Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.ReadingSpectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Aryldialkylphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2).Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.TaiwanScience: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)DNA Restriction-Modification Enzymes: Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)DNA-Cytosine Methylases: Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.5-Methylcytosine: A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Thymine DNA Glycosylase: An enzyme that removes THYMINE and URACIL bases mispaired with GUANINE through hydrolysis of their N-glycosidic bond. These mispaired nucleotides generally occur through the hydrolytic DEAMINATION of 5-METHYLCYTOSINE to thymine.Pentoxyl: 5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Insectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Bulbar Palsy, Progressive: A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1091; Brain 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1889-1900)Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Trichechus: A genus of the order Sirenia comprising what are commonly called manatees. The distinguishing characteristics include a tail that is not notched, a short nasal cavity, the absence of nasal bones, and enamel-covered teeth. Members of this genus are found in marine bays and/or sluggish rivers, usually in turbid water. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)
Due to this loss of part of the mitochondrial (kinetoplast) DNA T. evansi is not capable of infecting the invertebrate vector ... Hoare CR (1972). "The trypanosomes of the Mammals". Blackwell, Oxford. Luckins AG (May 1988). "Trypanosoma evansi in Asia". ... Borst P, Fase-Fowler F, Gibson WC (January 1987). "Kinetoplast DNA of Trypanosoma evansi". Mol Biochem Parasitol. 23 (1): 31-38 ... Trypanosoma brucei to gradual loss of kinetoplast DNA: Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi are petite mutants of T. ...
2005). "Order Cetacea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed ... "DNA Discovery Reveals Surprising Dolphin Origins". 13 January 2014. Jefferson, T.A. (1996). "Morphology of the Clymene dolphin ... It is the only confirmed case of hybrid speciation in marine mammals, descending from the spinner dolphin and the striped ... Cetaceans portal Marine life portal Marine mammal List of whale and dolphin species List of genetic hybrids Mead, J.G.; ...
2005). "The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome". Nature. 434 (7031): 325-37. doi:10.1038/nature03440. PMC 2665286 . PMID ... 2000). "Conservation of PCDHX in mammals; expression of human X/Y genes predominantly in brain". Mamm. Genome. 11 (10): 906-14 ... The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (1): 65-73. doi: ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Perissodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... Ryder, O. A.; George, M. (1986). "Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the genus Equus". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 3 (6): 535- ... Prothero D.R; Schoch R. M (2003). Horns, Tusks, and Flippers: The Evolution of Hoofed Mammals'. Johns Hopkins University Press ... Estes, R. (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press. pp. 240-242. ISBN 0-520-08085-8. J. E ...
DNA Science Blog". DNA Science Blog. 2015-01-29. Retrieved 2018-01-08. "Surveying the Genomic Landscape of Modern Mammals , DNA ... Shapiro, James A. (2012-01-06). "More Evidence on the Real Nature of Evolutionary DNA Change". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2018- ... DNA Science Blog, January 29, 2015. http://blogs.plos.org/dnascience/2015/01/29/probing-genomic-landscape-modern-mammals/. ... http://trowelblazers.com/elisabeth-vrba/. Shapiro, J. "More Evidence on the Real Nature of Evolutionary DNA Change," Huffington ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus ... Humans and mammals serve as the natural hosts. Transmission routes are zoonosis and contact. Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned ... Like all members of the Poxviridae family, they are oval, relatively large, double-stranded DNA viruses. Parapoxviruses have a ... Parapoxviruses infect vertebrates, including a wide selection of mammals, and humans. Not all parapoxviruses are zoonotic. ...
... s are small mammals of variable body form. The smallest species are the size of shrews, with a body length of around 4.5 ... Asher RJ, Hofreiter M (2006). "Tenrec phylogeny and the noninvasive extraction of nuclear DNA". Syst Biol. 55 (2): 181-94. doi: ... Unusual for mammals, the permanent dentition in tenrecs tends not to completely erupt until well after adult body size has been ... The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 744-747. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. Stanhope, MJ; Waddell, VG; Madsen, O; de ...
The DNA sequence encoding C9orf152 contains a single intron. The final mRNA consists of 2698 base pairs. Nucleotides 66-68 ... C9orf152 has orthologs in mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. No orthologs have been detected in bony fish or in any ...
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is ... Human, mammals, and vertebrates serve as natural hosts. There are currently 25 species in this genus, including the type ... Intermediate genes activate replication of the DNA genome by DNA strand displacement in the nucleus. Expression of L4-22K and ... Human, mammals, and vertebrates serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are fecal-oral and respiratory. "Viral Zone". ...
Mitochondrial DNA is 1% of total DNA of a cell. It is rich in Guanine and Cytosine content. Mitochondria of mammals have 55s ... Mitochondrial DNA was discovered by Nash and Margit in 1963. One to many double stranded mainly circular DNA is present in ... The mitochondrial DNA only codes for about thirteen proteins that are used in processing mitochondrial transcripts, ribosomal ... Protein synthesis makes use of mitochondrial DNA, RNA, and tRNA. Regulation of processes makes use of ions(Ca2+/K+/Mg+). ...
Indochinese leopard Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Panthera pardus japonensis". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the ... Mitochondrial DNA: 1-2. Stein, A. B.; Hayssen, V. (2010). "Panthera pardus (Carnivora: Felidae)" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 45 ( ... 1966). Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946. Second edition. British Museum (Natural History), London. Dou ...
But unlike mammals they possess two DNA methyltransferases 1 and just one DNA methyltransferase 3. DNA methylation ... This modification is set by DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts). There are three known types of DNA methyltransferases in mammals. ... Dnmt 2 is not known to methylate DNA in mammals. In Drosophila however a knock down of Dnmt 2-like protein is sufficient to ... DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism. It is a chemical modification of the DNA where a methyl group is attached to ...
Enzymes that add a methyl group are called DNA methyltransferases. In mammals, 70% to 80% of CpG cytosines are methylated. ... DNA damage appears to be the primary underlying cause of cancer. If accurate DNA repair is deficient, DNA damages tend to ... Such excess DNA damage can increase mutational errors during DNA replication due to error-prone translesion synthesis. Excess ... July 2007). "DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation". PLoS Genetics. 3 (7): e110. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen. ...
n. (Cetacea: Ziphiidae), Discovered Through Phylogenic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Marine Mammal Science 18(3): ... Marine Mammal Science 13(3): 487-495. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00656.x (HTML abstract) Messenger, S.L. & McQuire, J.A. ( ... J. Mammal. 62(2): 430-432. doi:10.2307/1380733 Mead, James G. (1984): Survey of reproductive data for the beaked whales ( ... In: Ridgway, S.H. & Harrison, R. (eds.): Handbook of marine mammals Vol.4: 349-430. Academic Press, London. Jefferson, T.A.; ...
n. (Cetacea: Ziphiidae), Discovered Through Phylogenic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Marine Mammal Science 18(3): ... This work became a primary motivation for the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972). His work on cetacean taxonomy was ... 1987). "Revision of the spotted dolphins, Stenella spp." Marine Mammal Science 3:99-170. Perrin, W. F., G. P. Donovan and J. ... Perrin, W. F., B. Würsig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds.). (2009). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Second Edition. Academic Press ...
n. (Cetacea: Ziphiidae), Discovered Through Phylogenic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Marine Mammal Science 18(3): ... J. Mammal. 62(2): 430-432. doi:10.2307/1380733 (First page image) Mead, James G. (1984): Survey of reproductive data for the ... Marine Mammal Science 13(3): 487-495. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00656.x (HTML abstract) Jefferson, T.A.; Leatherwood, S ... Stranded specimens can be identified as this species by either DNA sequence data and/or anatomical details of the skull.( ...
"DNA Study Clarifies Relationship Between Polar Bears and Brown Bears." University Of California, Santa Cruz. University Of ... Large Mammal Restoration: Ecological and Sociological Challenges in the 21st Century (1 ed.). Washington, DC: Island Press. pp ... Rausch, Robert L. (1953). "On the Status of some Arctic Mammals". Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of ... until DNA testing revealed that they should properly be grouped in the same species as the other brown bears. Grizzlies living ...
North American Mammals: Pronghorn Antilocapra americana Switek, Brian. "Prehistoric DNA Reveals the Story of a Pleistocene ... Fossil DNA evidence suggests that muskoxen were not only more geographically widespread during the Pleistocene, but also more ... The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in Inuktitut: ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic mammal of the ... Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ...
In mammals, ELP3 is important for paternal DNA demethylation after fertilization. ELP3 is potentially involved in cellular ... Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788-95 ...
Mammals of Africa. 3. London: Bloomsbury. p. 701-702. ISBN 978-1-4081-8992-4. Thomas, Oldfield (1903). "On a Collection of ... "Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals reticulate evolution in hares (Lepus spp., Lagomorpha, Mammalia) from Ethiopia". PLOS ONE ... The Ethiopian hare (Lepus fagani) is a species of mammal in the family Leporidae. It was first described in 1903, by the ... Hoffman, R.S.; Smith, A.T. (2005). "Species Lepus (Sabanalagus) fagani". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the ...
... in male mammals, the penis and scrotum; and in female mammals, the clitoris and vulva. The other, hidden sex organs are ... Gonads are the true sex organs, generating reproductive gametes containing inheritable DNA. They also produce most of the ... In placental mammals, females have two genital orifices, the vagina and urethra, while males have only one, the urethra. Male ... In mammals, sex organs include: In typical prenatal development, sexual organs originate from a common anlage anatomy during ...
Mitochondria DNA sequences of Finlayson's squirrel found in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Mammal Study, 37, 63-67 ... Mammal Review, 43, 22-33. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2011.00204.x Kuramoto, T., Torii, H., Ikeda, H., Endo, H., Rerkamnuaychoke, W ... Thorington, R.W., Jr.; Hoffmann, R.S. (2005). "Callosciurus finlaysonii". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the ...
However DNA analysis of the scats failed to yield any usable DNA. No DNA was found in dingo and cat scats in the area as well. ... Johnson, C. (2006). "Chapter 1: A brief history of Australia's mammals" (PDF). Australia's mammal extinctions: a 50,000 year ... The desert rat-kangaroo was declared extinct in 1994, making it the only mammal species to be recovered and then lost again. In ... Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop (2008). "Caloprymnus campestris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. ...
The DNA sequence is 37,155 base pairs long and contains 7 exons. CCDC82 is present in many orthologs. It is conserved ... throughout other mammals, reptiles, birds and bony fish. It is not found in invertebrates, bacteria or fungi. There are no ...
The colour of this mammal varies from a reddish-brown to a pale grey, with a black tip on the tail. The springhare lives only ... Matthee, C. A. and Robinson, T. J. (1997). Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and comparative cytogenetics of the springhare, ... The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 634-635. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. Further Information at Animal Diversity ... Dieterlen, F. (2005). "Family Pedetidae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ...
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • ... Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ...
Environmental DNA (eDNA) is revolutionising how we monitor biodiversity. Focusing on water voles, Maisie Peaks investigates new ... Home // Research grants // Our UK mammal projects // Monitoring British mammals using environmental DNA ... For mammal communities, eDNA gives us the potential to non-invasively monitor species across the country. We are providing ... But, as they move through the environment they expel small particles of DNA which we can collect from the soil or water or ...
Microsatellites Mitochondrial DNA Noninvasive genetic sampling Molecular sexing Small mammals Ochotona princeps ... Obtaining high-quality DNA from elusive small mammals using low-tech hair snares. ... Toth M (2008) A new noninvasive method for detecting mammals from birds nests. J Wildl Manage 72:1237-1240CrossRefGoogle ... In: Lincoln PJ, Thomson J (eds) Forensic DNA profiling protocols. Humana, Totowa, pp 9-18CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... has been shown to be stable in mammalian DNA, suggesting that it plays a key role in cellular function. ... A rare DNA base, previously thought to be a temporary modification, ... Expanding the DNA alphabet: Extra DNA base found to be stable in mammals. University of Cambridge ... Expanding the DNA alphabet: Extra DNA base found to be stable in mammals ...
The most common DNA modification in mammals is 5-methylcytosine (5mC), comprising ~3 to 6% of the total cytosines in human DNA ... DNA extraction. DNA was extracted using Mini Spin Columns (EconoSpin, no. 1910) with reagents from Quick-DNA/RNA Kit (Zymo ... Since no methyl groups are added during WGA of genomic DNA, amplified DNA was used as a negative control in dot blots. DNA was ... DNA fragment amplification. DNA fragments of varying AT content were custom-ordered from Integrated DNA Technologies and were ...
The repair of X-ray-induced DNA single strand breaks and DNA--protein cross-links was investigated in stationary phase, contact ... DNA--protein cross-links were removed at a slower rate (T1/2 approx. 10--12 h). Cells were held in stationary growth for ... Relationship of DNA repair to chromosome aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and survival during liquid-holding recovery in ... The possible relationship of DNA repair to these changes in survival, chromosome aberrations, and sister-chromatid exchanges ...
Mammals. Reference. Robin ED, Wong R. Mitochondrial DNA molecules and virtual number of mitochondria per cell in mammalian ... Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) was measured using the method of Tapper and Clayton (Murphy et al., 1984). P.509 right column 2nd ... Mt DNA/mitochondrion was essentially constant in all cell types (mean 2.6±0.30 SE mitochondrial DNA molecules/mt).. ... Number of mitochondrial DNA per mitochondrion. Value. 2.6 copies/mitochondrion Range: ±0.3 copies/mitochondrion ...
Ancient DNA from soils and sediments from the Krigstjärn area, northern Sweden: Preservation and detection of Holocene mammal ... Oldest sediments contained DNA, indicating sufficient DNA preservation conditions in the sediments of Lake Krigstjärn. Finds of ... Moose ancient DNA (aDNA) was only detected in the archaeological soils. Yet, there were signs that the applied moose primer set ... This study explored if ancient DNA of moose (Alces alces), reindeer (Rangifer tarangus), goat (Capra aegagrus) and plants could ...
Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Trichuridae nematodes of carnivores and small mammals ... Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Trichuridae nematodes of carnivores and small mammals. Veterinary Parasitology, 197 ... Several species of Trichuridae nematodes can infect dogs, cats and wild mammals. The diagnosis of these infections relies on ... Interspecies divergence was much higher at the cox 1 mtDNA gene locus, rendering it suitable for DNA barcoding and particularly ...
New insights into establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation imprints in mammals. Kelsey, G.; Feil, R. ... New insights into establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation imprints in mammals. ... Instead, it seems to obey default processes in germ cells, giving rise to distinct patterns of DNA methylation in sperm and ... Fundamental to genomic imprinting in mammals is the acquisition of epigenetic marks that differ in male and female gametes at ...
... were utilized to build TFBS identification models for studying binding preference between TFs and their DNA targets in mammals ... Transcription factors (TFs) are central proteins for transcriptional regulation, and interactions between TFs and their DNA ... Subsequently, correspondence between TFs and their TFBSs was investigated to explore interactions among them in mammals. ... where n is the length of the DNA segment, j denotes a position in the DNA segment or the PWM, i j denotes the base (A,T,C,G) of ...
Scientists sequence Norway spruce DNA. The trees genome is LONG. *. Parents arrested after children found shackled and ...
Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of pond water as a tool to survey conservation and management priority mammals ... Terrestrial mammal eDNA signals were weaker and detected less frequently than semi-aquatic mammal eDNA signals. eDNA ... Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding can identify terrestrial taxa utilising aquatic habitats alongside aquatic communities, ... Metabarcoding missed badger and red fox recorded by cameras and field signs, but detected small mammals these tools overlooked ...
The tool cannot predict a persons face from DNA, say researchers-including some listed as coauthors on the publication. ...
DNA methylation in plants differs from that of mammals: while DNA methylation in mammals mainly occurs on the cytosine ... DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. Methylation can change the activity of a DNA ... Abbreviations: S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH), S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase), Uracil-DNA ... Ancient DNA methylation reconstruction, a method to reconstruct high-resolution DNA methylation from ancient DNA samples. The ...
DNA Loss Calculation.. DNA loss coefficients were calculated as in Lindblad-Toh et al. (39). We estimated lineage-specific DNA ... DNA Loss Calculation.. DNA loss coefficients were calculated as in ref. 39. We estimated lineage-specific DNA loss coefficients ... Gain and loss of DNA as driving forces of genome size variation. (A) DNA gains (percent ancestor size) are plotted against DNA ... of DNA are shown. DNA gains correspond mostly to lineage-specific TEs in red (not shared with other mammals). When available, ...
... between unrelated individuals are found in mammals - could such invasions have led to past extinctions? ... "It is very interesting conceptually - the idea that some parts of a mammals DNA dont come from an ancestral species," he says ... Mammal extinctions?. The team thinks that the hAT transposon invasion occurred about 30 million years ago and spread across at ... Parts of mammalian DNA are so alien they have been dubbed "space invaders" by the researchers that found them. The discovery, ...
... solenodons are the last living creatures from an ancient branch on the tree of life that diverged from other living mammals 78 ... The study, published in Mitochondrial DNA, confirmed that the venomous mammal diverged from all other living mammals 78 million ... An offsprings nuclear DNA is a mixture of genes from each parent while mitochondrial DNA is passed directly from mother to ... Endangered venomous mammal predates dinosaurs extinction, study confirms. Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, ...
DNA libraries were constructed for these species using a NEBNext DNA Library Prep Master Mix Set for 454 (New England Biolabs ... The evolution of mammal body sizes: Responses to Cenozoic climate change in North American mammals. J. Evol. Biol. 26, 1317- ... barcoded DNA libraries suitable for Illumina sequencing were prepared from dugong and Stellers sea cow DNA extracts and ... whereas ancient DNA was extracted from three woolly rhinoceros bone samples in an ancient DNA dedicated laboratory following ...
By collecting and analyzing the DNA or protein sequences of marine and land mammals, we can infer the phylogeny of marine ... Cladistic Analysis of Marine Mammals Introduction. Whales and dolphins are both marine mammals. So are walruses, seals, otters ... You will then use this phylogenetic tree to test our hypothesis that all marine mammals have a single common land mammal ... First, we will explore the relationship of the marine mammals to each other vs. their evolutionary relationship to land mammals ...
Fossil origin based on DNA testing. Feb 17, 2020. More from Biology and Medical ... Aerial surveys of elephants and other mammals may underestimate numbers. by Janet Lathrop, University of Massachusetts Amherst ... Testing the Accuracy of Aerial Surveys for Large Mammals: An Experiment with African Savanna Elephants (Loxodonta africana), ... They encourage survey teams to incorporate "detectability analysis" in all aerial surveys for mammals and suggest that ...
These mononucleotide repeats have been widely believed to be non-functional junk DNA. However, studies in yeasts suggest ... Upstream mononucleotide A-repeats play a cis-regulatory role in mammals through the DICER1 and Ago proteins (2013) Cached. * ... DNA sequence and structural properties as predictors of human and mouse promoters - Akan, Deloukas - 2008 (Show Context) ... page and to have no function, and they were called junk or selfish DNA (3). TRs have a propensity for evolvability because ...
Bacteria and mammals may use similar mechanisms in a major yet poorly understood DNA repair pathway, suggests a report in the ... Dohertys team found that purified recombinant Mt-Lig was an efficient DNA-dependent DNA polymerase in template-dependent ... The researchers also found that Mt-Lig could join aligned DNA duplexes possessing a 1-nt 3 flap adjacent to a 3-nt gap. ... "Over the last few years, it has been suggested that many other proteins, including histones that package our DNA, are required ...
I used DNA to track down my dad. *19th Mar 2018 3:00 PM ... camera to record the meeting of fisherman and massive mammal ...
The mystery beast is now being sent to scientists in Beijing for DNA testing. ...
from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been ... at a high prevalence (26.0%, 142/546). We conclude that exotic small mammals potentially serve as reservoirs of several ... DNA Extraction and PCR. The genomic DNA of each isolate was extracted by using InstaGene Matrix (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). ... from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been ...
