Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Skin DiseasesSkin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Skin UlcerEpidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Skin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Skin Cream: A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Skin Physiological Processes: Biological activities and functions of the SKIN.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.ShrewsInsectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.ArtiodactylaModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Echidna: An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.MonotremataHair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred C57BLMacropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Rats, Hairless: Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.PrimatesArvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Mole Rats: Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Water Loss, Insensible: Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Sunburn: An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.Skin Manifestations: Dermatologic disorders attendant upon non-dermatologic disease or injury.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Emollients: Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Bottle-Nosed Dolphin: The species Tursiops truncatus, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by a bottle-shaped beak and slightly hooked broad dorsal fin.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.LizardsCell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Dermatology: A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Sea Lions: A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Dermatitis, Irritant: A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Monodelphis: A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Pigmentation DisordersDrosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Didelphis: A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Mice, Inbred BALB CKeratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Moles: Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Hyperpigmentation: Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Keratosis, Actinic: White or pink lesions on the arms, hands, face, or scalp that arise from sun-induced DNA DAMAGE to KERATINOCYTES in exposed areas. They are considered precursor lesions to superficial SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Phoca: A genus in the family of EARLESS SEALS (Phocidae) and collectively the most abundant PINNIPEDS in the Northern Hemisphere.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Skin Diseases, Papulosquamous: A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Physiology, Comparative: The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Forehead: The part of the face above the eyes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
... is a sterol that has been found in the skins of rats. It can be converted to cholesterol in mammals. Delta-7- ... Idler, D.R.; Baumann, C.A. (April 1, 1952). "Skin Sterols: Isolation of delta-cholestenol". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
It can bioaccumulate in plants and in mammals. Blei(II)-oxid. Merck "Lead compounds (as Pb)". Immediately Dangerous to Life and ... It causes irritation to skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. It affects gum tissue, central nervous system, kidneys, blood, and ...
Sebum lubricates the skin and hair of mammals.[8] Sebaceous secretions in conjunction with apocrine glands also play an ... Sebaceous glands are involved in skin problems such as acne and keratosis pilaris. In the skin pores, sebum and keratin can ... "Thematic Review Series: Skin Lipids. Antimicrobial lipids at the skin surface". 10 May 2011.. ... which lubricates the hair and skin of mammals.[1] In humans, sebaceous glands occur in the greatest number on the face and ...
1952 - British mammals. (New Naturalist 21). Collins: London. 1952 - Sea Elephant: The Life and Death of the Elephant Seal. ... 1956 - The sexual skin of the Gelada Baboon (Theropithecus gelada). Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 1962 - ... ISBN 0-7206-0524-5 1982 - Mammals in the British Isles. (New Naturalist 68). Collins: London. ISBN 0-00-219738-3 Harrison, ... 1969-1971 - The Life of Mammals. (2 vols). Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London. 1973 - Charles Waterton: Wanderings in South America ...
In mammals. the skin excretes sweat through sweat glands throughout the body. The sweat, helped by salt, evaporates and helps ... Eccrine glands in the skin are unique to mammals.[citation needed] Secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands play a large ... as they can usually expel ammonia directly by diffusion through the skin. Sweat glands in the skin secrete a fluid waste called ... The moist, scale-less skin is therefore essential in helping to rid the blood of carbon dioxide, and also allows for urea to be ...
... and the skin pigment melanin. Phenylalanine is found naturally in the breast milk of mammals. It is used in the manufacture of ...
Aranda, J. M. (1991). Wild mammal skin trade in Chiapas, Mexico. Pp. 174-177 in J. G. Robinson and K. H. Redford (eds.) ... North American Mammals: Leopardus wiedii Smithsonian Wild: Margay (Leopardus wiedii) Ecology of the Ocelot and Margay. ... This cat hunts small mammals, including monkeys, and birds, eggs, lizards and tree frogs. It also eats grass, fruit and other ... ISBN 0-226-77999-8. Kays, R.W.; Wilson, D. E. (2002). Mammals of North America. Illustrated by Sandra Doyle, Nancy Halliday, ...
This kite-shaped skin is known as a patagium, which is expanded for gliding. It can glide over a distance of 100 m with a loss ... Byrnes G.; Norman T.-L. Lim; Andrew J. Spence (2008). "Take-off and landing kinetics of a free-ranging gliding mammal, the ... After a 60-day gestation period, a single offspring is carried on the mother's abdomen held by a large skin membrane. It is a ... Francis, C.M. (2008). A field guide to the mammals of south-east Asia. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd., London. Ketol B.; ...
... s have large, protective keratin scales covering their skin; they are the only known mammals with this feature. They ... "Taxonomic lists- Mammals". Paleofile.com. Retrieved 23 May 2018.. *^ "Palaeanodonta". fossilworks.org. Paleobiology Database. ... Pangolins or scaly anteaters[1] are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale"). The one extant ... The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 780-781. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.. ...
The functional role of the SCCs located in internal organs of mammals is unknown also if several hypotheses have been advanced ... SCCs are also present in the skin. In oral cavity, SCCs precedes the development of taste buds. For long time, SCCs were ... Tizzano M, Merigo F, Sbarbati A. Evidence of solitary chemosensory cells in a large mammal: the diffuse chemosensory system in ... Sbarbati A, Osculati F. Solitary chemosensory cells in mammals? Cell Tissue Organs 2003; 175:51-55. Finger TE, Bottger B, ...
After giving birth, the color returns to normal as soon as it next sheds its skin. Neonates are a bright red that may warn ... It will also leave the trees to actively hunt for small mammals on the ground. Ovoviviparous, females give birth to up to 12 ... Arboreal and generally nocturnal, S. madagascariensis feeds on mammals and birds. Its thermoreceptive pits help it to locate ... When females become gravid, their skin color darkens. This adaptation provides increased heat absorption for the developing ...
Both genera spend their larval stages in the skin of mammals. The genus Cuterebra, or rodent bots, attack rodents and similar ...
They live as parasites on the skin of birds and mammals. They thrive in warm, damp areas of the skin (several species are ...
The most obvious difference between the brains of mammals and other vertebrates is in terms of size. On average, a mammal has a ... "Tanning Deer Hides and Small Fur Skins" (PDF). The Official Site of the Tennessee Government. Retrieved 2013-12-07. The Brain ... In mammals, where it becomes so large as to dominate the brain, it takes over functions from many other brain areas. In many ... In mammals it is usually referred to as the superior colliculus, and its best-studied function is to direct eye movements. It ...
In addition to the glandular skin covered in fur found in most modern mammals, modern and extinct synapsids possess a variety ... "New proto-mammal fossil sheds light on evolution of earliest mammals". University of Chicago. August 7, 2013.. ... In forms transitional to mammals, the jaw joint is composed of a large, lower jaw bone (similar to the dentary found in mammals ... While the skin of reptiles is rather thin, that of mammals has a thick dermal layer.[13] ...
In varying degrees most mammals have some skin areas without natural hair. On the human body, glabrous skin is found on the ... The Naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) has evolved skin lacking in general, pelagic hair covering, yet has retained long, ... There are four main types of mechanoreceptors in the glabrous skin of humans: Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner's corpuscles, ...
Like most mammals, all dogs slough off dander, or flake dead skin. Since dander and many other allergens become trapped in hair ... For example, it is known to suffer from sebaceous adenitis, a hereditary skin disease that occurs primarily in Standard Poodles ...
Flea bites generally cause the skin to raise, swell, and itch. The bite site has a single puncture point in the center. Bites ... Plague, a disease that affects humans and other mammals, is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The human flea can be a ... This species bites many species of mammals and birds, including domesticated ones. It has been found on dogs and wild canids, ...
Among products being sold in the tent city of Mina, Saudi Arabia after the Haj of 2010, skins of Arabian leopards poached in ... Nader, I. A. (1989). "Rare and endangered mammals of Saudi Arabia" in: Abu-Zinada, A. H., Goriup, P. D., Nader, I. A. (Eds.) ... Captive breeding was initiated in 1995 in the Oman Mammal Breeding Centre and is operated at a regional level on the Arabian ... Anonymous (2010). "Wildlife skins for sale after Haj - Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Wildlife Times. 27: 13-14. Rushby, K. (2011). ...
Both adults and larvae eat feathers, fur, and skin. Some species are found in bird and mammal nests. Details of the life ... The common name "skin beetle" is sometimes used in reference to these beetles, but more often refers to species of the ... After the burned skin is eaten away by the trogids, the corpse (with now-exposed, "fresher" surfaces) allows for viable ... and mammals' nests and feathers, as well as aging bones. Little is known about the lifecycle of the Trogidae specifically. ...
