Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.ShrewsInsectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.ArtiodactylaEchidna: An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)MonotremataSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.PrimatesFishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Mole Rats: Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Sloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Bottle-Nosed Dolphin: The species Tursiops truncatus, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by a bottle-shaped beak and slightly hooked broad dorsal fin.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Monodelphis: A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.LizardsReproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sea Lions: A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Didelphis: A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Moles: Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Phoca: A genus in the family of EARLESS SEALS (Phocidae) and collectively the most abundant PINNIPEDS in the Northern Hemisphere.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Physiology, Comparative: The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Sirenia: An order of heavy-bodied, slow-moving, completely aquatic, herbivorous mammals. The body is fusiform, plump, and hairless, except for bristles on the snout. Hindlimbs are absent, the forelimbs are modified to flippers, and the tail is a horizontal fluke. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Carnivory: The consumption of animal flesh.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Porpoises: Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Trichechus: A genus of the order Sirenia comprising what are commonly called manatees. The distinguishing characteristics include a tail that is not notched, a short nasal cavity, the absence of nasal bones, and enamel-covered teeth. Members of this genus are found in marine bays and/or sluggish rivers, usually in turbid water. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cheirogaleidae: A family of the order PRIMATES, suborder Strepsirhini (PROSIMII), containing five genera. All inhabitants of Madagascar, the genera are: Allocebus, Cheirogaleus (dwarf lemurs), Microcebus (mouse lemurs), Mirza, and Phaner.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Animals, ZooMice, Inbred C57BLPopulation Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Dugong: A genus of the order Sirenia characterized by a notched tail, the presence of nasal bones and a long nasal cavity, and large columnar teeth lacking enamel. Dugongs inhabit the coastal waters of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and the Malay Archipelago. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Hedgehogs: The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.TurtlesNuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Octodon: A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.South America

A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (1/5680)

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

Evidence for a correlation between the number of marginal band microtubules and the size of vertebrate erthrocytes. (2/5680)

In 23 species of vertebrates the dimensions of erythrocytes and the number of their marginal band microtubules were examined. A positive correlation was found between the size of erythrocytes and the number of microtubules. The absence of microtubules in diskoid erythrocytes of mammals-Camelidae-is discussed.  (+info)

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (3/5680)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Evolutionary and preservational constraints on origins of biologic groups: divergence times of eutherian mammals. (4/5680)

Some molecular clock estimates of divergence times of taxonomic groups undergoing evolutionary radiation are much older than the groups' first observed fossil record. Mathematical models of branching evolution are used to estimate the maximal rate of fossil preservation consistent with a postulated missing history, given the sum of species durations implied by early origins under a range of species origination and extinction rates. The plausibility of postulated divergence times depends on origination, extinction, and preservation rates estimated from the fossil record. For eutherian mammals, this approach suggests that it is unlikely that many modern orders arose much earlier than their oldest fossil records.  (+info)

Sequence analysis of cDNA and genomic DNA, and mRNA expression of the medaka fish homolog of mammalian guanylyl cyclase C. (5/5680)

We isolated the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding a membrane guanylyl cyclase of medaka fish (designated as OlGC6), and determined their complete nucleotide sequences. The open reading frame for OlGC6 cDNA predicted a protein of 1,075 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OlGC6 is a member of the enterotoxin/guanylin receptor family. We also determined the partial genomic structure of the gene of another membrane guanylyl cyclase of medaka fish, OlGC2, which is a member of the natriuretic peptide receptor family. The intron positions relative to the protein-coding sequence are highly conserved in the intracellular domains of OlGC6, OlGC2, mammalian GC-A, and GC-E. Despite their divergent primary structures, some intron positions also seem to be conserved in the extracellular domains of different membrane guanylyl cyclase genes. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that an OlGC6 transcript of 3.9 kb is only present in the intestine, while reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis demonstrated that the OlGC6 transcript is present in the kidney, spleen, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, testis, brain, and eye. RT-PCR also demonstrated that OlGC6 is only expressed zygotically and that transcripts are present from 1 day after fertilization, i.e. long before the intestinal tissues begin to develop.  (+info)

Differences in the actions of some blockers of the calcium-activated potassium permeability in mammalian red cells. (6/5680)

1. The actions of some inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated K+ permeability in mammalian red cells have been compared. 2. Block of the permeability was assessed from the reduction in the net loss of K+ that followed the application of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) to rabbit red cells suspended at a haematocrit of 1% in a low potassium solution ([K]0 0.12-0.17 mM) at 37 degrees C. Net movement of K+ was measured using a K+-sensitive electrode placed in the suspension. 3. The concentrations (microM +/- s.d.) of the compounds tested causing 50% inhibition of K+ loss were: quinine, 37 +/- 3; cetiedil, 26 +/- 1; the cetiedil congeners UCL 1269, UCL 1274 and UCL 1495, approximately 150, 8.2 +/- 0.1, 0.92 +/- 0.03 respectively; clotrimazole, 1.2 +/- 0.1; nitrendipine, 3.6 +/- 0.5 and charybdotoxin, 0.015 +/- 0.002. 4. The characteristics of the block suggested that compounds could be placed in two groups. For one set (quinine, cetiedil, and the UCL congeners), the concentration-inhibition curves were steeper (Hill coefficient, nH, > or = 2.7) than for the other (clotrimazole, nitrendipine, charybdotoxin) for which nH approximately 1. 5. Compounds in the first set alone became less active on raising the concentration of K+ in the external solution to 5.4 mM. 6. The rate of K+ loss induced by A23187 slowed in the presence of high concentrations of cetiedil and its analogues, suggesting a use-dependent component to the inhibitory action. This was not seen with clotrimazole. 7. The blocking action of the cetiedil analogue UCL 1274 could not be overcome by an increase in external Ca2+ and its potency was unaltered when K+ loss was induced by the application of Pb2+ (10 microM) rather than by A23187. 8. These results, taken with the findings of others, suggest that agents that block the red cell Ca2+-activated K+ permeability can be placed in two groups with different mechanisms of action. The differences can be explained by supposing that clotrimazole and charybdotoxin act at the outer face of the channel whereas cetiedil and its congeners may block within it, either at or near the K+ binding site that determines the flow of K+.  (+info)

Proteasome-dependent degradation of the human estrogen receptor. (7/5680)

In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the major mechanism for the targeted degradation of proteins with short half-lives. The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues of targeted proteins is a signal for the recognition and rapid degradation by the proteasome, a large multi-subunit protease. In this report, we demonstrate that the human estrogen receptor (ER) protein is rapidly degraded in mammalian cells in an estradiol-dependent manner. The treatment of mammalian cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits activity of the proteasome and blocks ER degradation, suggesting that ER protein is turned over through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, we show that in vitro ER degradation depends on ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme (UBA) and ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes (UBCs), and the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin block ER protein degradation in vitro. Furthermore, the UBA/UBCs and proteasome inhibitors promote the accumulation of higher molecular weight forms of ER. The UBA and UBCs, which promote ER degradation in vitro, have no significant effect on human progesterone receptor and human thyroid hormone receptor beta proteins.  (+info)

tRNAVal-heterodimeric maxizymes with high potential as geneinactivating agents: simultaneous cleavage at two sites in HIV-1 Tat mRNA in cultured cells. (8/5680)

It has been demonstrated that shortened forms of (stem II-deleted) hammerhead ribozymes with low intrinsic activity form very active dimers with a common stem II (very active short ribozymes capable of forming dimers were designated maxizymes). Intracellular activities of heterodimeric maxizymes and conventional ribozymes, under the control of a human tRNAVal-promoter, were compared against the cleavage of HIV-1 tat mRNA. The pol III-driven maxizymes formed very active heterodimers, and they successfully cleaved HIV-1 tat mRNA in mammalian cells at two sites simultaneously. The cleaved fragments were identified directly by Northern blotting analysis. Despite the initial concerns that a complicated dimerization process and formation of inactive homodimers were involved in addition to the process of association with the target, the overall intracellular activities of tRNAVal-driven maxizymes were significantly higher in mammalian cells than those of two sets of independent, conventional hammerhead ribozymes that were targeted at the same two sites within HIV-1 tat mRNA. Because the tRNAVal-driven maxizymes tested to date have been more effective than tRNAVal-driven "standard" hammerhead ribozymes, the tRNAVal-driven heterodimeric maxizymes appear to have potential utility as gene-inactivating agents.  (+info)

*Short-beaked echidna

The metabolic rate is around 30% of that of placental mammals, making it the lowest energy-consuming mammal. This figure is ... This "post-Pleistocene dwarfing" affects many Australian mammals. Part of the last radiation of monotreme mammals, echidnas are ... Unlike placental mammals, including humans, the echidna does not have a ciliary muscle to distort the geometry of the lens and ... Mammals of New Guinea Robert Brown & Associates ISBN 1-86273-029-6 Augee, Gooden and Musser, p. 5. Iredale, T. and Troughton, E ...

*Northern elephant seal

7 "Mammals"". The Natural History of Ano Nuevo. Boxwood Press. ISBN 0910286779. Marine Mammal Center - Northern elephant seal ... Beer, Encyclopedia of North American Mammals: An Essential Guide to Mammals of North America. Thunder Bay Press (2004), ISBN ... In 1874, Charles Melville Scammon recorded in Marine Mammals of the Northwestern Coast of America, that an 18-ft-long bull ... Condit, R. & Le Boeuf, B.J. (1984). "Feeding Habits and Feeding Grounds of the Northern Elephant Seal". J. Mammal. 65 (2): 281- ...

*Fruitafossor

This find is an important discovery in mammal evolution, because of where it fits in the evolutionary tree of mammals and ... Most mammals of the Mesozoic were omnivores or unspecialized insectivores. Fruitafossor is unique in the degree of ... In 2009, a study by J. R. Foster was published that estimated the body masses of mammals from the Late Jurassic Morrison ... Foster concludes that Fruitafossor was the least massive of the formation at 6g, much lower than the average Morrison mammal of ...

*Hystricognathi

Alfred L. Gardner Curator of North American mammals and Chief of Mammal Section, National Biological Service,Smithsonian ... 1993 Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing xviii + 1207 Smithsonian ... Bell 1997 Classification of mammals above the species level 631 Columbia University Press New York, New York, USA ISBN 0-231- ... animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/topics/mammal_anatomy/rodent_jaws.html Sciurognathi Hystricomorpha. ...

*Monito del monte

In his 1943 Mammals of Chile, American zoologist Wilfred Hudson Osgood identified two subspecies of the monito del monte: D. a ... The naked underside of their tails may contribute to increasing friction when the mammal is on a tree. The base of their tails ... This tick can only be found on the monito del monte, so it depends on the survival of this nearly endangered mammal. T. ... 1995). Encyclopedia of mammals (2nd ed.). Andromeda Oxford. ISBN 978-1871869620. Nilsson, M. A.; Churakov, G.; Sommer, M.; Van ...

*River dolphin

Martin, A.R.; Da Silva, V.M.F.; Rothery, P (2008). "Object carrying as social-sexual display in an aquatic mammal". Biology ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T10831A3220342.en "List of Marine Mammal Species and ... River dolphins are a very widespread group of fully aquatic mammals that reside exclusively in freshwater or brackish water. ... River dolphins are members of the infraorder Cetacea, which are descendants of land-dwelling mammals of the order Artiodactyla ...

*List of mammals of Tasmania

... egg laying mammals (the monotremes), pouched mammals (the marsupials), and placental mammals. This is a list of mammals of ... List of Australian mammals List of Australian bats List of Australian rodents List of Australian marine mammals List of ... Tasmanian mammals are divided into three major groups based on reproductive techniques: ... monotremes and marsupials Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife list of Mammals DPIW - Complete list of Tasmania's mammals List of ...

*Penile spines

"All Features Great and Small-the Potential Roles of the Baculum and Penile Spines in Mammals." Integrative and Comparative ... Larry Vogelnest; Rupert Woods (18 August 2008). Medicine of Australian Mammals. Csiro Publishing. ISBN 978-0-643-09928-9. ...

*Tuco-tuco

The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 702-703. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. Luna, F. and C. Antinuchi. 2007. Energy ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1560-1570. ... it has been suggested that they are among the most diversely speciated genus of mammals, largely due to chromosomal ... late surviving members of gondwanatherian mammals". Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. 27 (5): 603- ...

*Mammalian reproduction

Mammals Sex organ#Mammals Human reproduction Animal sexual behavior#Mammals Pregnancy (mammals) Equine reproductive system ... The monotremes branched early from other mammals and do not have the nipples seen in most mammals, but they do have mammary ... Most mammals eat this, as it is a good source of protein and other vital nutrients needed for caring for the young.[citation ... Most mammals are viviparous, giving birth to live young. However, the five species of monotreme, the platypuses and the ...

*Placentophagy

... (from 'placenta' + Greek φαγειν, to eat; also referred to as placentophagia) is the act of mammals eating the ... Many placental mammals participate in placentophagy, including herbivores; exceptions include mainly humans, Pinnipedia, ... Marsupials, which are an order of metatherian (pouched) mammals, resorb rather than deliver the placenta, and therefore cannot ... "Placentophagia in Humans and Nonhuman Mammals: Causes and Consequences" (PDF), Ecology of Food and Nutrition Mark B. Kristal ( ...

*Orcaella

The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 180-185. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. Arnason U., Gretarsdottir S.. 1992. ... Marine Mammal Science 15, 619-648. May-Collado, L., Agnarsson, I. (2006). Cytochrome b and Bayesian inference of whale ... In: Encyclopedia of marine mammals (Perrin WF, Würsig B, Thewissen JGM, eds.) Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp. 62-64. Parra, G.J ... N. (CETACEA, DELPHINIDAE). Marine Mammal Science 21: 365 -400 Beasley, Isabel L. (2007). Conservation of the Irrawaddy dolphin ...

*Numbat

However, like other mammals that eat termites or ants, the numbat has a degenerate jaw with up to 50 very small, nonfunctional ... The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. p. 844. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. Cooper, C.E. & Withers, P.C. (2010). "Gross ... 2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0- ... Uniquely among terrestrial mammals, an additional cheek tooth is located between the premolars and molars; whether this ...

*Burrow

Mammals are perhaps most well known for burrowing, especially Insectivora like the voracious mole, and rodents like the ... Examples of vertebrate burrowing animals include a number of mammals, amphibians, fish (dragonet and lungfish), reptiles, and ...

*Paratheria (mammals)

... the other Mammals" (the Greek παρά para means "beside"). Thomas had included one other mammal among the edentates, the aardvark ... When teeth of the extinct gondwanathere mammals were first discovered in Argentina in the 1980s, they were thought to be ... The term "Paratheria" was coined by British mammalogist Oldfield Thomas in 1887 in a review of tooth development in mammals. He ... Consequently, he suggested that they should be given a grouping separate from the other major groupings of mammals, for which ...

*Mammals (play)

Mammals is a play by Amelia Bullmore. It was first staged at the Bush Theatre, Shepherd's Bush, London, from 6 April to 7 May ... Taken from Hannah Knowles's review) Past productions: Mammals - from the Bush Theatre website [1] - Hannah Knowles's review.. ...

*The Mammals

... went on an indefinite hiatus in 2008. They began touring again in 2017. The Mammals play a style heavily influenced ... The Mammals have performed nationally in the USA, and internationally in Canada, Australia and Denmark. In 2007 the Mammals ... The Mammals collection at the Internet Archive's live music archive The Mammals on Myspace. ... The Mammals are a contemporary folk rock band based in the Hudson Valley, area of New York, in the United States. The band ...

*Pregnancy (mammals)

For mammals the gestation period is the time in which a fetus develops, beginning with fertilization and ending at birth. The ... In mammals, pregnancy is the period of reproduction during which a female carries one or more live offspring from implantation ...

*Mammals of Australia

Mammals List of Australian mammals List of Australian monotremes and marsupials List of Australian bats List of Australian ... Monotremes are mammals with a unique method of reproduction: they lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. Two of the ... Forty-six marine mammals from the order Cetacea are found in Australian coastal waters, but since many of these species have a ... The mammals of Australia have a rich fossil history, as well as a variety of extant mammalian species, dominated by the ...

*Mammals of Africa

... is a book series of six volumes from Bloomsbury Publishing. Published in 2013 and edited by Jonathan Kingdon ... it describes every species of African land mammal which comprise 1,160 species and 16 orders. Volume 1: Introductory Chapters ... Mammals of Africa more information about the series. ...

*Mammals of Borneo

The mammal species of Borneo include 288 species of terrestrial and 91 species of marine mammals recorded within the ... Life Mammalian Species Accounts Taxonomy of Mammal Chiroptera Plate Tectonics Meets Genomics Small mammals of Kelabit Mammals ... The terrestrial mammals are dominated by the chiroptera (102 species of bats) and rodents (61 species of rats and mice). The ... Of the 57 mammal species that were identified from archaeological remains in the Niah Caves, Sarawak, 13 were bats. Four of ...

*The Life of Mammals

... at BBC Programmes The Life of Mammals at BBC Online The Life of Mammals on the Eden website The Life of ... How about mammals? I was in my mid-seventies but I decided I would rather do that than sit at home by myself." Despite his age ... The Life of Mammals was intended to be his definitive account of the subject. Attenborough took on the series at the suggestion ... The Life of Mammals is a nature documentary series written and presented by David Attenborough, first transmitted in the United ...

*List of prehistoric mammals

This is an incomplete list of prehistoric mammals. It does not include extant mammals or recently extinct mammals. For extinct ... mammals and near-mammals". Retrieved 30 December 2015. Paleofile.com (net, info) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on ... "Taxonomic lists- Mammals". Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015. Cox, Barry; Savage, R.J.G ... ISBN 0-333-48699-4. "Ordinal Classification of Mammals". Retrieved November 7, 2005. "Mikko's Phylogeny Archive". Archived from ...

*Mammals of the Caribbean

... of North America List of mammals of Mexico List of Central American mammals List of South American mammals Lists of mammals by ... Non-flying mammals of Cenozoic origin must have colonized the Caribbean islands by some combination of rafting and/or use of a ... Mammal bones in Dominican amber. Nature 380:489-490. MacPhee, R.D.E. and Meldrum, J. 2006. Postcranial remains of the extinct ... Mammals of South America. Volume 1: Marsupials, xenarthrans, shrews, and bats. University of Chicago Press, 669 pp. ISBN 978-0- ...

