that BSSO with rigid fixation for mandibular setback is a fairly stable clinical procedure. Three years after surgery, mean relapse at pogonion represented 26% of the surgical setback (19% at point B). Most of the relapse (72%) took place during the first 6 months after surgery. Clockwise rotation of the ascending ramus at surgery with lengthening of the elevator muscles, though evident in this study and apparently responsible for the early horizontal postoperative changes, does not seem to be associated with marked relapse. Changes occurring in some of the younger patients ...
Much research has been done to understand the complex process of facial growth and development for decades. Recently, the form and function of the human mandibular symphysis has been of interest. The human symphysis theoretically experiences three types of strains during function, which may influence symphyseal shape and development. These forces are influenced by the size and position of the mandible relative to the muscles that act upon it. The purpose of this study is to determine whether an increase in mandibular length through surgery leads to increased skeletal indicators of resistance to wishboning forces. We retrospectively collected a sample of 47 subjects who had undergone mandibular advancement surgery and compared their pre- and post-surgical radiographs to examine for any changes. The results of our analysis did not provide any evidence to suggest increased wishboning resistance as a result of surgical lengthening. Perhaps there were truly not changes in the symphysis, or that we were
Abstract: The relationship between cranial morphology and diet has long been investigated in bats. Bats of the genus Myotis include insectivorous, facultatively piscivorous, and piscivorous species. We tested the hypothesis that facultatively piscivorous (five Myotis species) and piscivorous species (M. vivesi) present cranial morphological and functional changes with respect to insectivorous taxa (16 Myotis species). Cranial shapes in skull and mandible modules were described with four geometric landmark configurations in these dietary groups. Gape capacity was measured with the stretch factors for temporal and masseter muscles. Geometric configurations from two skull and two mandible shapes were analyzed to detect differences in cranial morphology in relation to diet. Differences in cranial morphology were found between piscivorous and insectivorous species involving the mandibular process where masticatory muscles are attached. Linear regression analysis of Procrustes distances and gape ...
Differences among mandibular remains of past and present populations might be expected to reflect differences in loading history and so, diet. This is because evolutionary and experimental studies and orthodontic observations in modern humans indicate that adult mandibular form is influenced by genetic and loading history. In this study, we apply geometric morphometrics and biomechanical modelling to the mandibles of Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and recent and living humans in order to assess if and how differences in adult form reflect subsistence strategies and so, masticatory system loading history. We show, using analyses of size and shape variation, that mandibular form in humans varies in a way that is consistent with the differences among subsistence groups. In particular mandibles from individuals who habitually fed on prepared and softened foods are small and show relative shortening of the mandibular body, among other differences. Using finite element analysis to ...
Osteotomies made between premolar 3 and premolar 4 in the body of the mandible in canine cadaver hemimandibles (n = 48) were stabilized with five interdental fixation apparatuses in a preliminary biomechanical study. Testing in bending determined ultimate strength, stiffness, and yield strength of the interdental fixation apparatuses. Erich arch bar supplemented with acrylic had significantly (P < 0.05) greater ultimate strength, stiffness, and yield strength than Stout loop supplemented with acrylic, Acrylic, Stout loop, and Erich arch bar alone. Due to the combined superior biomechanical strength of Erich arch bar supplemented with acrylic, it was utilized as the interdental fixation apparatus for the in vivo study.. Bilateral osteotomies made between premolar 3 and premolar 4 in the body of the mandible were stabilized with monocortical bone plate (n = 6), interdental (n = 6), and external skeletal fixation (n = 6). None of the dogs showed clinical evidence of pain or discomfort associated ...
Auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS) is a rare craniofacial disorder with mandibular hypoplasia and question-mark ears (QMEs) as major features. QMEs, consisting of a specific defect at the lobe-helix junction, can also occur as an isolated anomaly. Studies in animal models have indicated the essential role of endothelin 1 (EDN1) signaling through the endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) in patterning the mandibular portion of the first pharyngeal arch. Mutations in the genes coding for phospholipase C, beta 4 (PLCB4) and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3 (GNAI3), predicted to function as signal transducers downstream of EDNRA, have recently been reported in ACS. By whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified a homozygous substitution in a furin cleavage site of the EDN1 proprotein in ACS-affected siblings born to consanguineous parents. WES of two cases with vertical transmission of isolated QMEs revealed a stop mutation in EDN1 in one family and a ...