Examples of physiological regeneration in mammals include epithelial renewal (e.g., skin and intestinal tract), red blood cell ... Some sharks can regenerate scales and even skin following damage.[107] Within two weeks of skin wounding the mucus is secreted ... A deer antler is the only appendage of a mammal that can be regrown every year.[72] While reparative regeneration is a rare ... These species can regrow hair follicles, skin, sweat glands, fur and cartilage.[74] In addition to these two species, ...
It is an alkaloid found in the skin of some species of toads; in mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals. The name bufotenin ... Bufotenin was first isolated from toad skin, and named by the Austrian chemist Handovsky at the University of Prague during ... Bufotenin is also present in the skin secretion of three arboreal amphibian species of the Osteocephalus genus (Osteocephalus ... by smoking or orally ingesting Bufo toad venom or dried Bufo skins. The use of chan'su and love stone (a related toad venom ...
They are blind, subterranean small mammals with small ears, tails and eyes that are all covered by skin and fur. They have ... Their skin is thick and tough, especially on the head, containing a wedge-shaped muzzle with a leathery nosepad protecting its ... Similarities to fossorial mammals resulted from ecological convergence, not ancestry. The eyes are vestigial and that is why ... They have tabulars in the occipital which is not found in other mammals. Their zygomatic arches form elongations of the ...
They have no visible eyes or ears; in fact, they are blind - the small eyes are covered with hairy skin. The ears are small and ... Golden moles are an ancient group of mammals who live mostly below ground. They have shiny coats of dense fur and a streamlined ... ISBN 978-1-4081-8996-2. Bronner, G.N.; Jenkins, P.D. (2005). "Order Afrosoricida". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species ... Jonathan Kingdon; David Happold; Thomas Butynski; Michael Hoffmann; Meredith Happold; Jan Kalina (2013). Mammals of Africa. A&C ...
It carries the risk of skin sensitization. Oral LD50 is 2900 mg/kg for male rats and 2000 mg/kg for female rats. In one study ... Propamocarb has low general toxicity, and almost no teratogenicity or neurotoxicity for mammals. It is not a carcinogen nor ...
Urocanic acid, a component of skin secretions in mammals, is a major chemoattractant. Larvae of S. stercoralis are strongly ... The filariform larvae penetrate the human host skin to initiate the parasitic cycle. The infectious larvae penetrate the skin ... a histidine metabolite on the uppermost layer of skin that is removed by sweat or the daily skin-shedding cycle. Urocanic acid ... Also, a unique effect of autoinfective larvae is larva currens due to the rapid migration of the larvae through the skin. Larva ...
Toads' warty skin is an adaptation for making their toxic slime. Apart from these glands, their skin is dry, and that is an ... In drier conditions, they were less effective, and the ancestors of mammals and reptiles (the Synapsids and Sauropsids) ... Salamanders also secrete poison from glands in their skin, and some additionally have skin glands for secreting courtship ... California newt · Coastal Range newt · Eastern newt · Black-spotted newt · Striped newt · Red-bellied Newt · Rough-skinned newt ...
It may remain as a literal "apron of skin" if a severely obese person quickly loses large amounts of fat (a common result of ... Brown fat or brown adipose tissue is a specialized form of adipose tissue in humans and other mammals. It is located mainly ... Most of the remaining nonvisceral fat is found just below the skin in a region called the hypodermis. This subcutaneous fat is ... In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow ...
They are the only mammals besides humans that contract leprosy, a skin disease. Research on armadillos helps to develop ... Other Free Encyclopedias » Animal Life Resource » Mammals » Anteaters Sloths and Armadillos: Xenarthra - Physical ... and they all have skeletons that are different from other mammals. Xenarthra is a combination of Greek words meaning strange ...
The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to ... In this study we present the first molecular data for M. tropicalis, derived from museum skins. Phylogenetic analysis of ...
Like all mammals, elephant seals must replace old skin and hair. They do this once per year, in late spring for juveniles and ... Having twice the blood volume, 50% more red blood cells than land mammals their size, and a healthy supply of myoglobin (which ... Since elephant seals essentially cut off circulation to their outer skin layers during their deep dives at sea, they must ...