*Marine mammals and sonar

Southall et al., Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations, Aquatic Mammals 2007, 33(4), 411- ... Aquatic Mammals 33(4), 411-521 (2007). "Marine Mammals and Noise". Stacy L. DeRuiter, Brandon L. Southall, John Calambokidis, ... Deep diving marine mammals were species of concern, but very little definitive information was known. In 1995 a comprehensive ... As a result of this test a "Committee on Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals" was organized by the National Research Council ...
Placental mammals (Placentalia) are a very successful group that, today, comprise 94% of all mammalian species. Recent phylogenetic analyses, coupled with new, quite complete fossils, suggest that the crown orders were all established rapidly from a common ancestor just after the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary 65 million years ago. Extensive molecular and morphologic evidence has led to a description of the common ancestor of all Placentalia in which a two-horned uterus and a hemochorial placenta are present. Thus, the process of placentation in which the placenta invades and anchors to the uterine epithelium was already established. One factor that has been suggested as a crucial component of this process is placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1). A phylogenetic analysis of the PLAC1 protein in 25 placental mammal species, representing nine of the sixteen crown orders of the Placentalia, suggests that this protein was present in the placental common ancestor in the form we see it today, that it
Sendzimir J (2004). Patterns of landscape structure, mammal phylogeny and body size. In: The Role of Biodiversity Conservation in the Transition to Rural Sustainability. Eds. Light, S., NATO Science Series: Science & Technology Policy. ISBN 1 Full text not available from this repository ...
Murphy WJ, Pringle TH, Crider TA, Springer MS, Miller W (2007). [http://genome.cshlp.org/content/17/4/413.long Using genomic data to unravel the root of the placental mammal phylogeny]. Genome Res. 17 (4): 413-21. doi:10.1101/gr.5918807. PMID 17322288. http://genome.cshlp.org/content/17/4/413.long ...
Laurasiatheria taxek yan grûpek gelek mezin e ji guhandarên Placentalia ku ji başûrê joreparzemîna Laurasia hatiye gor baweriya zanyaran.Guhandarên vê grûpê wek: Perçemk,yûnis,jîjo û gele guhandarên goştxur yan ji Carnivora .. ...
There is growing evidence of the adverse effects of global environmental change on marine mammals, particularly in terms of changes in abundance, distribution, ...
Whats cute and furry and has a name only a paleontologist could love? A tiny theoretical creature dubbed the hypothetical placental mammal ancestor is stealing the hearts of some evolutionary
There arent many large mammals around anymore in, most of the world. Thats mostly because one mammal species -- Homo sapiens -- has taken a heavy toll on its competition. Now, a team of researchers demonstrates what would have happened to the worlds megafauna if humans had never existed....
The long-term goal of this proposal is to understand, in detail, the mechanisms of mammalian mRNA 3processing through comprehensive characterization of the 3p...
... are animals that have hair, are warm-blooded, and nourish their young with milk. Mammals evolved during the Triassic period, about 225 million years ago.
Your trx is debited to HDFC Bank CREDIT Card for Rs. xxxxxxx….. This is not an authenticated trx as per RBI Mandate effective 1 May 12. You ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Mammalia - Mammals -- Discover Life
The fossils of two interrelated ancestral mammals, newly discovered in China, suggest that the wide-ranging ecological diversity of modern mammals had a precedent more than 160 million years ago.
c. From study and reading, write a simple life history of one nongame mammal that lives in your area. Tell how this mammal lived before its habitat was affected in any way by man. Tell how it reproduces, what it eats, what eats it, and its natural habitat. Describe its dependency upon plants, upon other animals (including man), and how they depend upon it. Tell how it is helpful or harmful to man ...
Huddling in the shadows of the Jurassic world wasnt enough for the first mammals - fossils from China show they dug, swam and climbed trees too
Remains of the oldest ancestor of the most evolutionarily successful and long-lived mammal lineage have just been unearthed in China, according to a new study.
It sounds like a sci-fi film, but scientists have managed to cryonically freeze and then recover the brain of a mammal, an important step in retaining memories even after the death of someones body.
ABSTRACT: The developmental history of North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMAs), their integration with radioisotopic and magnetic polarity dating systems, and relationships to stratigraphic codes and guides are briefly reviewed. Augmented by examples, the need for NALMAs to be supplied with detailed biostratigraphic information is stressed. NALMAs make powerful contributions to the discussion of geohistorical events at intra- and intercontinental scales. ...
Can you name the Land Mammals for the Latin Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by Hatty_mack
Altyazılar The Life of Mammals - Altyazılar türkçe. 04 - Chisellers - Kemirgenler, 1CD (tur). Gönderilme Süreci 2010-09-26, İndirildi 74x.
We already know that pets benefit human health and enhance our quality of life at all stages. People living with pets report less stress and a greater sense of wellbeing. Research has shown that having pets in society results in an overall decrease in health care costs.... ...
Limited Supply. 1944. From the classic How to Know Series. Includes illustrated keys identifying plants to their phyla, classes, and important orders. Contains valuable …
Can anyone tell me an advantage and a disadvantage of over expressing proteins in mammalian cells to discover their function or localisation ...
Humans are among the 3 to 5% of mammals that have the innate capacity for long-term intimate pair bonding. But how does the Coolidge Effect undermine us?
If you are to pay the Dotnode Project, roughly know clinically-tested to guarantee any ebook immunological aspects of mammalian reproduction. Regulation completely to know out more. Please, speed were mbHealth.
Non-human chimeric mammals are created from a mammal having hematopoietic cells replaced with hematopoietic cells from a hematopoietic deficient mammal donor, and optionally in which xenogeneic cells and/or tissue are engrafted. The xenogeneic, preferably human, cells or tissue may be hematopoietic cells, in which case the chimeric mammal can produce xenogeneic B and/or T cells, and can be used as a source of mammalian, preferably human, monoclonal antibodies and/or T cells. Alternatively, the xenogeneic cells or tissue may be non-hematopoietic, such as normal or pathological cells or tissue, which can form a stable transplant in the chimeric mammal and thus can be used as an animal model of various pathologies or to test therapeutic or diagnostic agents or modalities.
Sitting Pet Domestic Mammal Animal Dog Canine photo, resolution 4000×3000 pixel, Image type JPEG, free download and free for commercial use.
Click here to learn about this amazing animal group and find out some great facts about the mammals you can meet here at Australia Zoo!
Click here to learn about this amazing animal group and find out some great facts about the mammals you can meet here at Australia Zoo!
Read "Analysis of mutation rates in the SMCY/SMCX genes shows that mammalian evolution is male driven, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Notoungulata: Notoungulata, extinct group of hoofed mammals found as fossils, mostly in South America, although the oldest forms seem to have originated in East Asia. Notoungulates lived from the late Paleocene Epoch (about 57 million years ago) to the early part of the Pleistocene Epoch (some 1.8 million years
The best wildlife gardens provide habitat for a diversity of wildlife including small mammals. Small mammals such as squirrels, chipmunks, rabbits, opossums, and foxes play an important role in the garden ecosystem.
The cells of the mammalian immune system do more than just fight off pathogens; they are also important players in stem cell function and are thus crucial for maintaining homeostasis and recovering from injury.. 0 Comments. ...
The cells of the mammalian immune system do more than just fight off pathogens; they are also important players in stem cell function and are thus crucial for maintaining homeostasis and recovering from injury.. 0 Comments. ...
by Carl Strang Todays collection of notes from the 2013 scientific literature focuses on mammals and their evolution. As the notes reveal, some of these topics are controversial among researchers. Chang-Fu Zhou, Shaoyuan Wu, Thomas Martin, Zhe-Xi Luo. 2013. A Jurassic mammaliaform and the earliest mammalian evolutionary adaptations. Nature 500 (7461): 163 DOI: 10.1038/nature12429 They…
The transportation of antibodies from a mother to her newborn child is vital for the development of that childs nascent immune system. Those antibodies, donated by transfer across the placenta before birth or via breast milk after birth, help shape a babys response to foreign pathogens and may influence the later occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Images from biologists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have revealed for the first time the complicated process by which these antibodies are shuttled from mothers milk, through her babys gut, and into the bloodstream, and offer new insight into the mammalian immune system ...
Mesozoic mammals are those mammals that lived during the Mesozoic era, from 245 to 65 million years before the present. The lineage leading to mammals, Synapsida, is truly ancient; it branched off the trunk leading to reptiles at least 350 million years ago. ...
Bioengineers at Harvard University have shown that small plastic disks impregnated with tumor-specific antigens and implanted under the skin can reprogram the mammalian immune system to attack tumors.
The first Marsupial and Placental mammals diverged from each other over 110 million years ago. Keep in mind that the continents were not always placed where they are today. Way back, the Marsupial and Placental mammals moved about, but as continents separated and drifted, different groups became cut off from one another. Many of the Marsupial lineages died out, including those in Asia and Europe. One group, however, made it into South America before it split from the North. These animals had less competition from Placentals and were able to thrive for tens of millions of years ...
The Kachchh Peninsula, Gujarat, western India, contains a series of Neogene terrestrial and marine deposits overlying Palaeogene, Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks. Previous studies based on rare and scattered occurrences of terrestrial mammals suggested that only Early and basal Middle Miocene strata were represented in the Neogene of the region, but recent field research has extended the fossil register into the Late Miocene, with taxa such as Hipparion, Kachchhchoerus salinus and Tetraconodon indicus being represented at Tapar and Pasuda. The aim of this contribution is to describe the new collections of mammals from Kachchh in order to refine the biochronology of the deposits. A review of previously known faunas is included to complete the terrestrial Neogene biostratigraphy of the Kachchh sediments.. ...
Mammals are distinguished from other animals by having mammary glands and complex hair follicles, and by the structure of their skulls, which feature highly modified jaw bones. Mammals are also...
This is true of all thirty-two orders of mammals... The earliest and most primitive known members of every order [of mammals] already have the basic ordinal characters, and in no case is an approximately continuous sequence from one order to another known. In most cases, the break is so sharp and the gap so large that the origin of the order is speculative and much disputed... This regular absence of transitional forms is not confined to mammals, but is an almost universal phenomenon, as has long been noted by paleontologists. It is true of almost all classes of animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate... it is true of the classes, and of the major animal phyla, and it is apparently also true of analogous categories of plants. ...
Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals, Elizabeth S. Williams (Editor), Ian K. Barker (Editor) 3rd. Edition http://img819.imageshack.us/img819/6007/infectiousdiseasesofwil.jpg
Dithiocarbamic compounds, administered about 0.5 to about 6 hours after Pt(II) compound, have been found to counter the toxicity of the platinum in multicellular organisms (e.g. mammals). For example, neoplastic growths in mammals can be treated with cis-diamine or cis-diammine Pt(II) complexes with greatly lessened risk of nephrotoxicity and damage to the digestive system of the mammal, provided the dithiocarbamic compound is timely (and preferably parenterally) administered. Particularly effective dithiocarbamic compounds are monomeric (e.g. ##STR1## where M.sup.⊕ is a pharmaceutically acceptable cation and R1 and R2 are lower aliphatic or cycloaliphatic groups) or, less preferably, dimeric, e.g. ##STR2## wherein R1 and R2 are as defined previously, and R3 and R4 are defined in the same manner as R1 and R2. These dithiocarbamic compounds do not significantly reduce the desired effects of the Pt(II) compounds (particularly when the dithiocarbamic compound is intravenously administered), despite their