A 29 year female presented with a partially edentulous, compensated Class II malocclusion. There were twelve missing permanent teeth including two third molars; nine were congenitally missing. Cephalometrics revealed an underlying Class II skeletal pattern: facial convexity 15°, ANB angle 4° and lower incisor to mandibular plane angle of 106°. The lack of molar antagonists on the right side resulted in an unstable occlusion that was associated with a large mandibular edentulous space (area teeth #29-31) as well as extruded upper and lower molars (teeth #3 and 32). Diagnostically, this acquired malocclusion had an ABO Discrepancy Index (DI) of 18, with 3 additional points added for an unfavorable implant site, resulting in an overall interdisciplinary DI of 21 points. The patient preferred no extractions, orthodontics only in the upper arch, and decided against replacing an unesthetic maxillary anterior xed prosthesis. Interdisciplinary care involved space closure in the left quadrant and arch ...
The team of authors (B. Williams et. al., 2010) published a year after the publication of sensational report of fossil of Darwinius masillae the critical study about the claims that this specimen plays the huge role in the anthropoid primate lineage evolution. The initial phylogenetic analysis was based on 6 synapomorphies, 3 of which were shared between the anthropoid lineage, tarsiers and our fossil representative (skull with short rostrum, deep ramus mandibulare and steep talofibular facet). Three others were presented as the exclusive synapomorphy of Darwinius masillae with the anthropoid lineage -fused mandibular symphysis, the loss of toilet-claw on the second finger of the hind limbs and shovel-shaped incisors. The number of characters is very low and in addition they are all the synapomorphies of Haplorrhini. What specifically can we say to them? Short rostrum can be found also in other adapids like Smilodectes. Darwinius has the postorbital bar laterally to the orbit, but bone ...
The team of authors (B. Williams et. al., 2010) published a year after the publication of sensational report of fossil of Darwinius masillae the critical study about the claims that this specimen plays the huge role in the anthropoid primate lineage evolution. The initial phylogenetic analysis was based on 6 synapomorphies, 3 of which were shared between the anthropoid lineage, tarsiers and our fossil representative (skull with short rostrum, deep ramus mandibulare and steep talofibular facet). Three others were presented as the exclusive synapomorphy of Darwinius masillae with the anthropoid lineage -fused mandibular symphysis, the loss of toilet-claw on the second finger of the hind limbs and shovel-shaped incisors. The number of characters is very low and in addition they are all the synapomorphies of Haplorrhini. What specifically can we say to them? Short rostrum can be found also in other adapids like Smilodectes. Darwinius has the postorbital bar laterally to the orbit, but bone ...
The team of authors (B. Williams et. al., 2010) published a year after the publication of sensational report of fossil of Darwinius masillae the critical study about the claims that this specimen plays the huge role in the anthropoid primate lineage evolution. The initial phylogenetic analysis was based on 6 synapomorphies, 3 of which were shared between the anthropoid lineage, tarsiers and our fossil representative (skull with short rostrum, deep ramus mandibulare and steep talofibular facet). Three others were presented as the exclusive synapomorphy of Darwinius masillae with the anthropoid lineage -fused mandibular symphysis, the loss of toilet-claw on the second finger of the hind limbs and shovel-shaped incisors. The number of characters is very low and in addition they are all the synapomorphies of Haplorrhini. What specifically can we say to them? Short rostrum can be found also in other adapids like Smilodectes. Darwinius has the postorbital bar laterally to the orbit, but bone ...
Abstract.-Most species of the genus Pliosaurus come from the Northern Hemisphere, however a growing number of new specimens are now available from the Southern Hemisphere. Here a new species of Pliosaurus is described, the second for the genus from the Southern Hemisphere, collected from the upper Tithonian (Jurassic) levels of the Vaca Muerta Formation, Neuquén Province. Pliosaurus almanzai n. sp. is characterized by two autapomophies: angular participating in the mandibular symphysis and occipital condyle without a notochordal pit or several, irregularly-arranged grooves. Additionally P. almanzai can be differentiated from other Pliosaurus species by the following characters: trihedral teeth; nine or more symphyseal alveoli; 15-17 post symphyseal alveoli; and parasphenoid without ventral keel. Pliosaurus almanzai n. sp. shows that Pliosaurus species with nine or more 9 symphyseal alveoli persisted until the late Tithonian, contrary to previous assumptions that only species with six symphyseal ...
Definition of mandibular movement. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Nasutitermitinae es una subfamilia de termitas, que contiene los siguientes géneros:[1]​ Engel, M.S. (2011). «Family-group names for termites (Isoptera), redux». ZooKeys 148: 171-184. doi:10.3897/zookeys.148.1682. Constantino, R.; Acioli, A.N.S. 2009: Ngauratermes arue, new genus and species of nasute termite (Isoptera: Termitidae) from the Amazon. Zootaxa, 2239: 22-30. Abstract & excerpt Hare, L. 1937: Termite phylogeny as evidenced by soldier mandible development. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 37(3): 459-486. Wikimedia Commons alberga contenido multimedia sobre Nasutitermitinae. Commons Wikispecies tiene un artículo sobre Nasutitermitinae. Wikispecies en TolWeb Termite Catalog (en inglés ...
In this piece of research, nine New Zealand Rabbits of one year of age weighted 3.5 kg were subjected to experimental study by distraction technique for elongation of the mandible. Distraction was achieved by using bilateral distract or designed for hand bone lengthening apparatus and adjusted by Trans fixation. Kirschinar wire of 1.5mm passed through mandibular body, rhythmic distraction of both corticomized fragments at a rate of 1 mm/day at a rhythmed of 0.5 mm twice daily preceded by latent period for 7 days and distraction period for 10 days, postoperatively systemic antibiotic of pen strep (penicillin streptomycin, 1 ml/10 kg IM) prescribed for 6 days. The segments were hold by external fixator for 6 weeks till consolidation phase completed and mandibular lengthening achieved of about 10 mm ...
S. S. Raghavendra, B. D. Napte, N. N. Desai, A. N. Hindlekar Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2015 March-April; 18(2):168-71. ABSTRACT:The va...
Diagnosis Code S02.632D information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Dr. Howell responded: Not effective. An extraction site should heal normally without any special assistance. Certain medical conditions such as |a href="/topics/diabetes" track_data="{
PubMed journal article Mandibulotomy Approach for Resection of Maxillary Tumours: A Clinical Revie were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
The aim of our study was to define norms for vestibulo-oral inclination of teeth for an untreated Caucasian population, to investigate gender differences and to discuss possible implications of the findings for orthodontic treatment.. The results of our study referring the tooth axes were consistent with those of another CBCT study using similar methodology [13]; although neither crown axes nor gender differences were investigated by that group. The only difference were the lower second bicuspids, which showed vestibular inclination. Our study investigated only Caucasian patients whereas the sample assessed by Tong et al. [13] was comprised of 6 ethnicities: Hispanic, Black, White, Asian and Middle Eastern; Caucasian white patients constituted their smallest group and the differences between the ethnicities were not investigated.. In our study two comparisons between genders referring to tooth axes reached the level of statistical significance; these differences were likely to be spurious ...
A lower first molar replaced by a single dental implant restores natural chewing function without grinding down the adjacent teeth for crowns.
Partial mandibulectomy is a procedure that involves the partial removal of the lower jaw. This procedure is most often used to treat oral cancers affecting the mandible. - Wag!
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Characteristics of the Occlusal Surfaces of Lower Molars in a Sample of the Croatian Population. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Detailed information on immature stages of Mutillidae is being acquired. However, Clausen (1940) noted that very little information was available regarding the form or habits of immature stages of this family. The egg of Mutilla sp (Williams 1919b) has been described as elongated and curved, with the chorion minutely granulated. It is placed transversely upon the dorsum of a Tiphia larva, between the 1st and 2nd thoracic segments. The point of larval feeding is ventral. Ferton stated that the egg of Stenomutilla argentata var. saundersivora Fer. is attached to the inner wall of the host cocoon. The early larval instars by 1940 had not been described for any species. The mature larva of M. glossinae has 11 pairs of spiracles, located on the 2nd and 3rd thoracic and the first 9 abdominal segments. The mandibles are 4-dentate, while those of M. lunata and M. attenuata are believed to be tridentate. The mature larvae of all species spin a cocoon within the cell, cocoon, or puparium of the host, ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Patient came to correct her smile. She presented with crowding and her teeth were overlapping.. After consultation, we planed to have two of her right first premolars and two of her left second premolars removed. We choose to extract left second premolars due to badly carious and rotated.. ...
Question - Have painful lump on upper and lower jaw. Periodontal cleaning done. Easy way to get cure?. Ask a Doctor about when and why X ray is advised, Ask a Dentist
The University of Hasselt announced today that Belgian and Dutch scientists have successfully replaced a lower jaw with a 3D printed model for a 83 year-old woman. According to the researchers, It is the first custom-made implant in the world to replace an entire lower jaw.. The lower jaw of the elderly woman was badly infected and needed to be removed. Considering the age of the patient, a "classical" microsurgical reconstructive surgery takes too long time and can be risky. Therefore a tailor-made implant is the best choice.. The artificial jaw is slightly heavier than a natural jaw, but the patient can easily get used to it ...
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare vertical and horizontal mandibular alveolar bone resorption by measuring bone morphological variation in Kennedy Class II removable partial denture (RPD) wearers and non-wearers using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).. Materials and Methods: In total, 124 sites in the CBCT scans of 62 (29 RPD non-wearers, 33 RPD wearers) Kennedy Class II patients were analyzed retrospectively. Three-dimensional representations of the mandible with superimposed cross-sectional slices were developed with the CBCT scans to evaluate the mandibular alveolar height and width by measuring distances between the mandibular canal, mylohyoid ridge, alveolar crest, and lower border of the mandible in four regions (eight sites) of Kennedy Class II non-wearers and wearers of RPDs.. Results: Mandibular alveolar bone height and width were significantly lower in edentulous sites when compared with dentate sites in both Kennedy Class II non-wearers and wearers of RPDs (p , 0.05). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of sagittal split ramus osteotomy rigid internal fixation techniques using a finite element method. AU - Albougha, S.. AU - Darwich, K.. AU - Darwich, M. A.. AU - Albogha, M. H.. PY - 2015/7/1. Y1 - 2015/7/1. N2 - In this study, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to evaluate nine rigid internal fixation techniques for sagittal split ramus osteotomy. To achieve this, a computed tomography (CT) scan of a healthy patient was obtained and used to generate the geometry of a half-mandible. The geometries of bicortical screws, miniplates, and monocortical screws were designed and combined with the mandible in nine models simulating various techniques. Four models used bicortical screws in various arrangements and four used miniplates of various designs. One model represented a hybrid technique. A load of 500 N was applied to the posterior teeth and FEA was applied. The most stable techniques were the hybrid technique and a single straight miniplate, presenting the least ...
Abstract The aim was to investigate how impacted third molar surgery, as psychophysical and operative trauma; influence the response of blood fibrinolytic system. Examined group included 50 healthy subjects with impacted third molars and 45 subjects, blood donors, as a control group. Influence of the operative interventions over parameters of blood fibrinolytic system (t-Pa and PAI-1) were examined prior the procedures and immediately after. Values of blood pressure and pulse were notified to evident physical reflections of the stress. Clinical outcome after first, second and seventh day included changes like edema, hematoma, pain and dry socket. Impacted third molar surgery, as a stress factor, had influence and affects the fibrinolysis through the effect upon the pro-activators and inhibitors of the fibrinolytic system, and the severity of the clinical outcome after operative third molar surgery. Parameters of fibrinolytic system - t-PA and PAI-1 can be the most sensitive markers of reaction ...
OBJECTIVES Temporomandibular disorders may be associated with dental and facial malformations. The aim of this study is to record the prevalence of TMDs in patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery, reporting the development of TMDs and symptoms during the entire period of the treatment, and demonstrating the benefits of a team effort on this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS Assessment of temporomandibular status was performed using the RDC/TMD criteria at T0 (prior to orthodontic therapy), T1 (3 months after the surgery), and T2 post-therapeutic cycle (6 to 12 months postoperatively). A total of 76 participants were included in the study; all the patients underwent surgical treatment: 12 had bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, 6 with condylar position devices; 64 had Le Fort I + bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, and 15 with condylar position devices. Results were evaluated with a paired-sample t-test and segmentation analysis. RESULTS Forty-seven patients were affected by TMDs. At T0, 25
This study compared the surgical outcomes (pain, number of analgesics taken, swelling, trismus) after extraction of mandibular third molars using PRF and piezosurgery combined with PRF compared to standard rotating handpiece.. In the present study, the combined use of piezosurgery and PRF significantly decreased the number of analgesics taken. However, when PRF was not combined with piezosurgery, there were no statistically differences in the number of analgesics taken compared to groups that used traditional handpieces (the mean values: 9.4, 5.6, 4.3, 9.5, from group 1-4, respectively). In general, piezosurgery decreased the number of analgesics taken, which was in accordance with Barone et al. [8] and Goyal et al. [27]. In addition, the mean value of total VAS scores were so close in groups 2 and 3 (25.00, 24.45, respectively). According to this results, in impacted third molar surgery, the combined use of PRF and piezosurgery reduced pain more than the use of PRF after traditional ...
Orthognathic surgery refers to the surgical correction needed to fix substantial abnormalities of the maxilla (upper jaw), the mandible (lower jaw), or both. The abnormality may be a birth defect, a growth defect, or the result of traumatic injuries to the jaw area.. Orthognathic surgery is generally performed by an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon to correct malocclusion (bad bite) in cases where routine orthodontic treatment has not or will not be effective. Orthognathic surgeries include the reconstruction of the mandible or maxilla, mandibular ramus, maxilla osteotomy, and mandibular osteotomy.. There are several classifications of malocclusion (the improper coming together of teeth) which may require orthognathic surgery:. Class I Occlusion -This malocclusion means that the lower anterior incisors sit directly behind the upper anterior incisors when the patient bites down. This is considered less destructive than Class II and Class III malocclusions.. Class II Malocclusion - This is ...

Quantitative computed tomography of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) mandibles : mechanical implications for rorqual...Quantitative computed tomography of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) mandibles : mechanical implications for rorqual...

Rorqual; Mandible; Lunge-feeding; Quantitative computed tomography; Flexural rigidity Abstract. Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae ... When these mandibles are lowered during lunge-feeding, they are exposed to high drag and therefore may be subject to ... This feeding process is enabled by extremely large skulls and mandibles that increase mouth area, thereby facilitating the flux ... We hypothesized that these mandibles exhibited a mechanical design (shape and density distribution) that enables these bones to ...
more infohttps://darchive.mblwhoilibrary.org/handle/1912/3885

Bone regeneration and docking site healing after bone transport distraction osteogenesis in the canine mandible<...Bone regeneration and docking site healing after bone transport distraction osteogenesis in the canine mandible<...

In each animal, a 34-mm segmental defect was created in the mandible. The defect was reconstructed with a bone transport ... In each animal, a 34-mm segmental defect was created in the mandible. The defect was reconstructed with a bone transport ... In each animal, a 34-mm segmental defect was created in the mandible. The defect was reconstructed with a bone transport ... In each animal, a 34-mm segmental defect was created in the mandible. The defect was reconstructed with a bone transport ...
more infohttps://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/bone-regeneration-and-docking-site-healing-after-bone-transport-d

Desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible - review of the literature and presentation of a rare case | Head & Face Medicine | Full...Desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible - review of the literature and presentation of a rare case | Head & Face Medicine | Full...

A case in the mandible. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1977, 43: 108-111. 10.1016/0030-4220(77)90358-9.View ArticlePubMed ... Christiansen RL: Desmoplastic fibroma of the ramus and body of the mandible. Cranio. 1990, 8: 271-275.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ... Taguchi N, Kaneda T: Desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible: report of case. J Oral Surg. 1980, 38: 441-444.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Badger GA, Syed AA, Malby FC: Desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible. Can J Otolaryngol. 1974, 3: 605-610.PubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
more infohttps://head-face-med.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-160X-5-25

Cementoma of the calcaneus: a case report | BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Full TextCementoma of the calcaneus: a case report | BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Full Text

The cementoma is a common disease of the dental root apex, which generally occurs in the maxilla and the mandible, but the ... generally occurs in the maxilla and the mandible [4]. Cementoma occurring in the long bone is the rare bone lesion [1, 8]. ...
more infohttps://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12891-017-1460-1

Gorhams DiseaseGorham's Disease

Gorhams disease of mandible--a rare case presentation in pediatric patient. Author(s): Santanu Mukhopadhyay, Abira ...
more infohttp://diseaseinfosearch.org/Vanishing+Bone+Disease/3159

Orbital Plate Of Frontal Bone - AnatomyOrbital Plate Of Frontal Bone - Anatomy

Orbital Plate Of Frontal Bone Facial Bone Anatomy Overview Mandible Maxilla Orbital Plate Of Frontal Bone Human Anatomy Lab 22 ... Orbital Plate Of Frontal Bone Facial Bone Anatomy Overview Mandible Maxilla, Orbital Plate Of Frontal Bone Human Anatomy Lab 22 ... Orbital Plate Of Frontal Bone Facial Bone Anatomy Overview Mandible Maxilla, ...
more infohttp://www.flspinalcord.us/orbital-plate-of-frontal-bone/

Nonaggressive Central Giant Cell Granuloma: A Case Report. | AbstractNonaggressive Central Giant Cell Granuloma: A Case Report. | Abstract

The reported case is non-aggressive central giant cell granuloma of posterior mandible. The affected patient was a 25 year old ...
more infohttp://www.rroij.com/peer-reviewed/nonaggressive-central-giant-cell-granuloma-a-case-report-34571.html

Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell...Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell...