The monk seals common name is derived from its folds of skin that look like a monks hood, and because it spends most of its ... The species has declined at approximately 11% per year since 1989 and is the most endangered U.S. marine mammal. Factors which ...
All about steller sea lions from the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium. ... The North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium. In 1993 the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research ... slick fur that lies flat against the skin when wet. Stellers molt for about 4 weeks in the late summer, or early fall.. ... Steller sea lions are mammals, so they need to come to the surface to breathe air. They spend a portion of their time on the ...
... like plates that pierce through the skin to maintain a hold as skin around the barnacle periodically sloughs away. Owing to ... marine mammal monograph. The worlds best known marine mammal fossil assemblage - the Pungo River Limestone and Yorktown ... Similar biases affect the fossil record of marine mammals - marine mammals are geologically young (Ischyrorhynchus vanbenedeni ... Marine mammals are today linked to cold water temperatures and high primary productivity - making good marine mammal watching ( ...
STUDIES ON THE CONSERVATION OF EPIDERMAL SPECIFICITIES OF SKIN AND CERTAIN MUCOSAS IN ADULT MAMMALS. R. E. Billingham, Willys K ... STUDIES ON THE CONSERVATION OF EPIDERMAL SPECIFICITIES OF SKIN AND CERTAIN MUCOSAS IN ADULT MAMMALS ... Taken together, these results suggest that basal layer cells of the superficial epidermis of sole of foot skin, ear skin, and ... The one exception to this occurred when tongue or esophagus epithelia were transplanted to split thickness beds in trunk skin. ...
The adjective cutaneous means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis, skin). In mammals, the skin is an organ of the integumentary ... Skin of a different nature exists in amphibians, reptiles, and birds.[1] All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine ... The density of skin flora depends on region of the skin. The disinfected skin surface gets recolonized from bacteria residing ... For skin in humans, see human skin. For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ...
Xylene clearing of skin. One male 2 year old opossum was used to get a clear picture of the pad layout, by clearing with xylene ... similar to those found in nearly all extant mammal species (Pocock, 1914; Ahl, 1986). Many terrestrial mammals that have well- ... Compared with other mammals in which whisking has been recorded (see Mitchinson et al., 2011), the opossum has relatively few ... Many orders of mammals have genal whiskers, including marsupials (e.g. the grey short-tailed and Virginia opossums and the ...
What are some home remedies for removing skin moles?. * Q: What does it mean when a hamster squeaks?. ... Are squirrels mammals?. * Q: How do you trap a live chipmunk?. * Q: What are some red squirrel facts?. ...
Animalia N. 1 ~ Surface Skin / $42 Carnovsky. Buy Now Animalia N. 2 ~ Surface Skin / $42 Carnovsky. Buy Now Damasco N. 2 ~ ... Rosone N. 4 ~ Insects and Mammals. $89.00 Difficulty: Dimensions: 46" x 46" Pieces: 1 ... The Rosone designs are a mash-up of flowers, plants, twisting reptiles and dancing mammals. Each is entwined and mixed-up to ...
Now scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne have been able to grow mouse skin stem cells in a ... To develop new treatments for skin cancer, drugs need to be tested on animals. ... From fish- to mammal heart May 24, 2018 Developmental Biology Evolutionary Biology ... These stem cells can mature into all the different cell types in the skin epidermis. If they are out of control skin cancer can ...
Child Receives Transgenic Skin Over Most of His Body. By Ruth Williams , November 8, 2017 ... A combination gene-and-cell therapy has given a boy with a grievous skin disease a new lease on life, and has resolved a ... Prions Found in Skin of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Patients. By Jef Akst , November 24, 2017 ... The new test could improve upon two current methods to diagnose tuberculosis-a skin test or culturing bacteria from saliva, ...
... researchers characterized the skin microbiome of a population of free-ranging snakes to begin to understand how the ... Based on their analysis of 144 skin swabs collected from 44 snakes in 2015 and 52 snakes in 2016, all near Carlyle Lake, Ill., ... In the first study of its kind, researchers characterized the skin microbiome of a population of free-ranging snakes to begin ... Home Life & Non-humans Snake fungal disease alters skin microbiome in eastern Massasaugas ...
Mammal. [Steve Parker; Jane Burton] -- Photographs and text examine the world of mammals, depicting their development, feeding ... Mammal groups --. Mammal skeletons --. Skin and hair --. Inside mammals --. Rain forest mammals --. Woodland mammals --. ... Mammal groups -- Mammal skeletons -- Skin and hair -- Inside mammals -- Rain forest mammals -- Woodland mammals -- Grassland ... Grassland mammals --. Desert dwellers --. Polar and mountain mammals --. Marine mammals --. Freshwater mammals --. Bats and ...
Mammals diversified 30 million years later than previously estimated, according to a new analysis of an ancient fossil. ... The immune system tolerates the colonization of commensal bacteria on the skin with the aid of regulatory T cells during the ...
Diagnostic or Distinguishable Characteristics of Mammals: Soft Tissues Skin glands: Mammalian skin contains several kinds of ... pieces breaking off with groups of mammals - different conditions evolved different mammals - geographic isolation Mammals ... Infraclass Metatheria - all marsupial mammals Infraclass Eutheria - all placental mammals NONEUTHERIAN MAMMALS: MONOTREMES AND ... Second largest order of mammals with ~170 genera and 850 species Characterized as the only mammal to have evolved true flight ...
In accordance with the regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) as amended, notification is hereby ... wrinkled skin; and awkward or jerky movements on land. SCWA will coordinate with the Seal Watch monitoring program to determine ... Description of Marine Mammals in the Area of the Specified Activity. The marine mammal species that may be harassed incidental ... has the potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild [Level A harassment]; or (ii) has the potential ...
Naturally Healthy Skin Add to cart. The Backyard Homestead: Guide To Raising Farm Animals ... placing us sixth among nations in mammal diversity. Currently 83 mammals are listed under the Endangered Species Act as either ... Among the rarest mammals not only in the United States, but North America as well, is the black-footed ferret. A distinct ... Some of the mammals on the list of endangered species are considered genetically distinct sub-species of more common animals ...
... mammals; mosquitoes; ticks Epithelium: skin; epithelium: kidney; epithelium: intestine; epithelium: testes Clathrin-mediated ... Humans and mammals serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a vector (ticks and mosquitoes).[3][4] ... Humans and other mammals serve as natural hosts. They are primarily spread through arthropod vectors (mainly ticks and ... Humans and other mammals serve as natural hosts. They are primarily spread through arthropod vectors (mainly ticks and ...
One effective home remedy to treat skin mites on dogs is to use a mixture of 1 percent hydrogen peroxide solution, borax powder ... Barnyard Mammals * Q: What is a good home remedy to kill gnats?. A: Set out a mixture of dish soap and water in a shallow ... A mixture of chopped cloves of garlic and lemon skins can be used to kill skin mites and soothe the skin of dogs suffering from ... Bathing a dog that has skin mites in soapy water is an effective home remedy. The alkaline nature of the soap kills skin mites ...
Skin. VA received multiple responses during the 60-day comment period. This final rule implements the Secretarys proposed rule ... Taking of Marine Mammals 246 documents in the last year Parks & Recreation 793 documents in the last year ... 4.25 only if separate areas of skin are involved. If two or more skin conditions involve the same area of skin, then only the ... 4.25 only if separate areas of skin are involved. If two or more skin conditions involve the same area of skin, then only the ...
If a bite from your small mammal breaks the skin, you should:. *Wash the wound with warm soapy water immediately. Even healthy ... Be aware that small mammals may shed Salmonella and other germs in their stool or urine. Avoid skin contact with animal ... Owning a small mammal can be a big responsibility, even though the animal itself may be tiny. If you decide that a small mammal ... Pick a small mammal pet that is bright, alert, and active. Small mammal pets should have a glossy coat free of droppings. Do ...
This ingredient may be derived from animals. From PETAs Caring Consumer: Uric acid from cows, most mammals. Also in many ... Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily ... About the Skin Deep® ratings EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific ... This ingredient may be derived from animals. From PETAs Caring Consumer: Uric acid from cows, most mammals. Also in many ...
Sebum lubricates the skin and hair of mammals.[8] Sebaceous secretions in conjunction with apocrine glands also play an ... Sebaceous glands are involved in skin problems such as acne and keratosis pilaris. In the skin pores, sebum and keratin can ... "Thematic Review Series: Skin Lipids. Antimicrobial lipids at the skin surface". 10 May 2011.. ... which lubricates the hair and skin of mammals.[1] In humans, sebaceous glands occur in the greatest number on the face and ...