Dithiocarbamic compounds, administered about 0.5 to about 6 hours after Pt(II) compound, have been found to counter the toxicity of the platinum in multicellular organisms (e.g. mammals). For example, neoplastic growths in mammals can be treated with cis-diamine or cis-diammine Pt(II) complexes with greatly lessened risk of nephrotoxicity and damage to the digestive system of the mammal, provided the dithiocarbamic compound is timely (and preferably parenterally) administered. Particularly effective dithiocarbamic compounds are monomeric (e.g. ##STR1## where M.sup.⊕ is a pharmaceutically acceptable cation and R 1 and R 2 are lower aliphatic or cycloaliphatic groups) or, less preferably, dimeric, e.g. ##STR2## wherein R 1 and R 2 are as defined previously, and R 3 and R 4 are defined in the same manner as R 1 and R 2 . These dithiocarbamic compounds do not significantly reduce the desired effects of the Pt(II) compounds (particularly when the dithiocarbamic compound is intravenously
Methods and compositions for detecting and localizing light originating from a mammal are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for targeting light emission to selected regions, as well as for tracking entities within the mammal. In addition, animal models for disease states are disclosed, as are methods for localizing and tracking the progression of disease or a pathogen within the animal, and for screening putative therapeutic compounds effective to inhibit the disease or pathogen.
Methods and compositions for detecting and localizing light originating from a mammal are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for targeting light emission to selected regions, as well as for tracking entities within the mammal. In addition, animal models for disease states are disclosed, as are methods for localizing and tracking the progression of disease or a pathogen within the animal, and for screening putative therapeutic compounds effective to inhibit the disease or pathogen.
Fishes and mammals are obviously different, right? Then you should have no problem acing this quiz. Test your knowledge about the differences between fishes and mammals.
If I recall correctly, some of the largest bird-brains are seen in corvids, who clearly fit the definition of social... ;-) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101124073900.htm ...
Mammals alone a. have hair and mammary glands b. have a four-chambered heart c. have the ability to regulate body temperature d. exhibit parental care of the young Genetic and immunological evidence show that the greatest.
Viruses are best known to us as agents causing specific diseases in domesticated species of animals; they have been intensely studied in this respect, almost to the exclusion of other aspects. It is the intention of this paper to descriptionbe and assess some of our knowledge of the behaviour of viruses as parasites of mammals in a natural environment.
Scientists say the fossil of a small, furry creature found in a Spanish quarry indicates that mammals evolved hedgehog-like spines far earlier than previously thought, according to a paper published Wednesday in the journal Nature.
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Ethiopias Endemic Mammals Wildlife Holidays and Wildlife Tours with Naturetrek, specialists in Birdwatching and Botanical tours and holidays.
The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many marsupials in its scientific collections. This specimen, USNM 579621 ( http://collections.mnh.si.edu/search/mammals/?irn=7089922 ), is a cuscus ( Phalanger sp .), a genus of possum.
The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many marsupials in its scientific collections. This specimen, USNM 579621 ( http://collections.mnh.si.edu/search/mammals/?irn=7089922 ), is a cuscus ( Phalanger sp .), a genus of possum.
A team of biologists has identified 20 hot spots around the world where mammal species, while not yet appearing threatened, are likely to be at high risk of extinction in decades to come.
Breastfeeding is a practice that has been used for the benefit of the baby since the beginning of evolution of mammals. Human mothers can choose to breastfeed or choose artificial feeding for their babies unlike other mammals.
Article providing an overview of these tumors which are caused by a cancerous proliferation of mast cells, and the secondary damage they can cause by the release of chemicals. ...
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It has been observed that the relationship between locomotor performance and body mass in terrestrial mammals does not follow a single linear trend when the entire range of body mass is considered. Large taxa tend to show different scaling exponents compared to those of small taxa, suggesting that there would be a differential scaling between small and large mammals. This pattern, noted previously for several morphological traits in mammals, has been explained to occur as a result of mechanical constraints over bones due to the differential effect of gravity on small and large-sized forms. The relationship between maximum relative running speed (body length s-1) and body mass was analysed in 142 species of terrestrial mammals, in order to evaluate whether the relative locomotor performance shows a differential scaling depending on the range of mass analysed, and whether the scaling pattern is consistent with the idea of mechanical constraints on locomotor performance. The scaling of relative ...
Mayor, P., P. Pérez-Peña, M. Bowler, P. E. Puertas, M. Kirkland, and R. Bodmer. 2015. Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon. Ecology and Society 20(4):36.http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-08023-200436
Mammals (formally Mammalia) are a class of vertebrate, air-breathing animals whose females are characterized by the possession of mammary glands while both males and females are characterized by sweat glands, hair and/or fur, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the brain.. Mammals are divided into three main infraclass taxa depending how they are born. These taxa are: monotremes, marsupials and placentals. Except for the five species of monotremes (which lay eggs), all mammal species give birth to live young. Most mammals also possess specialized teeth, and the largest group of mammals, the placentals, use a placenta during gestation. The mammalian brain regulates endothermic and circulatory systems, including a four-chambered heart.. There are approximately 5,400 species of mammals, distributed in about 1,200 genera, 153 families, and 29 orders[1] (though this varies by classification scheme). Mammals range in size from the 30-40 millimeter (1- to 1.5-inch) ...
Los exafroplacentalios (Exafroplacentalia, «ex afro» y «placentalia») son una división de los Placentalia que incluiría los subgrupos Xenarthra y Boreoeutheria. Se cree que hace aproximadamente 105 millones de años tuvo lugar la separación entre los Xenarthra y los Boreoeutheria. William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, Mark S. Springer et al., Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics,Science, Vol 294, Issue 5550, 2348-2351 , 14 December 2001. Kriegs, Jan Ole, Gennady Churakov, Martin Kiefmann, Ursula Jordan, Juergen Brosius, Juergen Schmitz. (2006) Retroposed Elements as Archives for the Evolutionary History of Placental Mammals. PLoS Biol 4(4): e91.[1] (pdf version) Blanchette M, Green ED, Miller W, Haussler D. (2004) Reconstructing large regions of an ancestral mammalian genome in silico. Genome Res. 2004 Dec;14(12):2412-23. ([2]) Ma J, Zhang L, Suh BB, Raney BJ, Burhans RC, Kent WJ, Blanchette M, Haussler D, Miller W. (2006) Reconstructing contiguous ...
Os exafroplacentalios (Exafroplacentalia, "ex afro" e "placentalia") são uma divisão dos Placentalia que incluiria os subgrupos Xenarthra e Boreoeutheria. Acredita-se que há aproximadamente 105 milhões de anos houve a separação entre os Xenarthra e os Boreoeutheria. William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, Mark S. Springer et al., Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics,Science, Vol 294, Issue 5550, 2348-2351 , 14 December 2001. Kriegs, Jan Ole, Gennady Churakov, Martin Kiefmann, Ursula Jordan, Juergen Brosius, Juergen Schmitz. (2006) Retroposed Elements as Archives for the Evolutionary History of Placental Mammals. PLoS Biol 4(4): e91.[1] (pdf version) Blanchette M, Green ED, Miller W, Haussler D. (2004) Reconstructing large regions of an ancestral mammalian genome in silico. Genome Res. 2004 Dec;14(12):2412-23. ([2]) Ma J, Zhang L, Suh BB, Raney BJ, Burhans RC, Kent WJ, Blanchette M, Haussler D, Miller W. (2006) Reconstructing contiguous regions of an ...
Buy Evolution of Island Mammals (9781405190091): Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands: NHBS - Alexandra van der Geer, George Lyras, John de Vos and Michael Dermitzakis, John Wiley & Sons
When did placental mammals diversify to found the known orders? The old story used to be that an asteroid impact killed all the non-avian dinosaurs, but mammals survived and diversified in the post-impact Palaeogene. More recent molecular studies have challenged this. They place the origin of some orders or most in the Cretaceous. However, a paper in todays issue of Science asserts the previous version was right all along ...
I Exafroplacentalia (ex afro placentalia) sono un clade composto dai superordini Xenarthra ed Boreoeutheria. Questo raggruppamento è ben supportato dalle analisi della sequenza del DNA, oltre che da studi di presenza/assenza di retrotrasposoni. Atlantogenata Epitheria Waddell PJ, Kishino H, Ota R. 2001. A phylogenetic foundation for comparative mammalian genomics. Genome Inform Ser Workshop Genome Inform 12: 141-154, jsbi.org. Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J. OBrien (Edited by Morris Goodman). 2002 Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, pnas.org. Wildman D.E.; Chen C.; Erez O.; Grossman L.I.; Goodman M.; Romero R. 2006. Evolution of the mammalian placenta revealed by phylogenetic analysis. PNAS 103 (9): 3203-3208, pnas.org. Nikolaev, S., Montoya-Burgos, J.I., Margulies, E.H., Rougemont, J., Nyffeler, B., Antonarakis, S.E. 2007. Early history of mammals is elucidated with the ENCODE multiple species sequencing data. PLoS Genet. ...
Trechnotheria is a group of mammals that includes the therians and some fossil mammals from the Mesozoic Era. In the Jurassic through Cretaceous periods, the group was endemic to what would be Asia and Africa. Trechnotheria has been assigned various ranks, but was originally called a "superlegion" by the original author. One reference has defined the Trechnotheria as the clade comprising the last common ancestor of Zhangheotherium and living therian mammals, and all its descendants. Like most Mesozoic mammal groups, early trechnotherians are known mainly from their teeth. Hence, one of the most prominent features of this group is the "hypertrophied postvallum/prevallid shearing mechanism", along with other dental characters. Features of the shoulder blade, tibia, humerus, and ankle joint also diagnose this clade. A cladogram compiled by Mikko Haaramo and based on individual cladograms of after After Luo, Cifelli & Kielan-Jaworowska, 2001, Luo, Kielan-Jaworowska & Cifelli, 2002 and, ...
Extinct in the wild (EW): 2 species Critically endangered (CR): 205 species Endangered (EN): 474 species Vulnerable (VU): 529 species Near threatened (NT): 343 species Least concern (LC): 3,117 species Data deficient (DD): 783 species As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 474 endangered mammalian species. 8.6% of all evaluated mammalian species are listed as endangered. The IUCN also lists 86 mammalian subspecies as endangered. Of the subpopulations of mammals evaluated by the IUCN, five species subpopulations have been assessed as endangered. For a species to be considered endangered by the IUCN it must meet certain quantitative criteria which are designed to classify taxa facing "a very high risk of exintction". An even higher risk is faced by critically endangered species, which meet the quantitative criteria for endangered species. Critically endangered mammals are listed separately. There are 679 mammalian species which are endangered or ...
This was a laboratory study of antibodies from chickens. The researchers were interested in exploring the relationship between a particular antibody in chickens (IgY, also found in amphibians and reptiles) and antibodies in humans (IgE and IgG). IgY appears to have similar effects to both IgE and IgG, which are involved in the defence against infection, and also in responses to allergens. Genetic studies have shown that between 310 and 166 million years ago, the ancestral form of the gene encoding an ancestral IgY-like antibody was duplicated, and these two genes gradually differentiated into the genes that encode IgE and IgG, the two types of immunoglobin seen in mammals today. Modern IgY is thought to be the most similar molecule to the ancestral antibody, and this makes it useful for investigating how mammalian antibodies evolved to have different functions. Although IgY has molecular features that are common to both IgG and IgE, its structure is most like IgE. Certain cells in the human ...