CEOT is usually encountered in the posterior mandible, and is most common in patients between 30 and 50 years of age, with no ... CCOT usually presents as a painless, slow-growing mass involving both maxilla and mandible, primarily in the anterior area ( ... Aggressive epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumor in the mandible: CT and MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22 ... Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma arising in the background of a benign calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor of the mandible. ...
more infohttp://jpatholtm.org/journal/view.php?number=3259

Mandible | Encyclopedia.comMandible | Encyclopedia.com

mandible XVI. - OF. mandible, later mandibule, or its source late L. mandibula, -ulum, f. mandere chew.. ... mandible 1. One of a pair of horny mouthparts in insects, crustaceans, centipedes, and millipedes. The mandibles lie in front ... mandible 1. In vertebrates, the lower jaw.. 2. In birds, specifically the lower jaw and bill but the term is also used to ... mandible (man-dib-ŭl) n. the lower jawbone. It consists of a horseshoe-shaped body, the upper surface of which bears the lower ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/zoology-and-veterinary-medicine/zoology-general/mandible

Mandible | anatomy | Britannica.comMandible | anatomy | Britannica.com

... the antennae can help the mandibles push food into the mouth. The mandibles of a nauplius have two branches with a chewing or ... In the adult the mandible loses one of the branches, sometimes retaining the other as… ... Other articles where Mandible is discussed: crustacean: Appendages: … ... the antennae can help the mandibles push food into the mouth. The mandibles of a nauplius have two branches with a chewing or ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/mandible

Prognathous MandiblePrognathous Mandible

Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Prognathous Mandible in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Prognathous Mandible. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Prognathous Mandible in minutes with SmartDraw. ... Prognathous Mandible. Lateral view of person with a prognathous mandible.. LifeART Collection Images Copyright © 1989-2001 by ...
more infohttps://www.smartdraw.com/orthodontics/examples/prognathous-mandible/

Medial MandibleMedial Mandible

Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Medial Mandible in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Medial Mandible. Medial view of the inside of the right half of the mandible.. LifeART Collection Images Copyright © 1989-2001 ... Medial Mandible. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Medial Mandible in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw ...
more infohttps://www.smartdraw.com/dentition/examples/medial-mandible/

mandibles - Wiktionarymandibles - Wiktionary

Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=mandibles&oldid=43040713" ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mandibles

Mandible Dislocation Differential DiagnosesMandible Dislocation Differential Diagnoses

Mandible dislocation is the displacement of the mandibular condyle from the articular groove in the temporal bone. Different ... encoded search term (Mandible Dislocation) and Mandible Dislocation What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Mandible Dislocation Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Apr 08, 2016 * Author: Meher Chaudhry, MD; Chief Editor: Trevor John ... The physician grasps the mandible at the apex of the mentum with both thumbs. The fingers are placed on the inferior molars. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/823775-differential

Mandible AnatomyMandible Anatomy

... , Mandible, Jaw Anatomy, Temporomandibular Joint Anatomy, Temporomandibular Joint, Masticatory Muscles, Muscles ... MANDIBLE, Jaw, Lower jaw bone, Bone structure of mandible, Bone structure of mandible (body structure), Mandible, NOS, Inferior ... Mandible Anatomy. Aka: Mandible Anatomy, Mandible, Jaw Anatomy, Temporomandibular Joint Anatomy, Temporomandibular Joint, ... Mandible, Mandibles, mandible, Mandibulla, Mandibular, mandibular, lower jaw bone, Lower Jaw, Mandibula, Bone, Mandibular, ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/legacy/Dental/Anatomy/MndblAntmy.htm

Mandible Wall Clocks | Society6Mandible Wall Clocks | Society6

Shop mandible wall clocks and always be on good times. Because you choose the art, frame and hand colors, created by thousands ...
more infohttps://society6.com/wall-clocks/mandible

Excavating Mandible [image] | EurekAlert! Science NewsExcavating Mandible [image] | EurekAlert! Science News

