Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.
Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
The physical measurements of a body.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)
An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)
Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The species Tursiops truncatus, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by a bottle-shaped beak and slightly hooked broad dorsal fin.
Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.
A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A genus in the family of EARLESS SEALS (Phocidae) and collectively the most abundant PINNIPEDS in the Northern Hemisphere.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
An order of heavy-bodied, slow-moving, completely aquatic, herbivorous mammals. The body is fusiform, plump, and hairless, except for bristles on the snout. Hindlimbs are absent, the forelimbs are modified to flippers, and the tail is a horizontal fluke. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
The consumption of animal flesh.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genus of the order Sirenia comprising what are commonly called manatees. The distinguishing characteristics include a tail that is not notched, a short nasal cavity, the absence of nasal bones, and enamel-covered teeth. Members of this genus are found in marine bays and/or sluggish rivers, usually in turbid water. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.
A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Sexual activities of animals.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of the order PRIMATES, suborder Strepsirhini (PROSIMII), containing five genera. All inhabitants of Madagascar, the genera are: Allocebus, Cheirogaleus (dwarf lemurs), Microcebus (mouse lemurs), Mirza, and Phaner.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Activities performed by humans.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A genus of the order Sirenia characterized by a notched tail, the presence of nasal bones and a long nasal cavity, and large columnar teeth lacking enamel. Dugongs inhabit the coastal waters of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and the Malay Archipelago. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Animals that have no spinal column.
The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (1/5680)

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

Evidence for a correlation between the number of marginal band microtubules and the size of vertebrate erthrocytes. (2/5680)

In 23 species of vertebrates the dimensions of erythrocytes and the number of their marginal band microtubules were examined. A positive correlation was found between the size of erythrocytes and the number of microtubules. The absence of microtubules in diskoid erythrocytes of mammals-Camelidae-is discussed.  (+info)

Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. (3/5680)

Approximately 15 different alpha, or CXC, chemokines have thus far been isolated from 11 species of mammals. Among the best studied chemokines are the 12 human proteins that are encoded by 11 paralogous genes. In order to better understand the evolution and function of this group of genes, we isolated and characterized six novel GRO and GRO-related cDNA sequences from the cow (Bos taurus), the sheep (Ovis aries), the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The amino acid sequence of the diverged guinea pig GRO or KC gene is only 50%-60% similar to presumed orthologs from other species, while the sheep and cow GRO proteins are 90%-99% similar to each other. The presence of multiple GRO genes in the cow, the rabbit, and the sheep is consistent with what has been observed for humans. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences from 44 proteins indicate that genes orthologous to many of the 11 known from humans exist in other species. One such gene, interleukin 8, or IL8, has been isolated from nine species, including the rodent guinea pig; however, this gene is absent in the rat and the mouse, indicating a unique gene loss event in the rat/mouse (muroid rodent) lineage. The KC (or MIP2) gene of rodents appears to be orthologous to the GRO gene found in other taxonomic orders. Combined evidence from different sources suggests that IP10 and MIG share sister taxon relationships on the evolutionary tree, while the remaining paralogous genes represent independent lineages, with limited evidence for kinship between them. This observation indicates that these genes originated nearly contemporaneously via a series of gene duplication events. Relative-rate tests for synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the KC and IL8 genes did not detect rate heterogeneity; however, there are several notable features regarding the IL8 genes. For example, the IL8 proteins from two Old World monkeys are as similar to one another as they are to the IL8 protein from humans, and all observed nucleotide differences between the IL8 genes of the two monkeys cause amino acid changes; in other words, there are no synonymous differences between them.  (+info)

Evolutionary and preservational constraints on origins of biologic groups: divergence times of eutherian mammals. (4/5680)

Some molecular clock estimates of divergence times of taxonomic groups undergoing evolutionary radiation are much older than the groups' first observed fossil record. Mathematical models of branching evolution are used to estimate the maximal rate of fossil preservation consistent with a postulated missing history, given the sum of species durations implied by early origins under a range of species origination and extinction rates. The plausibility of postulated divergence times depends on origination, extinction, and preservation rates estimated from the fossil record. For eutherian mammals, this approach suggests that it is unlikely that many modern orders arose much earlier than their oldest fossil records.  (+info)

Sequence analysis of cDNA and genomic DNA, and mRNA expression of the medaka fish homolog of mammalian guanylyl cyclase C. (5/5680)

We isolated the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding a membrane guanylyl cyclase of medaka fish (designated as OlGC6), and determined their complete nucleotide sequences. The open reading frame for OlGC6 cDNA predicted a protein of 1,075 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OlGC6 is a member of the enterotoxin/guanylin receptor family. We also determined the partial genomic structure of the gene of another membrane guanylyl cyclase of medaka fish, OlGC2, which is a member of the natriuretic peptide receptor family. The intron positions relative to the protein-coding sequence are highly conserved in the intracellular domains of OlGC6, OlGC2, mammalian GC-A, and GC-E. Despite their divergent primary structures, some intron positions also seem to be conserved in the extracellular domains of different membrane guanylyl cyclase genes. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that an OlGC6 transcript of 3.9 kb is only present in the intestine, while reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis demonstrated that the OlGC6 transcript is present in the kidney, spleen, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, testis, brain, and eye. RT-PCR also demonstrated that OlGC6 is only expressed zygotically and that transcripts are present from 1 day after fertilization, i.e. long before the intestinal tissues begin to develop.  (+info)

Differences in the actions of some blockers of the calcium-activated potassium permeability in mammalian red cells. (6/5680)

1. The actions of some inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated K+ permeability in mammalian red cells have been compared. 2. Block of the permeability was assessed from the reduction in the net loss of K+ that followed the application of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) to rabbit red cells suspended at a haematocrit of 1% in a low potassium solution ([K]0 0.12-0.17 mM) at 37 degrees C. Net movement of K+ was measured using a K+-sensitive electrode placed in the suspension. 3. The concentrations (microM +/- s.d.) of the compounds tested causing 50% inhibition of K+ loss were: quinine, 37 +/- 3; cetiedil, 26 +/- 1; the cetiedil congeners UCL 1269, UCL 1274 and UCL 1495, approximately 150, 8.2 +/- 0.1, 0.92 +/- 0.03 respectively; clotrimazole, 1.2 +/- 0.1; nitrendipine, 3.6 +/- 0.5 and charybdotoxin, 0.015 +/- 0.002. 4. The characteristics of the block suggested that compounds could be placed in two groups. For one set (quinine, cetiedil, and the UCL congeners), the concentration-inhibition curves were steeper (Hill coefficient, nH, > or = 2.7) than for the other (clotrimazole, nitrendipine, charybdotoxin) for which nH approximately 1. 5. Compounds in the first set alone became less active on raising the concentration of K+ in the external solution to 5.4 mM. 6. The rate of K+ loss induced by A23187 slowed in the presence of high concentrations of cetiedil and its analogues, suggesting a use-dependent component to the inhibitory action. This was not seen with clotrimazole. 7. The blocking action of the cetiedil analogue UCL 1274 could not be overcome by an increase in external Ca2+ and its potency was unaltered when K+ loss was induced by the application of Pb2+ (10 microM) rather than by A23187. 8. These results, taken with the findings of others, suggest that agents that block the red cell Ca2+-activated K+ permeability can be placed in two groups with different mechanisms of action. The differences can be explained by supposing that clotrimazole and charybdotoxin act at the outer face of the channel whereas cetiedil and its congeners may block within it, either at or near the K+ binding site that determines the flow of K+.  (+info)

Proteasome-dependent degradation of the human estrogen receptor. (7/5680)

In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the major mechanism for the targeted degradation of proteins with short half-lives. The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues of targeted proteins is a signal for the recognition and rapid degradation by the proteasome, a large multi-subunit protease. In this report, we demonstrate that the human estrogen receptor (ER) protein is rapidly degraded in mammalian cells in an estradiol-dependent manner. The treatment of mammalian cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits activity of the proteasome and blocks ER degradation, suggesting that ER protein is turned over through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, we show that in vitro ER degradation depends on ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme (UBA) and ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes (UBCs), and the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin block ER protein degradation in vitro. Furthermore, the UBA/UBCs and proteasome inhibitors promote the accumulation of higher molecular weight forms of ER. The UBA and UBCs, which promote ER degradation in vitro, have no significant effect on human progesterone receptor and human thyroid hormone receptor beta proteins.  (+info)

tRNAVal-heterodimeric maxizymes with high potential as geneinactivating agents: simultaneous cleavage at two sites in HIV-1 Tat mRNA in cultured cells. (8/5680)

It has been demonstrated that shortened forms of (stem II-deleted) hammerhead ribozymes with low intrinsic activity form very active dimers with a common stem II (very active short ribozymes capable of forming dimers were designated maxizymes). Intracellular activities of heterodimeric maxizymes and conventional ribozymes, under the control of a human tRNAVal-promoter, were compared against the cleavage of HIV-1 tat mRNA. The pol III-driven maxizymes formed very active heterodimers, and they successfully cleaved HIV-1 tat mRNA in mammalian cells at two sites simultaneously. The cleaved fragments were identified directly by Northern blotting analysis. Despite the initial concerns that a complicated dimerization process and formation of inactive homodimers were involved in addition to the process of association with the target, the overall intracellular activities of tRNAVal-driven maxizymes were significantly higher in mammalian cells than those of two sets of independent, conventional hammerhead ribozymes that were targeted at the same two sites within HIV-1 tat mRNA. Because the tRNAVal-driven maxizymes tested to date have been more effective than tRNAVal-driven "standard" hammerhead ribozymes, the tRNAVal-driven heterodimeric maxizymes appear to have potential utility as gene-inactivating agents.  (+info)

Placental mammals (Placentalia) are a very successful group that, today, comprise 94% of all mammalian species. Recent phylogenetic analyses, coupled with new, quite complete fossils, suggest that the crown orders were all established rapidly from a common ancestor just after the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary 65 million years ago. Extensive molecular and morphologic evidence has led to a description of the common ancestor of all Placentalia in which a two-horned uterus and a hemochorial placenta are present. Thus, the process of placentation in which the placenta invades and anchors to the uterine epithelium was already established. One factor that has been suggested as a crucial component of this process is placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1). A phylogenetic analysis of the PLAC1 protein in 25 placental mammal species, representing nine of the sixteen crown orders of the Placentalia, suggests that this protein was present in the placental common ancestor in the form we see it today, that it
Sendzimir J (2004). Patterns of landscape structure, mammal phylogeny and body size. In: The Role of Biodiversity Conservation in the Transition to Rural Sustainability. Eds. Light, S., NATO Science Series: Science & Technology Policy. ISBN 1 Full text not available from this repository ...
How much of this detected difference is due to preservation differences? Small and large mammals have different modes of preservation and are often collected in the field and processed in the laboratory with different methods (25, 41). Specifically, large mammals are often preferentially preserved and recorded (39); therefore, they should have greater apparent durations. Despite the prediction of this preservation bias, we find that large mammals have on average shorter durations. However, taxonomic practices could have an influence in the opposite direction. For example, large mammal species might be preferentially described as new (e.g., more splitters among large mammal researchers), which could potentially bias large mammal durations toward being shorter. Unfortunately, no available data allow us to address such potential factors. We were, however, able to model body size as a covariate in preservation rate and found that its effect is inconsistent (Table 2). In cases where body size had ...
PhD Project - SWBio DTP PhD project: Ancestral functions of genes regulated by imprinting in mammals at University of Bath, listed on FindAPhD.com
Murphy WJ, Pringle TH, Crider TA, Springer MS, Miller W (2007). [http://genome.cshlp.org/content/17/4/413.long Using genomic data to unravel the root of the placental mammal phylogeny]. Genome Res. 17 (4): 413-21. doi:10.1101/gr.5918807. PMID 17322288. http://genome.cshlp.org/content/17/4/413.long ...
Mammals are animals. Yes but so are Insects, Reptiles, Spiders, Sponges and Slugs. We need to do better than that. Mammals have a back-bone.Yes but so do Fishes and Frogs and they are not mammals. Mammals are warm-blooded. Yes but so are birds, and birds are not mammals either. So how do we describe a mammal??. Obviously, what we need in order to define a mammal are some characters, or traits that are possessed by all mammals and are unique to mammals, i.e. they do not occur in fishes and /slugs etc.. Fortunately, scientists have already worked it all out for us. Image by: weesam2010. ...
Laurasiatheria taxek yan grûpek gelek mezin e ji guhandarên Placentalia ku ji başûrê joreparzemîna Laurasia hatiye gor baweriya zanyaran.Guhandarên vê grûpê wek: Perçemk,yûnis,jîjo û gele guhandarên goştxur yan ji Carnivora .. ...
There is growing evidence of the adverse effects of global environmental change on marine mammals, particularly in terms of changes in abundance, distribution, ...
Mammal species, threatened in Canada was reported at 18 in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Canada - Mammal species, threatened - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on August of 2020.
The data in this checklist of mammal species of the world are being presented for non-commercial, personal, and collections management use only. Copying or redistributing these data in any manner for personal or corporate gain is not permitted. A list of the authors responsible for various portions of the text can be found here ...
Local mammal groups bring together people with a shared enthusiasm for the local environment and the mammals within it. They work to share knowledge and raise awareness, survey and monitor local mammals, provide local expertise and training in field skills, hold talks and events, and support the work of the Mammal Society.. Please click on the map below to find local groups in your area.. ...
A 160 million year old fossil indicates that placental mammals split from marsupials at least 35 million years earlier than previously thought, meaning there was a higher rate of mammal evolution during the Jurassic than previously thought. Humans being p
There arent many large mammals around anymore in, most of the world. Thats mostly because one mammal species -- Homo sapiens -- has taken a heavy toll on its competition. Now, a team of researchers demonstrates what would have happened to the worlds megafauna if humans had never existed....
Help us understand how wild mammals share our urban green space by joining our Living with Mammals survey. Record mammals near you this autumn
Learn the basic steps in how to draw mammals with a framework that can be adapted to drawing the most common wild and domestic mammals.
The long-term goal of this proposal is to understand, in detail, the mechanisms of mammalian mRNA 3processing through comprehensive characterization of the 3p...
The long-term goal of this research is to determine how mammalian touch receptors transduce forces into neural signals that inform the brain about objects in ou...
Our 65th Spring Conference will be a forum for mammal experts and enthusiasts to meet in a friendly and relaxed atmosphere, hear the results of new research, look to future work and discuss contemporary issues in conservation.. There will be the usual exciting range of talks, an invited Cranbrook Lecture, the conference dinner and with raffle.. After dinner, which is included within the conference package price, we will be presenting our 2018 Mammal Society Award. Prize-giving for the 6th annual photographic competition will take place on the Friday evening, immediately before the Cranbrook lecture, which is open to the public. The winning entries will be on display throughout the evening and available to purchase.. The Annual General Meeting of The Mammal Society will also be held during the conference and all members are warmly invited to attend.. ...
Learn techniques to quickly and accurately draw mammals in the field. This workshop will focus on understanding key points of mammal anatomy that help you pose and draw mammals from any angle. Learn how to:. ...
Your trx is debited to HDFC Bank CREDIT Card for Rs. xxxxxxx….. This is not an authenticated trx as per RBI Mandate effective 1 May 12. You ...
Discover the world of Britains small mammals on this one day introductory course. Learn about the animals which make up this enigmatic group, how to find them and hopefully meet a few on the day! Perfect for the amateur and budding ecologist. Several outdoor practicals included.
The fossils of two interrelated ancestral mammals, newly discovered in China, suggest that the wide-ranging ecological diversity of modern mammals had a precedent more than 160 million years ago.
c. From study and reading, write a simple life history of one nongame mammal that lives in your area. Tell how this mammal lived before its habitat was affected in any way by man. Tell how it reproduces, what it eats, what eats it, and its natural habitat. Describe its dependency upon plants, upon other animals (including man), and how they depend upon it. Tell how it is helpful or harmful to man ...
Genuine Mesozoic Mammal Fossils for sale. Authenticity guaranteed. Every fossil we sell comes with a written lifetime certificate of authenticity and condition, as well as a history sheet.
Huddling in the shadows of the Jurassic world wasnt enough for the first mammals - fossils from China show they dug, swam and climbed trees too
Remains of the oldest ancestor of the most evolutionarily successful and long-lived mammal lineage have just been unearthed in China, according to a new study.
It sounds like a sci-fi film, but scientists have managed to cryonically freeze and then recover the brain of a mammal, an important step in retaining memories even after the death of someones body.
ABSTRACT: The developmental history of North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMAs), their integration with radioisotopic and magnetic polarity dating systems, and relationships to stratigraphic codes and guides are briefly reviewed. Augmented by examples, the need for NALMAs to be supplied with detailed biostratigraphic information is stressed. NALMAs make powerful contributions to the discussion of geohistorical events at intra- and intercontinental scales. ...
Can you name the Land Mammals for the Latin Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by Hatty_mack
Starting our foray into micro mammals with the Mini-Moose. What would you do with a Mini-Moose? #playfullearning https://t.co/KtPZ0IxwGn ...
Animal : Mammal Clipart Clipart - view clipart file clipart-of-the-african-nocturbal-animal-the-aardvark - to download - Classroom Clipart
We already know that pets benefit human health and enhance our quality of life at all stages. People living with pets report less stress and a greater sense of wellbeing. Research has shown that having pets in society results in an overall decrease in health care costs.... ...
Limited Supply. 1944. From the classic How to Know Series. Includes illustrated keys identifying plants to their phyla, classes, and important orders. Contains valuable …
Can anyone tell me an advantage and a disadvantage of over expressing proteins in mammalian cells to discover their function or localisation ...
Humans are among the 3 to 5% of mammals that have the innate capacity for long-term intimate pair bonding. But how does the Coolidge Effect undermine us?
(Phys.org) -A pair of researchers at Australian National University is suggesting in a paper they have had published in the journal Biology Letters, that in some instances, medium sized mammals may be more at risk of going extinct than larger or smaller species.
If you are to pay the Dotnode Project, roughly know clinically-tested to guarantee any ebook immunological aspects of mammalian reproduction. Regulation completely to know out more. Please, speed were mbHealth.
Mammals (class Mammal Mammalia /məˈmeɪli.ə/ Mammal from Latin Mammal mamma Mammal breast) are any pledge of a clade Mammal of endothermic Mammal amniotes Mammal important from reptiles Mammal and birds Mammal by the holding of a neocortex Mammal a atmosphere of the brain, hair Mammal, three middle ear bones Mammal, and mammary glands Mammal. The tusker brain-stem regularize viscosity frigidness and the circulatory system Mammal, terminal the four-chambered heart Mammal. Mammals incorporate the for the most part embryo on the planet, the rorquals Mammal and different astronomical whales, as good as both of the to the highest degree intelligent, much as elephants Mammal, primates Mammal, terminal humans Mammal, and cetaceans Mammal. The grassroots viscosity sort is a four-legged land-borne animal, but both tusker are altered for life at sea Mammal, in the air, in trees, or on two legs. The for the most part halogen of Mammals, the placentals Mammal, have a placenta Mammal, which ability chew ...
By Harry Green The BTO and the Mammal Society have recently been awarded a contract to design and run a multi-species winter mammal monitoring project and volunteers have been recruited to undertake the work. Many bird watchers who carry out the Breeding Birds Survey (BBS) have been approached to help with this important survey. Most BBS surveyors have been recording mammal sightings for several years. The reasons for mammal survey work are much the same as for birds. Some mammals are thought to have declined while others are increasing, others cause damage to crops or forestry, but concrete information on population trends is not available. Mammals are of course less easy to observe than birds, some are more difficult to identify, and many are nocturnal. These factors make mammals difficult ot monitor and different techniques are needed for different species. However, a multi-species approach is to be piloted this winter combining the Mammal Societys knowledge and the BTOs experience in ...
Non-human chimeric mammals are created from a mammal having hematopoietic cells replaced with hematopoietic cells from a hematopoietic deficient mammal donor, and optionally in which xenogeneic cells and/or tissue are engrafted. The xenogeneic, preferably human, cells or tissue may be hematopoietic cells, in which case the chimeric mammal can produce xenogeneic B and/or T cells, and can be used as a source of mammalian, preferably human, monoclonal antibodies and/or T cells. Alternatively, the xenogeneic cells or tissue may be non-hematopoietic, such as normal or pathological cells or tissue, which can form a stable transplant in the chimeric mammal and thus can be used as an animal model of various pathologies or to test therapeutic or diagnostic agents or modalities.
A quarter of Britains native mammal species, including red squirrels, wildcats and beavers, are at risk of extinction, a new assessment warns.
Sitting Pet Domestic Mammal Animal Dog Canine photo, resolution 4000×3000 pixel, Image type JPEG, free download and free for commercial use.
Click here to learn about this amazing animal group and find out some great facts about the mammals you can meet here at Australia Zoo!
Click here to learn about this amazing animal group and find out some great facts about the mammals you can meet here at Australia Zoo!
Read Analysis of mutation rates in the SMCY/SMCX genes shows that mammalian evolution is male driven, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The Trust is keen to raise the profile of mammals in general in Cornwall, and in the coming year will concentrate its efforts on priority species recording. A programme of surveying and monitoring will initially focus on the nature reserves, as well as supporting the efforts of the various groups and organisations involved in mammal conservation. In 1998 it will launch its Mammal Group at a meeting organised by the Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Federation of Biological Recorders (CISFBR). This takes place on 7th March and includes training sessions ...
This exercise demonstrates the principle of parsimony in constructing cladograms. Although it is designed using mammalian cranial characters, the activity could be adapted for characters from any group of organisms. Students score categorical traits on skulls and record the data in a spreadsheet. Using the Mesquite software package, students generate arbitrary cladograms and measure tree length. They then move taxa around to reduce tree length. The exercise can become competitive when students report out on tree lengths and try to achieve shorter trees than their peers. The resulting cladograms can be compared with a published mammalian phylogeny. The exercise illustrates phylogenetics, the principle of parsimony, and hypothesis testing using morphological data ...
Notoungulata: Notoungulata, extinct group of hoofed mammals found as fossils, mostly in South America, although the oldest forms seem to have originated in East Asia. Notoungulates lived from the late Paleocene Epoch (about 57 million years ago) to the early part of the Pleistocene Epoch (some 1.8 million years
The evolution of monogamy has long been debated within the scientific community. Two new studies examine why mammals may have evolved to stick with their mates.
We describe and illustrate new, middle Cenozoic fossils of dentally zalambdodont, North American placentals, including six relatively complete crania of Apternodus and two of Oligoryctes, as well as many partial skulls, mandibles, and teeth of these and other taxa. Several of the new Apternodus specimens are also associated with postcrania. We recognize seven species of Apternodus, three of which are new, formally propose the combination Oligoryctes altitalonidus, and recognize two other genera of small, North American, anatomically zalambdodont placentals, Parapternodus and Koniaryctes. We regard two other taxa previously associated with North American fossil zalambdodonts, one Bridgerian and the other Tiffanian, as valid but do not name them in this paper. In addition, we argue that dental zalambdodonty entails a primary occlusal relationship between the paracone and the ectoflexid, and the reduction or absence of the metacone and talonid basin. A phylogenetic analysis of cranial, dental, and ...
The cells of the mammalian immune system do more than just fight off pathogens; they are also important players in stem cell function and are thus crucial for maintaining homeostasis and recovering from injury.. 0 Comments. ...
The cells of the mammalian immune system do more than just fight off pathogens; they are also important players in stem cell function and are thus crucial for maintaining homeostasis and recovering from injury.. 0 Comments. ...
by Carl Strang Todays collection of notes from the 2013 scientific literature focuses on mammals and their evolution. As the notes reveal, some of these topics are controversial among researchers. Chang-Fu Zhou, Shaoyuan Wu, Thomas Martin, Zhe-Xi Luo. 2013. A Jurassic mammaliaform and the earliest mammalian evolutionary adaptations. Nature 500 (7461): 163 DOI: 10.1038/nature12429 They…
The transportation of antibodies from a mother to her newborn child is vital for the development of that childs nascent immune system. Those antibodies, donated by transfer across the placenta before birth or via breast milk after birth, help shape a babys response to foreign pathogens and may influence the later occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Images from biologists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have revealed for the first time the complicated process by which these antibodies are shuttled from mothers milk, through her babys gut, and into the bloodstream, and offer new insight into the mammalian immune system ...
Konig, Claus (1973). Mammals. Collins & Co. pp. 110-111. ISBN 978-0-00-212080-7. "Skomer Vole (Myodes glareolus skomerensis)". ...
Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Order Chiroptera". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... "Natterer", The Eponym Dictionary of Mammals, By Bo Beolens, Michael Watkins, Michael Grayson, 2009, Johns Hopkins University ... Myotis nattereri - Science for Nature Foundation Konig, Claus (1973). Mammals. Collins & Co. pp. 46-47. ISBN 978-0-00-212080-7 ... "Deep differentiation between and within Mediterranean glacial refugia in a flying mammal, the Myotis nattereri bat complex". ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Australian Terrestrial Biodiversity Assesement 2002 - 6. Mammals". 2002. Archived from ...
Estes, R. D. (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. University of ... in Latin) Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Herpestes ichneumon". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A ... Lönnberg, E. (1908). "Notes on some Mammals collected in the Congo Free State". Arkiv för Zoologi. 4 (16): 1−14. Osgood, W.H. ( ... Mammals. Cairo: Nature Conservation Sector, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency. p. 19. Albaba, I. (2016). "The terrestrial ...
The Mammals of Ancient Egypt (PDF). Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd. pp. x+213. Retrieved 9 October 2012. Smithers, R.H.N. ( ... Thomas, O. (1911). "The mammals of the tenth edition of Linnaeus: an attempt to fix the types of the genera and the exact bases ... 9: 3-5. "Mammals." EDGE of Existence. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 October 2013. Geraads, D. (2005). "Pliocene Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia) ... As with many other components of the African large mammal fauna, black rhinos probably had a wider range in the northern part ...
List of placental mammals List of mammals of Korea Benda, P. & Piraccini, R. (2016). "Tadarida teniotis". IUCN Red List of ... Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Order Chiroptera". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... ISBN 978-0-00-212080-7. Won, Byeong-o (원병오) (2004). 한국의 포유동물 (Hangugui poyudongmul, Mammals of Korea). Seoul: Dongbang Media. ... Retrieved 2013-10-05.old-form url Tadarida teniotis - Science for Nature Foundation Konig, Claus (1973). Mammals. Collins & Co ...
"Mammals". BBC. Retrieved 15 October 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) In Our Time. "The Cambrian Period". Retrieved ...
Konig, Claus (1973). Mammals. Collins & Co. pp. 142-143. ISBN 978-0-00-212080-7. Olsen, Lars-Henrik (2013). Tracks and Signs of ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 887-888. ISBN ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Mammals' Planet (2014-01-24). "Classification of Mammals: Taxonomy table , Mammals' ... ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5 ("Erlanger", p. 85). "Mammal Species of the World - Browse: erlangeri". Bucknell.edu. Retrieved 2014-04- ... The Eponym Dictionary of Mammals. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-8018-9533-3. Beolens, Bo; ...
2. Hoofed Mammals. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Nowak RM (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Sixth Edition. Vol. 2. Johns ... doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1984.tb00355.x. Mills, G; Hes, L (1997). The Complete Book of Southern African Mammals. Struik ... doi:10.1007/s10592-005-9083-8. Wilson, DE; Reeder, DM (2005). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference ... Prothero, DR; Schoch, RM (2003). Horns, Tusks, and Flippers: The Evolution of Hoofed Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press, ...
Aquatic Mammals. 46 (6): 603-608. doi:10.1578/AM.46.6.2020.603. "Drones Take Flight As Wildlife Research Tools While ...
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Wartzok, D.; Ketten, D. R. (1999). "Marine Mammal Sensory Systems". Biology of Marine Mammals. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian ... Cetaceans portal Mammals portal Marine life portal List of cetaceans List of largest mammals List of whale vocalizations Reilly ... Marine Mammal Sensory Systems. New York, NY: Plenum Press. pp. 53-75. Ketten, D. R. (1992). "The marine mammal ear: ... Ralls, K. (1976). "Mammals in which females are larger than males". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 51 (2): 245-270. doi: ...
... es are pockets on both sides of the head of some mammals between the jaw and the cheek. They can be found on mammals ... Cheek pouches are located in the thickness of the flange on both sides of the head of some mammals. Monkeys have open cheek ... Nowak, R. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. II. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Poor, Allison. " ... National Museum of Ireland, Mammals of the World; The accompanying photograph shows how capacious the pouches are. "Platypus". ...
Heaney, L.R.; Balete, D.S.; Rickart, E.A. (2016). "Large mammals". The Mammals of Luzon Island: Biogeography and natural ... Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 220-347. ISBN ... small mammals, lizards, snakes and turtles. From the stone tools, besides the evidence for cuts on the bones, and the use of ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 111-184. ISBN ...
"Pantodonts, uintatheres and xenungulates: The first large herbivorous mammals". Paleocene Mammals. August 2005. Retrieved 5 May ... Carodnia is the largest mammal known from the Eocene of South America. It was heavily built and had large canines and cheek ... Gingerich, Philip D. (1985). "South American Mammals in the Paleocene of North America" (PDF). In Stehli, Francis G.; Webb, S. ... Rose, Kenneth David (2006). The beginning of the age of mammals. Baltimore: JHU Press. ISBN 978-0801884726. Paula Couto, Carlos ...
1. Mammals. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1127-2. "Effects of Prescribed Fire and Predator ... 2005). "Peromyscus gossypinus". Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins ... The Mammals of Texas - Online Edition. Archived from the original on 2017-09-20. Retrieved 2009-08-30. Stephen R. Humphrey, ed ...
Notably, terrestrial mammals, including horses (Equus ferus caballus), goats (Capra aegagrus hircus), sheep (Ovis aries), dogs ... Numerous fish, crustaceans, sea birds, sea snakes, marine mammals (e.g. bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops), common dolphins ( ... Aquatic Mammals. 21 (3): 205-211. ISSN 0167-5427. Retrieved October 15, 2014. Wirsing, Aaron J.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Dill, ... Aquatic Mammals. 29 (1): 84-87. doi:10.1578/016754203101023915. Tiger Sharks Killed for Eating Leatherback Turtles. Shark ...
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"Canis pacificus". IBIS-Mammals. Retrieved 14 August 2018. Diamond, Jared M. (1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human ... Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under ...
"Land Mammals". National Trust for Scotland. 2003. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2015. " ... Long, John L. (2003). Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence. Csiro Publishing. p. 527. ... Kilda The Rare Breeds Survival Trust Mammals portal Animals portal Biology portal Scotland portal. ...
Mammals. