Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Salivary Gland DiseasesParathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Submandibular Gland DiseasesApocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsMetrial Gland: Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Perianal GlandsMarsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Bulbourethral Glands: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Bartholin's Glands: Mucus-secreting glands situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the vestibule of the vagina.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.ShrewsSebaceous Gland NeoplasmsSalivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Anal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Insectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.ArtiodactylaEpithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases: Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Parotid DiseasesCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Echidna: An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.MonotremataDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Mice, Inbred C57BLHibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.PrimatesDogfish: Sharks of the family Squalidae, also called dogfish sharks. They comprise at least eight genera and 44 species. Their LIVER is valued for its oil and its flesh is often made into fertilizer.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mole Rats: Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Parathyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Eyelid DiseasesSloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Bottle-Nosed Dolphin: The species Tursiops truncatus, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by a bottle-shaped beak and slightly hooked broad dorsal fin.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sialography: Radiography of the SALIVARY GLANDS or ducts following injection of contrast medium.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Adenoma, Sweat Gland: A benign neoplasm derived from epithelial cells of sweat glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Anal Sacs: A pair of anal glands or sacs, located on either side of the ANUS, that produce and store a dark, foul-smelling fluid in carnivorous animals such as MEPHITIDAE and DOGS. The expelled fluid is used as a defensive repellent (in skunks) or a material to mark territory (in dogs).Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Sea Lions: A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Interrenal Gland: Structures in fishes homologous to the cortical tissue of the mammalian adrenal gland; they are in close proximity to or imbedded in the kidney.Myoepithelioma: A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Moles: Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Monodelphis: A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Gland: IUCN. p. 58. ISBN 2-8317-0016-7. Robinson, P.T.; Dop, H. (2013). Travel sketches from Liberia Johann Buttikofer's 19th ... 2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 713. ... J., Kingdon (2013). Mammals of Africa. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 294-8. ISBN 9781408122570. East, R. (1990). Antelopes : Global ... 45 (3): 440-3. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00783.x. Mammals portal Data related to Cephalophus dorsalis at Wikispecies Media ...
Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. p. 96. ISBN 2-8317-0021-3. Mammals portal "Bohor". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. Animal, Smithsonian ... Apart from sebaceous glands, bohor reedbuck have a pair of inguinal glands and vestigial foot glands, and four nipples. A bohor ... Gland: IUCN. p. 37. ISBN 2-8317-0016-7. East, R. (1999). African Antelope Database 1998. Gland, Switzerland: The IUCN Species ... Estes, R. D. (1993). The Safari Companion : A Guide to Watching African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, and ...
Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. ISBN 2-8317-0019-1. Retrieved 2014-10-21. Macdonald, D. (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. ... The New Encyclopedia of Mammals, p.694-695, ISBN 0-19-850823-9. Macdonald, D.(2001), The New Encyclopedia of Mammals, p.712-713 ... Walker's Mammals of the World Sixth Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA (1999) Reese, A. 2012. " ... R.M. Nowak(1999), Walker's Mammals of the World Sixth Edition, ISBN 0-8018-5789-9. Chapman, J.A. & Flux, J.E.C.(1990), Rabbits ...
Marine Mammal Science 19 (3): 421-461. PDF fulltext Official webpage of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of ... Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. ISBN 2-8317-0189-9. Find more aboutMesoplodon traversiiat Wikipedia's sister projects Media from ... 2002). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-551340-2. Reeves, Randall R.; Leatherwood, S. (1994). Dolphins ... Marine Mammal Science 18 (3):609-621. PDF fulltext Dalebout, Merel L.; Ross, Graham J.B.; Baker, C. Scott; Anderson, R. Charles ...
Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. ISBN 978-2-8317-0594-1. Harper, F. (1945). Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Old World. New York, ... The hartebeest has preorbital glands (glands near the eyes) with a central duct, that secrete a dark sticky fluid in Coke's and ... Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4th ed.). Berkeley ... 2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University ...
Asian black bear
Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol. II, part 2, Carnivores (Feloidea), p. 177. Leiden, E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-08876-8 Powell, A ... IUCN, Gland. Herrero, S. (1972). Aspects of evolution and adaptation in American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) and ... Volume 1: Mammals. Dodd, Mead and Company, New York. Hussain, Altaf (2009-11-03). "Bear kills militants in Kashmir". BBC News. ... Half of their life is spent in trees and they are one of the largest arboreal mammals. In the Ussuri territory, black bears can ...
African pygmy squirrel
The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York. Nowak, R.M. (ed.) 1999. Walkers Mammals of the ... IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Grubb, P. 2004. Myosciurus pumilio. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. ... Kingdon, J. (1997). The Kingdon Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press Limited, London. ISBN 0-12-408355-2. .. ...
a b Ellerman, J. R., Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (1966). Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946. Second edition ... Gland: International Union for Conservation of Nature. pp. 219-224.. *^ Pocock, R. I. (1941). The fauna of British India, ... a b Lekagul, B. and J. A. McNeely (1977). Mammals of Thailand. Kurusapha Ladprao Press, Bangkok. ...
Mammals of Africa. 6. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 352-355. Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. ... 4. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. ISBN 2-8317-0594-0. Osborn, Dale J.; Helmy, Ibrahim (1980). "Gazella leptoceros (F. Cuvier, 1842 ... 254-55 . Richard Hoath (2009). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Egypt. American University in Cairo Press. pp. 153-154. ISBN 978 ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 681-682. ISBN ...
Hector's beaked whale
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. ISBN 2-8317-0189-9 Henshaw, M.D.; Leduc, R.G.; Chivers, S.J. & Dizon, A.E. (1997): Identification of ... Marine Mammal Science 13(3): 487-495. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00656.x (HTML abstract) Messenger, S.L. & McQuire, J.A. ( ... Marine Mammal Science 18(3): 577-608. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2002.tb01061.x PDF fulltext Mead, James G. (1981): First records ... J. Mammal. 62(2): 430-432. doi:10.2307/1380733 Mead, James G. (1984): Survey of reproductive data for the beaked whales ( ...
Badhyz State Nature Reserve
... most other predators of small-to-medium-sized mammals choosing to pursue other abundant mammals without the hedgehog's prickly ... Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp. Sliwa, A. (1996). A functional analysis of scent marking and mating behaviour ... Just over half of its known diet is comprised by mammals but equal or even greater numbers of birds and even insects may be ... Many other mammals taken as prey by Verreaux's eagle-owl are seemingly any encountered except the much larger species, ...
