Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Shrews are small, insectivorous mammals belonging to the family Soricidae, characterized by their pointed snouts, tiny eyes, and rapid movements.
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Artiodactyla is an order of mammals characterized by an even number of digits (two or four) on each foot, hooves as terminal appendages, and a specialized stomach for fermentative digestion, which includes taxonomic families such as Suidae, Cervidae, Bovidae, and Camelidae among others.
An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.
Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)
Monotremata is an order of mammals, including the platypus and echidnas, which are unique for laying eggs instead of giving birth to live young and for having a single body opening for both excretion and reproduction, known as a cloaca.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
The physical measurements of a body.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
'Primates' is a taxonomic order comprising various species of mammals, including humans, apes, monkeys, and others, distinguished by distinct anatomical and behavioral characteristics such as forward-facing eyes, grasping hands, and complex social structures.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)
An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)
Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The species Tursiops truncatus, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by a bottle-shaped beak and slightly hooked broad dorsal fin.
Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.
A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.
*Medical Definition:* 'Lizards' are not typically defined in the field of medicine, as they are a type of reptile and not a medical condition or healthcare-related concept; however, certain lizard species such as the Gila monster and beaded lizards possess venomous bites, which can lead to medical emergencies like envenomation requiring medical attention.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A genus in the family of EARLESS SEALS (Phocidae) and collectively the most abundant PINNIPEDS in the Northern Hemisphere.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
An order of heavy-bodied, slow-moving, completely aquatic, herbivorous mammals. The body is fusiform, plump, and hairless, except for bristles on the snout. Hindlimbs are absent, the forelimbs are modified to flippers, and the tail is a horizontal fluke. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
The consumption of animal flesh.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genus of the order Sirenia comprising what are commonly called manatees. The distinguishing characteristics include a tail that is not notched, a short nasal cavity, the absence of nasal bones, and enamel-covered teeth. Members of this genus are found in marine bays and/or sluggish rivers, usually in turbid water. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.
A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Sexual activities of animals.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of the order PRIMATES, suborder Strepsirhini (PROSIMII), containing five genera. All inhabitants of Madagascar, the genera are: Allocebus, Cheirogaleus (dwarf lemurs), Microcebus (mouse lemurs), Mirza, and Phaner.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
'Zoo animals' are various species of captive wild animals, housed and displayed in a facility for the purpose of public education, conservation, research, and recreation.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Activities performed by humans.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A genus of the order Sirenia characterized by a notched tail, the presence of nasal bones and a long nasal cavity, and large columnar teeth lacking enamel. Dugongs inhabit the coastal waters of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and the Malay Archipelago. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Animals that have no spinal column.
The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
##### I apologize, but the term "turtles" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It is commonly referred to as a group of reptiles with a shell, and does not have any direct relevance to medical definition.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding as "South America" is not a medical term and cannot have a medical definition. It is a geographical term referring to the southern portion of the American continent, consisting of twelve independent countries and three territories of other nations.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (1/5680)

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

Evidence for a correlation between the number of marginal band microtubules and the size of vertebrate erthrocytes. (2/5680)

In 23 species of vertebrates the dimensions of erythrocytes and the number of their marginal band microtubules were examined. A positive correlation was found between the size of erythrocytes and the number of microtubules. The absence of microtubules in diskoid erythrocytes of mammals-Camelidae-is discussed.  (+info)

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (3/5680)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Evolutionary and preservational constraints on origins of biologic groups: divergence times of eutherian mammals. (4/5680)

Some molecular clock estimates of divergence times of taxonomic groups undergoing evolutionary radiation are much older than the groups' first observed fossil record. Mathematical models of branching evolution are used to estimate the maximal rate of fossil preservation consistent with a postulated missing history, given the sum of species durations implied by early origins under a range of species origination and extinction rates. The plausibility of postulated divergence times depends on origination, extinction, and preservation rates estimated from the fossil record. For eutherian mammals, this approach suggests that it is unlikely that many modern orders arose much earlier than their oldest fossil records.  (+info)

Sequence analysis of cDNA and genomic DNA, and mRNA expression of the medaka fish homolog of mammalian guanylyl cyclase C. (5/5680)

We isolated the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding a membrane guanylyl cyclase of medaka fish (designated as OlGC6), and determined their complete nucleotide sequences. The open reading frame for OlGC6 cDNA predicted a protein of 1,075 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OlGC6 is a member of the enterotoxin/guanylin receptor family. We also determined the partial genomic structure of the gene of another membrane guanylyl cyclase of medaka fish, OlGC2, which is a member of the natriuretic peptide receptor family. The intron positions relative to the protein-coding sequence are highly conserved in the intracellular domains of OlGC6, OlGC2, mammalian GC-A, and GC-E. Despite their divergent primary structures, some intron positions also seem to be conserved in the extracellular domains of different membrane guanylyl cyclase genes. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that an OlGC6 transcript of 3.9 kb is only present in the intestine, while reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis demonstrated that the OlGC6 transcript is present in the kidney, spleen, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, testis, brain, and eye. RT-PCR also demonstrated that OlGC6 is only expressed zygotically and that transcripts are present from 1 day after fertilization, i.e. long before the intestinal tissues begin to develop.  (+info)

Differences in the actions of some blockers of the calcium-activated potassium permeability in mammalian red cells. (6/5680)

1. The actions of some inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated K+ permeability in mammalian red cells have been compared. 2. Block of the permeability was assessed from the reduction in the net loss of K+ that followed the application of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) to rabbit red cells suspended at a haematocrit of 1% in a low potassium solution ([K]0 0.12-0.17 mM) at 37 degrees C. Net movement of K+ was measured using a K+-sensitive electrode placed in the suspension. 3. The concentrations (microM +/- s.d.) of the compounds tested causing 50% inhibition of K+ loss were: quinine, 37 +/- 3; cetiedil, 26 +/- 1; the cetiedil congeners UCL 1269, UCL 1274 and UCL 1495, approximately 150, 8.2 +/- 0.1, 0.92 +/- 0.03 respectively; clotrimazole, 1.2 +/- 0.1; nitrendipine, 3.6 +/- 0.5 and charybdotoxin, 0.015 +/- 0.002. 4. The characteristics of the block suggested that compounds could be placed in two groups. For one set (quinine, cetiedil, and the UCL congeners), the concentration-inhibition curves were steeper (Hill coefficient, nH, > or = 2.7) than for the other (clotrimazole, nitrendipine, charybdotoxin) for which nH approximately 1. 5. Compounds in the first set alone became less active on raising the concentration of K+ in the external solution to 5.4 mM. 6. The rate of K+ loss induced by A23187 slowed in the presence of high concentrations of cetiedil and its analogues, suggesting a use-dependent component to the inhibitory action. This was not seen with clotrimazole. 7. The blocking action of the cetiedil analogue UCL 1274 could not be overcome by an increase in external Ca2+ and its potency was unaltered when K+ loss was induced by the application of Pb2+ (10 microM) rather than by A23187. 8. These results, taken with the findings of others, suggest that agents that block the red cell Ca2+-activated K+ permeability can be placed in two groups with different mechanisms of action. The differences can be explained by supposing that clotrimazole and charybdotoxin act at the outer face of the channel whereas cetiedil and its congeners may block within it, either at or near the K+ binding site that determines the flow of K+.  (+info)

Proteasome-dependent degradation of the human estrogen receptor. (7/5680)

In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the major mechanism for the targeted degradation of proteins with short half-lives. The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues of targeted proteins is a signal for the recognition and rapid degradation by the proteasome, a large multi-subunit protease. In this report, we demonstrate that the human estrogen receptor (ER) protein is rapidly degraded in mammalian cells in an estradiol-dependent manner. The treatment of mammalian cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits activity of the proteasome and blocks ER degradation, suggesting that ER protein is turned over through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, we show that in vitro ER degradation depends on ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme (UBA) and ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes (UBCs), and the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin block ER protein degradation in vitro. Furthermore, the UBA/UBCs and proteasome inhibitors promote the accumulation of higher molecular weight forms of ER. The UBA and UBCs, which promote ER degradation in vitro, have no significant effect on human progesterone receptor and human thyroid hormone receptor beta proteins.  (+info)

tRNAVal-heterodimeric maxizymes with high potential as geneinactivating agents: simultaneous cleavage at two sites in HIV-1 Tat mRNA in cultured cells. (8/5680)

It has been demonstrated that shortened forms of (stem II-deleted) hammerhead ribozymes with low intrinsic activity form very active dimers with a common stem II (very active short ribozymes capable of forming dimers were designated maxizymes). Intracellular activities of heterodimeric maxizymes and conventional ribozymes, under the control of a human tRNAVal-promoter, were compared against the cleavage of HIV-1 tat mRNA. The pol III-driven maxizymes formed very active heterodimers, and they successfully cleaved HIV-1 tat mRNA in mammalian cells at two sites simultaneously. The cleaved fragments were identified directly by Northern blotting analysis. Despite the initial concerns that a complicated dimerization process and formation of inactive homodimers were involved in addition to the process of association with the target, the overall intracellular activities of tRNAVal-driven maxizymes were significantly higher in mammalian cells than those of two sets of independent, conventional hammerhead ribozymes that were targeted at the same two sites within HIV-1 tat mRNA. Because the tRNAVal-driven maxizymes tested to date have been more effective than tRNAVal-driven "standard" hammerhead ribozymes, the tRNAVal-driven heterodimeric maxizymes appear to have potential utility as gene-inactivating agents.  (+info)

Mammals are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands (which produce milk to feed their young), hair or fur, three middle ear bones, and a neocortex region in their brain. They are found in a diverse range of habitats and come in various sizes, from tiny shrews to large whales. Examples of mammals include humans, apes, monkeys, dogs, cats, bats, mice, raccoons, seals, dolphins, horses, and elephants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Marsupialia" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an order that includes mammals known as marsupials. These are mammals that carry their young in a pouch after birth. Examples of marsupials include kangaroos, koalas, and opossums. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

"Rodentia" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to the largest order of mammals, comprising over 40% of all mammal species. Commonly known as rodents, this group includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, squirrels, prairie dogs, capybaras, beavers, and many others.

While "Rodentia" itself is not a medical term, certain conditions or issues related to rodents can have medical implications. For instance, rodents are known to carry and transmit various diseases that can affect humans, such as hantavirus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV). Therefore, understanding the biology and behavior of rodents is important in the context of public health and preventive medicine.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

Pinnipedia is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in zoology. It refers to a group of marine mammals that include seals, sea lions, walruses, and related extinct species. These animals are characterized by their limbs being modified into flippers, which makes them well-adapted for life in the water. They are often studied in fields such as marine biology and veterinary medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Reptiles" is not a medical term. It is a term used in biology to describe a class of cold-blooded, scaly-skinned animals that include snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, turtles, and tortoises. They are characterized by having lungs for breathing, laying eggs on land, and having a three-chambered heart. If you have any medical questions or terms, I'd be happy to help clarify those!

Cetacea is a taxonomic order that includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. This group of marine mammals is characterized by their fully aquatic lifestyle, torpedo-shaped bodies, modified limbs that serve as flippers, and the absence of external hindlimbs. Cetaceans have streamlined bodies that minimize drag while swimming, and their tail flukes enable powerful propulsion through vertical movement in the water column.

Their respiratory system features a pair of blowholes on the top of their heads, which they use to breathe air at the surface. Cetaceans exhibit complex social behaviors, advanced communication skills, and sophisticated echolocation abilities for navigation and hunting. They primarily feed on fish and invertebrates, with some larger species preying on marine mammals.

Cetaceans have a global distribution, occupying various habitats such as open oceans, coastal areas, and rivers. Unfortunately, many cetacean populations face threats from human activities like pollution, habitat degradation, climate change, and direct hunting or bycatch in fishing gear. Conservation efforts are crucial to protect these remarkable creatures and their vital roles in marine ecosystems.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "shrews" is not a medical term. It is a common name used in zoology to refer to small mammals that are part of the family Soricidae and the suborder Soricomorpha. Shrews are insectivores, distantly related to moles and hedgehogs. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

'Insectivora' is an outdated taxonomic grouping that was once used to classify small, insect-eating mammals. This order included shrews, moles, hedgehogs, and several other related species. However, modern molecular evidence has revealed that this grouping is not monophyletic, meaning it does not include all descendants of a common ancestor. As a result, the order Insectivora is no longer recognized in current taxonomy. Instead, these animals are now classified into several different orders based on their evolutionary relationships.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

A group of chordate animals (Phylum Chordata) that have a vertebral column, or backbone, made up of individual vertebrae. This group includes mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Vertebrates are characterized by the presence of a notochord, which is a flexible, rod-like structure that runs along the length of the body during development; a dorsal hollow nerve cord; and pharyngeal gill slits at some stage in their development. The vertebral column provides support and protection for the spinal cord and allows for the development of complex movements and behaviors.

Earless seals, also known as true seals or Phocidae, are a family of marine mammals that lack external ears. They have a streamlined body adapted for fast swimming, and their hind limbs are modified into flippers, which they use to move through the water. Earless seals have small ear holes on the sides of their heads, but they do not have an outer ear flap like other mammals. Instead, their middle and inner ears are well-developed for hearing underwater. They are found in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and there are 18 species of earless seals, including the harbor seal, gray seal, and leopard seal.

Carnivora is an order of mammals that consists of animals whose primary diet consists of flesh. The term "Carnivora" comes from the Latin words "caro", meaning flesh, and "vorare", meaning to devour. This order includes a wide variety of species, ranging from large predators such as lions, tigers, and bears, to smaller animals such as weasels, otters, and raccoons.

While members of the Carnivora order are often referred to as "carnivores," it is important to note that not all members exclusively eat meat. Some species, such as raccoons and bears, have an omnivorous diet that includes both plants and animals. Additionally, some species within this order have evolved specialized adaptations for their specific diets, such as the elongated canines and carnassial teeth of felids (cats) and canids (dogs), which are adapted for tearing and shearing meat.

Overall, the medical definition of Carnivora refers to an order of mammals that have a diet primarily consisting of flesh, although not all members exclusively eat meat.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Artiodactyla is an order of mammals that includes even-toed ungulates, or hooved animals, with an odd number of toes. This group includes animals such as pigs, peccaries, hippos, camels, deer, giraffes, antelopes, and ruminants like cattle, sheep, and goats. The primary identifying feature of Artiodactyls is the presence of a pair of weight-bearing toes located in the middle of the foot, with the other toes being either reduced or absent. This arrangement provides stability and adaptability for these animals to thrive in various habitats worldwide.

An echidna is not a medical term, but rather it is the name given to a type of mammal that is native to Australia and New Guinea. Echidnas are also known as spiny anteaters because they have sharp spines on their bodies and feed on ants and termites.

Echidnas are unique among mammals because they lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young like most other mammals do. The egg is incubated in the female's pouch, where it hatches after about 10 days. The newly hatched baby, called a puggle, is then cared for and fed by the mother's milk until it is ready to leave the pouch and fend for itself.

There are two species of echidnas: the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the long-beaked echidna (Zaglossus bruijni). Both species are protected under Australian law, and they play an important role in the ecosystem by controlling insect populations.

"Dolphins" is a common name that refers to several species of marine mammals belonging to the family Delphinidae, within the larger group Cetacea. Dolphins are known for their intelligence, social behavior, and acrobatic displays. They are generally characterized by a streamlined body, a prominent dorsal fin, and a distinctive "smiling" expression created by the curvature of their mouths.

Although "dolphins" is sometimes used to refer to all members of the Delphinidae family, it is important to note that there are several other families within the Cetacea order, including porpoises and whales. Therefore, not all small cetaceans are dolphins.