  • Several species of Trichuridae nematodes can infect dogs, cats and wild mammals. (uzh.ch)
  • The aim of this work was to genetically characterize several species of Trichuridae that can affect dogs, cats and wild mammals, as a basis to develop molecular diagnostic tests. (uzh.ch)
  • Interspecies divergence was much higher at the cox 1 mtDNA gene locus, rendering it suitable for DNA barcoding and particularly valuable in resolving closely related species. (uzh.ch)
  • Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding can identify terrestrial taxa utilising aquatic habitats alongside aquatic communities, but terrestrial species' eDNA dynamics are understudied. (salford.ac.uk)
  • We evaluated eDNA metabarcoding for monitoring semi-aquatic and terrestrial mammals, specifically nine species of conservation or management concern, and examined spatiotemporal variation in mammal eDNA signals. (salford.ac.uk)
  • eDNA metabarcoding could enhance mammal monitoring through large-scale, multi-species distribution assessment for priority and difficult to survey species, and provide early indication of range expansions or contractions. (salford.ac.uk)
  • However, genome sequencing has revealed that many mammal and bird lineages have experienced differential rates of transposable element (TE) accumulation, which would be predicted to cause substantial variation in genome size between species. (pnas.org)
  • To test this model, we develop computational methods to quantify the amount of DNA gained by TE expansion and lost by deletion over the last 100 My in the lineages of 10 species of eutherian mammals and 24 species of birds. (pnas.org)
  • It is very interesting conceptually - the idea that some parts of a mammal's DNA don't come from an ancestral species," he says. (newscientist.com)
  • Out of 26 animal genomes, the team found a near-identical length of DNA, known as the hAT transposon, in seven species, separated by some 340 million years of evolution. (newscientist.com)
  • These include species as widely diverged as a bush baby, a South American opossum, an African clawed frog and a tenrec - a mammal that looks like a hedgehog, but is actually more closely related to elephants. (newscientist.com)
  • However, this patchy distribution by itself does not rule out the traditional method, as some of the species could have lost the transposon DNA throughout evolutionary history. (newscientist.com)
  • Feschotte admits that we cannot rule out another transposon offensive occurring in mammals, and thinks that bats are the species most likely to be the source. (newscientist.com)
  • We map ucp1 sequences from 133 mammals onto a species tree constructed from a ~51-kb sequence alignment and show that inactivating mutations have occurred in at least 8 of the 18 traditional placental orders, thereby challenging the physiological importance of UCP1 across Placentalia. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although the mammal clade evolved on land, these species have returned to the sea. (google.com)
  • in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. (cdc.gov)
  • DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed that the bacteria belonged to a single species, for which the name Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. (nih.gov)
  • Infections of mammals by species in the phylum Oomycota taxonomically and molecularly similar to known Lagenidium giganteum strains have increased. (cdc.gov)
  • During the 20th century, Pythium insidiosum was the only fungus-like species from the phylum Oomycota known to cause life-threatening infections in mammals and birds ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To infer the impact of nocturnality on the evolution of vision in mammals, we sequenced the SWS1 opsin gene (2.2 kb) in 32 species of bat and the M/LWS opsin gene (3.2 kb) in 14 species of bats. (pnas.org)
  • A study published today in Cell compares regulatory DNA sequences among 20 species of modern mammals, showcasing how mammalian genomes have found new uses for ancient genes. (plos.org)
  • 6 . The method of claim 2 , further comprising administering a cell of the same genus or species as said donor source to said recipient mammal during the normal period of immune system development of said recipient mammal. (google.es)
  • 8 . The method of claim 2 , wherein said recipient mammal is a chimeric mammal that comprises both cells of the same genus or species as said donor source and cells of a different genus or species. (google.es)
  • Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • By looking at how similar or different their DNA molecules are, we can see how closely related two species are. (open.edu)
  • There are sequences from two different species of whale, and from a variety of other mammal species. (open.edu)
  • To discover interordinal relationships of living and fossil placental mammals and the time of origin of placentals relative to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, we scored 4541 phenomic characters de novo for 86 fossil and living species. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A complex analysis of their DNA composition and other features is required to clarify the origin and evolutionary history of Bs in the species studied. (mdpi.com)
  • Altogether, 1213 small mammals were captured: 216 at site B1, 456 at site B2 and 541 at site S belonging to following species: Sorex (S.) araneus, S. coronatus, Apodemus (A.) flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus (Mi. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • On this issue, few living people have contributed so much to the discovery and documentation of new terrestrial mammal species as Dutch primatologist Dr Marc van Roosmalen [shown at left: but not the little furry chap, that's a woolly monkey]. (scienceblogs.com)
  • If you know anything about the new mammal species that have been named within the last 20 years, or about the primates of Amazonia, you will already have read an awful lot about him. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Anatomical and behavioral traits suggested that this species is a hybrid of the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), and DNA testing has shown that it is indeed a hybrid species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cetaceans portal Marine life portal Marine mammal List of whale and dolphin species List of genetic hybrids Mead, J.G. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies that used sequence data to estimate key evolutionary divergence times typically examined just one protein from a few species - this was before DNA sequencing was even possible - and used rather simple methods of analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have revealed in a species of blind cavefish the loss of an ancient DNA repair system that is highly conserved," says Nicholas Foulkes of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany. (haaretz.com)
  • Meet the 'cat-fox,' a mysterious mammal found in Corsica that could be a new species The 'cat-fox,' a mysterious feline that roams the French island of Corsica, may be a new species, according to wildlife officials. (usatoday.com)
  • New distributional records are presented for 20 species of mammals in Nebraska. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The covalent attachment of methyl groups to nucleotides, DNA methylation, is a key epigenetic mechanism in mammals. (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast, 5mC is rare in prokaryotes, in which N 6 -methyladenine (6mdA) is the most prevalent form of DNA methylation ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Much has been learnt about the nature of imprint marks, the times during gametogenesis at which they are laid down and some of the factors responsible especially for DNA methylation. (cnrs.fr)
  • Recent work has revealed that transcription and histone modifications are critically involved in DNA methylation acquisition, and these findings allow us to propose rational models for methylation establishment. (cnrs.fr)
  • A completely novel perspective on gametic DNA methylation has emerged from epigenomic profiling. (cnrs.fr)
  • Instead, it seems to obey default processes in germ cells, giving rise to distinct patterns of DNA methylation in sperm and oocytes. (cnrs.fr)
  • This new insight, together with the identification of proteins that preserve DNA methylation after fertilization, emphasizes the key role played by mechanisms that selectively retain differential methylation at imprinted loci during early development. (cnrs.fr)
  • DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methylation can change the activity of a DNA segment without changing the sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • When located in a gene promoter , DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription . (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic imprinting , X-chromosome inactivation , repression of transposable elements , aging , and carcinogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA methylation as well as many of its contemporary DNA methyltransferases has been thought to evolve from early world primitive RNA methylation activity and is supported by several lines of evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants and other organisms, DNA methylation is found in three different sequence contexts: CG (or CpG ), CHG or CHH (where H correspond to A, T or C). In mammals however, DNA methylation is almost exclusively found in CpG dinucleotides, with the cytosines on both strands being usually methylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA methylation landscape of vertebrates is very particular compared to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, around 60-80% of CpG are methylated in somatic cells and DNA methylation appears as a default state that has to be specifically excluded from defined locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytidine deaminase AID and elongator-complex proteins contribute to the extensive removal of DNA methylation in mammalian primordial germ cells and in the paternal pronucleus of the zygote. (nih.gov)