Large flying fox
Mammals of Thailand. Association for the Conservation of Wildlife, Bangkok, Thailand. Goodwin R. E. (1979). "The bats of Timor ... Gland, Switzerland. Lim, B. L. (1966). "Abundance and distribution of Malaysian bats in different ecological habitats". ... The large flying fox was one of the many mammal species originally described by Linnaeus in the landmark 1758 10th edition of ... Payne J., Francis, C. M. and Philps, K. (1985). A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu, ...
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Ronald M. Nowak (1999), Walker's Mammals of the World (6th ed.), Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University ... 2005). "Equus caballus". Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University ... Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Perissodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ...
It is a large species in the pika family, Ochotonidae, which consists of small mammals that have short ears, forelimbs very ... Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. p. 21. ISBN 978-2831700199. Pallas, Peter Simon (1773). Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des ... Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2 (3rd ed.). Johns ... ISBN 978-3-540-72446-9. Armstrong, David M.; Fitzgerald, James P.; Meaney, Carron A. (2010). Mammals of Colorado (Second ed.). ...
Nader, I. A. (1989). "Rare and endangered mammals of Saudi Arabia" in: Abu-Zinada, A. H., Goriup, P. D., Nader, I. A. (Eds.) ... Gland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. Perez, I.; Geffen, E.; Mokady, O. (2006). "Critically Endangered Arabian leopards ... Captive breeding was initiated in 1995 in the Oman Mammal Breeding Centre and is operated at a regional level on the Arabian ... Special Issue 1: 4-8. Harrison, D. L., Bates, P. J. J. (1991). The Mammals of Arabia (Vol. 354). Harrison Zoological Museum, ...
doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00468.x. IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1982 Gonzales, S.; Maldonado, J. E ... 2011). Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Hoofed Mammals, Vol. 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 978-84-96553-77-4 Jackson, ... Males have a strong smell secreted from glands in their back hooves that can be detected up to 1.5 km away. Compared to other ... They rub the scent glands on their heads and faces into plants and objects. They usually do not fight, but just spar with each ...
... (Ochotona gloveri) is a species of mammal in the family Ochotonidae. It was first described in 1922, by Michael ... Gland, Switzerland: World Conservation Union IUCN. pp. 32-33], 52. ISBN 9782831700199. Retrieved September 9, 2017. Wrobel, ... 2007). Elsevier's Dictionary of Mammals: in Latin, English, German, French and Italian. Amsterdam Boston, MA: Elsevier. p. 353 ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0 ...
The Forrest's pika (Ochotona forresti) is a species of mammal in the pika family, Ochotonidae. It is found in Bhutan, China, ... Gland, Switzerland: World Conservation Union IUCN. pp. 31. ISBN 9782831700199. Retrieved 9 September 2017. Choudhury, ... The Forrest's pika belongs to the pika family, Ochotonidae, which consists of small mammals that have short ears, forelimbs ... Francis, Charles M.; Barrett, Priscilla (2008). A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-East Asia. London: New Holland Publishers ...
"Unbelievably Cute Mammal With Teddy Bear Face Rediscovered". Retrieved April 2015. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) ... The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland. Li, W.; Ma, Y. (1986). "A new species of Ochotona, Ochotonidae, Lagomorpha". ... Smith, A.T. & Xie, Y. (2008). The Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Smith, A.T. & Xie, Y. ( ... The Ili pika (Ochotona iliensis) is a species of mammal in the family Ochotonidae, endemic to northwest China. After its ...
Gland, Switzerland: IUCN Species Survival Commission. Yellow-footed rock-wallaby (Department of Environment and Resource ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0- ... John Gould's Extinct and Endangered Mammals of Australia. Canberra: National Library of Australia. p. 192. ISBN 9780642278616 ...
Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p161 Burt, William Henry. A Field Guide to the Mammals of North America North ... The parents supplement this diet with a variety of mammals and birds. During early to middle July, the kits are able to hunt on ... Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p213 Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids ... Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p206 Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids ...
Perrin's beaked whale
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. ISBN 2-8317-0189-9 Rice, D.W. (1978): Beaked whales. In: Haley, D. (ed.): Marine mammals of the ... Marine Mammal Science 18(3): 577-608. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2002.tb01061.x PDF fulltext Henshaw, M.D.; Leduc, R.G.; Chivers, ... J. Mammal. 62(2): 430-432. doi:10.2307/1380733 (First page image) Mead, James G. (1984): Survey of reproductive data for the ... Marine Mammal Science 13(3): 487-495. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00656.x (HTML abstract) Jefferson, T.A.; Leatherwood, S ...
IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland. Miller, S.D., Rottmann, J. (1976) Guia para el reconocimiento de mamiferos ... Guide to the recognition of Chilean mammals.] Editora Nacional Gabriela Mistral, Santiago (in Spanish). Dimitri, M. (1972) [The ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 538. ISBN 978-0 ...
Asian golden cat
Lekagul, B.; McNeely, J.A. (1977). Mammals of Thailand. Bangkok: Association for the Conservation of Wildlife. "เสือไฟกัดช้างตา ... IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland. Choudhury, A. (2007). "Sighting of Asiatic golden cat in the grasslands of ... Pp 259-264 Allen, G.M. (1938). The mammals of China and Mongolia. New York: American Museum of Natural History. Nowell, K.; ... Ellerman J. R. and Morrison-Scott T. C. S. (1966). Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946. London. Ghimirey
Southern African wildcat
doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00679.x Smithers, R. H. N. (1971). The Mammals of Botswana. The Trustees of the National Museum ... IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland. Hamerton, D. Felis silvestris cafra (African wild cat). Biodiversity ... they have been observed to take other small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects and other invertebrates. The largest ... Explorer, Iziko Museums of South Africa Skinner, J. D. & Chimimba, C. T. (2005). The mammals of the southern African sub-region ...
Gland, Switzerland: The IUCN Species Survival Commission. p. 212. ISBN 2-8317-0477-4. Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of ... Mammals portal Blue Wildebeest Photo and Fact Sheet Connochaetes taurinus, Mammal Species of the World. ... Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals : Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4th ed.). Berkeley ... Scent glands, which secrete a clear oil, are present in the forefeet and are larger in males than females. In terms of skull ...
Greater nectar bat
사바나얼룩말 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
Kingdon, J. (1988). East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part B: Large Mammals. Chicago, University ... IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Chapter 4. Status and Action Plan for the Plains Zebra (Equus burchelli). Mace A. Hack, Rod East and ... Estes, R. (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Los Angeles, ... Mammals IV. Detroit, The Gale Group, Inc. 15.. *Moss, C., Ed. (1982). Portraits in the Wild, Animal Behavior in East Africa. ...