... mandible along the banks of the Amazon River. The lead author of the study, Rodolfo-Salas Gismondi, is on the right. ... Members of the international expedition team are collecting a Gryposuchus pachakamue mandible along the banks of the Amazon ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/113758.php?from=325476

Functional Reconstruction of the Mandible | SpringerLinkFunctional Reconstruction of the Mandible | SpringerLink

... a universal plate and sophisticated instrument set designed initially for the treatment of comminuted fractures of the mandible ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-71756-7

Phyllotine MandiblesPhyllotine Mandibles

Lateral Views of Phyllotine Mandibles. Scott J. Steppan Calomys laucha Eligmodontia morgani Graomys griseoflavus Irenomys ...
more infohttp://www.tolweb.org/accessory/Phyllotine_Mandibles?acc_id=561

Multilocular Unicystic Ameloblastoma of MandibleMultilocular Unicystic Ameloblastoma of Mandible

... of mandible which showed multilocular radiolucency on the left side of mandible on radiographic examination which is very ... Multilocular Unicystic Ameloblastoma of Mandible. Manas Bajpai,1 Deshant Agarwal,1 Anindya Bhalla,2 Malay Kumar,3 Rakesh Garg,4 ... N. Gupta, S. Saxena, V. C. Rathod, and P. Aggarwal, "Unicystic ameloblastoma of the mandible," Journal of Oral and ... A 42-year-old male patient presented with the chief complains of swelling on the left side of the mandible since 1 month. On ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2013/835892/

Mandible Anatomy, Definition & Function | Body MapsMandible Anatomy, Definition & Function | Body Maps

The mandible, or lower jaw, is the bone that forms the lower part of the skull, and along with the maxilla (upper jaw), forms ... The mandible, or lower jaw, is the bone that forms the lower part of the skull, and along with the maxilla (upper jaw), forms ... which causes painful swelling where the mandible meets the cheekbone. ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/mandible

Mandible Anatomy, Definition & Function | Body MapsMandible Anatomy, Definition & Function | Body Maps

The mandible, or lower jaw, is the bone that forms the lower part of the skull, and along with the maxilla (upper jaw), forms ... The mandible, or lower jaw, is the bone that forms the lower part of the skull, and along with the maxilla (upper jaw), forms ... which causes painful swelling where the mandible meets the cheekbone. ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/mandible/male

Mandible Dislocation Medication: Analgesics, Anxiolytics, AnestheticsMandible Dislocation Medication: Analgesics, Anxiolytics, Anesthetics

Mandible dislocation is the displacement of the mandibular condyle from the articular groove in the temporal bone. Different ... encoded search term (Mandible Dislocation) and Mandible Dislocation What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Mandible Dislocation Medication. Updated: Apr 08, 2016 * Author: Meher Chaudhry, MD; Chief Editor: Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH ... The physician grasps the mandible at the apex of the mentum with both thumbs. The fingers are placed on the inferior molars. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/823775-medication