The "northern" mammals share a common ancestor (together constituting Boreoeutheria). There is little variability in developmental sequences between species available for study. In contrast both groups of "southern" mammals exhibit shifts in ossification sequences. At first sight this might seem to argue for a common ancestor for Afrotheria and Xenarthra. However, the shifts are different in the two clades and this could argue against a common ancestry. ...
We are investigating how mammalian cells process information about intra- and extracellular cues through their intra-cellular signalling and gene-regulatory networks, how these networks dysfunction in disease and how these networks can be modulated by drugs. We are an interdisciplinary team of experimentalists and theoreticians and utilise mathematical models and theoretical concepts as well as quantitative and high throuput experimental approaches to analyse signalling and gene expression. ...
We are investigating how mammalian cells process information about intra- and extracellular cues through their intra-cellular signalling and gene-regulatory networks, how these networks dysfunction in disease and how these networks can be modulated by drugs. We are an interdisciplinary team of experimentalists and theoreticians and utilise mathematical models and theoretical concepts as well as quantitative and high throuput experimental approaches to analyse signalling and gene expression. ...
Brain of mammal: forebrain quiz, brain of mammal: forebrain MCQ exam quiz questions answers, multiple choice questions on brain of mammal forebrain, kidneys as osmoregulators, parts of flower, features of sexual reproduction in animals, structure of wind pollinated flower with answers.
Martin Anger is an Editor at PeerJ. Bio: Head of Mammalian Reproduction research group at the Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC) & Head of Cell Division Control laboratory, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics AS CR.
Mammals are warm-blooded (endothermic) vertebrates with hair. They breath air and give birth to live young, which feed on milk produced by their mothers. Some mammals in the vernal pool prairie spend most of their time underground. The burrows they dig create homes for many other animals. ...
Guinea pigs, or cavies, are generally a domestic mammal with specific dietary, housing, and social requirements. Their care is often misunderstood, and many web sites help guinea pig owners learn proper care of guinea pigs. Web sites range from general introductions to guinea pigs to specific pages on nutritional needs, sexing, care of illnesses, and breeding.
As a general rule, mammal species with big bodies tend to have big brains. If you know the weight of a mammals body, you can make a fairly good guess about how large its brain will be. As far as scientists can tell, this rule derives from the fact that the more body there is, the more neurons needed to control it. But this body-to-brain rule isnt perfect. Some species deviate a little from it. A few deviate a lot. We humans are particularly spectacular rule breakers. If we were an ordinary mammal species, our brains would be about one-sixth their actual size.. [vimeo 24884553 w=400 h=224] (via andrewsullivan.thedailybeast.com). ...
... Fast Track Project commissioned, loop tuned, validated for initial startup Wrote and executed all FAT, validation protocols on site.
Although still rare, the increasing British wild boar population has resulted in more confrontations between wild boars and humans. And, so their presence in our gardens is increasing too. These large mammals can cause extensive damage to gardens by trampling plants and digging up large areas in their search for food.. ...
Buy Small Mammals (9780521116060): Their Productivity and Population Dynamics: NHBS - Edited By: FB Golley, K Petrusewicz and L Ryszowski, Cambridge University Press
Okay, how much can they really figure out about a creature when all they have is a skull? Quite a lot, it turns out. Dubbed Vintana sertichi, the 5-inch skull indicated the live animal weighed about 20 pounds, which is about twice the size of a modern ground hog. To us humans, that doesnt sound very big, but its heavier than our medium-small dog, and heavier than any house cat Ive ever owned. In the world of the Mesozoic era mammals, that size makes it a super heavyweight. All the other mammals of the time were about the size of mice ...
There are over 200 squirrel species living all over the world and they are all mammals. Squirrels, like all other mammals, have hair and mammary glands and give birth to live...
Animals shows intermediate ear structure in evolution of modern mammals, , An international team of American and Chinese paleontologists has discovered a new species of mammal that lived 125 million yea...
A Postdoctoral position is available in the laboratory led by Ricardo Mallarino, Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University (www.mallarinolab.or
Because the result of ∂E/∂r = 0 in equation 21 approximates that of ∂C/∂r = 0 in equation 7 under the condition of UK ≪ ΔUP and Re becomes sufficiently low as shown in equation 36, x reaches 3.00, which Murrays (1926) law eventually advocates. Moreover, Uylings (1977) theory is another particular solution of ∂E/∂r = 0 under Re → ∞. E in equation 21 appears similar to equation 20 under the inverse condition of ΔUP ≪ UK, where Re rises sufficiently high as in equation 36, and x approaches 2.33, which is compatible with what Uylings model relates. The complete turbulence in equation 21 means that blood flow closely mimics the ideal fluid with Bernoullis principle.. However, our model does not explain the actual morphometric data of x , 2 or , 3 observed in some particular states of normal mammalian vasculatures (Woldenberg 1983; LaBarbera 1995; Dawson et al. 1999; Bennett et al. 2000). Furthermore, our theoretical results do not necessarily account for radius exponents ...
Freiburg, Germany (SPX) Aug 21, 2014 - Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics (MPI-IE) in Freiburg re-activated expression of an ancient gene, which is not normally expressed in the mammalian immune syste
Although such plant parts as stems and leaves are impossible for most mammals to digest, certain mammals are anatomically equipped to thrive on just such a diet. These animals, called ruminants, have multichambered stomachs quite unlike the single-chambered stomachs of humans and other mammals (see stomach). They are able to regurgitate, or bring food back to their mouths after swallowing it, in order to chew the food further-a process called rumination. Ruminants can eat…
Identification of ZPR1 homologues in mammals and yeast. (A) The sequence of the S. cerevisiae, S. pombe, and mouse ZPR1 proteins deduced from the nucleotide s
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How much do you know about the evolution of mammals? Use these assessment tools to find out. Print the worksheet to help you study for the quiz and...
Recent work examined the repair of ear holes across a number of different mammals and revealed that regeneration appears to be a unique trait
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We rescue baby animals regularly, both birds and mammals, which we then hand-raise ourselves. Occasionally we also have to raise youngsters born at PTWRC which the mothers are neglecting. In my early days at PTWRC all new arrivals were [...]. ...
In 1949 when Hopkins reviewed the data then known about Mallophaga found on mammals, he recognised 288 species and subspecies of Mallophaga. Since then, 179 new species and subsepcies of Mallophaga have been described, for a total of 467 valid species and subspecies. There are at least 4,268 species of living mammal, and there is evidence that at least 3,400 species of mammals do not normally have mallophaga. With better collecting, Mallophaga may be founnd on 512 species of mammals for which no current data exist. Mallophaga have now been recorded from 356 species of mammals. Because Mallophaga are obligatory parasites, their distribution is limited to that of their hosts. Most Mallophaga are host specific; some are less restricted in host selection, and a few are host subspecific. These variations in host specificity often aid mammologists in their taxonomisc studies of certain groups of mammals. Ten examples of host specificity and mammal relationships are discussed in detail. Mallophaga ...
Grasslands are among the most imperiled of the North American ecosystems, with ≤ 1% of tallgrass prairie remaining. The State Acres for Wildlife Enhancement (SAFE) is a national conservation program that converts agricultural fields into grasslands with the primary focus on improving habitat for high priority wildlife species. Because small mammals can be important indicators of ecosystem function, I sampled small mammal communities to evaluate restoration efforts under the SAFE program in Illinois. I livetrapped small mammals during 3 summers (2009-2011) on plots that were recently seeded, seeded 1-4 years prior to sampling, or established references (>10 yrs old). Overall, the dominant species were the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), and meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus); which combined represented 92-97% of total captures each year. Typical restoration trajectories for small mammal communities included a shift over time from dominance by ...
Synonyms for aquatic mammal in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for aquatic mammal. 14 words related to aquatic mammal: eutherian, eutherian mammal, placental, placental mammal, cetacean, cetacean mammal, blower, sea cow, sirenian.... What are synonyms for aquatic mammal?
Paleontologists from the American Museum of Natural History and the Chinese Academy of Sciences announce the discovery of Liaoconodon hui, a complete fossil mammal from the Mesozoic found in China that includes the long-sought transitional middle ear. The specimen shows the bones associated with hearing in mammals - the malleus, incus, and ectotympanic- decoupled from the lower jaw, as had been predicted, but held in place by an ossified cartilage that rested in a groove on the lower jaw. The new research, published in Nature this week, also suggests that the middle ear evolved at least twice in mammals, for monotremes and for the marsupial-placental group.. People have been looking for this specimen for over 150 years since noticing a puzzling groove on the lower jaw of some early mammals, says Jin Meng, curator in the Division of Paleontology at the Museum and first author of the paper. Now we have cartilage with ear bones attached, the first clear paleontological evidence showing ...
We were able to show that bank vole females gained long-term fitness benefits from multiple mating with different males. Offspring of polyandrous females performed significantly better at reproduction than those of monandrous females, caused mainly by sons of polyandrous females producing more offspring than those of monandrous females. Offspring body mass and survival were not affected by mating treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental study on mammals measuring offspring reproductive performance as fitness component potentially affected by polyandry.. Recent studies have demonstrated an increase in female fitness due to polyandry that can be attributed to genetic effects (Neff & Pitcher 2005; Simmons 2005). Most of these studies, including two on mammals, have focused on early offspring survival as a component of fitness. For example, a field study on the brown antechinus Antechinus stuartii showed that polyandry significantly increased offspring survival until weaning ...
Background: Extant placental mammals are divided into four major clades (Laurasiatheria, Supraprimates, Xenarthra and Afrotheria). Given that Afrotheria is generally thought to root the eutherian tree in phylogenetic analysis of large nuclear gene data sets, the study of the organization of the genomes of afrotherian species provides new insights into the dynamics of mammalian chromosomal evolution. Here we test if there are chromosomal bands with a high tendency to break and reorganize in Afrotheria, and by analyzing the expression of aphidicolin-induced common fragile sites in three afrotherian species, whether these are coincidental with recognized evolutionary breakpoints. Results: We described 29 fragile sites in the aardvark (OAF) genome, 27 in the golden mole (CAS), and 35 in the elephant-shrew (EED) genome. We show that fragile sites are conserved among afrotherian species and these are correlated with evolutionary breakpoints when compared to the human (HSA) genome. In addition, by ...
Marsupials or metatherians are a group of mammals that are distinct in giving birth to young at early stages of development and in having a prolonged investment in lactation. The group consists of nearly 350 extant species, including kangaroos, koala, possums, and their relatives. Marsupials are an old lineage thought to have diverged from early therian mammals some 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, and have a remarkable evolutionary and biogeographical history, with extant species restricted to the Americas, mostly South America, and to Australasia. Although the group has been the subject of decades of phylogenetic research, the marsupial tree of life remains controversial, with most studies focusing on only a fraction of the species diversity within the infraclass. Here we present the first Methaterian species-level phylogeny to include 80% of the extant marsupial species and five nuclear and five mitochondrial markers obtained from Genbank and a recently published retroposon matrix. Our primary