  • In these heterokaryons, DNA methylation was rapidly removed from the NANOG and OCT4 genes in the fibroblast-derived genome. (nih.gov)
  • This modification to DNA is found in very specific positions in the genome -- the places which regulate genes,' said the paper's lead author Dr. Martin Bachman, who conducted the research while at Cambridge's Department of Chemistry. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition to G, C, A and T, there are also small chemical modifications, or epigenetic marks, which affect how the DNA sequence is interpreted and control how certain genes are switched on or off. (eurekalert.org)
  • A different shape means that a DNA molecule could then attract different proteins and transcription factors, which could in turn change the way that genes are expressed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Transcription factors (TFs) are central proteins for transcriptional regulation, and interactions between TFs and their DNA targets (TFBSs) are important for downstream genes' expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These targets are named as transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), which are short DNA fragments mainly located in promoter regions of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An offspring's nuclear DNA is a mixture of genes from each parent while mitochondrial DNA is passed directly from mother to offspring without changes, creating a genetic record that researchers can use to trace back the lineage of organisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • A previous study used a different set of genes to estimate that solenodons diverged from mammals during the Cretaceous Period 76 million years ago. (eurekalert.org)
  • What other protein sequences or genes might be useful in assessing evolutionary relationships between marine and terrestrial mammals? (google.com)
  • The three closely related genes belong to a gene family with at least eight members in mammals and are candidate genes for quantitative traits related to dietary fat uptake, lipid synthesis and storage. (nih.gov)
  • The DNA itself is contained within the nuclei of cells where it is divided up into coiled chunks called chromosomes that each contain up to a few thousand genes. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Packaging up the DNA like this ensures that cells can duplicate their genes correctly when they make copies of themselves to allow cells to divide. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • To test these assertions, we examined the functionality of the short and medium- to long-wavelength opsin genes in a group of mammals that are supremely adapted to a nocturnal niche: the bats. (pnas.org)
  • To understand further how opsin genes have adapted in mammals and to investigate whether functionality can indeed be used to infer activity patterns, we undertook an extensive survey of visual genes in bats, which are considered the sensory specialists ( 11 ) and arguably show the greatest adaptation for nocturnality of all of the vertebrates. (pnas.org)
  • July 19 (UPI) -- Most of the science looking at gender differences among mammals have focused on physiological differences, but new research suggests many of those more outward-facing differences -- like height and facial hair -- are rooted in differences in the way males and females express their genes. (upi.com)
  • This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. (nih.gov)
  • What they do know is that any close ancestors are long gone, and today's solenodons are the only remnant of a very ancient group of mammals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers from the University of Cambridge and the Babraham Institute have found that a naturally occurring modified DNA base appears to be stably incorporated in the DNA of many mammalian tissues, possibly representing an expansion of the functional DNA alphabet. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers applied a method consisting of feeding cells and living mice with an amino acid called L-methionine, enriched for naturally occurring stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen, and measuring the uptake of these isotopes to 5fC in DNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers believe that 5fC might alter the way DNA is recognised by proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers encoded moving images in DNA within living cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • The tool cannot predict a person's face from DNA, say researchers-including some listed as coauthors on the publication. (the-scientist.com)
  • Parts of mammalian DNA are so alien they have been dubbed "space invaders" by the researchers that found them. (newscientist.com)
  • Researchers have sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the endangered solenodon, a venomous insectivore that diverged from other living mammals 78 million years ago. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers caught the venomous mammal by allowing it to walk across their bodies at night in the. (eurekalert.org)
  • They encourage survey teams to incorporate "detectability analysis" in all aerial surveys for mammals and suggest that researchers "should assume that their results are biased low by at least 10-15 percent and possibly more. (phys.org)
  • The researchers also found Mt-Lig possessed 3' to 5' single-strand DNA exonuclease activity, progressively digesting the 3' but not the 5' single strand tails of partial duplexes until reaching the double-strand region. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The researchers also found that Mt-Lig could join aligned DNA duplexes possessing a 1-nt 3' flap adjacent to a 3-nt gap. (beds.ac.uk)
  • NIH researchers pilot predictive medicine by studying healthy people's DNA," read the headline of a news release yesterday. (plos.org)
  • The researchers focused on a gene, Prx1, that plays a part in the elongation of limb bones in mammals. (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration looking at Alaska pollock DNA have discovered the fish is more closely related to cod than previously believed. (adn.com)
  • The amber glob containing the hairs also preserved the tough outer shell of a larval fly, and so the researchers hypothesized that the hairs may have come from a dead mammal which was already being used as food source/nursery by flies prior to the amber preservation. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A recent experience with young northern fur seals resulted in unexpected insights into the physiology of fur seals, and stronger synergy between researchers and marine mammal trainers. (marinemammal.org)
  • Go Go Gadget Accelerometer Researchers have long been searching for an improved method of studying marine mammal foraging behavior. (marinemammal.org)
  • The researchers say that discovering the piscine anomaly in the Somalian cave supports the "nocturnal bottleneck" theory: that ancestral mammals lived a subterranean or exclusively nocturnal existence as a strategy to avoid being eaten. (haaretz.com)
  • An international team of researchers analyzed the fossils of major groups of land mammals on each continent and found that their size increased from a maximum of about 10 kilograms (22 pounds) when they shared the Earth with dinosaurs to a maximum of 17 tonnes (18.7 U.S. tons) after dinosaurs became extinct. (drugs.com)
  • This misincorporated base will not be corrected during DNA replication as thymine is a DNA base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, these repeats were believed to be generated by DNA replication slippage a. (psu.edu)
  • Together, these results suggest that binding of the Ku complex at chromosomal breaks may be necessary to maintain the sliding clamps (PCNA) on chromatin, which would allow cells to resume DNA replication without a major delay following IR. (elsevier.com)
  • He was a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard Medical School, where he worked on bacteriophage DNA replication. (elsevier.com)
  • From 1980 to 1985, he was a senior staff investigator at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he worked on adenovirus DNA replication. (elsevier.com)
  • DNA replication and recombination (ex. (bio.net)
  • This book reviews the latest trends and future directions of DNA replication research. (springer.com)
  • The book begins with a historical overview of the studies on eukaryotic DNA replication by Professor Thomas Kelly, a pioneer of the field. (springer.com)
  • By reviewing the existing concepts ranging from the old principles to the newest ideas, the book gives readers an opportunity to learn how the classical replication principles are now being modified and new concepts are being generated to explain how genome DNA replication is achieved with such high adaptability and plasticity. (springer.com)
  • With the development of new methods including cryoelectron microscopy analyses of huge protein complexes, single molecular analyses of initiation and elongation of DNA replication, and total reconstitution of eukaryotic DNA replication with purified factors, the field is enjoying one of its most exciting moments, and this highly timely book conveys that excitement to all interested readers. (springer.com)
  • This text provides impressively comprehensive coverage of the important topics and current questions in DNA replication. (springer.com)
  • The xenogeneic, preferably human, cells or tissue may be hematopoietic cells, in which case the chimeric mammal can produce xenogeneic B and/or T cells, and can be used as a source of mammalian, preferably human, monoclonal antibodies and/or T cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • Alternatively, the xenogeneic cells or tissue may be non-hematopoietic, such as normal or pathological cells or tissue, which can form a stable transplant in the chimeric mammal and thus can be used as an animal model of various pathologies or to test therapeutic or diagnostic agents or modalities. (patentgenius.com)
  • The study, published in Mitochondrial DNA , confirmed that the venomous mammal diverged from all other living mammals 78 million years ago, long before an asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs. (eurekalert.org)
  • A shrew-like animal that snagged insects from ferns lining the shores of freshwater lakes 160 million years ago, might be one of the first "true" mammals to walk the Earth, back when the dinosaurs roamed, a new fossil suggests. (livescience.com)
  • By pushing back the placental-marsupial division by 35 million years, this fossil shows that even during the age of feathered dinosaurs mammals were expanding and evolving into new groups quicker than previously believed. (livescience.com)
  • As described by scientists Rumain Vullo, Vincent Girard, Dany Azar, and Didier Neraudeau, this rare specimen gives us a clear look at what the hair of mammals was like during the time when dinosaurs were the dominant vertebrates on land. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The "age of mammals" only began after dinosaurs almost died out around 65 million years ago (they didn't go extinct), but in fact mammals and dinosaurs evolved almost in tandem during the Triassic. (haaretz.com)
  • THURSDAY, Nov. 25 -- Mammals began to grow much larger after dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago, a new study suggests. (drugs.com)
  • According to one genetics firm, a recent client has taken the title for the oldest traceable DNA in the Americas. (flipboard.com)
  • Nevertheless, the cuticula (or the protective outer layer of a hair formed by overlapping, shingle-like cells) of the hairs is very similar to that of modern mammals, signaling that this feature of mammal hair has been around for a very long time. (scienceblogs.com)
  • We anticipate that this approach will be useful to obtain samples for molecular studies of the ecology, evolution and conservation of small, elusive mammals. (springer.com)
  • Deciphering the forces and mechanisms modulating genome size is central to our understanding of molecular evolution, but the subject has been understudied in mammals and birds. (pnas.org)
  • To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of red-green color vision in mammals, we have cloned and sequenced the red and green opsin cDNAs of cat ( Felis catus ), horse ( Equus caballus ), gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis ), white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ), and guinea pig ( Cavia porcellus ). (genetics.org)
  • They think that the 30-year lifespan of the rodents could be the result of the increasing rate of their DNA repair together with the high levels of molecular chaperones. (inquisitr.com)
  • Molecular phylogeny of the springhare, Pedetes capensis , based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors. (innovations-report.com)
  • A study on the impact of biotic (competition pressure) and abiotic factors (environmental change) on the evolutionary success, decline and extinction of large fossil herbivorous mammals from North America, Europe and Turkana Basin in Africa is published by Žliobaitė, Fortelius & Stenseth (2017). (wikipedia.org)
  • Paleontology portal History of science portal This article records new taxa of fossil mammals of every kind that have been described during the year 2017, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleontology of mammals that occurred in the year 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017). A study on the timing of the diversification of placental mammals based on genomic data, indicating that the placentals underwent a continuous radiation across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary without apparent interruption by the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, is published by Liu et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study of the phylogenetic relationships of the Paleocene placental mammals is published by Halliday, Upchurch and Goswami (2017). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017) infer the climatic variables for the middle Miocene of the Somosaguas vertebrate fossil site (Spain) on the basis of the body size structure of the mammal fauna known from the site, which is intimately related to climate and vegetation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesised eDNA signals would be stronger for semi-aquatic than terrestrial mammals, and at sites where individuals exhibited behaviours. (salford.ac.uk)
  • New terrestrial mammals, such as those listed above, have come from SE Asia, tropical Africa and New Guinea, but one of the most notable hotspots has been Amazonia. (scienceblogs.com)
  • horizontal gene transfer has occurred in mammals and amphibians too. (newscientist.com)
  • infection in exotic small mammals imported into Japan from various countries, 2) compare the diversity of these Bartonella strains by analyzing the partial sequence of the citrate synthase gene ( gltA ), and 3) evaluate the possibility that these mammals may serve as potential reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • A new survey of mammalian RNA revealed genome-wide variations in gene expression between male and female mammals. (upi.com)
  • Scientists gave mice the bat version of a piece of DNA that boosts activity of a gene involved in limb development. (technologyreview.com)
  • The DNA damage-induced transcription of this gene is mediated by both p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Outside of gene exons, there exist regulatory sequence motifs and motifs within the "junk", such as satellite DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • We explore the quality of the sample by assessing PCR amplification success of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments across four commercially available DNA isolation kits and two different quantities of hair in a factorial design. (springer.com)
  • We found that our snare is effective in obtaining hair that yield DNA of sufficient quality and quantity to successfully amplify a range of mitochondrial and nuclear fragment sizes. (springer.com)
  • Specifically, we found the greatest success in amplifying mitochondrial DNA, nuclear microsatellites and ZFX/ZFY loci using at least 25 hairs as starting material and the DNA IQ™ system. (springer.com)
  • Robin ED, Wong R. Mitochondrial DNA molecules and virtual number of mitochondria per cell in mammalian cells. (harvard.edu)
  • P.509 left column bottom paragraph: 'Quantitation of mtDNA: Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) was measured using the method of Tapper and Clayton (Murphy et al. (harvard.edu)
  • The University of Illinois and University of Puerto Rico have completely sequenced the mitochondrial genome for the Hispaniolan solenodon, filling in the last major branch of placental mammals on the tree of life. (eurekalert.org)
  • Brandt and co-first author Kirill Grigorev, a bioinformatician at the Caribbean Genome Center, analyzed the samples using two different methods to determine the sequence of nucleotides (building blocks that make up DNA) of the solendon's mitochondrial genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and is widely accepted to have played a key thermoregulatory role in small-bodied and neonatal placental mammals that enabled the exploitation of cold environments. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) of placental mammals is predominantly mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which resides at high levels in the mitochondrial inner membrane of brown adipose tissue (BAT) ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and comparative cytogenetics of the springhare, Pedetes capensis (Mammalia: Rodentia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fundamental to genomic imprinting in mammals is the acquisition of epigenetic marks that differ in male and female gametes at 'imprinting control regions' (ICRs). (cnrs.fr)
  • Furthermore, we propose that extensive DNA loss, and not necessarily a dearth of TE activity, has been the primary force maintaining the greater genomic compaction of flying birds and bats relative to their flightless relatives. (pnas.org)
  • In combination, the two new studies demonstrate a novel role for AID in mammals: active demethylation of genomic DNA (Figure 1a). (nih.gov)
  • Obtaining DNA from tropical fossils is notoriously difficult, and the team made use of the latest developments in ancient DNA technology to conduct the study. (geologypage.com)
  • To expand the knowledge about interactions between TFs and TFBSs, three biological features (sequence feature, structure feature, and evolution feature) were utilized to build TFBS identification models for studying binding preference between TFs and their DNA targets in mammals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3) Evolution feature, which is a conservation score of a DNA segment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data provide evidence for an "accordion" model of genome size evolution in birds and mammals, whereby the amount of DNA gained by transposable element expansion, which greatly varies across lineages, was counteracted by DNA loss through large segmental deletions. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, we hypothesize that there has been covariation between the amount of DNA gained by transposition and lost by deletion during mammal and avian evolution, resulting in genome size equilibrium. (pnas.org)
  • These findings support a unified "accordion" model of genome size evolution in eukaryotes whereby DNA loss counteracting TE expansion is a major determinant of genome size. (pnas.org)
  • It's an evolutionary milestone for mammal evolution. (livescience.com)
  • The well-preserved fossil of the ancient mammal Liaoconodon hui gives insight into the evolution of the mammalian middle ear. (livescience.com)
  • By outfitting mice with a chunk of DNA that directs wing development in bats, scientists have created rodents with abnormally long forelimbs, mimicking one of the steps in the evolution of the bat wing. (technologyreview.com)
  • Their origin and evolution, DNA composition, transcriptional activity, impact on adaptiveness, behavior in meiosis, and transfer to the next generation require intensive investigations using modern methods. (mdpi.com)
  • The main thing, though, is that this is a really good book on evolution, particularly the evolution of mammals, with many wonderful insights that will be new to readers. (cambridge.org)
  • Written from a theistic perspective, Asher's account is a richly detailed and authoritative source book on the evolution of mammals. (cambridge.org)
  • Foulkes' team, including first author Zhao, in collaboration with Cristiano Bertolucci at Italy's University of Ferrara, had set out to study evolution in extreme environmental conditions, particularly the evolution of DNA repair systems. (haaretz.com)
  • While a number of methods have been described to noninvasively sample hair from carnivores and medium-sized mammals, they have largely remained untested in elusive small mammals. (springer.com)
  • The use of biomolecular diagnostic methods is desirable but very little genetic data are known from Trichuridae of carnivores and small mammals. (uzh.ch)
  • To do this, we will test whether seals and whales are more closely related to each other than either of them are to representative land mammals: dogs (land carnivores) or cows (land herbivores). (google.com)
  • Unmodified DNA interacts with a specific set of proteins, and the presence of 5fC could change these interactions either directly or indirectly by changing the shape of the DNA duplex,' said Bachman. (eurekalert.org)
  • Transcription factors (TFs) are important functional proteins, which play central roles in transcriptional regulation by interacting with specific DNA targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over the last few years, it has been suggested that many other proteins, including histones that package our DNA, are required for the actual DSB repair process," Doherty said. (beds.ac.uk)
  • It is not yet known whether the requirement for elongator complex proteins is direct or whether they affect DNA demethylation indirectly, by a mechanism unrelated to chromatin. (nih.gov)
  • You can use either DNA or the proteins it encodes. (wordpress.com)
  • The DNA alphabet has four different letters, versus the 20 amino acids proteins are made of. (wordpress.com)
  • For example, many DNA binding proteins that have affinity for specific DNA binding sites bind DNA in only its double-helical form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fossil, called Liaoconodon hui , is a member of an early group of prehistoric mammals called the triconodonts, defined by their dental structures. (livescience.com)
  • Genome size in mammals and birds shows remarkably little interspecific variation compared with other taxa. (pnas.org)
  • Teasing apart the relative importance of these two forces (drift and selection) requires a better understanding of the mode and processes by which DNA is gained and lost over long evolutionary periods in different taxa. (pnas.org)
  • Zhang, Ya-ping 2005-10-14 00:00:00 An analysis of the nuclear β-fibrinogen intron 7 locus from 30 taxa representing 12 placental orders of mammals reveals the enriched occurrences of short interspersed element (SINE) insertion events. (deepdyve.com)
  • The results show that the additive effects of these amino acid changes fully explain virtually all observed λmax values of the red and green pigments not only in mammals but also in other vertebrates. (genetics.org)
  • Scientists sequence Norway spruce DNA. (latimes.com)
  • The mystery beast is now being sent to scientists in Beijing for DNA testing. (csmonitor.com)
  • From skeletal remains found among ancient owl pellets, a team of scientists has recovered the first ancient DNA of the extinct West Indian mammal Nesophontes, meaning "island murder. (geologypage.com)
  • Scientists used a 750-year-old specimen to generate many thousands of base pairs of DNA sequence data. (geologypage.com)
  • Scientists identify mammal model of bladder reg. (bio-medicine.org)
  • WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. While it is well known that starfish, zebrafish and salamanders can re-grow damaged limbs, scientists understand very little about the regenerative capabilities of mammals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If this is correct then it would be a rare look at insect-mammal interactions during the distant past, but since the alternative hypothesis of hairs left by an arboreal mammal cannot be ruled out scientists should take care in drawing inferences from this association. (scienceblogs.com)
  • FARK.com: (7933448) Scientists at University of Manchester failed to pull DNA samples from insects trapped in 10,600 year-old amber. (fark.com)
  • Paradoxically, birds and bats have more compact genomes relative to their flightless relatives but exhibit more dynamic gain and loss of DNA. (pnas.org)
  • Growing evidence from birds to mammals including recent evidence in Weddell seals also indicates that at the whole animal level the utilization of PUFAs to fuel their metabolism actually conserves oxygen. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since transcription factors interact physically with their DNA targets, it is reasonable to depict binding preference between TFs and TFBSs through conformational and physicochemical information. (biomedcentral.com)
  • L. giganteum strains pathogenic to mammals formed a strongly supported clade with the biological control isolates, and both types experimentally infected mosquito larvae. (cdc.gov)
  • Whales and dolphins are both marine mammals. (google.com)
  • In this lab, we will be testing hypotheses about the evolutionary ancestry of different marine mammals. (google.com)
  • First, we will explore the relationship of the marine mammals to each other vs. their evolutionary relationship to land mammals. (google.com)
  • Second, each student will then develop a cladogram which includes a selection of marine mammals and land mammals which represent the major mammalian orders. (google.com)
  • The science of how sounds affect a wide variety of marine mammals is still being sorted out. (adn.com)
  • It is the only confirmed case of hybrid speciation in marine mammals, descending from the spinner dolphin and the striped dolphin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cetaceans the group of marine mammals that includes whales and dolphi. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Cetaceans, the group of marine mammals that includes whales and dolphins, have demonstrated remarkable auditory and communicative abilities, as well as complex social behaviors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Adventures in Grad Schooling Not many people can get up close and personal with marine mammals, but the Consortium's graduate students get to work with some of the most fascinating animals on the planet: the pinnipeds of the Bering Sea. (marinemammal.org)
  • Marine mammal trainers play a vital role in the Consortium's research projects. (marinemammal.org)
  • Live sea otter stranding response in California is coordinated through the Monterey Bay Aquarium's Sea Otter Research and Conservation program, with significant involvement from The Marine Mammal Center, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the U.S. Geological Survey, with oversight by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (noaa.gov)
  • The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) has treated and collected data from sea lions stranding along the California coast, and leptospirosis has been a dominant cause of strandings. (noaa.gov)
  • Nesophontes was just one of the dozens of mammals that went extinct in the Caribbean during recent times," said Professor Ian Barnes, Research Leader at London's Natural History Museum. (geologypage.com)
  • Even though the soft tissue that would show marsupial or placental traits - mammary glands or a pouch - had not been retained the fossil's forepaw bones and teeth suggested it was closer to placental mammals than marsupials on the mammal family tree. (livescience.com)
  • The changes to these bones over time have given mammals much better hearing (especially in air), made our ear more efficient, and allowed us to hear a wider range of sounds than our reptilian ancestors . (livescience.com)
  • Three bones that originally formed the jaw hinge in pre-mammalian creatures changed size and shape, turning into the tiny ear bones of mammals. (livescience.com)
  • In this transitory mammal, the three ear bones "have completely detached from the lower jaw and are reduced in size, on other hand they are still attached to the ossified Meckel's cartilage," Meng said. (livescience.com)
  • Carnivore marks are identified on mammal bones from the Pleistocene of Argentina, including three ground sloth bones and one toxodontid bone, by Chichkoyan et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings appear to be incompatible with diving mammals that ingest and metabolize high levels of unsaturated fatty acids while relying on stored oxygen. (frontiersin.org)
  • The repair of X-ray-induced DNA single strand breaks and DNA--protein cross-links was investigated in stationary phase, contact-inhibited mouse cells by the alkaline-elution technique. (nih.gov)
  • DNA--protein cross-links were removed at a slower rate (T1/2 approx. (nih.gov)
  • I always thought, why the hell would anyone use DNA when they can also use protein? (wordpress.com)
  • The crucial thing is that while DNA translates unambiguously to protein, this is not true the other way. (wordpress.com)
  • investigated arthropod relationships and found that while protein-based methods gave very similar results to DNA-based methods, they often couldn't offer as much support for these results as DNA did. (wordpress.com)
  • Ku70-Ku80 complex is the regulatory subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and plays an essential role in double-strand break repair following ionizing radiation (IR). (elsevier.com)
  • Starting with a basic limb pattern, "successive slight modifications," he wrote, eventually produce the various mammal limbs we see today: human hands, bat wings, whale fins. (technologyreview.com)
  • Although the biology of the humpback whale is well understood, there have been virtually no studies published on its brain composition, leaving an open question as to how brain structure may relate to the extensive behavioral and social abilities of this mammal. (bio-medicine.org)
  • One feature that stood out in the humpback whale brain was the modular organization of certain cells into "islands" in the cerebral cortex that is also seen in the fin whale and other types of mammals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Since this DNA repair system lost by Phreatichthys exists in everything from germs to whale sharks, evidently it evolved very early in the scheme of life, and was kept as the single-celled animals evolved into multi-cellular animals. (haaretz.com)
  • A new study reveals that naked mole rats are non-aging mammals with a risk of dying that could stay at about 1 in 10,000 for their whole lives. (inquisitr.com)
  • And while they were living there, the fish lost a specific system of DNA repair that harnesses visible light energy to fix damaged genetic material, Zhao and the team realized after sequencing it. (haaretz.com)
  • The field grew steadily through the first half of the 20th century, then explosively after the discovery of the genetic material that is DNA. (washington.edu)
  • Once we'd dealt with the tiny size of the bone samples, the highly degraded state of the DNA, and the lack of any similar genomes to compare to, the analysis was a piece of cake," said Natural History Museum scientist Dr. Selina Brace. (geologypage.com)
  • The results reveal extensive variation in the amount of DNA gained via lineage-specific transposition, but that DNA loss counteracted this expansion to various extents across lineages. (pnas.org)
  • Aike all roads to Rome, both these paths lead to the same grand pattern of evolutionary homoplasies: In some lineages of mammals, the middle ear is detached from the jaw, in other mammals, the middle ear is still attached to the jaw," Luo, curator and associate director for research and collections at the Carnegie Museum, who wasn't involved in the study, said in an email to LiveScience. (livescience.com)
  • In theory, coauthor Aidan Doherty of the University of Sussex in Brighton told us, this system - uses of which are the subject of a patent filed by the University of Cambridge - should enable the cloning of any DNA fragments, regardless of the structure of the ends, and has great potential for the generation of random DNA libraries. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Jackson also said the system had the potential for biotechnology applications in cloning DNA fragments that do not require compatible ends. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Real world understanding of how PCR works by calculating and deriving the size of DNA fragments generated using a portion of the Lambda phage genome and three pairs of primer set. (eventbrite.com)
  • IR-induced retardation in S phase progression in Ku80-/- cells was not due to the lack of DNA-PK kinase activity because both wild-type cells and DNA-PKcs-deficient cells showed no such symptom. (elsevier.com)
  • Instead, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) dissociated from chromosomes following IR in Ku80-deficient cells but not in wild-type or DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. (elsevier.com)
  • DNA repair systems and recombination (DSB and mismatch repair) -including DNA repair deficient diseases (ex. (bio.net)
  • Non-human chimeric mammals are created from a mammal having hematopoietic cells replaced with hematopoietic cells from a hematopoietic deficient mammal donor, and optionally in which xenogeneic cells and/or tissue are engrafted. (patentgenius.com)
  • Since the structure of DNA was discovered more than 60 years ago, it's been known that there are four DNA bases: G, C, A and T (Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine and Thymine). (eurekalert.org)
  • Environmental DNA (eDNA) is revolutionising how we monitor biodiversity. (ptes.org)
  • ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2677-7833 and Hänfling, B 2019, 'Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of pond water as a tool to survey conservation and management priority mammals' , Biological Conservation, 238 , p. 108225. (salford.ac.uk)
  • 9 . The method of claim 2 , wherein said recipient mammal comprises a mutation that reduces or eliminates the expression or activity of IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, IgA, RAG1, or RAG2. (google.es)
  • 14 . The method of claim 13 , wherein said immunosuppression step comprises administering a compound that inhibits B-cell activity to said recipient mammal in an amount sufficient to reduce said B-cell activity in said recipient mammal. (google.es)
  • 1. A method for controlling weight in a mammal, which comprises administering orally to said mammal a therapeutic mixture of pyruvate and dihydroxyacetone in an effective amount to induce a weight loss or to reduce an expected weight gain from a given diet. (google.com)
  • 8. A method for increasing the glycogen concentration in the liver of a mammal, which comprises administering orally to said mammal effective amounts of a mixture of pyruvate and dihydroxyacetone for a period sufficient to increase glycogen concentration above normal. (google.com)
  • 6mdA is a fundamental component of bacterial restriction-modification systems that allow prokaryotes to distinguish between benign host DNA and potentially pathogenic nonhost DNA ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • pathogenic to mammals have been published ( 3 , 4 ), their taxonomic relationship to Lagenidium strains approved for biological control and the capacity of their zoospores to infect mosquitoes have yet to be investigated ( 5 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the main pathway for resection and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with incompatible ends in mammalian cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Meiotic recombination is initiated by the induction of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). (mdpi.com)
  • In mammals, several hundred DSBs are generated at the beginning of meiotic prophase by the catalytic activity of SPO11. (mdpi.com)
  • Bigfoot' hair samples undergo DNA analysis: Big mammals, yes. (csmonitor.com)
  • It is recognized that diving mammals undergo a dive response involving apnea (cessation of breathing), bradycardia, and subsequent decreased cardiac output, as well as peripheral vasoconstriction (reduced blood flow or ischemic conditions in the working skeletal muscles) causing the animal to depend solely on a finite supply of oxygen stored internally. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of published data and novel experimental approaches, we reveal that efforts to assay 6mdA in mammals have been severely compromised by bacterial contamination, RNA contamination, technological limitations, and antibody nonspecificity. (sciencemag.org)
  • The invention provides methods for producing antibodies by transplanting a cell that produces an antibody of interest into a mammal and isolating the desired antibodies from the mammal. (google.es)
  • The invention also features methods of transplanting antibody-producing cells into a mammal. (google.es)
  • b) isolating the antibodies produced by said antibody-producing cell from said recipient mammal. (google.es)
  • 3 . The method of claim 2 , wherein said antibody-producing cell is administered to a mammary gland, uterus, dewlap, brisket, scrotum, testicle, or hump of said recipient mammal. (google.es)
  • b) administering said antibody-producing cell to said recipient mammal. (google.es)