Hey Mandible - 3hiveHey Mandible - 3hive

Hey Mandible. "Ahhhh… the 90s." Thats the first thought that came into my mind during my first listen of Florida 3-piece Hey ... Classifications be damned! If you dig loud, distorted, in your face music-Hey Mandible is the band for you. Fort Lowell hooked ... Mandibles new album The Arse. The heavy bass lines and swirling, distorted guitars take me back to my late teens and early ...
more infohttps://3hive.com/2015/02/17/hey-mandible/
  • QCT data indicated highest bone density and crosssectional area, and therefore high resistance to bending and deflection, from the coronoid process to the middle of the dentary, which then decreased towards the anterior end of the mandible. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • When these mandibles are lowered during lunge-feeding, they are exposed to high drag and therefore may be subject to significant bending forces. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Mandible fractures. (medscape.com)
  • The same principles were applied in 1972173 by Roland Schmoker, who developed a universal plate and sophisticated instrument set designed initially for the treatment of comminuted fractures of the mandible. (springer.com)
  • The mandibular foramina, a pair of holes for nerves and blood vessels to enter the mandible and support the teeth, perforate the rami on their medial surface just below the coronoid process. (innerbody.com)
  • As the body of the mandible extends anteriorly from the rami on both sides, it forms an arch with the chin at its peak. (innerbody.com)
  • Mass foraging predators (e.g. army ants, described below) use their mandibles to pin down prey from all sides while their nestmates dispatch it. (tolweb.org)
  • In dorsal and cranial direction, you can see the mylohyoid line of the mandible ascending on both sides, imitating the course of the Linea obliqua on the external side. (doccheck.com)
  • pair of chewing jaws (mandibles), a pair of complex first maxillae, and a pair of similar second maxillae joined together behind the mouth to form a structure called the labium. (britannica.com)
  • Mandibles ('jaws') are a crucial tool for many insects, but perhaps in no insect group are they more highly utilized than in the ants (Formicidae). (tolweb.org)
  • From the necks, the mandible widens considerably as it descends obliquely in the inferior and anterior directions to form the rami of the mandible. (innerbody.com)
  • At its inferior end, the rami turn almost ninety degrees anteriorly to form the body of the mandible. (innerbody.com)
  • The platysma muscles, which depress the jaw, form insertions along the inferior edges of the body of the mandible. (innerbody.com)
  • Several other muscles form their origins on the mandible, such as the buccinators muscles, which arise inferior to the alveoli, and the mentalis muscles, which arise from the mental protuberance. (innerbody.com)
  • On the inside, the mandible presents about its center the oblique mandibular foramen, for the entrance of the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report a rare case of unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) of mandible which showed multilocular radiolucency on the left side of mandible on radiographic examination which is very unusual, and the majority of the cases of UAs till date has been reported of unilocular radiolucency. (hindawi.com)
  • The mental foramina provide space for the mental nerves to pass through the mandible and innervate the tissues of the lower lip and chin. (innerbody.com)
  • The basic mouthparts of insects include (from anterior to posterior) the labrum (upper lip), paired mandibles, paired maxillae, and the labium (lower lip) (Chapman, 1998). (tolweb.org)
  • The shape of the condyles of the mandible allows it to elevate as well as depress in order to open and close the mouth. (innerbody.com)
  • Keeping hydration close, the Mandible stays mounted to your steed adding a mere 28 grams a piece. (jensonusa.com)
  • The mandible plays a vital role in many common tasks, including chewing, speech, and facial expression. (innerbody.com)
  • Several facial expressions are produced by the movement of the mandible or by the tension of muscles on the mandible. (innerbody.com)
  • Like most insects, ants lack grasping forelegs (such as those found in the Mantodea and Mantispidae) and compensate for this by using their mandibles as 'hands. (tolweb.org)
  • Like other social insects, ants construct often elaborate nests, using their mandibles to dig into dirt or wood, and then again to carry the debris away. (tolweb.org)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Prognathous Mandible in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • Mandibles can be wielded as formidable weapons in their own right, or as tools with which to grasp prey until a paralyzing sting can be delivered (a common strategy in the Ponerinae , most of which are solitary predators). (tolweb.org)
  • Both the condyle and coronoid tip being the most common sites of occurrence in the mandible, it rarely appears at the symphysis region. (hindawi.com)
  • The remaining sections (not yet developed) will describe further variations on the basic pattern, including mandibles specialized for prey capture, mandibular variation within a colony (allometric growth and caste systems, for example in the army ants), and mandibles specialized for warfare. (tolweb.org)
  • Ants use their mandibles for a diverse array of activities, and are thus constrained by the need to have mandibles which can fulfill a number of functions. (tolweb.org)
  • Arundel designed the Mandible with carbon fiber that functions well in extreme situations. (jensonusa.com)
  • mandible In Crustacea , Insecta , and Myriapoda (centipedes, millipedes, etc.), one of the pair of mouth-parts most commonly used for seizing and cutting food. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ants use their mandibles to manipulate all sorts of objects, such as food particles of varying sizes (from very small to many times larger and heavier than the ant itself) and even liquids (e.g. water or honeydew suspended as a drop between the mandibles). (tolweb.org)
  • Another fascinating use of mandibles in some ants is social carrying, in which one worker will physically carry another worker in its mandibles to aid in recruitment to a food source or new nest site. (tolweb.org)
  • In addition to being used to transport food items, mandibles are also used to process the food. (tolweb.org)
  • They also use their mandibles to tear, puncture, or grind their food. (tolweb.org)
  • Speech is produced by the mandible as it opens and closes the mouth to regulate the flow of air. (innerbody.com)
  • Lateral view of person with a prognathous mandible. (smartdraw.com)
  • Medial view of the inside of the right half of the mandible. (smartdraw.com)
  • Perhaps more important generally is the role of mandibles in defense against smaller predators and competitors, such as other ants. (tolweb.org)
  • Mandible s became functionless or were lost entirely relatively early in fly evolution and therefore bloodsucking families that evolved later had to develop other piercing methods. (britannica.com)