Osteología Craneana del Armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae)Osteología Craneana del Armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae)

These xenarthran bones have also been identified in many sauropsids and in certain mammals like monotremes (Novacek, 1993). The ... Mammal. Evol., 3: 31-79, 1996. [ Links ]. Grassé, P. P. Ordre des Edentés. In: Grassé, P. (ed), Traité de Zoologie. Paris, ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022006000500004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Species at Risk Public Registry - Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias Jubatus)Species at Risk Public Registry - Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias Jubatus)

Marine Mammal Science 14:232-244.. Calkins, D. G., and J. A. Curatolo. 1980. Marine mammals of Lower Cook Inlet and the ... Report to Marine Mammal Commission, contract no. MMC-75/01, Marine Mammal Commission, Washington D.C., Available Natl. Tech. ... J. Mammal 42:223-234.. Kenyon, K. W., and V. B. Scheffer. 1955. The seals, sea-lions and sea otter of the Pacific coast: ... Marine Mammal Science 2:14-33.. Loughlin, T. R., A. S. Perlov, J. D. Baker, S. A. Blokhin, and A. G. Makhnyr. 1998. Diving ...
more infohttp://www.sararegistry.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=D4B960ED-1&offset=15&toc=show

Timeline of placental mammal evolution | Biology LettersTimeline of placental mammal evolution | Biology Letters

2004 Paleocene biochronology: the Puercan through the Clarkforkian land mammal ages. In Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic mammals of ... 2003 Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 1056-1061. (doi: ... 2013 Response to comment on The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 341, 613. (doi: ... 2013 The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339, 662-667. (doi:10.1126/science. ...
more infohttp://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/10/1/20131003

Other MammalsOther Mammals

The Museum is open daily from 10 am to 5:45 pm except on Thanksgiving and Christmas. ...
more infohttps://www.amnh.org/our-research/southwestern-research-station/about/station-animals/mammals/promos/other-mammals

Mammals | IUCNMammals | IUCN

Mammals are critical in maintaining ecosystem functions and services through their diverse roles as grazers, browsers, ... Mammals also provide numerous direct benefits to humans; they are an important food source for many cultures and are used in ... Mammals are critic. al in maintaining ecosystem functions and services through their diverse roles as grazers, browsers, ... It shows that for mammals, the overall trend is one of decline. ... The Global Mammal Assessment Programme. Mammals on The IUCN Red ...
more infohttps://www.iucn.org/zh-hans/node/19129

MammalsMammals

pieces breaking off with groups of mammals - different conditions evolved different mammals - geographic isolation Mammals ... Infraclass Metatheria - all marsupial mammals Infraclass Eutheria - all placental mammals NONEUTHERIAN MAMMALS: MONOTREMES AND ... Second largest order of mammals with ~170 genera and 850 species Characterized as the only mammal to have evolved true flight ... Age of mammals ~30 mammalian orders Mesozoic mammals tended to be somewhat insignificant - limited fossil evidence indicated ...
more infohttp://www.shsu.edu/~bio_mlt/mammals.html

MammalsMammals

Dr. Steve K. Windels, wildlife biologist for Voyageurs National Park, explains how national parks make critical conservation research possible and gives insight into the work being done with wolves at Voyageurs.
more infohttp://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/group/mammals/

Evolution of mammals - WikipediaEvolution of mammals - Wikipedia

Earliest crown mammals[edit]. The crown group mammals, sometimes called true mammals, are the extant mammals and their ... Mammals of the Mesozoic: The least mammal-like mammals *^ Hu, Yaoming; Meng, Jin; Clark, James M (2009). "A New Tritylodontid ... Mammals or mammaliaforms[edit]. Some writers restrict the term "mammal" to the crown group mammals, the group consisting of the ... Definition of "mammal"[edit]. Figure 1:In mammals, the quadrate and articular bones are small and part of the middle ear; the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_mammals

Template talk:Mammals - WikipediaTemplate talk:Mammals - Wikipedia

WikiProject Mammals (Rated Template-class). MammalsWikipedia:WikiProject MammalsTemplate:WikiProject Mammalsmammal articles. ... This template is within the scope of WikiProject Mammals, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of mammal-related ... You might get a better audience if you bring it up at WT:MAMMAL, I wasnt aware of the Mammal classification article. Rgrds. -- ... Ill post on WT:MAMMAL shortly with a proposal to revisit the overall scheme on Mammal classification. Gnostrat (talk) 22:00, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template_talk:Mammals

mammals  - Lulu.commammals - Lulu.com

All mammals feed their young milk. Most... More , mammals give birth to miniature versions of themselves. This group includes: ... From mammals to birds, and mushrooms to flowers, the nature of the redwood region is incomparably beautiful. Towering... More , ... It was a 30-foot long, plant-eating aquatic mammal, weighing up to 12 tons, that lived in large herds on the coasts of Alaska ... Images of nature, birds and mammals with a few thoughts. Makes a great coffee table book. Great conversation book. ...
more infohttp://www.lulu.com/shop/search.ep?keyWords=mammals&pn=8

xkcd: Land Mammalsxkcd: Land Mammals

Earths LAND MAMMALS By Weight [[A graph in which one square equals 1,000,000 tons. Dark grey squares represent humans, light ... Image URL (for hotlinking/embedding): https://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/land_mammals.png ...
more infohttps://xkcd.com/1338/

xkcd: Land Mammalsxkcd: Land Mammals

Earths LAND MAMMALS By Weight [[A graph in which one square equals 1,000,000 tons. Dark grey squares represent humans, light ... Image URL (for hotlinking/embedding): https://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/land_mammals.png ...
more infohttps://www.xkcd.com/1338/

Excretion - Mammals | Britannica.comExcretion - Mammals | Britannica.com

Mammals: The mammalian kidney is a compact organ with two distinct regions: cortex and medulla. The functional unit of the ... Mammals. The mammalian kidney is a compact organ with two distinct regions: cortex and medulla. The functional unit of the ... Like mammals, and unlike the lower vertebrates, birds and reptiles have skins impermeable to water and thus are well adapted to ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/excretion/Mammals

Mammals | National Wildlife FederationMammals | National Wildlife Federation

Explore facts and photos about mammals found in the United States. Learn about their range, habitat, diet, life history, and ... The United States has more than 400 mammal species. Of those mammals, nearly a quarter are listed on the U.S. endangered ... Unlike other classes of animals, female mammals produce milk to nourish their young. Almost all mammals give birth to live ... Mammals-a group that include humans-are warm-blooded animals with hair and vertebrates, or backbones. ...
more infohttps://nwf.org/Educational-Resources/Wildlife-Guide/Mammals