  • Volume 3 the circulatory system the skin and the cutaneous organs of the domestic mammals by august schummer helmut wilkens bernd voll merhaus and karl h habermehl translation by walter g siller and peter a l wight 1981 volume 4 the nervous system the endocrine glands and the sensory organs of the domestic mammals. (bloomington-chamber.org)
  • The anatomy of the domestic animals volume 3 the circulatory system the skin and the cutaneous organs of the domestic mammals by a schummer h wilkens b vollmerhaus k h habermehl 1981 it is difficult to find words which are adequate to praise sufficiently this the third of a series of five volumes on the anatomy of domestic animals. (bloomington-chamber.org)
  • Portions of the following discussion of the nasal anatomy of domestic mammals are excerpted from R. Nickel et al. (google.com)
  • This is an excellent text on the comparative visceral anatomy of domestic mammals. (google.com)
  • The nostrils in the apex of the nose are the entry to the respiratory system of domestic mammals. (google.com)
  • To better assess the likelihood that active vibrissal sensing was present in ancestral mammals, we examined the vibrissal musculature of the opossum using digital miscroscopy to see whether this resembles that of rodents. (biologists.org)
  • The terms "small mammals" or "pocket pets," refer to small animals, often rodents, which are kept as pets and could fit into your pocket. (cdc.gov)
  • Campylobacter infections are rare in small mammals but have been associated with rodents, such as hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils. (cdc.gov)
  • These tiny rodents can jettison strips of skin from their own hides when captured by predators, and heal those same wounds with extraordinary speed. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Biologists have noted that these rodents have very weak skin, which seems to slough off easily when they are handled. (discovermagazine.com)
  • And they're not all bats and rodents: new monkeys, lemurs, sloths and hoofed mammals (peccaries, deer and bovids) have been named in recent years. (scienceblogs.com)
  • However, all Madagascan mammals aren't lemurs, and the island continent has a fascinating assemblage of tenrecs, rodents, bats and carnivorans too. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Please contact the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Mammal Division for permission to reproduce, display, or transmit this image. (umich.edu)
  • The aim of the present data set is to provide information of the records of small mammals derived from the project "Efecto de la explotación y repoblación forestal sobre la fauna del suelo" carried out in different biotopes located in Navarra by the department of Ecology and Zoology of the University of Navarra. (gbif.org)
  • The early evolution of mammals is associated with a number of significant milestones such as the onset of thermoregulation, restructuring of the inner ear and the emergence of a six-layered cortex. (biologists.org)
  • A digitally processed micrograph of mouse skin and hair follicles, with DNA damage (green) in the skin epithelium, including the hair follicle stem cells (purple). (eurekalert.org)
  • We are glad that we were able to contribute a piece of the puzzle of how the skin epithelium is maintained intact, and hope that this will serve future medical applications,' Sandra Iden concludes. (eurekalert.org)
  • If you decide that a small mammal is the right pet for you, you need to learn how to take care of it properly and be aware of diseases that it might carry. (cdc.gov)
  • It is thus possible that the prehistoric mammals suffered from diseases similar to those of their modern descendants. (healthcanal.com)
  • Hints of its existence have actually been in the literature for a while: in Mammals of Madagascar [shown below: an excellent book], Nick Garbutt (1999) referred to the rumoured existence of "a small carnivore in the reedbeds around [Lake Alaotra]", the identity of which "remains a mystery" (p. 140). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Most mammals are typically quadrupeds with the feet modified in many ways for terrestrial (running, hopping or leaping), fossorial (digging), arboreal (tree climbing) and aquatic living, but some have developed modified appendages such as the whales, manatees and dugongs, who have lost the rear appendages, modified the tail as horizontally flattened flukes for propulsion and modified the front appendages as flippers. (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
  • The adjective cutaneous means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis , skin). (wikipedia.org)
  • See more details of domestic animals domestic animals subject category organism groups see more details it deals only with the circulatory system skin and cutaneous organs and in 600 pages the authors have written a splendid work thankfully the translators have shown themselves to be equal to their task. (bloomington-chamber.org)
  • Vibrissae - tactile hairs/whiskers in the muzzles and lower legs of some mammals. (shsu.edu)
  • Only the adult female will dig into the skin and make tunnels where it lays up to 5 eggs, with a maximum of 50 during her whole life. (medirabbit.com)