... larger mammals, such as bears, become polyphagic to increase fat stores, whereas smaller mammals prefer to collect and stash ... These include depression, food allergies, ingestion of certain chemicals, bulimia, anorexia nervosa, pituitary gland ... Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... The size of an animal is also a factor in determining diet type (Allen's rule). Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat- ...
They run with rabbit-like jumps. In the groin of each leg is an inguinal gland used for scent marking; ... "In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins ... "European Mammals - Non native and Introduced Species". Hows.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-06-04.. ... Sometimes a small pit is dug and it is possible that in digging, the male releases scent from the interdigital glands on its ...
December 1999). "Identification of Ebola virus sequences present as RNA or DNA in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the ... and adrenal gland cells. Viral replication triggers high levels of inflammatory chemical signals and leads to a septic ... Between 1976 and 1998, in 30,000 mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and arthropods sampled from regions of EBOV outbreaks, no ...
Amphibian - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Salamanders also secrete poison from glands in their skin, and some additionally have skin glands for secreting courtship ... In drier conditions, they were less effective, and the ancestors of mammals and reptiles (the Synapsids and Sauropsids) ... Apart from these glands, their skin is dry, and that is an adaptation to drier habitats. These features have evolved a number ... Amphibians' eyes have lids, glands and ducts. They have good colour vision Caecilian eyes are small and dark. Most of them ...
Estes, R. D. (1993). The Safari Companion : A Guide to Watching African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores and ... The scent glands secrete a glutinous substance in front of the eyes, under the hair tufts, and on the forefeet. Females have ... Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals : Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4. [Dr.]. ed.). ... Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4. [Dr.]. ed.). ...
Abortion - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
... leaving in the gland undifferentiated structures like those observed in the rat mammary gland, which could render the gland ... Spontaneous abortion in other mammals[change , change source]. Spontaneous abortions occur in various mammals. In sheep, it may ... Russo J, Tay L, Russo I (1982). "Differentiation of the mammary gland and susceptibility to carcinogenesis". Breast Cancer ... Russo J, Russo I (1980). "Susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. II. Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in ...
The ink sac of an octopus is located under the digestive gland. A gland attached to the sac produces the ink, and the sac ... Having independently evolved mammal-like intelligence, octopuses have been compared to hypothetical intelligent ... Wells, Martin J.; Wells, J. (1972). "Optic glands and the state of the testis in Octopus". Marine Behaviour and Physiology. 1 ( ... The gonocoel is connected by the gonoduct to the mantle cavity, which it enters at the gonopore. An optic gland creates ...
Apparato digestive, le encyclopedia libere
Salivary glands, lips, teeth, tongue, epiglottis, thyroid, and parathyroids. Food does not go through these organs. But they ... Animals like worms, insects, mammals, birds, fish, and people all have digestive systems. ... For example, the pancreas, thyroid, liver, and parathyroids are also endocrine glands that make hormones like insulin. ...
Being mammals, they have mammary glands used for nursing calves; they are weaned off at about 11 months of age. This milk ... "Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9.. *. Whitehead, H. (2003). Sperm Whales: Social Evolution in the Ocean. ... UNEP Marine Mammal Technical Report. pp. 33-65. ASIN B00KX9I8Y8.. *. Skeat, Walter W. (1898). An Etymological Dictionary of the ... They also have glands on the eyelids and outer corneal layer that act as protection for the cornea. ...
These are the "mammal-like amniotes", or stem-mammals, that later gave rise to the true mammals. Soon after, another group ... "Salt Gland - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2019-03-03.. ... Herbivorous reptiles face the same problems of mastication as herbivorous mammals but, lacking the complex teeth of mammals, ... Mammals are a clade, and therefore the cladists are happy to acknowledge the traditional taxon Mammalia; and birds, too, are a ...
ادرار کردن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Richard Estes (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. University of ... All canids (with the possible exception of dholes) use urine (combined with preputial gland secretions) to mark their ... For smaller mammals a different phenomenon occurs, where urine is discharged as droplets, and urination in smaller mammals, ... Field Guide to Mammal Tracking in North America - James C. Halfpenny, Elizabeth Biesiot - Google Books. Books.google.com. ...
... the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands ( ... The HPA axis is a feature of mammals and other vertebrates. For example, biologists studying stress in fish showed that social ... ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ... It is the common mechanism for interactions among glands, hormones, and parts of the midbrain that mediate the general ...
Pygmy ringtail possum
Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B. (2012). Chapter 3: Checklist of South Asian Mammals in: South Asian Mammals: Their Diversity, ... Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. ISBN 2-8317-0336-0. .. *^ Linnæus, C. (1758). "Rhinoceros unicornis". Caroli ... Jerdon, T. C. (1867). The Mammals of India: a Natural History of all the animals known to inhabit Continental India. Roorkee: ... "In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins ...
സിംഹം - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. pp. 17-21. ISBN 2-8317-0045-0.. line feed character in ,title=. at position ... Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.. ... Menon, Vivek (2003). A Field Guide to Indian Mammals. Delhi: Dorling Kindersley India. ISBN 0-14-302998-3.. ... Pienaar U de V (1969). "Predator-prey relationships amongst the larger mammals of the Kruger National Park". Koedoe. 12: 108-76 ...
... so consumption of gums in early mammals or their precursors might be a cause for development of mammary glands in mammals along ... a b c d e f Merrit, J. (2010). The biology of small mammals. (pp. 89-93). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ... there will be a severe change in the plasticity of the mammal. For example, if a marmoset's diet is changed, over the next ... the gummivorous mammals have relatively low daily caloric needs, as they do not expend as much energy to acquire their food. ...
Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 2: Small Mammals, Xenarthrans, and Marine Mammals. Cambridge, England; ... Most primates have two mammary glands, but the number and positions vary between species within strepsirrhines. ... hoofed mammals). Infant care by the mother is relatively prolonged compared to many other mammals, and in some cases, the ... "In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns ...
Many sea birds have special glands at the base of the bill through which excess salt is excreted. Similarly the marine iguanas ... Some terrestrial mammals, especially desert rodents, appear to survive without drinking, but they do generate water through the ... Some organisms can thrive on salt water, but the great majority of higher plants and most mammals need fresh water to live. ... Some can use salt water but many organisms including the great majority of higher plants and most mammals must have access to ...
Ós del Tibet - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure
Mammals of Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Darnsutha Press.. *Mizukami, R. N., Goto, M., Izumiyama, S., Hayashi, H. i Yoh, M., ... IUCN/SSC Bear and Polar Bear Specialist Groups, Gland, Suïssa.. *Seryodkin, I. V., Goodrich, J. M., Kostyria, A. V., Schleyer, ... Mammal Studies 29: 1-18.. *Kang, S. i Phipps, M. J., 2003. A question of attitude: South Korea's Traditional Medicine ... Walker's Mammals of the World. Cinquena edició. Baltimore i Londres: Johns Hopkins University Press. ...
Worker bees of a certain age secrete beeswax from a series of exocrine glands on their abdomens. They use the wax to form ... Sanford, M.T.; Dietz, A. (1976). "The fine structure of the wax gland of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.)". Apidologie. 7: 197 ... Workers have morphological specializations, including the pollen basket (corbicula), abdominal glands that produce beeswax ... When their royal jelly-producing glands begin to atrophy, they begin building comb cells. They progress to other within-colony ...
... glands are found primarily in the breast of lactating mammals (i.e. the mammary glands are apocrine glands). ... An example of true apocrine glands is the mammary glands, responsible for secreting breast milk. ... Apocrine is a term used to classify exocrine glands in the study of histology. Cells which are classified as apocrine bud their ... The apical portion of the secretory cell of the gland pinches off and enters the lumen. It loses part of its cytoplasm in their ...
Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 87-89. ISBN ... Their feet have rubbery pads with numerous sweat glands, which may help the animal maintain its grip when quickly moving up ... Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp. ISBN 0-231-11013-8 ... The Rise of Placental Mammals: Origins and Relationships of the Major Extant Clades. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press ...
Stone, Irwin (1972), The Natural History of Ascorbic Acid in the Evolution of Mammals and Primates. ... For example, the ascorbic acid content of pituitary and adrenal glands can exceed 2,000 µmol/L, and muscle is at 200-300 µmol/L ... Some mammals have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C, including simians and tarsiers, which together make up one of two ... Recent orders of birds and most mammals make ascorbic acid in their liver. A number of species of passerine birds also do ...
15: Mammals. Gale Publishing. Online version accessed April 2014. *^ "Dassie, n." Dictionary of South African English. ... Their feet have rubbery pads with numerous sweat glands, which may help the animal maintain its grip when quickly moving up ... Shoshani, J. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ... "In Rose, Kenneth D.; Archibald, J. David (eds.). The Rise of Placental Mammals: Origins and relationships of the major extant ...
"In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins ... Anteaters communicate their presence, status, and sexual condition with secretions from their anal glands. They also advertise ... "Mammals: Giant Anteater". San Diego Zoo Animal Bytes. San Diego Zoo. Retrieved 2013-03-01.. ... The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), also known as the ant bear, is a large insectivorous mammal native to Central and ...
mammary gland of male in mammals - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & Forum
mammary gland of male in mammals. Discussion of everything related to the Theory of Evolution. ... The mammary gland of male is said to be a vestigial organ. But it is a functional organ in female. So, my question is that how ... Actually, if we go nitpicking here, mammary glands arent completely inoperative in males, one could say that they are rather ... Males dont really have mammary glands - just nipples with pectoral muscles under them, and a fat-storage site. ...
mammary gland of male in mammals - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & Forum
So, my question is that how the mammary gland can be vestigial in male as vestigial organs are those that were functional ... The mammary gland of male is said to be a vestigial organ. But it is a functional organ in female. ... mammary gland of male in mammals. Discussion of everything related to the Theory of Evolution. ... The mammary gland of male is said to be a vestigial organ. But it is a functional organ in female. So, my question is that how ...
Highly Folded Surface Of The Mammal Uterine Endometrium Showing The Numerous Openings Of Uterine Glands Sem X55 Stock Photo |...
Occurrence and properties of diamine oxidases in salivary glands and stomach of man and different mammals - Publikationsserver...
Characteristics of Mammals - WorldAtlas.com
There are only three characteristics that are unique to mammals: the presence of hair in their bodies, three middle ear bones, ... After giving birth, mammals nurse their young ones with milk secreted by the mammary glands. Mammary glands are present in both ... Apocrine glands produce scented secretions than the eccrine glands which are found in more advanced mammals such as man, ... Sweat Glands. Mammals are warm-blooded animals meaning that they possess an internal body temperature control mechanism. Sweat ...
Are Whales Mammals? - WorldAtlas
... are classified as marine mammals, and certain species of whales are actually some of the largest mammals on earth. ... The word mammal actually comes from the word mammary, as in mammary gland. All mammals have mammary glands, and these glands ... Whales have mammary glands. Beluga whale mother and calf. Female whales have produce milk in their mammary glands just like ... Why Are Whales Mammals?. Whales are warm-blooded or endothermic. Like all mammals, whales are warm blooded. When animals are ...
Monotreme | mammal | Britannica.com
mammary gland. In the primitive monotreme mammals (. e.g.. , platypus), milk is expressed directly from the ducts onto the fur ... mammal. Except for the monotremes (an egg-laying order of mammals comprising echidnas and the duck-billed platypus), all ... Various mammals of the Mesozoic Era (251 to 65.5 million years ago) with more-advanced shoulder girdles (including a ... In the placental mammals (which have a placenta to facilitate nutrient and waste exchange between the mother and the developing ...
Search | Britannica
In mammals. .... * Hormone - Hormones of the thyroid gland Its actual source is the ultimobranchial tissue, represented in ... Thyroid gland Thyroid gland, endocrine gland that is located in the anterior part of ... Ultimobranchial gland Ultimobranchial ... Ultimobranchial gland (anatomy) Ultimobranchial gland, in biology, any of the small bodies in the pharynx that develop behind ... Endocrine glands secrete their products into the bloodstream and body ... and the bodies of the ultimobranchial gland make up ...
The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals. - PubMed - NCBI
... pineal gland-specific opsin; parietopsin, parietopsin-expressing opsin; parapinopsin, parapineal gland-expressing opsin; ... The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals.. Gerkema MP1, Davies WI, Foster RG, Menaker M, Hut ... The black/grey box indicates the time frame of the nocturnal bottleneck that is the period when mammals and archosaurs co- ... Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of ...
Zebras | Encyclopedia.com
Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 2002.. Nowak, Ronald M. Walkers Mammals of the World. 6th ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins ... Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File, 2001.. Moehlman, P.D., ed. Equids: Zebras, Asses and Horses. Status Survey ... Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File, 2001.. Scuro, Vincent. Wonders of Zebras. New York: Dodd, Mead And Co., 1983. ... Mammals: The Large Plant-Eaters. Encyclopedia of the Animal World. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ...
African pygmy squirrel - Wikipedia
The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York. Nowak, R.M. (ed.) 1999. Walkers Mammals of the ... IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Grubb, P. 2004. Myosciurus pumilio. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. ... Kingdon, J. (1997). The Kingdon Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press Limited, London. ISBN 0-12-408355-2. .. ...
Splenomegaly, hyperkinetic splenic flow and portal hypertension in colitis (Journal Article) | ETDEWEB
Changes in rat liver and adipose tissue lipogenesis after single lethal X-irradiation: modification by the restricted food...
Otocyon megalotis (Bat-eared Fox)
IUCN, Gland.. Nel, J. A. J. and Maas, B. 2013. Otocyon megalotis Bat-eared Fox. In: Kingdon, J. & Hoffmann, M. (ed.), Mammals ... East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Volume IIIA (Carnivores). Academic Press, London, UK. ... In: J.D. Skinner and C.T. Chimimba (eds), The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion, 3rd edition, pp. 22-34. Cambridge ... Part 8. In: J. Meester and H.W. Setzer (eds), The Mammals of Africa: An Identification Manual, pp. 1-42. Smithsonian ...
Skin glands: Mammalian skin contains several kinds of glands not found in other vertebrates. Mammary Glands: Provide ... pieces breaking off with groups of mammals - different conditions evolved different mammals - geographic isolation Mammals ... Mammary glands Diaphragm Left aortic arch Enucleated erythrocytes 3 middle ear bones Single dentary Dentary/squamosal jaw ... Infraclass Metatheria - all marsupial mammals Infraclass Eutheria - all placental mammals NONEUTHERIAN MAMMALS: MONOTREMES AND ...
Microscope Slide - Mammal Stomach - Cardiac Region | Microslides Viewers & Slides | Microscopes & Magnification | Lab Equipment...
Mammal Stomach - Cardiac Region, SB52186 at Nasco. You will find a unique blend of products for Arts & Crafts, Education, ... Mammal Stomach, Cardiac Region * Submaxillary Gland, Human * Planaria, 3 Regions, Human * Mammal Colon ... Mammal Red Bone Marrow Select Quantity Enter desired quantity on each option before adding to cart or list.. Click on any ...
Slit-Faced Bats (Nycteridae) | Encyclopedia.com
Garbutt, N. Mammals of Madagascar. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.. Hutson, A. M., S. P. Mickelburgh, and P. A. Racey. ... Global Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, Microchiropteran Bats. Gland, Switerzland: IUCN SSC Chiroptera Specialist ... Kingdon, J. Mammals of East Africa: An Atlas of Evolution, Volume 2b. New York: Academic Press, 1974. ... A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. Kuala Lumpur: The Sabah Society with World Wildlife Fund Malaysia, 1985. ...
Vulpes velox (Swift Fox)
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.. Black, J.D. 1937. Mammals of Kansas. Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Biennial ... Mammals of Kansas. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.. Egoscue, H.J. 1979. Vulpes velox. Mammalian Species 122: 1-5. ... The Mammals of Alberta. Hamly Press Ltd., Edmonton, Canada.. Sovada, M. A. and Scheick, B. K. 1999. Preliminary report to the ... Additional records of mammals of Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 61: 302-312. ...
Outer-surface protein C of the Lyme disease spirochete: A protein induced in ticks for infection of mammals | PNAS
Salivary glands and midguts were dissected separately and analyzed by IFA. Spirochetes in the salivary glands were stained with ... salivary glands were stained with DRAQ5. Spirochetes of all three clones were within the salivary glands. (Scale bar, 10 μm.) ... Outer-surface protein C of the Lyme disease spirochete: A protein induced in ticks for infection of mammals. Dorothee Grimm, ... 5A ). Midguts and salivary glands of infected nymphs were analyzed during tick feeding (at 48, 67, and 72 h after attachment) ...
Bullfrogs Questions including 'What does it mean when a bull frog has a bubble on its butt'
Sebaceous gland - Wikipedia
Sebum lubricates the skin and hair of mammals. Sebaceous secretions in conjunction with apocrine glands also play an ... The meibomian glands are also known as tarsal glands, Zeis glands and palpebral glands. They attach directly to the ... and glands on the eyelids are known as meibomian glands. Sebaceous glands of the breast are also known as Montgomerys glands.[ ... The glands have an acinar structure (like a many-lobed berry), in which multiple glands branch off a central duct. The glands ...
Endocrine system role - Chemicals - Environment - European Commission
The main glands and hormones of mammals are:. Gland. Hormones. Target organs Main actions. ... Adrenal glands. Stimulates adrenal cortex. Thyroid. Thyroxine (T4) [active form is tri-iodothyronine T3]. Many tissues. Control ... Uterus, Mammary glands. Anterior pituitary [adenohypophysis] Luteinizing hormone (LH). Gonads. Control of ovarian oestrus cycle ... A similar, but not identical, endocrine system to that of humans is found in nearly all vertebrates including other mammals, ...
Cooling Down In The Heat - AskNature
Humans, cows, and dolphins are all mammals.. mammary glands: Only found in mammals, these are specialized glands that can ... marsupial mammals: A group (specifically, an order) of mammals whose females give birth to young at a very early stage of ... placental mammals: A group (specifically, an order) of mammals in which the young develop inside the mother, attached to her ... In placental mammals, the young are born in an advanced stage of development. Compare with marsupial and monotreme. placoderm: ...
Beta-mammal/insect toxin Lqhb1 precursor - Leiurus hebraeus (Deathstalker scorpion)
Expressed by the venom gland.. ,p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.,p>,a ... Beta-mammal/insect toxin Lqhb1Add BLAST. 66. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ... sp,P0C5H3,SCB1_LEIHE Beta-mammal/insect toxin Lqhb1 OS=Leiurus hebraeus OX=6884 PE=1 SV=1 ...
Phylogenetic position of a monotypic Ethiopian endemic rodent genus Megadendromus (Rodentia, Nesomyidae) : Mammalia
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Accessed September 02, 2005 at www.redlist.org.. *. Happold, D.C.D. (ed.). 2013. Mammals of Africa. ... The endemic mammals of Ethiopia. Mammal Rev. 22: 115-150.Google Scholar ... Mammal species richness and biogeographic structure at the southern boundaries of the Nearctic region by Escalante, Tania/ ... The Mammals of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa. pp. 391.Google Scholar ...
Mammal - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sweat glands. *Tooth replacement: two sets, and no continuous replacement. Enamel on the tooth surface. Reptile teeth all alike ... Other mammals are divided into the marsupials and the Eutheria, the placental mammals. Marsupials are mammals with pouches to ... Mammals excrete urea; reptiles and birds excrete uric acid. *Colour vision is defective or absent in most mammals (primates are ... Almost all mammal species give birth to live young. There are only two mammals that lay eggs, called monotremes, the duck- ...
EDGE :: Mammal Species Information
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.. Mexican Association for Conservation and Study of Lagomorphs (AMCELA), Romero Malpica, F.J., Rangel ... Mammals. Overview Top 100 Focal Species Potential EDGE Species Top 10 ED Species Recent Extinctions Possibly Extinct Search ... Walkers Mammals of the World. Sixth edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.. UNEP World ... Distribution map based on data provided by the IUCN Global Mammal Assessment. ...
IUCN Red List reveals world's mammals in crisis | IUCN
The most comprehensive assessment of the worlds mammals has confirmed an extinction crisis, with almost o... ... IUCNs headquarters are located in Gland, near Geneva, in Switzerland. www.iucn.org About the IUCN Species Survival Commission ... The new study to assess the worlds mammals shows at least 1,141 of the 5,487 mammals on Earth are known to be threatened with ... "It captures data on the mammal fauna of the world in a unique database that has been structured to highlight conservation, and ...
Exploring the Link Between Evolution and Prostate Cancer
Secreted by the mammary glandsReptilesVertebratesFemale mammalsSweatMarine mammalsMonotremesEndocrineOrgansEccrine glandsWarm-bloodedAttachment to submucosal glandsIUCNPrimatesAdrenalPlacental mammalsSubmandibular GlandEmbryoProduce milkThyroidDiaphragmExocrineLarge MammalsMiceMonotremeGroup of mammalsAttaches directly to the skullDuctsWaxy substanceTraitsSebaceousCarnivoresThermoregulationInsects5,000 speciesTissuesConservationMarsupialsMelatoninFoundToxinMales1997Life of mammSpecies of the WorldDuck-billed pAfricaOrder of mammalsUnique to mammals
Secreted by the mammary glands2
- Other characteristics of mammals are also found in other animals such as the reptiles, fish, insects, and birds. (worldatlas.com)
- Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). (nih.gov)
- Basic structural body plan is inherited from Therapsid mammal-like reptiles. (shsu.edu)
- A similar, but not identical, endocrine system to that of humans is found in nearly all vertebrates including other mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, although the precise structures and roles of the various organs and hormones differ between different groups, particularly in relation to the different life cycle and development stages in different species. (europa.eu)
- The group of reptiles, birds, and mammals . (pbs.org)
- By studying fossils, it is possible to say that these mammals evolved from early reptiles. (rte.ie)
- At this early stage, the mammals were inconspicuous animals, dominated by the reptiles and in particular, the dinosaurs. (rte.ie)
- The ancient relatives of mammals were extremely different in terms of appearance from living mammals, and are often mistaken for reptiles (for example dinosaurs). (bartleby.com)
- In reality though, these relatives of mammals, called synapsids, are more like mammals than reptiles. (bartleby.com)
- Synapsids are often described as "mammal-like reptiles" because they show both reptilian and mammalian traits. (bartleby.com)
- This view is technically flawed because in terms of fossilized remains (the only basis by which the structure of an extinct animal can be remade), only a small amount of traits consistently distinguished mammals from reptiles. (bartleby.com)
- Providing accurate, at-a-glance information on managing the diseases of birds and exotic pets, Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets is the only comprehensive resource on the market covering birds, reptiles, small mammals, and other non-traditional pets. (elsevier.com)
- Birds (class Aves) and mammals (class Mammalia) later evolved from separate groups of reptiles. (wikibooks.org)
- Mammalian skin contains several kinds of glands not found in other vertebrates. (shsu.edu)
- bodies of mammals typically covered with hair, which has no structural homology in other vertebrates. (shsu.edu)
- Almost all animals can do some learning, but mammals do far more than other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
- Mammals, including humans, are generally regarded as the most evolved or advanced of the vertebrates (animals with a backbone and spinal cord). (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
- Protein and peptide hormones are produced by several glands in the vertebrates. (springer.com)
- These independent endocrine glands have been described only in arthropods (where neurohormones are still the dominant type of endocrine messenger) and in vertebrates (where they are best developed). (wikibooks.org)
- The process naturally occurs with all post- pregnancy female mammals , although it predates mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- Milk is a whitish liquid containing proteins, fats, lactose, and various vitamins and minerals that is produced by the mammary glands of all mature female mammals after they have given birth and serves as nourishment for their young. (prezi.com)
- A white liquid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals for feeding their young. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A milk-producing gland in female mammals. (quizlet.com)
- Sweat glands make this possible. (worldatlas.com)
- In hot conditions, the secretions emulsify the sweat produced by the eccrine glands and this produces a sheet of sweat that is not readily lost in drops of sweat. (wikipedia.org)
- The sweat glands of many mammals aid thermoregulation through evaporative cooling. (asknature.org)
- These unusual mammals also lack sweat glands. (enchantedlearning.com)
- Milk glands evolved from sweat glands. (plos.org)
- That's preferable to hauling oneself, helpless and blind, out of a pouch and climbing along fur to a glorified sweat gland trying to be a nipple, like marsupials such as kangaroos and opossums do. (plos.org)
- In most mammals, water given off by the intact skin, either as vapour by simple evaporation from the epidermis (insensible perspiration) or as sweat, a form of cooling in which liquid actively secreted from sweat glands (q.v.) evaporates from the body surface. (biology-online.org)
- Sweat glands, although found in the majority of mammals , constitute the primary means of heat dissipation only in certain hoofed animals (orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla) and in primates, including humans. (biology-online.org)
- In cats, rats and mice they (sweat glands) are confined to the soles of the feet. (biology-online.org)
- Humans have the highest density of eccrine sweat glands of any mammal. (pnas.org)
- The evolution of this novel physiological ability required a dramatic increase in the density and distribution of eccrine sweat glands relative to other mammals and a concomitant reduction of body hair cover. (pnas.org)
- Mammals (formally Mammalia ) are a class of vertebrate , air-breathing animals whose females are characterized by the possession of mammary glands while both males and females are characterized by sweat glands , hair and/or fur, three middle ear bones used in hearing , and a neocortex region in the brain. (thefullwiki.org)
- Whales, like many other large sea creatures, are classified as marine mammals, and certain species of whales are actually some of the largest mammals on earth. (worldatlas.com)
- In this paper, we apply such a global approach to analysing correlates of species-level extinction risk in non-marine mammals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Toothed whales (Odontoceti) - predators that use their peg-like teeth to catch fish, squid, and marine mammals, swallowing them whole. (enchantedlearning.com)
- In marine mammals, several subtypes of avian influenza A virus have caused epidemics in harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina ) ( 3 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- To understand differences in these properties between harbor seals and other marine mammals, we determined patterns of attachment for influenza virus strains known to have infected the respiratory tract of harbor seals, gray seals ( Halichoerus grypus ), harbor porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena ), and bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ). (cdc.gov)
- Influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 (A/Netherlands/164/09) and seasonal subtype (H3N2) virus (A/Netherlands/213/03) were chosen because they circulate endemically in humans and might have contact with captive marine mammals through their caretakers. (cdc.gov)
- We obtained respiratory tract specimens from marine mammals from archives of paraffin-embedded tissues. (cdc.gov)
- Although we've been fascinated by these animals for thousands of years, it wasn't until approximately the 1940's that research in the field of marine mammals really began. (crunchyroll.com)
- Mammals generally give birth to living young ones except for the two species of monotremes , which are the echidna, and the duck-billed platypus. (worldatlas.com)
- Even though monotremes lay eggs, they have mammary glands that produce milk for the young ones after they hatch. (worldatlas.com)
- Certain features of the skull appear to link monotremes to the extinct early mammal groups. (britannica.com)
- The strange rounded cusps on the molar teeth of K. ritchiei were a surprise to paleontologists, suggesting that Cretaceous monotremes may have been more diverse and widespread than previously thought and may in fact have been the dominant mammals in the Australian sector of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwanaland . (britannica.com)
- With the exception of the monotremes , all mammals bear live young. (wikipedia.org)
- however, the monotremes , egg-laying mammals, lack nipples and release milk through ducts in the abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
- Monotremes are unusual mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. (answersingenesis.org)
- Except for the five species of monotremes (which lay eggs), all mammal species give birth to live young. (thefullwiki.org)
- and the bodies of the ultimobranchial gland make up the endocrine system in fishes. (britannica.com)
- Medicine: Internal medicine: Specialties of internal medicine: Diseases of the endocrine glands. (doaj.org)
- Histological observation of some of the endocrine glands in the sterile carp-funa hybrid (F1), with special reference to the hypophysis. (biomedsearch.com)
- Some endocrine glands of the carp-funa hybrids were studied with a light microscope to elucidate their detailed structure and the possible causal factor of sterility in the males. (biomedsearch.com)
- True endocrine glands probably evolved later in the evolutionary history of the animal kingdom as separate, hormone-secreting structures. (wikibooks.org)
- Some of the cells of these endocrine glands are derived from nerve cells that migrated during the process of evolution from the nervous system to various locations in the body. (wikibooks.org)
- The endoskeleton also protects the vital organs of mammals such as the heart, kidneys, and lungs. (worldatlas.com)
- Epithelial tissues line skin, glands, cavities of organs etc. (news-medical.net)
- To identify pathways controlling the relative patterning of eccrine glands and hair follicles, we exploited natural variation in the density of these organs between different strains of mice. (pnas.org)
- female Redtail Splitfin nourish their unborn young through organs known as trophotaeniae that function similar to umbilical cords in mammals ? (thefullwiki.org)
- apocrine which is mainly found in hairy animals and eccrine glands that is common in less hairy mammals. (worldatlas.com)
- Apocrine glands produce scented secretions than the eccrine glands which are found in more advanced mammals such as man, chimpanzees, and gorillas. (worldatlas.com)
- Alongside hair follicles, eccrine glands are found throughout human skin and are indispensible for thermoregulation. (pnas.org)
- Differential and allelic expression analysis of the genes within this interval coupled with subsequent functional studies demonstrated that the level of En1 activity directs the relative numbers of eccrine glands and hair follicles. (pnas.org)
- Mammals are warm-blooded animals meaning that they possess an internal body temperature control mechanism. (worldatlas.com)
- Like all mammals, whales are warm blooded. (worldatlas.com)
- Like birds, mammals are homeothermic (warm-blooded) and have a four chambered heart with complete double circulation. (answersingenesis.org)
- Classified as Endangered (EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,v)) on the 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (edgeofexistence.org)
- Barcelona, Spain, 6 October, 2008 (IUCN) - The most comprehensive assessment of the world's mammals has confirmed an extinction crisis, with almost one in four at risk of disappearing forever, according to The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™, revealed at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in Barcelona. (iucn.org)
- IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. (wikipedia.org)
- International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland. (tolweb.org)
- A large liver, heart and adrenal gland facilitate a rapid physical response. (si.edu)
- The suprarenal or adrenal glands, each perched over one of the kidneys, are double glands. (greenfacts.org)
- Fear and stress then activates the adrenal glands to secrete the hormone adrenaline which increases the heart and respiratory rates. (wikibooks.org)
- In 1942, Walls described the concept of a 'nocturnal bottleneck' in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. (nih.gov)
- No wonder the placental mammals have taken over, and range today from tiny shrews to gigantic blue whales. (plos.org)
- thyroid gland . (britannica.com)
- Thyroiditis Thyroiditis, any of many inflammatory diseases of the thyroid gland. (britannica.com)
- Calcitonin (CT) is also produced by the thyroid gland, parafollicular cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Ultrasound Measurements of Thyroid Gland Volume at 36 Weeksâ€™ Corrected Gestational Age in Extremely Preterm Infants Born before 28 Weeksâ€™ Gestation Thyroid ultrasound is a non-invasive imaging tool and provides good evaluation of thyroid anatomy , location, vascularisation, and echogenicity. (tripdatabase.com)
- All infants had ultrasound assessment of the thyroid gland at 36 weeks' CGA. (tripdatabase.com)
- A sebaceous gland is a microscopic exocrine gland in the skin that opens into a hair follicle to secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum , which lubricates the hair and skin of mammals . (wikipedia.org)
- the second variety of glands are known as exocrine glands. (sparknotes.com)
- Some exocrine gland tumors, such as a VIPoma, an insulinoma, a pheochromocytoma, etc. are typically not referred to as adenocarcinomas. (news-medical.net)
- Extant equids are medium to large mammals , with long heads, and necks with a mane. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The appearance of Homo sapiens and the disappearance of various species of large mammals" -these words, I believe, demonstrate the theme of Paul S. Martin's famed hypothesis. (bartleby.com)
- For example, a striking feature of the Pleistocene was the abundance and diversity of extremely large mammals such as the mammoth, giant ground sloth, wooly rhinoceros, and sabretooth tiger on all habitable continents. (sciencemag.org)
- We investigated the genetic basis for the regulation of eccrine gland density in mice and find that eccrine gland and hair follicle densities are inversely regulated by the transcription factor En1. (pnas.org)
- Immunohistochemical observations of epidermal growth factor, keratin proteins and lectin binding on effects of testosterone administration in duct-ligated submandibular glands of mice. (nii.ac.jp)
- The mammary glands of mice lacking the gene for the microRNAs 212 and 132 failed to grow at puberty. (redorbit.com)
- But the absence of the microRNAs miR-212 and miR-132 resulted in the complete failure of duct development in the mammary glands of mice. (redorbit.com)
Group of mammals3
- Each group of mammals has its own frequency. (wikipedia.org)
- Cetaceans are the group of mammals that includes the whales, dolphins, and porpoises. (enchantedlearning.com)
- Most mammals also possess specialized teeth , and the largest group of mammals, the placentals , use a placenta during gestation. (thefullwiki.org)
Attaches directly to the skull1
- Sebaceous glands labeled at center left. (wikipedia.org)
- In the eyelids, meibomian glands , also called tarsal glands, are a type of sebaceous gland that secrete a special type of sebum into tears. (wikipedia.org)
- Surrounding the female nipple, areolar glands are specialized sebaceous glands for lubricating the nipple. (wikipedia.org)
- Fordyce spots are benign , visible, sebaceous glands found usually on the lips, gums and inner cheeks, and genitals . (wikipedia.org)
- These are usually attributable to overactive sebaceous glands, which produce excess sebum. (wikipedia.org)
- Sebaceous glands are found throughout all areas of the skin, except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet . (wikipedia.org)
- There are two types of sebaceous gland, those connected to hair follicles and those that exist independently. (wikipedia.org)
- Sebaceous glands are found in hair-covered areas, where they are connected to hair follicles . (wikipedia.org)
- The structure, consisting of hair, hair follicle, arrector pili muscles, and sebaceous gland, is an epidermal invagination known as a pilosebaceous unit . (wikipedia.org)
- Sebaceous glands are also found in hairless areas ( glabrous skin ) of the eyelids , nose , penis , labia minora , the inner mucosal membrane of the cheek , and nipples . (wikipedia.org)
- Some sebaceous glands have unique names. (wikipedia.org)
- Sebaceous glands on the lip and mucosa of the cheek, and on the genitalia, are known as Fordyce spots , and glands on the eyelids are known as meibomian glands . (wikipedia.org)
- Sebaceous glands of the breast are also known as Montgomery's glands . (wikipedia.org)
- Sebaceous glands are first visible from the 13th to the 16th week of fetal development , as bulgings off hair follicles. (wikipedia.org)
- Sebaceous glands develop from the same tissue that gives rise to the epidermis of the skin. (wikipedia.org)
- Overexpression of the signalling factors Wnt , Myc and SHH all increase the likelihood of sebaceous gland presence. (wikipedia.org)
- The sebaceous glands of a human fetus secrete a substance called vernix caseosa , a waxy, translucent white substance coating the skin of newborns . (wikipedia.org)
- Scalp cross section showing follicle with sebaceous glands. (wikipedia.org)
- Relative to keratinocytes that make up the hair follicle, sebaceous glands are composed of huge cells with many large vesicles that contain the sebum. (wikipedia.org)
- Sebaceous secretions in conjunction with apocrine glands also play an important thermoregulatory role. (wikipedia.org)
- Sebum is produced in a holocrine process , in which cells within the sebaceous gland rupture and disintegrate as they release the sebum and the cell remnants are secreted together with the sebum. (wikipedia.org)
- But the results also show conservation can bring species back from the brink of extinction, with five percent of currently threatened mammals showing signs of recovery in the wild. (iucn.org)
- "The reality is that the number of threatened mammals could be as high as 36 percent," says Jan Schipper, of Conservation International and lead author in a forthcoming article in Science . (iucn.org)
- The assessment of the world's mammals shows that species can recover with concerted conservation efforts. (iucn.org)
- The ongoing extirpation of large-bodied mammals is a major conservation concern because their decline can lead to the loss of ecological function within communities ( 3 , 5 , 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Additionally, the analysis did not provide evidence of higher mammal abundance in classified forests, which one would assume if conservation interventions aimed at reducing hunting were implemented. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- Anna's research on lorises ranges from behavioural ecology in zoos, rescue centres and in the wild, museum studies, genetics, acoustics, taxonomy, conservation education and now a novel study of chemical ecology and how this bizarre primate is one of the only mammals that produces venom. (brookes.ac.uk)
- I focus on the behaviour, ecology, taxonomy and conservation of nocturnal mammals. (brookes.ac.uk)
- This is a trait found but not limited to mammals. (worldatlas.com)
- From the Flying foxes that inhabit the skies of Australia to the seals that live in our oceans, mammals all found throughout the planet. (rte.ie)
- It includes all mammals currently found in North America north of Mexico, whether resident or as migrants. (wikipedia.org)
- A list of Mexican mammals can be found here. (wikipedia.org)
- The prostate is a male accessory sex gland found only in mammals. (mdpi.com)
- We compared models, taking account of the human population in different ways, and found that wild mammal abundance was better explained by human factors other than human population density. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- the largest known colony of mammals in the world is found in Bracken Cave near the small town of Bracken, Texas ? (thefullwiki.org)
- the nematode Capillaria plica is a parasite found in the urinary bladder of dogs, cats and various mammals ? (thefullwiki.org)
- the anthraquinones , emodin glycosides , toxalbumins, and alkaloids found in coffee senna (pictured) can be toxic to mammals when consumed in large quantities? (thefullwiki.org)
- bats comprise about 20% of all mammal species found in the Central Oregon Coast Range (pictured) ? (thefullwiki.org)
- There are different types of cells that are found at different layers in each of these … glands. (answers.com)
- Males don't really have mammary glands - just nipples with pectoral muscles under them, and a fat-storage site. (biology-online.org)
- Actually, if we go nitpicking here, mammary glands aren't completely inoperative in males, one could say that they are rather 'dormant' - with proper hormonal treatment, certain men can even lactate. (biology-online.org)
- It can occur in males and females of many mammal species as result of hormonal imbalances such as hyperprolactinaemia . (wikipedia.org)
- Rival males will rub their tails in their scent gland and waft it toward their opponent. (upi.com)
Life of mamm1
Species of the World2
- 2014. Pan-African phylogeny of Mus (subgenus Nannomys ) reveals one of the most successful mammal radiations in Africa. (degruyter.com)
- Over harvesting is wiping out larger mammals, especially in Southeast Asia, but also in parts of Africa and South America. (iucn.org)
- Although all habitable continents once harbored giant mammals, the few remaining species are largely confined to Africa. (sciencemag.org)
- We estimated the effects of the human population on wild mammals in a rural area in the Republic of Guinea, West Africa. (ecologyandsociety.org)