Mammals | National Wildlife FederationMammals | National Wildlife Federation

Explore facts and photos about mammals found in the United States. Learn about their range, habitat, diet, life history, and ... The United States has more than 400 mammal species. Of those mammals, nearly a quarter are listed on the U.S. endangered ... Unlike other classes of animals, female mammals produce milk to nourish their young. Almost all mammals give birth to live ... Mammals-a group that include humans-are warm-blooded animals with hair and vertebrates, or backbones. ...
more infohttps://www.nwf.org/Home/Educational-Resources/Wildlife-Guide/Mammals

Category:vi:Mammals - WiktionaryCategory:vi:Mammals - Wiktionary

Fundamental » All languages » Vietnamese » All sets » Lifeforms » Animals » Chordates » Vertebrates » Mammals. Vietnamese terms ... Pages in category "vi:Mammals". The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Category:vi:Mammals&oldid=47129799" ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:vi:Mammals

Category:sv:Mammals - WiktionaryCategory:sv:Mammals - Wiktionary

Fundamental » All languages » Swedish » All sets » Lifeforms » Animals » Chordates » Vertebrates » Mammals Swedish terms for ... Pages in category "sv:Mammals". The following 3 pages are in this category, out of 3 total. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Category:sv:Mammals&oldid=47128390" ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:sv:Mammals

Meet the MammalsMeet the Mammals

Tag Archives: Meet the Mammals SEFS Students Volunteer at "Meet the Mammals". Posted on December 5, 2015. by SEFS ... Posted in Uncategorized , Tagged Burke Museum, Canada lynx, Jack DeLap, Jeff Bradley, Laurel Peelle, Meet the Mammals, Sharlene ... Mammal experts were on hand all day to answer questions about their particular specimens, and other activities ranged from live ... Last month, SEFS grad students Laurel Peelle and Jack DeLap volunteered in the annual "Meet the Mammals" event held at the ...
more infohttp://depts.washington.edu/sefsblog/tag/meet-the-mammals/

mammals | KCETmammals | KCET

But in recent years, these marine mammals have been spotted closer to shore, putting them at a higher risk for deadly container ... two young elephant seals are finally ready to be released back into the ocean by the Marine Mammal Rescue Team at the ...
more infohttps://www.kcet.org/category/mammals

Mammals | EnvironmentMammals | Environment

Mammals. There are at least 69 species of wild mammals living in and around Britain and another 29 migratory species (bats and ... Mammals are vital for the survival of other species. For example, the barn owl feeds almost entirely on small mammals and will ... Hoofed mammals - whose wild representatives are deer species.. Devon has 43 recorded breeding mammals living in the wild as ... Cetaceans - marine mammals - whales, dolphins and porpoises.. *Carnivores - flesh eating mammals such as the fox, otter, stoat ...
more infohttps://www.devon.gov.uk/environment/wildlife/habitats-and-species/mammals

ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.comZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com

... study fossils and the evolution of mammals, print out classroom activities, find mammal links, and more. ... Explore mammals, learn about their anatomy and behavior, ... Introduction to Mammals. Groups of Mammals. Ice Age Mammals. ... All About Mammals What Is a Mammal?. Mammals are animals that have hair, are warm-blooded, and nourish their young with milk. ... Mammal Extremes. *Fastest mammal (also the fastest land animal): the cheetah (60-70 mph = 97-110 kph) *Slowest mammal - the ...
more infohttp://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/mammals/

Mammals - MeritBadgeDotOrgMammals - MeritBadgeDotOrg

Mammals merit badge has been discontinued. (See discontinued merit badges.). For the currently active merit badge, see Mammal ... Template:Mammals/req View the change list (history) of these requirements. The text of these requirements may be locked. In ... Retrieved from "http://www.meritbadge.org/wiki/index.php/Mammals". Categories: Discontinued merit badges , Articles that need ...
more infohttp://www.meritbadge.org/wiki/index.php?title=Mammals&diff=42856&oldid=42553

Category:Sea mammals - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Sea mammals - Wikimedia Commons

This category is located at Category:Marine mammals. Note: This category should be empty. Any content should be recategorised. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Sea_mammals&oldid=297508295" ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Sea_mammals

The Mammals - Cover Lay DownThe Mammals - Cover Lay Down

The Mammals, 1952 Vincent Black Lightning (orig. Richard Thompson) *The Mammals, Chan Chan (orig. Compay Segundo) *The Mammals ... The Mammals: Lay Down Yr Mountain (text Allan Ginsburg) *Mississippi Fred McDowell: When I Lay My Burden Down(trad.) Cover Lay ... The Mammals, House Carpenter/Pipeline. (from Evolver). As always, all album and label links above take you direct to the source ... The Mammals: Quite Early Morning *Marlene Dietrich: Where Have All The Flowers Gone. *removed at artist/label request. ...
more infohttp://web.archive.org/web/20121104070052/http:/coverlaydown.com/category/the-mammals/

The Mammals - Cover Lay DownThe Mammals - Cover Lay Down

The Mammals, 1952 Vincent Black Lightning (orig. Richard Thompson) *The Mammals, Chan Chan (orig. Compay Segundo) *The Mammals ... The Mammals: Lay Down Yr Mountain (text Allan Ginsburg) *Mississippi Fred McDowell: When I Lay My Burden Down(trad.) Cover Lay ... The Mammals, House Carpenter/Pipeline. (from Evolver). As always, all album and label links above take you direct to the source ... The Mammals: Quite Early Morning *Marlene Dietrich: Where Have All The Flowers Gone. *removed at artist/label request. ...
more infohttp://web.archive.org/web/20130104222941/http:/coverlaydown.com/category/the-mammals/
  • Second, each student will then develop a cladogram which includes a selection of marine mammals and land mammals which represent the major mammalian orders. (google.com)
  • Bats - highly specialised insectivores, with wing membranes which make them the only mammals capable of flying. (devon.gov.uk)
  • After the last ice age - 15,000 years ago - our native mammals crossed the land bridge attaching us to the continent before this was cut off by sea level rise. (devon.gov.uk)
  • doi:10.1126/science.1229237 )) performed a fossil-only dating analysis of mammals, concluding that the ancestor of placentals post-dated the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary, contradicting previous palaeontological and molecular studies that placed the ancestor in the Cretaceous. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Consequently, he suggested that they should be given a grouping separate from the other major groupings of mammals, for which terms had been introduced by Thomas Huxley: Eutheria (placentals) and Metatheria (marsupials). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1910, William King Gregory reviewed the interrelationships of mammals and placed edentates among other placentals, though he gave "Paratheria" as an alternative name for his superorder Edentata, which included Xenarthra and tentatively Pholidota (pangolins), Tubulidentata (aardvarks), and the fossil Taeniodonta. (wikipedia.org)
  • bodies of mammals typically covered with hair, which has no structural homology in other vertebrates. (shsu.edu)
  • Paratheria is an obsolete term for a taxonomic group including the xenarthran mammals (sloths, anteaters, and armadillos) and various groups thought to be related to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost all mammals give birth to live young (except for the platypus and echidna, which lay eggs). (nwf.org)
  • Support organisations that are working for mammal conservation, particularly The Mammal Society and Devon Wildlife Trust. (devon.gov.uk)
  • Although mammary glands are a signature feature of modern mammals, little is known about the evolution of lactation as these soft tissues are not often preserved in the fossil record. (wikipedia.org)
  • This template is within the scope of WikiProject Mammals , a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of mammal -related subjects on Wikipedia. (wikipedia.org)
  • I've removed Category:Mammals from this template because it was making proper subcategorization impossible. (wikipedia.org)
  • To help mammals and other wildlife survive, national and local nature reserves have been established and there are also many successful mammal-related initiatives such as, in Devon, Operation Otter and the Greater Horseshoe Bat Project. (devon.gov.uk)
  • The following is a guide on how to respond to the stranding of a dead or live marine mammal under the authority of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Alaska (sea otter, walrus, and polar bear). (fws.gov)
  • Mammal experts were on hand all day to answer questions about their particular specimens, and other activities ranged from live music played on instruments made from mammals, to putting together a 16-foot whale skeleton. (washington.edu)
  • mammals give birth to miniature versions of themselves. (lulu.com)