  • Amphibian skin plays key roles in everyday survival and their ability to exploit a wide range of habitats and ecological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Across all life, from bacteria to mammals, the ability to detect chemicals in the environment is fundamental to survival. (theconversation.com)
  • The small mammal owes its name, Spinolestes (from spinosus, Latin for "spiny"), to them. (healthcanal.com)
  • The spiny mouse's skin looks superficially similar to that of an ordinary house mouse, but it contains a far greater proportion of follicles-the cradles that hairs grow from-and their associated glands. (discovermagazine.com)
  • For comparison, a house mouse's skin is around 20 times stronger than a spiny mouse's, and can absorb 77 times more energy before breaking. (discovermagazine.com)
  • While a rat would take 5 to 7 days to completely cover a wound with new skin, a spiny mouse can do it in just 3. (discovermagazine.com)
  • But spiny mice not only heal ear holes, but they'll re-grow the different layers of skin, hair follicles, fat cells, muscles and cartilage. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The hope is that we can use regeneration of ear tissue in [spiny mice] to better understand how a blastema can form in a mammal. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The excellent insulating properties of feathers and the almost complete absence of sweat glands in the skin limit the loss of heat. (sympatico.ca)
  • The bird also fluffs its feathers until they separate from one another, exposing the skin and facilitating heat loss by convection. (sympatico.ca)
  • molting, periodical shedding and renewal of the outer skin, exoskeleton, fur, or feathers of an animal. (factmonster.com)
  • Based on their analysis of 144 skin swabs collected from 44 snakes in 2015 and 52 snakes in 2016, all near Carlyle Lake, Ill., researchers determined that infection with SFD altered the bacterial and fungal diversity of the snakes studied. (scienceblog.com)
  • The new test could improve upon two current methods to diagnose tuberculosis-a skin test or culturing bacteria from saliva, both of which take days. (the-scientist.com)
  • The immune system tolerates the colonization of commensal bacteria on the skin with the aid of regulatory T cells during the first few weeks of life, a mouse study shows. (the-scientist.com)
  • Get more information on bacterial skin infections, which bacteria cause food poisoning, sexually transmitted bacteria, and more. (medicinenet.com)
  • Erysipeloid is a rare and acute infection of the skin caused by bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infection results when the bacteria enter the skin through small breaks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms may develop in 2 to 7 days after bacteria enter the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Completely cover flesh side of skin with non-iodized salt and let it set for 4 to 24 hours to inhibit the growth of bacteria. (taxidermy.net)
  • The best way to do that is to take a shower and feel your skin, because these ticks are really small," Johnson said. (medicinenet.com)
  • They cannot maintain a constant body temperature like mammals. (nps.gov)
  • 5)They have a constant body temperature 1)dry skin scales, bony plates of some protective effect. (prezi.com)
  • In mammals , the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue , and guards the underlying muscles , bones , ligaments and internal organs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Neonates are thought to typically acquire mites from the dam via direct skin-to-skin contact, but most individual animals do not develop clinical disease. (terrificpets.com)
  • Specimens brought to laboratory were processed and mainly consists on skulls, mandibles and skins. (gbif.org)
  • The study projects that some parts of the southern Mideast and northern India may even sometimes hit 35 wet-bulb degrees Celsius by late century--equal to the human skin temperature, and the theoretical limit at which people will die within hours without artificial cooling. (eurekalert.org)
  • 11 ], temperature differences up to 26.9 K between the skin and the outer surface of the fur were measured at the vibrissal pads of harbour seals, indicating a considerable insulating effect of the fur at these sites. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These parasites spread rapidly from one rabbit to another, through nymphs and larvae that live on the surface of the skin. (medirabbit.com)
  • Only the male adults and older larvae live on the surface of the skin. (medirabbit.com)
  • To grow hair follicle stem cells in a petri dish the researchers initially need to extract skin cells from mice and place them in a three-dimensional gel made of proteins normally found in the skin. (mpg.de)
  • Sebaceous glands are found throughout all areas of the skin, except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet . (wikipedia.org)
  • It's found in most mammals. (healthline.com)
  • They have further found that inclusion of certain activity enhancers in the composition of the invention improves the skin lightening efficacy. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Found on all mammals, even dolphins! (sporcle.com)
  • But he has already found that it complements its weak skin with extremely fast healing. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Cholestenol is a sterol that has been found in the skins of rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Does it contain any nutrients or minerals or anything that can't be found in the blood of other mammals? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • If the presence of burrowing mites is suspected, but none found after a deep skin scraping, a biopsy on the area suspected of mite infestation is advisable. (medirabbit.com)
  • The 3-fox-skin hieroglyph has its origins in the early dynasties of Ancient Egypt, and can be found in multiple usage on the Palermo Stone, (creation or inauguration of events). (wikipedia.org)
  • And take a lesson from those other mammals - when you feel hot and lousy (which occurs after about 20 minutes in the sun), find some shade. (doctoroz.com)
  • The mechanisms involved can only be reconstructed approximately by analogy with similar processes in mammals, but it is believed that a breakdown occurs in the control of blood sugar, liver and muscle glycogen levels as well as the levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphates, chlorides and other mineral ions in the blood and tissue fluids. (sympatico.ca)
  • Small mammals also include a few animals that are not so small, such as rabbits and prairie dogs. (cdc.gov)
  • Owning a small mammal can be a big responsibility, even though the animal itself may be tiny. (cdc.gov)
  • With routine veterinary care and some simple health habits, you are less likely to get sick from touching, petting, or owning a small mammal. (cdc.gov)
  • Small mammals infected with Campylobacter may not show any signs of illness at all or may have diarrhea. (cdc.gov)
  • This parasite is relatively uncommon in small mammals but has been associated with chinchillas, rats, and mice. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers were startled by one other detail: The hairs on the back of the Cretaceous mammal are fused into small spines. (healthcanal.com)
  • The skin on the animal's back was also partially covered with small, horny scutes. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, three years ago, an excavation team under the direction of the paleontologist Angela Buscalioni (Autónoma University, Madrid) encountered the fossilized skeleton of a small unknown mammal there. (healthcanal.com)
  • Mammals were indeed very small during the time of the dinosaurs. (healthcanal.com)
  • This collection includes information of 201 records of small mammals distributed in Navarra (Spain). (gbif.org)
  • Traps were used for sampling the small mammals' community. (gbif.org)
  • What is a home remedy for skin mites on dogs? (reference.com)
  • One effective home remedy to treat skin mites on dogs is to use a mixture of 1 percent hydrogen peroxide solution, borax powder and water. (reference.com)
  • Thoroughly washing a dog with this solution kills the mites and helps heal any bites, rashes or scabs on the dog's skin. (reference.com)
  • Cooking oil can be used as a natural home remedy to help kill skin mites on dogs. (reference.com)
  • Cooking oil applied directly onto the dog's skin reduces skin irritation and kills any mites present. (reference.com)
  • Bathing a dog that has skin mites in soapy water is an effective home remedy. (reference.com)
  • The alkaline nature of the soap kills skin mites and can prevent them from spreading. (reference.com)
  • Yellow dock, aloe vera or calendula tea can also be used to treat skin mites. (reference.com)
  • Using teas that have these herbs kills skin mites on dogs and helps heal rashes. (reference.com)
  • A mixture of chopped cloves of garlic and lemon skins can be used to kill skin mites and soothe the skin of dogs suffering from a mite infestation. (reference.com)
  • Ear mites can be treated by cleaning the ear with a bland, safe oil that does not irritate the sensitive skin of a dog's ear. (reference.com)
  • Detection methods include the tape method, skin scraping (shallow if fur mites are suspected, deep if burrowing mites are suspected), or the vacuum aspiration method on a filter paper. (medirabbit.com)
  • Burrowing mites (live on/in the skin) can fall off and contaminate the environment. (medirabbit.com)
  • We wanted to develop a system to study hair follicle stem cells in the skin and their role in cancer development", explains Carlos Andrés Chacón-Martínez, a scientist in the group of Sara Wickström at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne. (mpg.de)
  • We were now able to show that Par3 has a direct influence on the homeostasis of the skin by controlling the mechanical properties of keratinocytes, the main skin epithelial cell,' said leading scientist of the study Dr Sandra Iden. (eurekalert.org)
  • So if Kaiju are essentially mammals, complete rubbish at digestion, and assuming long tons, then the largest Kaiju, Slattern at 6,750 tons, would require 314.2 people per day. (deepseanews.com)