Some examples of dolphin species include:

1. Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) - This is the most well-known and studied dolphin species, often featured in aquariums and marine parks. They have a robust body and a prominent, curved dorsal fin.
2. Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) - These dolphins are characterized by their hourglass-shaped color pattern and distinct, falcate dorsal fins. There are two subspecies: the short-beaked common dolphin and the long-beaked common dolphin.
3. Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) - Known for their acrobatic behavior, spinner dolphins have a slender body and a long, thin beak. They are named for their spinning jumps out of the water.
4. Risso's Dolphin (Grampus griseus) - These dolphins have a unique appearance, with a robust body, a prominent dorsal fin, and a distinctive, scarred skin pattern caused by social interactions and encounters with squid, their primary food source.
5. Orca (Orcinus orca) - Also known as the killer whale, orcas are the largest dolphin species and are highly intelligent and social predators. They have a distinctive black-and-white color pattern and a prominent dorsal fin.

In medical terminology, "dolphins" do not have a specific relevance, but they can be used in various contexts such as therapy, research, or education. For instance, dolphin-assisted therapy is an alternative treatment that involves interactions between patients and dolphins to improve psychological and physical well-being. Additionally, marine biologists and researchers study dolphin behavior, communication, and cognition to understand their complex social structures and intelligence better.

Monotremata is an order of mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. This small group includes the platypus and echidnas, which are native to Australia and New Guinea. These animals are unique because they have characteristics of both reptiles and mammals, making them a fascinating subject of study in evolutionary biology. The order Monotremata is part of the infraclass Eutheria, or placental mammals, even though monotremes lay eggs. This demonstrates the complex evolutionary history of mammals.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

"Extinction, Biological" refers to the state or process of a species or taxonomic group becoming extinct, meaning that there are no surviving members remaining alive anywhere in the world. This can occur due to various factors such as environmental changes, competition with other species, overexploitation by humans, or a combination of these and other elements. It is an important concept in the field of biology and conservation, as the extinction of a species can have significant impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity.

Macropodidae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic family in the order Diprotodontia, which includes large marsupials commonly known as kangaroos, wallabies, and tree-kangaroos. These animals are native to Australia and New Guinea. They are characterized by their strong hind legs, large feet adapted for leaping, and a long muscular tail used for balance. Some members of this family, particularly the larger kangaroo species, can pose a risk to humans in certain situations, such as vehicle collisions or aggressive encounters during breeding season. However, they are not typically associated with medical conditions or human health.

"Body size" is a general term that refers to the overall physical dimensions and proportions of an individual's body. It can encompass various measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure, and other anthropometric measures.

In medical and public health contexts, body size is often used to assess health status, risk factors for chronic diseases, and overall well-being. For example, a high body mass index (BMI) may indicate excess body fat and increase the risk of conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Similarly, a large waist circumference or high blood pressure may also be indicators of increased health risks.

It's important to note that body size is just one aspect of health and should not be used as the sole indicator of an individual's overall well-being. A holistic approach to health that considers multiple factors, including diet, physical activity, mental health, and social determinants of health, is essential for promoting optimal health outcomes.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Sciuridae" is not a medical term. It is a scientific name in the field of biology, specifically for the family of animals that include squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, and prairie dogs, among others. These are rodents known for their agility in climbing trees and their ability to store food.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "opossums" are not a medical term or a medical condition. Opossums are actually marsupials (pouched mammals) that are native to the Americas. They are often known for their "playing dead" behavior as a defense mechanism when threatened. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help with those!

Chiroptera is the scientific order that includes all bat species. Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight, and they are distributed worldwide with the exception of extremely cold environments. They vary greatly in size, from the bumblebee bat, which weighs less than a penny, to the giant golden-crowned flying fox, which has a wingspan of up to 6 feet.

Bats play a crucial role in many ecosystems as pollinators and seed dispersers for plants, and they also help control insect populations. Some bat species are nocturnal and use echolocation to navigate and find food, while others are diurnal and rely on their vision. Their diet mainly consists of insects, fruits, nectar, and pollen, although a few species feed on blood or small vertebrates.

Unfortunately, many bat populations face significant threats due to habitat loss, disease, and wind turbine collisions, leading to declining numbers and increased conservation efforts.

Hibernation is a state of significantly reduced metabolic activity in animals, generally characterized by a lower body temperature and slower breathing rate. This physiological adaptation allows animals to survive periods of extreme cold or food scarcity. During hibernation, an animal's body temperature can drop close to the ambient temperature, and its heart rate and respiratory rate can decrease significantly. Hibernating animals also store energy in the form of fat reserves, which they use up during this period of reduced activity. This state can last for days, weeks, or even months, depending on the species. Examples of animals that hibernate include bears, bats, and groundhogs.

Dentition refers to the development, arrangement, and appearance of teeth in the dental arch. It includes the number, type, size, and shape of teeth, as well as their alignment and relationship with each other and the surrounding structures in the oral cavity. Dentition can be classified into two main types: deciduous (primary) dentition and permanent (secondary) dentition. Deciduous dentition consists of 20 temporary teeth that erupt during infancy and childhood, while permanent dentition consists of 32 teeth that replace the deciduous teeth and last for a lifetime, excluding the wisdom teeth which may or may not erupt. Abnormalities in dentition can indicate various dental and systemic conditions, making it an essential aspect of oral health assessment and diagnosis.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

A conserved sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to a pattern of nucleotides (in DNA or RNA) or amino acids (in proteins) that has remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. These sequences are often functionally important and are highly conserved across different species, indicating strong selection pressure against changes in these regions.

In the case of protein-coding genes, the corresponding amino acid sequence is deduced from the DNA sequence through the genetic code. Conserved sequences in proteins may indicate structurally or functionally important regions, such as active sites or binding sites, that are critical for the protein's activity. Similarly, conserved non-coding sequences in DNA may represent regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Identifying conserved sequences can be useful for inferring evolutionary relationships between species and for predicting the function of unknown genes or proteins.

Paleodontology is not a medical field, but rather a subfield of archaeology and paleontology. It is the study of fossil teeth and dental tissues from extinct animals or ancient human populations to understand their evolutionary history, diet, health status, and lifestyle. By analyzing tooth wear patterns, growth rates, and pathologies, paleodontologists can gain insights into the ecological adaptations and environmental conditions experienced by these organisms throughout their lives.

Arvicolinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes voles, lemmings, and muskrats. These small mammals are characterized by their short legs, rounded bodies, and short tails. They are primarily found in the northern hemisphere, with the majority of species living in North America and Eurasia.

Arvicolines are known for their high reproductive rate and ability to survive in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, forests, tundra, and wetlands. They have a unique set of teeth called hypsodont teeth, which continue to grow throughout their lives. This adaptation allows them to wear down their teeth as they gnaw on tough plant material.

Many arvicoline species are important prey animals for larger predators, such as hawks, owls, and foxes. Some species, like the muskrat, are also hunted by humans for their fur or meat. In recent years, some arvicoline populations have experienced dramatic fluctuations in size due to changes in their habitats and food supplies, leading to concerns about their conservation status.

In a medical or scientific context, "Primates" is a biological order that includes various species of mammals, such as humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians (like lemurs and lorises). This group is characterized by several distinct features, including:

1. A forward-facing eye position, which provides stereoscopic vision and depth perception.
2. Nails instead of claws on most digits, except for the big toe in some species.
3. A rotating shoulder joint that allows for a wide range of motion in the arms.
4. A complex brain with a well-developed cortex, which is associated with higher cognitive functions like problem-solving and learning.
5. Social structures and behaviors, such as living in groups and exhibiting various forms of communication.

Understanding primates is essential for medical and biological research since many human traits, diseases, and behaviors have their origins within this group.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "fishes" is not typically used in a medical context. "Fish" or "fishes" refers to any aquatic organism belonging to the taxonomic class Actinopterygii (bony fish), Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays), or Agnatha (jawless fish).

However, if you are referring to a condition related to fish or consuming fish, there is a medical issue called scombroid fish poisoning. It's a foodborne illness caused by eating spoiled or improperly stored fish from the Scombridae family, which includes tuna, mackerel, and bonito, among others. The bacteria present in these fish can produce histamine, which can cause symptoms like skin flushing, headache, diarrhea, and itchy rash. But again, this is not related to the term "fishes" itself but rather a condition associated with consuming certain types of fish.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

A zebrafish is a freshwater fish species belonging to the family Cyprinidae and the genus Danio. Its name is derived from its distinctive striped pattern that resembles a zebra's. Zebrafish are often used as model organisms in scientific research, particularly in developmental biology, genetics, and toxicology studies. They have a high fecundity rate, transparent embryos, and a rapid development process, making them an ideal choice for researchers. However, it is important to note that providing a medical definition for zebrafish may not be entirely accurate or relevant since they are primarily used in biological research rather than clinical medicine.

A mole rat is not a medical term, but a common name for a burrowing rodent that belongs to the family Bathyergidae. There are about 20 species of mole rats, also known as "blind mole rats" or "naked mole rats," depending on the region and scientific classification.

Mole rats are fascinating creatures with several unique biological features. They are primarily subterranean animals, living in complex tunnel systems that they dig with their powerful incisors and sharp claws. Mole rats have reduced eyes or are completely blind, relying instead on their highly developed senses of touch and smell to navigate their environment.

One species, the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber), is particularly well-known for its unusual biology and social behavior. Naked mole rats live in large colonies with a single breeding female (the queen) and multiple males. The queen is the only reproductively active female, while the other members of the colony function as workers, caring for the young and maintaining the burrow system.

Naked mole rats have several remarkable biological traits, including an extraordinarily long lifespan for a rodent (up to 30 years or more) and resistance to cancer. They are also able to survive in low-oxygen environments and exhibit a unique form of social behavior called eusociality, similar to that seen in bees and ants.

While mole rats may not have a direct medical definition, their unique biology has attracted significant scientific interest, leading to important discoveries in fields such as aging, cancer research, and neurobiology.

Lagomorpha is an order of mammals that includes rabbits, hares, and pikas. They are herbivores with large incisors in the front of their mouths and a second pair of smaller incisors behind them. Lagomorpha is distinguished from other orders by its unique dental characteristics and the presence of two pairs of upper incisors. These animals are known for their high reproductive rates and are found worldwide, except for Antarctica and some islands.

Sloths are not a medical term, but rather they refer to slow-moving mammals that live in the trees of Central and South American rainforests. The term "sloth" is used in medicine to describe a state of being, specifically a lack of activity or a delay in making progress or taking action. In this context, it's not related to the animal. If you are looking for information about the sloth animal, I can certainly help with that as well!

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Comparative anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that deals with the study and comparison of the structures and functions of different species, including humans. It involves the examination of similarities and differences in the anatomy of various organisms to understand their evolutionary relationships and adaptations. This field helps scientists to understand the development and function of body structures, as well as the evolutionary history of different species. By comparing and contrasting the anatomy of different organisms, researchers can gain insights into the functions and workings of various bodily systems and how they have evolved over time.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Paleontology is not a medical field, but rather it is a branch of earth sciences and biology that deals with the study of prehistoric life forms through the examination of plant and animal fossils, including those of extinct organisms. It involves various disciplines such as stratigraphy, geochronology, and systematics to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth.

However, I understand that you are looking for information related to a non-medical topic, so here is some additional context:

Paleontology can be divided into several subdisciplines, including vertebrate paleontology (the study of fossilized animals with backbones), invertebrate paleontology (the study of fossilized animals without backbones), paleobotany (the study of fossil plants), micropaleontology (the study of microscopic fossils), and taphonomy (the study of the processes that occur after an organism's death, leading to its preservation as a fossil).

Paleontologists use various techniques to study fossils, including comparative anatomy, histology (the study of tissue structure), and geochemistry. They also rely on other scientific fields such as genetics, physics, and chemistry to help them interpret the data they collect from fossils.

Through their research, paleontologists can learn about the morphology, behavior, ecology, and evolutionary relationships of extinct organisms, providing valuable insights into the history of life on Earth.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

I believe you are looking for a medical or scientific term that is related to elephants, as there is no medical definition for the word "elephants" itself. Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea. They are native to Africa and Asia and are known for their long trunks, large ears, and tusks.

One possible connection between elephants and medicine is the use of elephant ivory in medical equipment. In the past, elephant ivory was used to make a variety of medical instruments, such as dental tools and surgical instruments. However, due to concerns about animal welfare and the illegal trade in elephant ivory, the use of elephant ivory in medical equipment has become increasingly rare.

Another possible connection between elephants and medicine is the study of their social behavior and communication, which may provide insights into human social behavior and mental health. For example, research has shown that elephants have complex social structures and exhibit behaviors such as empathy, cooperation, and mourning, which are also important aspects of human social and emotional functioning.

Overall, while there is no specific medical definition for "elephants," these fascinating animals have contributed to our understanding of biology, medicine, and human behavior in various ways.

Amphibians are a class of cold-blooded vertebrates that include frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians. They are characterized by their four-limbed body structure, moist skin, and double circulation system with three-chambered hearts. Amphibians are unique because they have a life cycle that involves two distinct stages: an aquatic larval stage (usually as a tadpole or larva) and a terrestrial adult stage. They typically start their lives in water, undergoing metamorphosis to develop lungs and legs for a land-dwelling existence. Many amphibians are also known for their complex reproductive behaviors and vocalizations.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a process that occurs in females of mammalian species, including humans, to compensate for the difference in gene dosage between the sexes. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. To prevent females from having twice as many X-linked genes expressed as males, one of the two X chromosomes in each female cell is randomly inactivated during early embryonic development.

XCI results in the formation of a condensed and transcriptionally inactive structure called a Barr body, which can be observed in the nucleus of female cells. This process ensures that females express similar levels of X-linked genes as males, maintaining a balanced gene dosage. The choice of which X chromosome is inactivated (maternal or paternal) is random and occurs independently in each cell, leading to a mosaic expression pattern of X-linked genes in different cells and tissues of the female body.

The Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the most common and well-known dolphin species. They are called "bottlenose" due to the distinctive shape of their short, thick beak which resembles a bottle. Adult bottlenose dolphins can grow up to 2-4 meters in length and weigh between 150-650 kilograms.

They have a streamlined body, a prominent dorsal fin, and a flexible, powerful tail fluke that they use for swimming. Bottlenose dolphins are known for their intelligence, social behavior, and complex communication skills, which include a series of clicks, whistles, and body movements. They typically live in groups called pods and are found in warm and temperate seas worldwide.

Bottlenose dolphins are also known for their playful behavior and have been observed engaging in activities such as surfing waves, playing with seaweed or marine debris, and leaping out of the water. They feed on a variety of fish and squid species and use echolocation to help them locate prey.

In addition to being popular in aquariums and dolphin shows, bottlenose dolphins are also trained by the military for tasks such as locating underwater mines and recovering lost equipment. However, they face several threats from human activities, including habitat loss, pollution, and intentional harm from fishing gear entanglement and vessel strikes. Conservation efforts are in place to protect bottlenose dolphins and their populations are monitored to ensure their continued survival.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "otters" refers to a group of aquatic mammals, and it does not have a medical definition. If you are referring to a medical term that may sound similar, please provide more context or check the spelling.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Monodelphis" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for a group of small opossums, also known as mouse opossums, which are marsupial mammals found in Central and South America. They are often used in biomedical research due to their small size and rapid reproduction.

I apologize for any confusion, but "lizards" is not a term used in medical definition. Lizards are a group of scaled reptiles constituting the order Squamata, characterized by having skin covered with overlapping scales, external ears, and movable eyelids. They are found worldwide in a variety of habitats, ranging from desert to tropical environments. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to help!

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sea Lions" are not a medical term or condition. Sea lions are marine mammals belonging to the family Otariidae, which also includes fur seals. They are characterized by their external ear flaps, robust bodies, and strong foreflippers which they use for movement both in water and on land.

If you're looking for medical definitions or information, I'd be happy to help with that as well. Could you please clarify your question?

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

"Didelphis" is a genus of mammals that belongs to the family Didelphidae, which includes opossums. The name "Didelphis" itself is derived from the Greek words "di" meaning two and "delphys" meaning womb, referring to the fact that females of this genus have two separate uteri and two cervices.

The most common species in this genus is Didelphis virginiana, also known as the Virginia opossum or North American opossum. This nocturnal marsupial is native to North America and can be found in a variety of habitats ranging from forests to urban areas. It has a pointed snout, sharp teeth, and a prehensile tail that it uses for climbing and grasping objects.

Didelphis species are known for their adaptability and opportunistic feeding habits. They are omnivores that eat a wide range of foods, including fruits, insects, small mammals, birds, and reptiles. Females give birth to relatively undeveloped young that crawl into a pouch on the mother's belly and continue to develop there for several weeks before becoming independent.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A mole (nevus) is a benign growth on the skin that is usually brown or black. Moles can appear anywhere on the body, alone or in groups. Most adults have between 10 and 40 moles. They typically appear during childhood and adolescence. Some moles may change over time, possibly becoming raised and/or changing color. It's important to keep an eye on moles and see a healthcare provider if any changes are noticed, as melanoma, a type of skin cancer, can develop from moles.

It is also worth noting that there are different types of moles including congenital nevi (moles present at birth), dysplastic nevi (atypical moles) and acquired nevi (moles that appear after birth). Dysplastic nevi are larger than average and irregular in shape, with color variations. They are more likely to develop into melanoma than regular moles.

Longevity, in a medical context, refers to the condition of living for a long period of time. It is often used to describe individuals who have reached a advanced age, such as 85 years or older, and is sometimes associated with the study of aging and factors that contribute to a longer lifespan.

It's important to note that longevity can be influenced by various genetic and environmental factors, including family history, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare. Some researchers are also studying the potential impact of certain medical interventions, such as stem cell therapies and caloric restriction, on lifespan and healthy aging.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Muridae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically it is a family of rodents that includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, and many other species. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. Whales are not a medical term but rather large marine mammals. They belong to the Cetacean family, which includes dolphins and porpoises. If you're asking about a medical condition or something similar that might be associated with the word "whales," I would need more information to provide an accurate response.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

"Phoca" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. It is actually a genus of seals, also known as "true seals." The Phocidae family includes several species such as the harbor seal, gray seal, and hooded seal. If you have mistaken "Phoca" for a medical term, I would be happy to help you find the definition of the correct term.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Comparative physiology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of the similarities and differences in the functioning of organs and systems in various species. It involves comparing the physiological processes and functions across different organisms, from simple to complex, to understand the evolutionary adaptations and mechanisms that allow them to survive in their specific environments. This field helps to provide insights into the fundamental principles that govern living organisms, as well as the development and adaptation of physiological systems throughout evolution.

Locomotion, in a medical context, refers to the ability to move independently and change location. It involves the coordinated movement of the muscles, bones, and nervous system that enables an individual to move from one place to another. This can include walking, running, jumping, or using assistive devices such as wheelchairs or crutches. Locomotion is a fundamental aspect of human mobility and is often assessed in medical evaluations to determine overall health and functioning.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

'Drosophila melanogaster' is the scientific name for a species of fruit fly that is commonly used as a model organism in various fields of biological research, including genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. Its small size, short generation time, large number of offspring, and ease of cultivation make it an ideal subject for laboratory studies. The fruit fly's genome has been fully sequenced, and many of its genes have counterparts in the human genome, which facilitates the understanding of genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Here is a brief medical definition:

Drosophila melanogaster (droh-suh-fih-luh meh-lon-guh-ster): A species of fruit fly used extensively as a model organism in genetic, developmental, and evolutionary research. Its genome has been sequenced, revealing many genes with human counterparts, making it valuable for understanding genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

"Takifugu" is not a medical term, but a genus of pufferfish found in the waters of East Asia. However, some people may use it to refer to "pufferfish poisoning," which is a type of food poisoning caused by the consumption of pufferfish that contain a potent neurotoxin called tetrodotoxin. This toxin is found in the fish's organs, such as the liver and ovaries, and can be deadly if ingested in large quantities. Proper preparation and cooking of pufferfish by trained chefs can make it safe to eat, but it is still considered a delicacy with significant risks.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

"Sirenia" is not a medical term, but a biological classification for a group of aquatic mammals commonly known as sea cows. This order includes four extant species: the Dugong (Dugong dugon), and three manatee species - the Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the African Manatee (Trichechus senegalensis). These herbivorous animals are known for their streamlined bodies, paddle-like limbs, and whiskered snouts. They inhabit warm coastal and riverine habitats in various parts of the world.

Carnivory refers to a diet that consists primarily or exclusively of animal tissue, including meat, fish, and poultry. In the context of human health, carnivory is not typically used as a medical term, but rather a dietary one. However, in zoology, the term "obligate carnivore" is used to describe animals that require meat to meet their nutritional needs and cannot survive on a vegetarian or herbivorous diet.

It's worth noting that while a carnivorous diet can provide certain nutrients, such as protein, iron, and vitamin B12, it may also be associated with health risks if not properly balanced. For example, diets high in red and processed meats have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian before making any significant changes to your diet.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

'Caenorhabditis elegans' is a species of free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm) that is widely used as a model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of biology and genetics. It has a simple anatomy, short lifespan, and fully sequenced genome, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes and diseases.

Some notable features of C. elegans include:

* Small size: Adult hermaphrodites are about 1 mm in length.
* Short lifespan: The average lifespan of C. elegans is around 2-3 weeks, although some strains can live up to 4 weeks under laboratory conditions.
* Development: C. elegans has a well-characterized developmental process, with adults developing from eggs in just 3 days at 20°C.
* Transparency: The transparent body of C. elegans allows researchers to observe its internal structures and processes easily.
* Genetics: C. elegans has a fully sequenced genome, which contains approximately 20,000 genes. Many of these genes have human homologs, making it an excellent model for studying human diseases.
* Neurobiology: C. elegans has a simple nervous system, with only 302 neurons in the hermaphrodite and 383 in the male. This simplicity makes it an ideal organism for studying neural development, function, and behavior.

Research using C. elegans has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including cell division, apoptosis, aging, learning, and memory. Additionally, studies on C. elegans have led to the discovery of many genes associated with human diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic conditions.

Rodent-borne diseases are infectious diseases transmitted to humans (and other animals) by rodents, their parasites or by contact with rodent urine, feces, or saliva. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Some examples of rodent-borne diseases include Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Rat-bite fever, and Plague. It's important to note that rodents can also cause allergic reactions in some people through their dander, urine, or saliva. Proper sanitation, rodent control measures, and protective equipment when handling rodents can help prevent the spread of these diseases.

"Drosophila" is a genus of small flies, also known as fruit flies. The most common species used in scientific research is "Drosophila melanogaster," which has been a valuable model organism for many areas of biological and medical research, including genetics, developmental biology, neurobiology, and aging.

The use of Drosophila as a model organism has led to numerous important discoveries in genetics and molecular biology, such as the identification of genes that are associated with human diseases like cancer, Parkinson's disease, and obesity. The short reproductive cycle, large number of offspring, and ease of genetic manipulation make Drosophila a powerful tool for studying complex biological processes.

Genetically modified animals (GMAs) are those whose genetic makeup has been altered using biotechnological techniques. This is typically done by introducing one or more genes from another species into the animal's genome, resulting in a new trait or characteristic that does not naturally occur in that species. The introduced gene is often referred to as a transgene.

The process of creating GMAs involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The desired gene is isolated from the DNA of another organism.
2. Transfer: The isolated gene is transferred into the target animal's cells, usually using a vector such as a virus or bacterium.
3. Integration: The transgene integrates into the animal's chromosome, becoming a permanent part of its genetic makeup.
4. Selection: The modified cells are allowed to multiply, and those that contain the transgene are selected for further growth and development.
5. Breeding: The genetically modified individuals are bred to produce offspring that carry the desired trait.

GMAs have various applications in research, agriculture, and medicine. In research, they can serve as models for studying human diseases or testing new therapies. In agriculture, GMAs can be developed to exhibit enhanced growth rates, improved disease resistance, or increased nutritional value. In medicine, GMAs may be used to produce pharmaceuticals or other therapeutic agents within their bodies.

Examples of genetically modified animals include mice with added genes for specific proteins that make them useful models for studying human diseases, goats that produce a human protein in their milk to treat hemophilia, and pigs with enhanced resistance to certain viruses that could potentially be used as organ donors for humans.

It is important to note that the use of genetically modified animals raises ethical concerns related to animal welfare, environmental impact, and potential risks to human health. These issues must be carefully considered and addressed when developing and implementing GMA technologies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "porpoises" are not a medical term. They refer to a group of marine mammals that are closely related to dolphins. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Herpestidae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic family that includes mongoose species. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

The term "diving" is generally not used in the context of medical definitions. However, when referring to diving in relation to a medical or physiological context, it usually refers to the act of submerging the body underwater, typically for activities such as swimming, snorkeling, or scuba diving.

In a medical or physiological sense, diving can have specific effects on the human body due to changes in pressure, temperature, and exposure to water. Some of these effects include:

* Changes in lung volume and gas exchange due to increased ambient pressure at depth.
* Decompression sickness (DCS) or nitrogen narcosis, which can occur when dissolved gases form bubbles in the body during ascent from a dive.
* Hypothermia, which can occur if the water is cold and the diver is not adequately insulated.
* Barotrauma, which can occur due to pressure differences between the middle ear or sinuses and the surrounding environment.
* Other medical conditions such as seizures or heart problems can also be exacerbated by diving.

It's important for divers to undergo proper training and certification, follow safe diving practices, and monitor their health before and after dives to minimize the risks associated with diving.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

"Trichechus" is the genus name for three species of aquatic mammals commonly known as manatees or sea cows. These herbivorous animals are found in the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and parts of the Caribbean. They are known for their slow movement, wrinkled skin, and paddle-like flippers.

'Murinae' is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic classification used in biology, specifically for a subfamily of rodents that includes mice, rats, and several related species. The term 'Murinae' comes from the family Muridae, which is the largest family of mammals, containing over 700 species.

The misconception might arise because medical professionals sometimes use common names for various animals or organisms in their diagnoses, treatments, or research. However, it is essential to clarify that 'Murinae' is a scientific classification and not a medical term.

Tetraodontiformes is not a medical term, but a taxonomic order in zoology. It refers to a group of marine fish that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, boxfish, and triggerfish, among others. These fish are characterized by their specialized teeth, which are fused into beak-like structures. Some species within this order contain tetrodotoxin, a potent neurotoxin, in their organs. While not directly related to medical terminology, it is important for healthcare providers and medical professionals to have an understanding of various animal taxonomies, especially those that can pose a risk to human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Fur Seals" are not a medical term. They are a type of marine mammal classified under the family Otariidae, also known as eared seals. Fur seals have external ears and long foreflippers that allow them to move efficiently on land, in contrast to true seals (family Phocidae) which lack external ears and move awkwardly on land.

There are several species of fur seals, including the Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), the Southern fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri), the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella), and a few others. These animals are known for their thick fur coats, which were once highly sought after by hunters for the fur trade.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a small region located in the hypothalamus of the brain, just above the optic chiasm where the optic nerves from each eye cross. It is considered to be the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals, responsible for generating and maintaining the body's internal circadian rhythm, which is a roughly 24-hour cycle that regulates various physiological processes such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone release, and metabolism.

The SCN receives direct input from retinal ganglion cells, which are sensitive to light and dark signals. This information helps the SCN synchronize the internal circadian rhythm with the external environment, allowing it to adjust to changes in day length and other environmental cues. The SCN then sends signals to other parts of the brain and body to regulate various functions according to the time of day.

Disruption of the SCN's function can lead to a variety of circadian rhythm disorders, such as jet lag, shift work disorder, and advanced or delayed sleep phase syndrome.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

A mammalian embryo is the developing offspring of a mammal, from the time of implantation of the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the uterus until the end of the eighth week of gestation. During this period, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and organ differentiation to form a complex structure with all the major organs and systems in place. This stage is followed by fetal development, which continues until birth. The study of mammalian embryos is important for understanding human development, evolution, and reproductive biology.

The Vomeronasal Organ (VNO) is a chemosensory organ found in many animals, including humans, that is involved in the detection of pheromones and other chemical signals. It's located in the nasal cavity, specifically on the septum, which separates the two nostrils.

In humans, the existence and functionality of the VNO have been a subject of debate among researchers. While it is present in human embryos and some studies suggest that it may play a role in the detection of certain chemicals, its significance in human behavior and physiology is not well understood. In many other animals, however, the VNO plays a crucial role in social behaviors such as mating, aggression, and hierarchy establishment.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

Alligators and crocodiles are large, semi-aquatic reptiles belonging to the order Crocodylia. They are characterized by a long, broad snout, powerful tail, and sharp teeth designed for grabbing and holding onto prey. Alligators and crocodiles are similar in appearance but can be distinguished by their snouts: alligators have a wider, U-shaped snout, while crocodiles have a more V-shaped snout.

Alligators (family Alligatoridae) are native to the United States and China, with two living species: the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis). They prefer freshwater habitats such as rivers, lakes, and marshes.

Crocodiles (family Crocodylidae) are found in tropical regions around the world, including Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Americas. There are 14 species of crocodiles, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus), the Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), and the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). Crocodiles can tolerate both freshwater and saltwater environments.

Both alligators and crocodiles are apex predators, feeding on a variety of animals such as fish, birds, and mammals. They are known for their powerful bite force and have been reported to take down large prey, including deer and cattle. Alligators and crocodiles play an important role in maintaining the balance of their ecosystems by controlling populations of other animals and helping to keep waterways clean.

While alligators and crocodiles are often feared due to their size and predatory nature, they are also threatened by habitat loss, pollution, and hunting. Several species are considered endangered or vulnerable, and conservation efforts are underway to protect them and their habitats.

Gene duplication, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to an event where a segment of DNA that contains a gene is copied, resulting in two identical copies of that gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as unequal crossing over during meiosis, retrotransposition, or whole genome duplication. The duplicate genes are then passed on to the next generation.

Gene duplications can have several consequences. Often, one copy may continue to function normally while the other is free to mutate without affecting the organism's survival, potentially leading to new functions (neofunctionalization) or subfunctionalization where each copy takes on some of the original gene's roles.

Gene duplication plays a significant role in evolution by providing raw material for the creation of novel genes and genetic diversity. However, it can also lead to various genetic disorders if multiple copies of a gene become dysfunctional or if there are too many copies, leading to an overdose effect.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Cheirogaleidae is a family of small primates also known as dwarf lemurs or mouse lemurs. They are native to Madagascar and are characterized by their rodent-like appearance and nocturnal behavior. This family includes several genera and species, such as Cheirogaleus, Microcebus, Mirza, and Allocebus. These primates are known for their ability to adapt to various environments, from forests to dry regions, and have a varied diet that includes fruits, insects, and small vertebrates. They are also known for their unique hibernation behavior during the dry season, where they lower their metabolic rate and body temperature to conserve energy.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Genetic selection, also known as natural selection, is a fundamental mechanism of evolution. It refers to the process by which certain heritable traits become more or less common in a population over successive generations due to differential reproduction of organisms with those traits.

In genetic selection, traits that increase an individual's fitness (its ability to survive and reproduce) are more likely to be passed on to the next generation, while traits that decrease fitness are less likely to be passed on. This results in a gradual change in the distribution of traits within a population over time, leading to adaptation to the environment and potentially speciation.

Genetic selection can occur through various mechanisms, including viability selection (differential survival), fecundity selection (differences in reproductive success), and sexual selection (choices made by individuals during mating). The process of genetic selection is driven by environmental pressures, such as predation, competition for resources, and changes in the availability of food or habitat.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Organ specificity, in the context of immunology and toxicology, refers to the phenomenon where a substance (such as a drug or toxin) or an immune response primarily affects certain organs or tissues in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. The presence of specific targets (like antigens in the case of an immune response or receptors in the case of drugs) that are more abundant in these organs.
2. The unique properties of certain cells or tissues that make them more susceptible to damage.
3. The way a substance is metabolized or cleared from the body, which can concentrate it in specific organs.

For example, in autoimmune diseases, organ specificity describes immune responses that are directed against antigens found only in certain organs, such as the thyroid gland in Hashimoto's disease. Similarly, some toxins or drugs may have a particular affinity for liver cells, leading to liver damage or specific drug interactions.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Dinosaurs are a group of reptiles that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous period. They first appeared approximately 230 million years ago and went extinct around 65 million years ago.

Dinosaurs are characterized by their upright stance, with legs positioned directly under their bodies, and a wide range of body sizes and shapes. Some dinosaurs were enormous, such as the long-necked sauropods that could reach lengths of over 100 feet, while others were small and agile.

Dinosaurs are classified into two main groups: the saurischians (lizard-hipped) and the ornithischians (bird-hipped). The saurischians include both the large carnivorous theropods, such as Tyrannosaurus rex, and the long-necked sauropods. The ornithischians were primarily herbivores and included a diverse array of species, such as the armored ankylosaurs and the horned ceratopsians.

Despite their extinction, dinosaurs have left a lasting impact on our planet and continue to be a source of fascination for people of all ages. The study of dinosaurs, known as paleontology, has shed light on many aspects of Earth's history and the evolution of life on our planet.

An endangered species is a species of animal, plant, or other organism that is at risk of becoming extinct because its population is declining or threatened by changing environmental or demographic factors. This term is defined and used in the context of conservation biology and wildlife management to identify species that need protection and preservation efforts.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) maintains a "Red List" of species, categorizing them based on their extinction risk. The categories include "Critically Endangered," "Endangered," "Vulnerable," and "Near Threatened." A species is considered endangered if it meets certain criteria indicating that it faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

The primary causes for species to become endangered include habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, pollution, climate change, overexploitation, and introduction of invasive species. Conservation efforts often focus on protecting habitats, managing threats, and implementing recovery programs to help endangered species recover their populations and reduce the risk of extinction.

"Animals, Zoo" is not a medical term. However, it generally refers to a collection of various species of wild animals kept in enclosures or exhibits for the public to view and learn about. These animals are usually obtained from different parts of the world and live in environments that attempt to simulate their natural habitats. Zoos play an essential role in conservation efforts, education, and research. They provide a unique opportunity for people to connect with wildlife and understand the importance of preserving and protecting endangered species and their ecosystems.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

Population dynamics, in the context of public health and epidemiology, refers to the study of the changes in size and structure of a population over time, as well as the factors that contribute to those changes. This can include birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, aging, and other demographic characteristics. Understanding population dynamics is crucial for planning and implementing public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or disease prevention strategies, as they allow researchers and policymakers to identify vulnerable populations, predict future health trends, and evaluate the impact of public health initiatives.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Zebrafish proteins refer to the diverse range of protein molecules that are produced by the organism Danio rerio, commonly known as the zebrafish. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes such as growth, development, reproduction, and response to environmental stimuli. They are involved in cellular functions like enzymatic reactions, signal transduction, structural support, and regulation of gene expression.

Zebrafish is a popular model organism in biomedical research due to its genetic similarity with humans, rapid development, and transparent embryos that allow for easy observation of biological processes. As a result, the study of zebrafish proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of protein function, structure, and interaction in both zebrafish and human systems.

Some examples of zebrafish proteins include:

* Transcription factors that regulate gene expression during development
* Enzymes involved in metabolic pathways
* Structural proteins that provide support to cells and tissues
* Receptors and signaling molecules that mediate communication between cells
* Heat shock proteins that assist in protein folding and protect against stress

The analysis of zebrafish proteins can be performed using various techniques, including biochemical assays, mass spectrometry, protein crystallography, and computational modeling. These methods help researchers to identify, characterize, and understand the functions of individual proteins and their interactions within complex networks.

Pseudogenes are defined in medical and genetics terminology as non-functional segments of DNA that resemble functional genes, such as protein-coding genes or RNA genes, but have lost their ability to be expressed or produce a functional product. They are often characterized by the presence of mutations, such as frameshifts, premature stop codons, or deletions, that prevent them from being transcribed or translated into functional proteins or RNAs.

Pseudogenes can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication followed by degenerative mutations, retrotransposition of processed mRNA, and the insertion of transposable elements. While they were once considered "genomic fossils" with no biological relevance, recent research has shown that pseudogenes may play important roles in regulating gene expression, modulating protein function, and contributing to disease processes.

It's worth noting that there is ongoing debate in the scientific community about the precise definition and functional significance of pseudogenes, as some may still retain residual functions or regulatory potential.

I apologize for any confusion, but "deer" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of hooved mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Perissodactyla is not a medical term, but rather a taxonomic order in zoology. It includes mammals with an odd number of toes on each foot and a particular type of digestive system called "hindgut fermentation." The order Perissodactyla includes horses, rhinos, and tapirs.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

"Sex determination processes" refer to the series of genetic and biological events that occur during embryonic and fetal development which lead to the development of male or female physical characteristics. In humans, this process is typically determined by the presence or absence of a Y chromosome in the fertilized egg. If the egg has a Y chromosome, it will develop into a male (genetically XY) and if it does not have a Y chromosome, it will develop into a female (genetically XX).

The sex determination process involves the activation and repression of specific genes on the sex chromosomes, which direct the development of the gonads (ovaries or testes) and the production of hormones that influence the development of secondary sexual characteristics. This includes the development of internal and external genitalia, as well as other sex-specific physical traits.

It is important to note that while sex is typically determined by genetics and biology, gender identity is a separate construct that can be self-identified and may not align with an individual's biological sex.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

"Natural history" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader context, natural history refers to the development and course of a disease or condition as it progresses over time in an individual or a population, without any medical intervention. It involves observing and documenting the symptoms, signs, complications, and outcomes of the disease, as well as any factors that may influence its course, such as age, gender, genetics, and environment. This information can be used to improve our understanding of the disease and develop more effective treatments.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Activities" is a very broad term and not something that typically has a specific medical definition. Human activities can encompass everything from physical movement like exercise or daily chores, to mental activities like work or hobbies, to social interactions, and more.

However, in a medical context, human activities might be discussed in terms of their impact on health. For example, certain activities could be considered "healthy" if they contribute to physical fitness, stress reduction, or overall well-being. Conversely, other activities might be seen as "risky" or "unhealthy" if they increase the likelihood of injury or disease.

If you're looking for information on a more specific concept related to human activities and health, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

"Fish proteins" are not a recognized medical term or concept. However, fish is a source of protein that is often consumed in the human diet and has been studied in various medical and nutritional contexts. According to the USDA FoodData Central database, a 100-gram serving of cooked Atlantic salmon contains approximately 25 grams of protein.

Proteins from fish, like other animal proteins, are complete proteins, meaning they contain all nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Fish proteins have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their role in muscle growth and repair, immune function, and cardiovascular health.

It's worth noting that some people may have allergies to fish or seafood, which can cause a range of symptoms from mild skin irritation to severe anaphylaxis. If you suspect you have a fish allergy, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and management.

Introns are non-coding sequences of DNA that are present within the genes of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, animals, and humans. Introns are removed during the process of RNA splicing, in which the initial RNA transcript is cut and reconnected to form a mature, functional RNA molecule.

After the intron sequences are removed, the remaining coding sequences, known as exons, are joined together to create a continuous stretch of genetic information that can be translated into a protein or used to produce non-coding RNAs with specific functions. The removal of introns allows for greater flexibility in gene expression and regulation, enabling the generation of multiple proteins from a single gene through alternative splicing.

In summary, introns are non-coding DNA sequences within genes that are removed during RNA processing to create functional RNA molecules or proteins.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Gonads are the reproductive organs that produce gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones. In males, the gonads are the testes, which produce sperm and testosterone. In females, the gonads are the ovaries, which produce eggs and estrogen and progesterone. The development, function, and regulation of the gonads are crucial for reproductive health and fertility.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperm cells, or spermatozoa, are produced in male organisms. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and involves several stages:

1. Spermatocytogenesis: This is the initial stage where diploid spermatogonial stem cells divide mitotically to produce more spermatogonia, some of which will differentiate into primary spermatocytes.
2. Meiosis: The primary spermatocytes undergo meiotic division to form haploid secondary spermatocytes, which then divide again to form haploid spermatids. This process results in the reduction of chromosome number from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid).
3. Spermiogenesis: The spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa, undergoing morphological changes such as the formation of a head and tail. During this stage, most of the cytoplasm is discarded, resulting in highly compacted and streamlined sperm cells.
4. Spermation: The final stage where mature sperm are released from the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis for further maturation and storage.

The entire process takes approximately 72-74 days in humans, with continuous production throughout adulthood.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Ursidae is not a medical term, but rather a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to the family of mammals that includes bears. The order of these animals is Carnivora, and Ursidae is one of the eight families within this order.

The members of Ursidae are characterized by their large size, stocky bodies, strong limbs, and a plantigrade posture (walking on the entire sole of the foot). They have a keen sense of smell and most species have a diet that varies widely based on what's available in their environment.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding various biological classifications can be helpful in medical fields such as epidemiology or zoonotic diseases, where knowing about different animal families can provide insight into potential disease carriers or transmission patterns.

The X chromosome is one of the two types of sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the Y chromosome). It's one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that make up a person's genetic material. Females typically have two copies of the X chromosome (XX), while males usually have one X and one Y chromosome (XY).

The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for the production of various proteins, many of which are essential for normal bodily functions. Some of the critical roles of the X chromosome include:

1. Sex Determination: The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines whether an individual is male or female. If there is no Y chromosome, the individual will typically develop as a female.
2. Genetic Disorders: Since females have two copies of the X chromosome, they are less likely to be affected by X-linked genetic disorders than males. Males, having only one X chromosome, will express any recessive X-linked traits they inherit.
3. Dosage Compensation: To compensate for the difference in gene dosage between males and females, a process called X-inactivation occurs during female embryonic development. One of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated in each cell, resulting in a single functional copy per cell.

The X chromosome plays a crucial role in human genetics and development, contributing to various traits and characteristics, including sex determination and dosage compensation.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Synteny, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to the presence of two or more genetic loci (regions) on the same chromosome, in the same relative order and orientation. This term is often used to describe conserved gene organization between different species, indicating a common ancestry.

It's important to note that synteny should not be confused with "colinearity," which refers to the conservation of gene content and order within a genome or between genomes of closely related species. Synteny is a broader concept that can also include conserved gene order across more distantly related species, even if some genes have been lost or gained in the process.

In medical research, synteny analysis can be useful for identifying conserved genetic elements and regulatory regions that may play important roles in disease susceptibility or other biological processes.

"Sex differentiation" is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in reproductive endocrinology and genetics. It refers to the biological development of sexual characteristics that distinguish males from females. This process is regulated by hormones and genetic factors.

There are two main stages of sex differentiation: genetic sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Genetic sex determination occurs at fertilization, where the combination of X and Y chromosomes determines the sex of the individual (typically, XX = female and XY = male). Gonadal sex differentiation then takes place during fetal development, where the genetic sex signals the development of either ovaries or testes.

Once the gonads are formed, they produce hormones that drive further sexual differentiation, leading to the development of internal reproductive structures (such as the uterus and fallopian tubes in females, and the vas deferens and seminal vesicles in males) and external genitalia.

It's important to note that while sex differentiation is typically categorized as male or female, there are individuals who may have variations in their sexual development, leading to intersex conditions. These variations can occur at any stage of the sex differentiation process and can result in a range of physical characteristics that do not fit neatly into male or female categories.

Embryonic development is the series of growth and developmental stages that occur during the formation and early growth of the embryo. In humans, this stage begins at fertilization (when the sperm and egg cell combine) and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (now called a zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which then implants into the uterus. The cells in the blastocyst begin to differentiate and form the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These germ layers will eventually give rise to all of the different tissues and organs in the body.

Embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It is characterized by rapid cell division, migration, and differentiation, as well as programmed cell death (apoptosis) and tissue remodeling. Abnormalities in embryonic development can lead to birth defects or other developmental disorders.

It's important to note that the term "embryo" is used to describe the developing organism from fertilization until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy in humans, after which it is called a fetus.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

A dugong is a large marine mammal that belongs to the family Dugongidae. Its scientific name is Dugong dugon. It is also known as the sea cow because of its habit of feeding on seagrasses. Dugongs are found in warm coastal waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging from East Africa to Vanuatu in the west and from Japan to Australia in the east. They can grow up to 3 meters in length and weigh between 200-500 kilograms.

Dugongs have a streamlined body with a flat, paddle-like tail and two flippers. Their skin is thick and wrinkled, and they are usually gray or brownish-gray in color. Dugongs have a unique feeding apparatus that allows them to graze on seagrasses, which include specialized lips and teeth.

Dugongs are social animals that live in small groups called herds. They communicate with each other using a variety of sounds, including clicks, chirps, and whistles. Dugongs have a long lifespan, with some individuals living up to 70 years or more.

Unfortunately, dugongs are threatened by various human activities, such as hunting, habitat loss, and entanglement in fishing nets. They are currently listed as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

Exons are the coding regions of DNA that remain in the mature, processed mRNA after the removal of non-coding intronic sequences during RNA splicing. These exons contain the information necessary to encode proteins, as they specify the sequence of amino acids within a polypeptide chain. The arrangement and order of exons can vary between different genes and even between different versions of the same gene (alternative splicing), allowing for the generation of multiple protein isoforms from a single gene. This complexity in exon structure and usage significantly contributes to the diversity and functionality of the proteome.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Period (PER) circadian proteins are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of circadian rhythms, which are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a daily cycle. They are named after the PERIOD gene, whose protein product is one of the key components of the molecular circadian clock mechanism.

The molecular clock is a self-sustaining oscillator present in most organisms, from cyanobacteria to humans. In mammals, the molecular clock consists of two interlocking transcriptional-translational feedback loops that generate rhythmic expression of clock genes and their protein products with a period of approximately 24 hours.

The primary loop involves the positive regulators CLOCK and BMAL1, which heterodimerize and bind to E-box elements in the promoter regions of target genes, including PERIOD (PER) and CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) genes. Upon transcription and translation, PER and CRY proteins form a complex that translocates back into the nucleus, where it inhibits CLOCK-BMAL1-mediated transcription, thereby suppressing its own expression. After a certain period, the repressive complex dissociates, allowing for another cycle of transcription and translation to occur.

The second loop involves the regulation of additional clock genes such as REV-ERBα and RORα, which compete for binding to ROR response elements (ROREs) in the BMAL1 promoter, thereby modulating its expression level. REV-ERBα also represses PER and CRY transcription by recruiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) and nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR1).

Overall, Period circadian proteins are essential for the proper functioning of the molecular clock and the regulation of various physiological processes, including sleep-wake cycles, metabolism, hormone secretion, and cellular homeostasis. Dysregulation of these proteins has been implicated in several diseases, such as sleep disorders, metabolic syndromes, and cancer.

Photoperiod is a term used in chronobiology, which is the study of biological rhythms and their synchronization with environmental cycles. In medicine, photoperiod specifically refers to the duration of light and darkness in a 24-hour period, which can significantly impact various physiological processes in living organisms, including humans.

In human medicine, photoperiod is often considered in relation to circadian rhythms, which are internal biological clocks that regulate several functions such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, and metabolism. The length of the photoperiod can influence these rhythms and contribute to the development or management of certain medical conditions, like mood disorders, sleep disturbances, and metabolic disorders.

For instance, exposure to natural daylight or artificial light sources with specific intensities and wavelengths during particular times of the day can help regulate circadian rhythms and improve overall health. Conversely, disruptions in the photoperiod due to factors like shift work, jet lag, or artificial lighting can lead to desynchronization of circadian rhythms and related health issues.

Protein isoforms are different forms or variants of a protein that are produced from a single gene through the process of alternative splicing, where different exons (or parts of exons) are included in the mature mRNA molecule. This results in the production of multiple, slightly different proteins that share a common core structure but have distinct sequences and functions. Protein isoforms can also arise from genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms or mutations that alter the protein-coding sequence of a gene. These differences in protein sequence can affect the stability, localization, activity, or interaction partners of the protein isoform, leading to functional diversity and specialization within cells and organisms.

'Caenorhabditis elegans' (C. elegans) is a type of free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm) that is often used as a model organism in scientific research. C. elegans proteins refer to the various types of protein molecules that are produced by the organism's genes and play crucial roles in maintaining its biological functions.

Proteins are complex molecules made up of long chains of amino acids, and they are involved in virtually every cellular process, including metabolism, DNA replication, signal transduction, and transportation of molecules within the cell. In C. elegans, proteins are encoded by genes, which are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that are then translated into protein sequences by ribosomes.

Studying C. elegans proteins is important for understanding the basic biology of this organism and can provide insights into more complex biological systems, including humans. Because C. elegans has a relatively simple nervous system and a short lifespan, it is often used to study neurobiology, aging, and development. Additionally, because many of the genes and proteins in C. elegans have counterparts in other organisms, including humans, studying them can provide insights into human disease processes and potential therapeutic targets.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

Sex chromosomes, often denoted as X and Y, are one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes found in each cell of the body. Normally, females have two X chromosomes (46,XX), and males have one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY). The sex chromosomes play a significant role in determining the sex of an individual. They contain genes that contribute to physical differences between men and women. Any variations or abnormalities in the number or structure of these chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders and conditions related to sexual development and reproduction.

Biological adaptation is the process by which a organism becomes better suited to its environment over generations as a result of natural selection. It involves changes in an organism's structure, metabolism, or behavior that increase its fitness, or reproductive success, in a given environment. These changes are often genetic and passed down from one generation to the next through the process of inheritance.

Examples of biological adaptation include the development of camouflage in animals, the ability of plants to photosynthesize, and the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Biological adaptation is an important concept in the field of evolutionary biology and helps to explain the diversity of life on Earth.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Invertebrates" is not a medical term. It is a term used in biology to describe a vast group of animals that do not have a vertebral column or spinal cord. This includes creatures such as insects, worms, starfish, and shellfish, among many others. They are classified as invertebrates because they lack a backbone, which is a characteristic of vertebrates, or animals that include humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "hedgehogs" is commonly referred to as a small, spiny mammal found in Europe, Asia, and Africa. However, in medical terms, there is no widely accepted or recognized definition for "hedgehogs."

If you meant to ask about a different term or concept, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I would be happy to help.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Animal vocalization refers to the production of sound by animals through the use of the vocal organs, such as the larynx in mammals or the syrinx in birds. These sounds can serve various purposes, including communication, expressing emotions, attracting mates, warning others of danger, and establishing territory. The complexity and diversity of animal vocalizations are vast, with some species capable of producing intricate songs or using specific calls to convey different messages. In a broader sense, animal vocalizations can also include sounds produced through other means, such as stridulation in insects.

In the context of mental health and psychology, "predatory behavior" is not a term that is commonly used as a medical diagnosis or condition. However, it generally refers to aggressive or exploitative behavior towards others with the intention of taking advantage of them for personal gain or pleasure. This could include various types of harmful behaviors such as sexual harassment, assault, stalking, bullying, or financial exploitation.

In some cases, predatory behavior may be associated with certain mental health conditions, such as antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy, which are characterized by a disregard for the rights and feelings of others. However, it's important to note that not all individuals who engage in predatory behavior have a mental health condition, and many people who do may not necessarily exhibit these behaviors.

If you or someone else is experiencing harm or exploitation, it's important to seek help from a trusted authority figure, such as a healthcare provider, law enforcement officer, or social worker.

A nonmammalian embryo refers to the developing organism in animals other than mammals, from the fertilized egg (zygote) stage until hatching or birth. In nonmammalian species, the developmental stages and terminology differ from those used in mammals. The term "embryo" is generally applied to the developing organism up until a specific stage of development that is characterized by the formation of major organs and structures. After this point, the developing organism is referred to as a "larva," "juvenile," or other species-specific terminology.

The study of nonmammalian embryos has played an important role in our understanding of developmental biology and evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). By comparing the developmental processes across different animal groups, researchers can gain insights into the evolutionary origins and diversification of body plans and structures. Additionally, nonmammalian embryos are often used as model systems for studying basic biological processes, such as cell division, gene regulation, and pattern formation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "turtles" is not a medical term. It refers to the group of reptiles that have a shell and include various species such as tortoises and terrapins. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help with those!

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

"Octodon" is the genus name for a group of rodents that are native to South America, also known as "degu." They are small animals, typically weighing between 200-350 grams, with a body length of about 10-15 inches including their tail.

Octodons have a distinct appearance, with a pointed snout, large ears, and a bushy tail that is longer than their body. They are primarily herbivorous, feeding on a variety of plant materials such as grasses, leaves, and seeds.

In a medical context, "octodon" may be used in scientific research to refer to this species of animal. Researchers may study octodons to learn more about various aspects of biology and medicine, including their physiology, behavior, genetics, and responses to drugs or diseases. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research should always be done in an ethical and responsible manner, with careful consideration given to their welfare and well-being.

In medical terms, the jaw is referred to as the mandible (in humans and some other animals), which is the lower part of the face that holds the lower teeth in place. It's a large, horseshoe-shaped bone that forms the lower jaw and serves as a attachment point for several muscles that are involved in chewing and moving the lower jaw.

In addition to the mandible, the upper jaw is composed of two bones known as the maxillae, which fuse together at the midline of the face to form the upper jaw. The upper jaw holds the upper teeth in place and forms the roof of the mouth, as well as a portion of the eye sockets and nasal cavity.

Together, the mandible and maxillae allow for various functions such as speaking, eating, and breathing.

Oncorhynchus mykiss is the scientific name for a species of fish that is commonly known as the Rainbow Trout. According to the medical or clinical definition provided by the US National Library of Medicine, Oncorhynchus mykiss is "a freshwater fish that is widely cultured and an important food source in many parts of the world." It is also a popular game fish and is often stocked in lakes and rivers for recreational fishing. Rainbow trout are native to cold-water tributaries that flow into the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. They have been introduced widely throughout the world and can now be found in freshwater systems on every continent except Antarctica. Rainbow trout are a valuable species for both commercial and recreational fisheries, and they also play an important role in the food web as both predators and prey.

Genetic dosage compensation is a process that evens out the effects of genes on an organism's phenotype (observable traits), even when there are differences in the number of copies of those genes present. This is especially important in cases where sex chromosomes are involved, as males and females often have different numbers of sex chromosomes.

In many species, including humans, females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. To compensate for the difference in dosage, one of the female's X chromosomes is randomly inactivated during early embryonic development, resulting in each cell having only one active X chromosome, regardless of sex. This process ensures that both males and females have similar levels of gene expression from their X chromosomes and helps to prevent an imbalance in gene dosage between the sexes.

Defects in dosage compensation can lead to various genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome (where a female has only one X chromosome) or Klinefelter syndrome (where a male has two or more X chromosomes). These conditions can result in developmental abnormalities and health issues due to the imbalance in gene dosage.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby through the umbilical cord. It also removes waste products from the baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's side of the placenta contains many tiny blood vessels that connect to the baby's circulatory system. This allows for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the mother's and baby's blood. After the baby is born, the placenta is usually expelled from the uterus in a process called afterbirth.

Body temperature regulation, also known as thermoregulation, is the process by which the body maintains its core internal temperature within a narrow range, despite varying external temperatures. This is primarily controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, which acts as a thermostat and receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body. When the body's temperature rises above or falls below the set point, the hypothalamus initiates responses to bring the temperature back into balance. These responses can include shivering to generate heat, sweating to cool down, vasodilation or vasoconstriction of blood vessels to regulate heat loss, and changes in metabolic rate. Effective body temperature regulation is crucial for maintaining optimal physiological function and overall health.

X-linked genes are those genes that are located on the X chromosome. In humans, females have two copies of the X chromosome (XX), while males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). This means that males have only one copy of each X-linked gene, whereas females have two copies.

X-linked genes are important in medical genetics because they can cause different patterns of inheritance and disease expression between males and females. For example, if a mutation occurs in an X-linked gene, it is more likely to affect males than females because males only have one copy of the gene. This means that even a single mutated copy of the gene can cause the disease in males, while females may be carriers of the mutation and not show any symptoms due to their second normal copy of the gene.

X-linked recessive disorders are more common in males than females because they only have one X chromosome. Examples of X-linked recessive disorders include Duchenne muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and color blindness. In contrast, X-linked dominant disorders can affect both males and females, but females may have milder symptoms due to their second normal copy of the gene. Examples of X-linked dominant disorders include Rett syndrome and incontinentia pigmenti.

Untranslated regions (UTRs) of RNA are the non-coding sequences that are present in mRNA (messenger RNA) molecules, which are located at both the 5' end (5' UTR) and the 3' end (3' UTR) of the mRNA, outside of the coding sequence (CDS). These regions do not get translated into proteins. They contain regulatory elements that play a role in the regulation of gene expression by affecting the stability, localization, and translation efficiency of the mRNA molecule. The 5' UTR typically contains the Shine-Dalgarno sequence in prokaryotes or the Kozak consensus sequence in eukaryotes, which are important for the initiation of translation. The 3' UTR often contains regulatory elements such as AU-rich elements (AREs) and microRNA (miRNA) binding sites that can affect mRNA stability and translation.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

'Brucella' is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively intracellular bacteria that are causative agents of brucellosis, a zoonotic disease with various clinical manifestations in humans and animals. The bacteria are primarily hosted by domestic and wild animals, such as cattle, goats, pigs, and dogs, and can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with infected animals or consumption of contaminated animal products, such as unpasteurized milk and cheese.

There are several species of Brucella, including B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and B. canis, which primarily infect different animal hosts but can also cause disease in humans. The bacteria have a unique ability to survive and replicate within host cells, such as macrophages, allowing them to evade the immune system and establish chronic infection.

Human brucellosis is characterized by nonspecific symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, joint pain, and sweats, which can make diagnosis challenging. Treatment typically involves a long course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline and rifampin, to eradicate the infection. Prevention measures include pasteurization of dairy products, vaccination of animals, and use of personal protective equipment when handling animals or their products.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Domestic animals, also known as domestic animals or pets, are species that have been tamed and kept by humans for various purposes. These purposes can include companionship, work, protection, or food production. Some common examples of domestic animals include dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens.

Domestic animals are distinguished from wild animals in that they are dependent on humans for their survival and are able to live in close proximity to people. They have often been selectively bred over generations to possess certain traits or characteristics that make them more suitable for their intended uses. For example, dogs may be bred for their size, strength, agility, or temperament, while cats may be bred for their coat patterns or behaviors.

It is important to note that the term "domestic animal" does not necessarily mean that an animal is tame or safe to handle. Some domestic animals, such as certain breeds of dogs, can be aggressive or dangerous if not properly trained and managed. It is always important to approach and handle any animal, domestic or wild, with caution and respect.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Germ cells are the reproductive cells, also known as sex cells, that combine to form offspring in sexual reproduction. In females, germ cells are called ova or egg cells, and in males, they are called spermatozoa or sperm cells. These cells are unique because they carry half the genetic material necessary for creating new life. They are produced through a process called meiosis, which reduces their chromosome number by half, ensuring that when two germ cells combine during fertilization, the normal diploid number of chromosomes is restored.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Alternative splicing is a process in molecular biology that occurs during the post-transcriptional modification of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) molecules. It involves the removal of non-coding sequences, known as introns, and the joining together of coding sequences, or exons, to form a mature messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule that can be translated into a protein.

In alternative splicing, different combinations of exons are selected and joined together to create multiple distinct mRNA transcripts from a single pre-mRNA template. This process increases the diversity of proteins that can be produced from a limited number of genes, allowing for greater functional complexity in organisms.

Alternative splicing is regulated by various cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors that bind to specific sequences in the pre-mRNA molecule and influence which exons are included or excluded during splicing. Abnormal alternative splicing has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the southern portion of the Americas, which is a continent in the Western Hemisphere. South America is generally defined as including the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, as well as the overseas departments and territories of French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

"Trichosurus" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the family Phalangeridae, which includes several species of marsupials commonly known as "possums." The most well-known species is the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), which is native to Australia and New Guinea.

In a medical or veterinary context, a possum might be mentioned in relation to bites or scratches from these animals, or as a potential carrier of zoonotic diseases (diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans). However, "Trichosurus" itself is not a medical term.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Proboscidea is an order of mammals that includes elephants, mammoths, and mastodons. The defining characteristic of Proboscidea is the elongated, flexible upper lip or trunk, known as a proboscis, which these animals use for a variety of purposes such as breathing, smelling, touching, grasping, and drinking.

Proboscideans are large herbivores that have thick skin, columnar limbs, and a distinctive tooth structure characterized by large, flat molars adapted for grinding vegetation. They are known to be highly intelligent and social animals, with complex communication systems and family structures.

Elephants are the only living members of Proboscidea, and they are found in Africa and Asia. Fossil proboscideans were widespread across Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America during the Cenozoic Era, but became extinct in most parts of the world by the end of the Pleistcene epoch, around 10,000 years ago.

"Oryzias" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the family Adrianichthyidae, which includes various species of small fish commonly known as "ricefishes" or "medaka." These fish are often used in scientific research, particularly in the fields of genetics and developmental biology. They are not associated with human diseases or medical conditions.

Echolocation is a biological sonar system used by certain animals to navigate and locate objects in their environment. It is most commonly associated with bats and dolphins, although some other species such as shrews and cave-dwelling birds also use this method.

In echolocation, the animal emits a series of sounds, often in the form of clicks or chirps, which travel through the air or water until they hit an object. The sound then reflects off the object and returns to the animal, providing information about the distance, size, shape, and location of the object.

By analyzing the time delay between the emission of the sound and the reception of the echo, as well as the frequency changes in the echo caused by the movement of the object or the animal itself, the animal can create a mental image of its surroundings and navigate through it with great precision.

An armadillo is not a medical condition or term. It is a type of mammal that is native to the Americas, known for its distinctive armor-like shell. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or topic, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

Sequence homology is a term used in molecular biology to describe the similarity between the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of two or more genes or proteins. It is a measure of the degree to which the sequences are related, indicating a common evolutionary origin.

In other words, sequence homology implies that the compared sequences have a significant number of identical or similar residues in the same order, suggesting that they share a common ancestor and have diverged over time through processes such as mutation, insertion, deletion, or rearrangement. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more closely related the sequences are likely to be.

Sequence homology is often used to identify similarities between genes or proteins from different species, which can provide valuable insights into their functions, structures, and evolutionary relationships. It is commonly assessed using various bioinformatics tools and algorithms, such as BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool), Clustal Omega, and multiple sequence alignment (MSA) methods.

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that is longer than 200 nucleotides and does not encode for proteins. They are involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of gene expression, chromosome remodeling, and modulation of protein function. LncRNAs can be located in the nucleus or cytoplasm and can interact with DNA, RNA, and proteins to bring about their functions. Dysregulation of lncRNAs has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

"Biological clocks" refer to the internal time-keeping systems in living organisms that regulate the timing of various physiological processes and behaviors according to a daily (circadian) rhythm. These rhythms are driven by genetic mechanisms and can be influenced by environmental factors such as light and temperature.

In humans, biological clocks help regulate functions such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone release, body temperature, and metabolism. Disruptions to these internal timekeeping systems have been linked to various health problems, including sleep disorders, mood disorders, and cognitive impairment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hyraxes" is not a medical term. Hyraxes are small, mammalian herbivores that belong to the family Procaviidae and order Hyracoidea. They are native to Africa and the Middle East. If you have any questions about animals or a different topic, I'd be happy to try and help with those!

I'm not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "animal distribution" is not typically used in medical definitions. It is more commonly used in ecology and wildlife biology to refer to the pattern or manner in which animals are spatially arranged or distributed in their environment. If you have any concerns related to health or medicine, it would be best to consult a healthcare professional for accurate information.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Isochores are large genomic regions that share a similar base composition, specifically in terms of GC content (the percentage of guanine and cytosine bases in DNA). They were first identified in mammalian genomes and are now known to be a common feature in many vertebrate and invertebrate species. Isochores can vary in size from several thousand to millions of base pairs, and they often correspond to distinct functional elements within the genome, such as gene-rich or gene-poor regions. The study of isochores has provided valuable insights into the evolutionary processes that shape genomes and the functional constraints that act on different genomic regions.

CLOCK proteins are a pair of transcription factors, CIRCADIAN LOComotor OUTPUT Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) and BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like 1), that play a critical role in the regulation of circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are biological processes that follow an approximately 24-hour cycle, driven by molecular mechanisms within cells.

The CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins form a heterodimer, which binds to E-box elements in the promoter regions of target genes. This binding activates the transcription of these genes, leading to the production of proteins that are involved in various cellular processes. After being transcribed and translated, some of these proteins feed back to inhibit the activity of the CLOCK-BMAL1 heterodimer, forming a negative feedback loop that is essential for the oscillation of circadian rhythms.

The regulation of circadian rhythms by CLOCK proteins has implications in many physiological processes, including sleep-wake cycles, metabolism, hormone secretion, and cellular proliferation. Dysregulation of these rhythms has been linked to various diseases, such as sleep disorders, metabolic disorders, and cancer.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

Mammalian chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of mammalian cells, consisting of DNA, hist proteins, and RNA. They carry genetic information that is essential for the development and function of all living organisms. In mammals, each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, with one set inherited from the mother and the other from the father.

The chromosomes are typically visualized during cell division, where they condense and become visible under a microscope. Each chromosome is composed of two identical arms, separated by a constriction called the centromere. The short arm of the chromosome is labeled as "p," while the long arm is labeled as "q."

Mammalian chromosomes play a critical role in the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next and are essential for maintaining the stability and integrity of the genome. Abnormalities in the number or structure of mammalian chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders, including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome.

Regeneration in a medical context refers to the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that replaces damaged or missing cells, tissues, organs, or even whole limbs in some organisms. This complex biological process involves various cellular and molecular mechanisms, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, which work together to restore the structural and functional integrity of the affected area.

In human medicine, regeneration has attracted significant interest due to its potential therapeutic applications in treating various conditions, including degenerative diseases, trauma, and congenital disorders. Researchers are actively studying the underlying mechanisms of regeneration in various model organisms to develop novel strategies for promoting tissue repair and regeneration in humans.

Examples of regeneration in human medicine include liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, where the remaining liver lobes can grow back to their original size within weeks, and skin wound healing, where keratinocytes migrate and proliferate to close the wound and restore the epidermal layer. However, the regenerative capacity of humans is limited compared to some other organisms, such as planarians and axolotls, which can regenerate entire body parts or even their central nervous system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "walruses" is not a medical term. It is the plural form of "walrus," which refers to a large marine mammal known for its distinctive tusks and whiskers. Walruses are native to the Arctic regions and are well-adapted to life in cold waters. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

Ecology is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of biology. It refers to the study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment. This includes how organisms interact with each other and with their physical surroundings, such as climate, soil, and water. Ecologists may study the distribution and abundance of species, the flow of energy through an ecosystem, and the effects of human activities on the environment. While ecology is not a medical field, understanding ecological principles can be important for addressing public health issues related to the environment, such as pollution, climate change, and infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Foxes" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. The common fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a species of small omnivorous mammals, and while there can be medical issues related to foxes or other animals in certain contexts, such as zoonotic diseases, "Foxes" itself does not have a medical connotation. If you have any specific medical query, I'd be happy to try and help with that.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

"Likelihood functions" is a statistical concept that is used in medical research and other fields to estimate the probability of obtaining a given set of data, given a set of assumptions or parameters. In other words, it is a function that describes how likely it is to observe a particular outcome or result, based on a set of model parameters.

More formally, if we have a statistical model that depends on a set of parameters θ, and we observe some data x, then the likelihood function is defined as:

L(θ | x) = P(x | θ)

This means that the likelihood function describes the probability of observing the data x, given a particular value of the parameter vector θ. By convention, the likelihood function is often expressed as a function of the parameters, rather than the data, so we might instead write:

L(θ) = P(x | θ)

The likelihood function can be used to estimate the values of the model parameters that are most consistent with the observed data. This is typically done by finding the value of θ that maximizes the likelihood function, which is known as the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The MLE has many desirable statistical properties, including consistency, efficiency, and asymptotic normality.

In medical research, likelihood functions are often used in the context of Bayesian analysis, where they are combined with prior distributions over the model parameters to obtain posterior distributions that reflect both the observed data and prior knowledge or assumptions about the parameter values. This approach is particularly useful when there is uncertainty or ambiguity about the true value of the parameters, as it allows researchers to incorporate this uncertainty into their analyses in a principled way.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a key process in sexual reproduction, where it generates gametes or sex cells (sperm and eggs).

The process of meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair, form chiasma and exchange genetic material through crossing over, then separate from each other. In meiosis II, sister chromatids separate, leading to the formation of four haploid cells. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring by shuffling and recombining genetic information during the formation of gametes.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

... the other Mammals" (the Greek παρά para means "beside"). Thomas had included one other mammal among the edentates, the aardvark ... When teeth of the extinct gondwanathere mammals were first discovered in Argentina in the 1980s, they were thought to be ... The term "Paratheria" was coined by British mammalogist Oldfield Thomas in 1887 in a review of tooth development in mammals. He ... Consequently, he suggested that they should be given a grouping separate from the other major groupings of mammals, for which ...
For mammals the gestation period is the time in which a fetus develops, beginning with fertilization and ending at birth. The ... In mammals, pregnancy is the period of reproduction during which a female carries one or more live offspring from implantation ...
... Official Website The Mammals YouTube The Mammals Live Archive Collection at the Internet Archive's live music ... "Premiere: The Mammals (feat. Mike + Ruthy): "On My Way Home"". No Depression. 2017-03-27. Retrieved 2019-01-14. "The Mammals ... "The Mammals: Recording Around Their Home, Literally". tapeop.com. Retrieved 2019-01-17. Davies, Mike (2018-05-04). "The Mammals ... "The Mammals and May Erlewine". Glasgow Life. Retrieved 2019-01-14. folkradiouk (2019-01-17). "Video Premiere: The Mammals - ...
Mammals is a play by Amelia Bullmore. It was first staged at the Bush Theatre, Shepherd's Bush, London, from 6 April to 7 May ... Past productions: Mammals - from the Bush Theatre website [1] - Hannah Knowles's review. v t e (Use dmy dates from April 2022, ...
... more information about the series v t e (Mammals of Africa, Mammalogical literature, All stub articles, ... Mammals of Africa is a book series of six volumes from Bloomsbury Publishing. Published in 2013 and edited by Jonathan Kingdon ... it describes every species of African land mammal which comprise 1,160 species and 16 orders. Volume 1: Introductory Chapters ...
The crown group mammals, sometimes called 'true mammals', are the extant mammals and their relatives back to their last common ... Kemp TS (1982). Mammal-like reptiles and the origin of mammals. London: Academic Press. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-12-404120-2. Estes R ... Castorocauda was not a crown group mammal, but it is extremely important in the study of the evolution of mammals because the ... The green opsin was not inherited by any crown mammals, but all normal individuals did inherit the red one. Early crown mammals ...
Mammals List of Australian mammals List of Australian monotremes and marsupials List of Australian bats List of Australian ... Monotremes are mammals with a unique method of reproduction: they lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. Two of the ... The mammals of Australia have a rich fossil history, as well as a variety of extant mammalian species, dominated by the ... Most of Australia's mammals are herbivores or omnivores. The fossil record shows that monotremes have been present in Australia ...
"Shows A-Z - Mammals on Amazon". The Futon Critic. Retrieved 18 November 2022. "Mammals". Rotten Tomatoes. "Mammals". Metacritic ... "Mammals: James Corden returns to British TV in Jez Butterworth series". BT.com. Retrieved 2022-11-10. "Uunchai, Mammals, A ... Mammals is a 2022 British black comedy streaming television series, which premiered on Prime Video on 11 November 2022. It is ... Mammals at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use British English from November 2022, ...
The following is a list of largest mammals by family. The largest of these insectivorous mammals is the giant otter shrew ( ... ISBN 0-8018-5789-9 Flannery, T. (1995). Mammals of New Guinea. Pp. 376-377. ISBN 0-7301-0411-7 Flannery, T. (1995). Mammals of ... These stocky mammals can range up to 14 kg (31 lb) and 1.1 m (3.6 ft) in total length. The recently extinct thylacine ( ... These lanky mammals have been verified to 91 kg (201 lb) and 2.18 m (7.2 ft) when standing completely upright. Unconfirmed ...
List of mammals of Mexico (CS1 maint: archived copy as title, Mammals of the Caribbean, Lists of mammals of North America). ... of North America List of mammals of Mexico List of mammals of Central America List of mammals of South America Lists of mammals ... but excludes marine mammals such as whales and manatees. Some ocean mammals are covered by Cetaceans of the Caribbean Genoways ... Non-flying mammals of Cenozoic origin must have colonized the Caribbean islands by some combination of rafting and/or use of a ...
... and several dozen marine mammal species. Far earlier, during the Miocene, at least one "archaic" terrestrial mammal species is ... ISBN 978-0-19-558115-7. King, Carolyn M. (1995). The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19- ... The Māori introduced two species: the kurī (dog) and kiore (Polynesian rat). European settlers introduced all other mammal ... Prior to human settlement, the mammals of New Zealand consisted entirely of several species of bat, ...
List of least concern mammals List of near threatened mammals List of endangered mammals List of critically endangered mammals ... See: List of endangered mammals, List of critically endangered mammals. Vulnerable, endangered and critically endangered ... Of the subpopulations of mammals evaluated by the IUCN, five species subpopulations and one subspecies subpopulation have been ... List of recently extinct mammals List of data deficient mammals "IUCN Red List version 2016-2". The IUCN Red List of Threatened ...
Male mammals can compete for harems as well with elephant seals competing fiercely for harems. As mammals reach sexual maturity ... Sexual selection in mammals is a process the study of which started with Charles Darwin's observations concerning sexual ... During the breeding season, mammals will call out to the opposite sex. Male koalas that are bigger will let out a different ... Male-male competition to copulate with the opposite sex is often seen in mammals. African elephants strongly promote male-male ...
Mammals of Europe, Endangered biota of Europe, Lists of mammals of Europe, Lists of endangered animals, Biota of Europe by ... This includes mammals that are found in the East Atlantic Ocean (Azores), Iceland, the Adriatic Sea, the Sea of Azov, the Black ... The list below contains threatened mammals that dwell in or migrate to any region in Europe, the East Atlantic Ocean, and any ...
... at BBC Online The Life of Mammals on the Eden website The Life of Mammals at IMDb (CS1 Dutch-language ... How about mammals? I was in my mid-seventies but I decided I would rather do that than sit at home by myself." Despite his age ... The Life of Mammals was intended to be his definitive account of the subject. Attenborough took on the series at the suggestion ... The Life of Mammals is a nature documentary series written and presented by David Attenborough, first transmitted in the United ...
... is a book by Alan Turner and illustrated by Mauricio Anton. It was published in 2004 by ...
Text of the Act Marine Mammals Protection Regulations 1992 Marine Mammals Protection Act at the Department of Conservation ( ... The Marine Mammals Protection Act 1978 is an Act of Parliament passed in New Zealand in 1978. It is administered by the ... Mammal conservation, 1978 in the environment, Whale conservation, Seal conservation, Environmental law in New Zealand). ...
Evolver is an album by The Mammals, released in 2002 (see 2002 in music). Evolver is the band's first studio album and the ... by the Mammals". (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with hAudio ...
... pouched mammals) and placental mammals. See List of monotremes and marsupials, and for the clades and families, see Mammal ... Rhinoceros sondaicus Mammal classification List of prehistoric mammals List of recently extinct mammals List of monotremes and ... "Shrew's who: New mammal enters the book of life". AFP. January 30, 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-02-04. Retrieved ... The class Mammalia (mammals) is divided into two subclasses based on reproductive techniques: monotremes, which lay eggs, and ...
This is an incomplete list of prehistoric mammals. It does not include extant mammals or recently extinct mammals. For extinct ... "Paleocene mammals of the world". Retrieved November 7, 2005. Portals: Paleontology Mammals (Wikipedia articles in need of ... mammals and near-mammals". Retrieved 30 December 2015. Paleofile.com (net, info) "Paleofile.com". Archived from the original on ... Prehistoric mammals, Lists of mammals, Lists of prehistoric vertebrates). ...
List of least concern mammals List of near threatened mammals List of vulnerable mammals List of critically endangered mammals ... Critically endangered mammals are listed separately. There are 679 mammalian species which are endangered or critically ... Of the subpopulations of mammals evaluated by the IUCN, five species subpopulations have been assessed as endangered. For a ... List of recently extinct mammals List of data deficient mammals "IUCN Red List version 2016-2". The IUCN Red List of Threatened ...
An Introduction to The Mammals of Australia (1 ed.). OCLC 10249957. Krefft, G. 1871. The Mammals of Australia, illustrated by ... The Mammals of Australia is a three-volume work written and published by John Gould between 1845-63. It contains 182 ... It was intended to be a complete survey of the novel species of mammals, such as the marsupials, discovered in the colonies of ... 16 pls Mammals of Australia / National Library of Australia collection copy of the published work National Library of Australia ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Good articles, Mesozoic mammals of Africa, Mammals of ... cat-sized mammal that has not yet been fully described. It is the most complete mammal known from the Mesozoic of Gondwana. Its ... Several mammals are known from the Mesozoic of Madagascar. The Bathonian (middle Jurassic) Ambondro, known from a piece of jaw ... The oldest tribosphenic mammal from Laurasia (Purbeck Limestone Group, Berriasian, Cretaceous, UK) and its bearing on the 'dual ...
Predatory mammals, most often dogs, are used to help catch game, and to retrieve shot birds. Mammals are widely raced for sport ... Mammals have played a crucial role in creating and sustaining human culture. Domestication of mammals was instrumental in the ... derive from the critical importance of domesticated mammals in that period. Soft toys often have the forms of juvenile mammals ... Mammals are the most popular of pets, with tens of millions of dogs, cats and other animals including rabbits and mice kept by ...
Aquatic Mammals 33(4), 411-521 (2007). "Marine Mammals and Noise". Stacy L. DeRuiter, Brandon L. Southall, John Calambokidis, ... Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations, Aquatic Mammals 2007, 33(4), 411-521 Archived 2011- ... Deep diving marine mammals were species of concern, but very little definitive information was known. In 1995 a comprehensive ... As a result of this test a "Committee on Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals" was organized by the National Research Council ...
Faroe Islands Aquatic animal Aquatic mammal Drift whale Marine mammal Sustainable seafood Taboo food and drink Whale meat ... Marine mammals are a food source in many countries around the world. Historically, they were hunted by coastal people, and in ... Edible Marine Mammals: Study Finds 87 Species Are Eaten Around The World Huffington Post. Updated: 27 January 2012. Berta, A & ... Today, the consumption of marine mammals is much reduced. However, a 2011 study found that the number of humans eating them, ...
... are the mammal species in India that are listed as threatened in the International Union for ... List of endangered animals in India Fauna of India Mammals of India "Indian Mammals". archive.is. 2007-07-04. Archived from the ... The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of mammary glands, which in females produce milk ... Mammals encompass some 5,500 species (including Humans), distributed in about 1,200 genera, 152 families and up to 46 orders, ...
... mammals by population size Lists of mammals by region Mammals described in the 2000s Mammals in culture Small mammal ASM Mammal ... paleocene-mammals.de Evolution of Mammals, a brief introduction to early mammals, enchantedlearning.com European Mammal Atlas ... Nearly all mammals are endothermic ("warm-blooded"). Most mammals also have hair to help keep them warm. Like birds, mammals ... List of mammal genera - living mammals List of mammalogists List of monotremes and marsupials List of placental mammals List of ...
... lutreola List of chordate orders List of prehistoric mammals Lists of mammals by region Mammal classification List of mammals ... Lists of mammals of Europe, Lists of biota of Poland, Fauna of Poland, Lists of mammals by country). ... making them the only mammals capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals. Family: Vespertilionidae ... They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer ...
Mammals of Cambodia, Lists of biota of Cambodia, Lists of mammals of Asia, Mammals of Southeast Asia, Lists of mammals by ... This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Cambodia. Wildlife of Cambodia List of birds of Cambodia McCann, Gregory ...
... the other Mammals" (the Greek παρά para means "beside"). Thomas had included one other mammal among the edentates, the aardvark ... When teeth of the extinct gondwanathere mammals were first discovered in Argentina in the 1980s, they were thought to be ... The term "Paratheria" was coined by British mammalogist Oldfield Thomas in 1887 in a review of tooth development in mammals. He ... Consequently, he suggested that they should be given a grouping separate from the other major groupings of mammals, for which ...
Some marine mammals may live even longer.. When it comes to size, the 150-ton blue whale-the worlds largest mammal-weighs 9.6 ... Despite being so few in number, mammals have wildly varying reproductive characteristics. For example, most mammals (except the ... Mammal life spans range from 11 months for the male marsupial mouse to 70 years for elephants and some great apes. ... Only a tiny minority-4,629 at the current count-are mammals, warm-blooded animals that feed their young milk and have hair.. ...
Explore facts and photos about mammals found in the United States. Learn about their range, habitat, diet, life history, and ... The United States has more than 400 mammal species. Of those mammals, nearly a quarter are listed on the U.S. endangered ... Unlike other classes of animals, female mammals produce milk to nourish their young. Almost all mammals give birth to live ... Mammals-a group that include humans-are warm-blooded animals with hair and vertebrates, or backbones. ...
... study fossils and the evolution of mammals, print out classroom activities, find mammal links, and more. ... Explore mammals, learn about their anatomy and behavior, ... Introduction to Mammals. Groups of Mammals. Ice Age Mammals. ... Draw Four Mammals. A Mammal for Each Letter. Pre-readers Mammals Quiz for Little Explorers. Mammal Activities, Worksheets, and ... All About Mammals What Is a Mammal?. Mammals are animals that have hair, are warm-blooded, and nourish their young with milk. ...
The Mammals Collection at The Field Museum contains more than 230,000 preserved specimens representing all orders and all but ... Synopsis of Philippine Mammals. An Internet adaptation of Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series, No. 88 (1998) by Larry Heaney and ... Mammals, Birds, and Parasites Over an Elevational Gradient in Southeastern Peru. A website describing the NSF-funded ... An interactive key in English and Swahili to the Mammals of Tanzania by Bill Stanley. ...
Owning a small mammal is a big responsibility, even though the animal itself might be tiny. If you decide that a small mammal ... How to stay healthy around small mammals. Before buying or adopting a small mammal, make sure it is the right type of pet for ... Keeping your small mammal healthy helps to keep you and your family healthy. To learn how to stay healthy around small mammals ... Signs in small mammals: Salmonella bacteria live in the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy rodents and small mammals. ...
The dryolestoids are primitive, extinct mammals on the stem-lineage leading to marsupials and placentals. They were especially ... de Muizon, C. & Céspedes-Paz, R. in The Origins and Evolution of Cenozoic South American Mammals (eds Rosenberger, A. L. & ... Figure 1: South American mammals from the early Late Cretaceous.. G. W. ROUGIER ... Furthermore, Mesozoic mammals are most often known from isolated teeth or partial jaws; complete skulls and/or skeletons are ...
July 2024 Enchanted Learning Mammals Calendar for Teachers ...
Gene function in mammals can be quickly and reliably predicted using a high-throughput analysis of patterns of RNA expression, ... Genomes from 240 Mammal Species Explain Human Disease Risks. Apr. 27, 2023 Why is it that certain mammals have an exceptional ... Prediction Of Gene Function In Mammals. Date:. December 15, 2004. Source:. BioMed Central. Summary:. Gene function in mammals ... It has been assumed that this strategy couldnt be applied to mammals, but instead that genes expressed in the same tissue are ...
The Hall of Small Mammals, which is an offshoot of the larger Hall of North American Mammals, depicts a variety of animals in ... Akeley Hall of African Mammals * Allison and Roberto Mignone Halls of Gems and Minerals * Resources for Educators: Allison and ... Each window reveals one or more mammals in a detailed natural setting at a particular season and time of day. In one window, ... Two species of squirrels, the collared peccary, wolverine, mink, marten, and badger are among the mammals featured. ...
9398501Animals,Cardiovascular,CellExchanger,Govt,IonMammals,Membrane,Models,Node,Non-P.H.S.,Pumps,ResearchSinoatrialSodium- ... IonMammals,MembraneMice,Myocytes,Non-U.S.P.H.S.,Pigs,Potentials,Proteins,Rabbits,Rats,ResearchSarcolemma,SignalSize,Sodium, ... Mammals,Mice,Models,Myocytes,Non-U.S.P.H.S.,Pigs,Rats,Regulation,ResearchSupport,Transgenic,Transport,U.S.. ... Mammals,Muscle,Myocardium,Non-U.S.P.H.S.,ProteinProteins,ReceptorReleaseResearchReticulum,RyanodineRyanodine,Sarcoplasmic ...
Bernard Family Hall of North American Mammals * Resources for Educators: Hall of North American Mammals * Virtual Field Trip to ... Resources for Educators: Hall of North American Mammals Part of Hall of North American Mammals ... Educator Resources: Bernard Family Hall of North American Mammals Part of Hall of North American Mammals. ... Hall of North American Mammals Educator Guide. Get an advance look at the exhibitions major themes and what your class will ...
High quality Mammals-inspired gifts and merchandise. T-shirts, posters, stickers, home decor, and more, designed and sold by ... mammal, small mammal, mammal keeper, small mammal keeper, keeper, animal keeper, animal care, wild, wildlife, conservation, ... skulls, vulture culture, skull art, skull, mammal, mammals, mammal skull, coyote, horse, leopard, deer, whitetail, whitetail ... otter, baby, mammal, marine mammals, marine life, pikaole, animal, scuba, marine, eurasian otter, river otter, marine otter, ...
Mammal Identification. When visiting the park, please help keep wildlife wild as well as keeping yourself safe. Mammal species ... Mammals and Life Zones - Mount Rainier National Park site bulletin (pdf).. Eder, Tamara. "Mammals of Washington & Oregon". ... Mammals. The elusive American marten (also called a pine marten) is a member of the weasel family that live in mature ...
Mammals. *Plants. Geography & Travel *Geography & Travel. Arts & Culture *Entertainment & Pop Culture. *Literature ...
Some mammals, like dogs and cats, are kept as pets. There are about 5,000 species of mammals, and these include animals that ... Most mammals also give live birth as opposed to laying eggs. Many people are more familiar with mammals than with members of ... Mammals range in size from the blue whale to the tiny shrew, but all mammals share four characteristics: (1) Females produce ... Marsupials are mammals with pouches for carrying their newborn offspring, and many of them are found in Australia. Kangaroos, ...
On December 1, 2015, the journal Marine Mammal Science published an article entitled Status of the Worlds Baleen Whales. This ...
The rise and fall of Earths land surface over the last three million years shaped the evolution of birds and mammals, a new ... The effect of increasing elevation on that rate of new species formation over time was more pronounced for mammals than for ... Going up: Birds and mammals evolve faster if their home is rising Peer-Reviewed Publication University of Cambridge ... Going up: Birds and mammals evolve faster if their home is rising. University of Cambridge ...
Some mammals still reap a survival benefit from laying eggs. ... Land Mammals Why Odd Egg-Laying Mammals Still Exist. News By ... Like all mammals, they possess hair, milk, sweat glands, three middle ear bones and a brain region known as the neocortex. ... The egg-laying mammals - the monotremes, including the platypus and spiny anteaters - are eccentric relatives to the rest of ... The platypus, found only in Australia is one of the five mammal species of that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young ...
Its no secret that many mammals face a dire future, as we humans hunt them to satisfy our desire for protein, medicines and ... Its no secret that many mammals face a dire future, as we humans hunt them to satisfy our desire for protein, medicines and ... He and many of his colleagues in the field have seen study after study reporting drops in local populations of land mammals due ... At the same time, mammals are often of vital importance to the ecosystems in which they live. Many are important vehicles for ...
... and is particularly interested in the study of the mammals of Asia. ... Mammal Study publishes on all aspects of mammalogy, ...
... and is particularly interested in the study of the mammals of Asia. ... Mammal Study publishes on all aspects of mammalogy, ...
Publication: Guidelines for Addressing the Impact of Linear Infrastructure on Large Migratory Mammals in Central Asia ...
Western African Aquatic Mammals. Memorandum of Understanding concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of ...
The Javan rhino isnt the only south east Asian mammal whose future looks bleak, says the WWFs A. Christy Williams ... The Javan rhino isnt the only south east Asian mammal whose future looks bleak, says the WWFs A. Christy Williams ... when several large mammals were either re-discovered (the Javan rhinos in Cat Tien) or newly discovered (the Saola, Giant ... one of the worlds rarest mammals, which is found only in Vietnam and Laos, and the Sumatran rhino in Sumatra and Borneo, all ...
Pacific Islands and surrounding waters are critical habit for many marine mammal species including the endangered Hawaiian monk ... Marine mammals have been protected in the United States since 1972 under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). The U.S. ... Marine mammals have been protected in the United States since 1972 under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). The U.S. ... Pacific Marine Mammal Health Assessments (PMMHA), which began in Fall 2010, are an expansion of NIST marine mammal health ...
"I dont know of any other mammal that comes close to this," says Kenneth Catania, a biologist at Vanderbilt University, ... Scientists have revealed the identity of the fastest eating mammal - the distinctly peculiar star-nosed mole. ...
... a mammal that scurried beneath the feet of dinosaurs and had blood-red tooth enamel ... To coincide with Halloween, we bring you Barbatodon transylvanicus, a 70-million-year-old mammal that scurried beneath the feet ... It was roughly the size of a rat and belonged to a little-known group of mammals called multituberculates that outlived the ... So what did the diminutive mammal eat? In the new fossil, its teeth look most like those of some modern-day shrews. That ...
Daily briefing: Elusive tiny hoofed mammal rediscovered in Vietnam. Once thought lost to science, the silver-backed ...
  • It was proposed by Oldfield Thomas in 1887 to set apart the sloths, anteaters, armadillos, and pangolins, usually classified as placentals, from both marsupial and placental mammals, an arrangement that received little support from other workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ancestor would later evolve into all placental mammals. (livescience.com)
  • This unprecedented level of detail shows the kinds of lifestyles that make placental mammals special, evolved early in their evolutionary history. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Learn about the hoofed mammal species of Mount Rainier National Park. (nps.gov)
  • There are about 5,000 species of mammals, and these include animals that have remarkable characteristics and do amazing things. (apologeticspress.org)
  • In all, they pinpointed hunting for food or medicines as the most significant threat to more than 300 species of mammals, including 126 primates. (mongabay.com)
  • Most of the endangered species of mammals in China are on the list only due to the discretion of the local government. (worldatlas.com)
  • There are about 6,399 species of mammals known on this planet at the moment. (earthlife.net)
  • The Hall of Small Mammals, which is an offshoot of the larger Hall of North American Mammals, depicts a variety of animals in small dioramas of their natural habitats, from the Canadian tundra to the brush country of southern Texas. (amnh.org)
  • The U.S. Pacific Islands and surrounding waters are critical habit for many marine mammal species including the endangered Hawaiian monk seal and northern Pacific humpback whales, which migrate to the waters around Hawaii during the winter to calf and breed. (nist.gov)
  • The analyses focus mainly on porpoises, seals and otters, but other marine mammal species are also included in the study. (lu.se)
  • When teeth of the extinct gondwanathere mammals were first discovered in Argentina in the 1980s, they were thought to be related to xenarthrans, leading to renewed attention for the hypothesis that xenarthrans are not placentals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bonaparte argued against George Gaylord Simpson's 1931 view that xenarthrans derive from the Tertiary Palaeanodonta of North America, and instead suggested that xenarthrans, and perhaps pangolins, split from eutherians (placentals and their extinct relatives) as early as the Early Cretaceous and derived from some early "pantothere" (a now-abandoned grouping of early mammals, including dryolestoids among others). (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have identified more than 5,400 mammal species on Earth, roughly one-fifth of which are known to be threatened or extinct. (nwf.org)
  • The struggle marsupials presumably had with all the animals on these continents during this journey might have primed them for competition, "while the Australian mammals [including monotremes] that went extinct upon the arrival of marsupials had for the most part been isolated in Australia for a very long time," explained researcher Matthew Phillips, an evolutionary biologist at the Australian National University in Canberra. (livescience.com)
  • Our research opens the most detailed window to date into the daily lives of extinct mammals. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Over the last 200 years, Australia has seen one in ten of its indigenous mammals go extinct. (worldatlas.com)
  • Mammals-a group that include humans-are warm-blooded animals with hair and vertebrates, or backbones. (nwf.org)
  • This challenges the conventional view that tissue-specificity is the best predictor of function, and could speed up the quest to understand whole genomes, in humans and other mammals, by decades. (sciencedaily.com)
  • 27, 2023 Why is it that certain mammals have an exceptional sense of smell, some hibernate, and yet others, including humans, are predisposed to disease? (sciencedaily.com)
  • Evolutionists teach that the first mammals evolved around 200 million years ago, and that humans eventually evolved from the more "advanced" mammals. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The authors raise concerns about food security for humans and ecosystem collapse if we don't prevent this crisis for mammals. (mongabay.com)
  • It's no secret that many mammals face a dire future, as we humans hunt them to satisfy our desire for protein, medicines and animal parts. (mongabay.com)
  • hemoplasmas) are unculti- vable bacteria that infect mammals, including humans. (cdc.gov)
  • We detected Mycoplasma DNA in samples from bacteria that infect mammals, including humans ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • During tests, wild mule and white-tailed deer ran to the rescue of distress calls made by various mammals including humans, cats and even infant silver-haired bats. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • This tiny squirrel-sized creature would later evolve into a diversity of mammal species including humans. (livescience.com)
  • Being able to produce large babies, which matured for several months in the womb before being born, helped mammals transform from the humble mouse-sized ancestors that lived with dinosaurs to the vast array of species, from humans to elephants to whales, that are around today. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Large, warm-blooded, four-limbed vertebrates whose females produce milk (see What is a Mammal ). (earthlife.net)
  • English exercise "Expressions and wild mammals" created by taiji43 with The test builder . (tolearnenglish.com)
  • Follow the tracks, scats and signs of wild mammals in Kansas, Oklahoma and Nebraska with Mammals of the Great Plains, a waterproof, pocket-size guide to help you identify what roams in the region. (rei.com)
  • The rise and fall of Earth's land surface over the last three million years shaped the evolution of birds and mammals, a new study has found, with new species evolving at higher rates where the land has risen most. (eurekalert.org)
  • Crow birds, in many senses, have a much different brains from us, the mammals. (lu.se)
  • In birds and mammals, energetic demands of thermoregulation are often immense, yet whether homeostatic body temperatures are also compromised to aid the stress response is not known. (lu.se)
  • The egg-laying mammals - the monotremes, including the platypus and spiny anteaters - are eccentric relatives to the rest of mammals, which bear live young. (livescience.com)
  • When it comes to size, the 150-ton blue whale-the world's largest mammal-weighs 9.6 million times more than the smallest, the half-ounce, bumblebee-sized Kiito's hog-nosed bat. (nwf.org)
  • Betacoronaviruses are only reported to infect mammals. (who.int)
  • But the vast majority of mammals are small and inconspicuous-nearly 40 percent are rodents and almost 25 percent are bats. (nwf.org)
  • Instead, their analysis highlights lesser-known mammals that may be slipping toward extinction without our knowledge - among them, Asia's Bactrian camel, 27 species of bats and all eight species of pangolins , scaly inhabitants of Asia and Africa that resemble anteaters. (mongabay.com)
  • Only a tiny minority-4,629 at the current count-are mammals, warm-blooded animals that feed their young milk and have hair. (nwf.org)
  • Unlike other classes of animals, female mammals produce milk to nourish their young. (nwf.org)
  • Mammals are animals that have hair, are warm-blooded, and nourish their young with milk. (enchantedlearning.com)
  • Mammals range in size from the blue whale to the tiny shrew, but all mammals share four characteristics: (1) Females produce milk and nurse their young, (2) Hair, (3) Three middle-ear bones, and (4) Warm-bloodedness. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Like all mammals, they possess hair, milk, sweat glands, three middle ear bones and a brain region known as the neocortex. (livescience.com)
  • Statistically, the number of marine-mammal "strandings" --beached whales, for example -- due to sonar is extremely low compared to those caused by nature and the commercial fishing industry. (dvidshub.net)
  • Carolus Linnaeus was the first to categorize whales as mammals, but scientists have been observing mammalian characteristics of whales and dolphins since at least the ancient Greeks (Aristotle wrote about mammals, although he did not categorize them exactly as we do today). (apologeticspress.org)
  • It was roughly the size of a rat and belonged to a little-known group of mammals called multituberculates that outlived the dinosaurs, then died out 35 million years ago. (newscientist.com)
  • The first group of mammals you'll see are from Africa, and these animals are used to illustrate the "adaptation" phase of evolution. (touringplans.com)
  • The tallest animal on the planet is also a mammal - Giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis , can be 6.1m or 20ft tall. (earthlife.net)
  • For example, most mammals (except the duck-billed platypus and the echidna, which lay eggs) give birth to live young, but pregnancy can last as long as 22 months for an African elephant or as little as 12 days for the short-nosed bandicoot. (nwf.org)
  • The largest living land animal on this planet is a mammal - the bull African Elephant. (earthlife.net)
  • Can Asia's large mammals be saved from extinction? (theecologist.org)
  • It's an event that could be the first milestone on a potentially inexorable slide towards the extinction of several large mammals in south east Asia. (theecologist.org)
  • In the 1990s, as the region opened up after years of war, there was a real feeling of joy and optimism amongst conservationists, when several large mammals were either re-discovered (the Javan rhinos in Cat Tien) or newly discovered (the Saola, Giant Muntjac in Laos and Vietnam) and protected areas, on paper at least, were being set up at a rapid pace. (theecologist.org)
  • The 20 species catalogued in the study represent only two thirds of the medium and large mammals native to that area, suggesting that the human disruption and conversion of the landscape is affecting the frequency with which some mammal species are seen in the corridor. (mongabay.com)
  • Only a few mammals are venomous, including the duckbilled platypus (males only) , several species of shrews, and the Solenodon (a small insectivore). (enchantedlearning.com)
  • It doesn't matter whether it is a human child crying, or the call of a lost fawn: Mammals know a young creature in need when they hear it. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Paratheria is an obsolete term for a taxonomic group including the xenarthran mammals (sloths, anteaters, and armadillos) and various groups thought to be related to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small mammals commonly kept as pets can include rodents like rats, mice, hamsters, gerbils, and guinea pigs or other small mammals like hedgehogs, sugar gliders, and rabbits. (cdc.gov)
  • The monotremes are primitive egg-laying mammals. (enchantedlearning.com)
  • mammals whose young are born at a relatively advanced stage (more advanced than the young of other mammals, the monotremes and marsupials). (enchantedlearning.com)
  • Long ago, monotremes and their close relatives were the dominant mammals in the whole of Australia. (livescience.com)
  • Artist's impression of early mammal Pantolambda. (ed.ac.uk)
  • We also screen marine and aquatic mammals for microplastics load and identify sources of the plastic pollution. (lu.se)
  • Out of 4930 night-traps, 256 (5.19%) small mammals were trapped including Crocidura , Rattus, Lophuromys, Praomys, Mus and Mastomys . (who.int)
  • Owning a small mammal is a big responsibility, even though the animal itself might be tiny. (cdc.gov)
  • If you decide that a small mammal is the right pet for you, it's important to learn how to properly care for your pet. (cdc.gov)
  • Get routine veterinary care for your pet and follow the tips in the Healthy People section to help prevent getting sick from touching, petting, or owning a small mammal. (cdc.gov)
  • Read below to learn about diseases that can be spread by small mammals and visit the Healthy People section to learn about staying healthy around small mammals. (cdc.gov)
  • This parasite is uncommon among small mammals but can infect chinchillas, rats, and mice. (cdc.gov)
  • The risk of getting Giardia from small mammals is low. (cdc.gov)
  • This shrew's backbone accounts for four percent of its total weight, compared to about one percent in other small mammals. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Title : Complement fixation tests for murine typhus on small mammals Personal Author(s) : Keaton, Ruth;Nash, Billie Jo;Murphy, J. N.;Irons, J. V. (cdc.gov)
  • 1953). Complement fixation tests for murine typhus on small mammals. (cdc.gov)
  • At CEC we analyse the animals' tissues and faeces to investigate if exposure to small plastic particles affects the health of marine mammals, something we know very little about today. (lu.se)
  • Detection of Alpha- and Betacoronaviruses in Small Mammals in Western Yunnan Province, China. (bvsalud.org)
  • By RT-PCR detection of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of CoVs, we screened a total of 502 small mammals in the Dali and Nujiang prefectures of Western Yunnan Province, China . (bvsalud.org)
  • differently, the mean CoV viral load in liver , heart , lung , spleen , and kidney tissue was from 0.97 × 103 to 3.95 × 103 copies/g, which revealed that CoV has extensive tropism in rectal tissue in small mammals (p (bvsalud.org)
  • These results revealed the genetic diversity , epidemiology , and infective tropism of α-CoV and ß-CoV in small mammals from Dali and Nujiang, which deepens the comprehension of the retention and infection of coronavirus in natural hosts. (bvsalud.org)
  • Small mammal trappings were carried out in 9 sites within three zones namely, peri-urban, peri-rural and protected areas. (who.int)
  • Liver, lung and kidney tissues from trapped small mammals were sampled in accordance with the recommended conditions of biosafety and bioethics. (who.int)
  • Monkeypox virus was not detected from studied small mammals. (who.int)
  • Different reprogramming propensities in plants and mammals: Are small variations in the core network wirings responsible? (lu.se)
  • He and many of his colleagues in the field have seen study after study reporting drops in local populations of land mammals due to hunting. (mongabay.com)
  • He and his colleagues point out that millions of people, mostly in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, depend on dwindling populations of mammal species to feed themselves and their families. (mongabay.com)
  • Only about two percent of hunted mammal populations are actually holding steady or growing. (mongabay.com)
  • The detrimental impact hunting has on mammals is a complex problem with myriad causes, ranging from poor governance, ballooning human populations and a lack of understanding of the situation, write the paper's authors. (mongabay.com)
  • Pacific Marine Mammal Health Assessments (PMMHA) allow monitoring and sample collection and biobanking from individual living animals in U.S. Pacific Islands marine mammal populations. (nist.gov)
  • Pacific Marine Mammal Health Assessments (PMMHA), which began in Fall 2010, are an expansion of NIST marine mammal health assessment collaborations that began in 2002 with bottlenose dolphin wild populations. (nist.gov)
  • Assess environmental and anthropogenic stressors along with metabolic changes that may impact health of individuals and U.S. Pacific Islands marine mammal populations. (nist.gov)
  • Students will learn about management priorities vital for the continued conservation and recovery of globally threatened populations of marine mammals and other marine megafauna. (edu.au)
  • This sheep-sized Middle Paleocene mammal was one of the first large herbivores to evolve, following the extinction of the dinosaurs. (palaeos.com)
  • We think that their babies' longer gestation period could have nurtured large body sizes faster than other mammals, which may be why they became the dominant mammals of today. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Mammals are the dominant life form on this planet at the moment, at least from a human perspective. (earthlife.net)
  • Mammal species found in the park have been broken into groups for identification. (nps.gov)
  • Many people are more familiar with mammals than with members of any other class of animals, because mammals are found all over the world. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Marsupials are mammals with pouches for carrying their newborn offspring, and many of them are found in Australia. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The platypus, found only in Australia is one of the five mammal species of that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. (livescience.com)
  • A study pulling together information on threatened land mammals found that hunting for meat and medicine is driving 301 toward extinction. (mongabay.com)
  • Asian elephants and the Tonkin snub-nosed monkey in Vietnam, the Saola (also known as the Asian unicorn) one of the world's rarest mammals, which is found only in Vietnam and Laos, and the Sumatran rhino in Sumatra and Borneo, all face a similar fate. (theecologist.org)
  • A team of scientists analyzed thousands of physical features found in fossils and living mammal species. (livescience.com)
  • Although the inferred gestation time matches that of today's similarly sized mammals, this early mammal is found to have lived and died more rapidly by comparison. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The reason that odd, egg-laying mammals still exist today may be because their ancestors took to the water, scientists now suggest. (livescience.com)
  • Scientists have revealed the identity of the fastest eating mammal - the distinctly peculiar star-nosed mole. (newscientist.com)
  • Scientists take a close look at how cloven hoofed mammals use selective brain cooling to survive in the heat. (the-scientist.com)
  • Scientists have used a new computer-analysis method to figure out in unprecedented detail what the hypothetical ancestor of most mammals would have looked like. (livescience.com)
  • In a close 2nd place, the Pygmy or Savi's White-toothed Shrew Suncus etruscus weighs in at 1.5 - 2.5 grams or 0.05 - 0.09oz and is definitely the smallest land mammal on record. (earthlife.net)
  • Almost all mammals give birth to live young (except for the platypus and echidna, which lay eggs). (nwf.org)
  • Lurking beneath the ocean's surface, marine mammals use sound for navigation, prey detection, and a wide range of natural behaviors. (scienceblog.com)
  • Elizabeth Ferguson, from Ocean Science Analytics, will describe how DeepSqueak, a deep learning tool, can classify underwater acoustic signals at the 182nd Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America during her presentation, "Development of deep neural networks for marine mammal call detection using an open-source, user friendly tool. (scienceblog.com)
  • If you are interested in visiting the collection, loaning specimens, or requesting tissues, please select and fill out the appropriate form below and email your request to [email protected] . (fieldmuseum.org)
  • The results of the study also hint at a more complex transcriptional control in mammals, whereby transcription factors may be regulating the transcription of functionally related genes across different tissues. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In addition to the 301 mammals that are in the most danger from hunting for consumption, Ripple said he figures another 200 or so are also being chased toward extinction, but whether hunting - as opposed to habitat loss or climate change, for example - is the main driver wasn't clear. (mongabay.com)
  • In addition to curbing the international trade in wildlife meat and parts, switching our diets to protein-rich insects and plants could help avert a mass extinction for mammals. (mongabay.com)
  • This information yielded a "family tree" showing that mammals arose following the extinction of the dinosaurs, about 65 million years ago. (livescience.com)
  • Some prehistoric mammals were born ready-to-go and grew up twice as fast as today's mammals, giving them an edge after the dinosaur extinction, a study suggests. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The research focuses on the locations and abundance of marine mammals, physiological and behavioral effects of sonar, and protective tools the Navy can use to manage its impact, he explained. (dvidshub.net)
  • GRUART, Agnès and DELGADO-GARCIA, José M. . Physiological bases of associative learning in mammals . (bvsalud.org)
  • Taxonomists call human beings mammals, because we have all four main characteristics that mammalian animals have. (apologeticspress.org)
  • To see if this theory rang true among wild animals, Susan Lingle of the University of Winnipeg in Canada and Tobias Riede from Midwestern University in Glendale, Arizona record the cries of various infant mammals. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • WASHINGTON - No injuries to marine mammals have been attributed to sonar use since the Navy began taking additional steps to minimize harm to such animals, a Navy official said yesterday. (dvidshub.net)
  • To most people animals are mammals. (earthlife.net)
  • The other egg-laying mammals are four species of echidna. (livescience.com)
  • Our knowledge of the first two-thirds of mammalian evolution, which extends from the first record of a mammal about 220 Myr ago to the end of the Cretaceous period 65.5 Myr ago, is therefore terribly incomplete. (nature.com)
  • de Muizon, C. & Céspedes-Paz, R. in The Origins and Evolution of Cenozoic South American Mammals (eds Rosenberger, A. L. & Tejedor, M. F.) (Springer, in the press). (nature.com)
  • But they remained relatively obscure for the first 160 million years while the dinosaurs ruled (see The Evolution of Mammals ). (earthlife.net)
  • Consequently, he suggested that they should be given a grouping separate from the other major groupings of mammals, for which terms had been introduced by Thomas Huxley: Eutheria (placentals) and Metatheria (marsupials). (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers from Canada claim the findings of the deer study may explain why the frequency of distress calls differs among mammals - to make it easier for species to identify each other. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • IFAW has been the first line of defense for stranded marine mammals in distress for the past 20 years, rescuing and releasing them, whenever possible, back into the wild. (ifaw.org)
  • In research published on October 18 in the journal Royal Society Open Science , Ripple and his colleagues compiled data from published research on mammals listed as threatened on IUCN's database - that is, those in categories ranging from "Least Concern" to "Critically Endangered. (mongabay.com)
  • Students will study cutting-edge research on marine mammals, and critically evaluate important case studies. (edu.au)
  • Mammal life spans range from 11 months for the male marsupial mouse to 70 years for elephants and some great apes. (nwf.org)
  • One of the most threatened order of mammals is the primate, which includes monkeys and apes. (nwf.org)
  • Most mammals also give live birth as opposed to laying eggs. (apologeticspress.org)
  • About the size of a modern squirrel, the 65-million-year-old ancestor later evolved into most mammals (except those that lay eggs or carry their young in pouches). (livescience.com)
  • These are the mammals that keep their fetus alive with a placenta, as opposed to those who develop their young in pouches or in eggs. (livescience.com)
  • Despite being so few in number, mammals have wildly varying reproductive characteristics. (nwf.org)
  • In the case of mammals, large panels near the hall entrance explain the characteristics that distinguish mammals from other creatures. (touringplans.com)
  • The Mammals hall focuses on the first four characteristics. (touringplans.com)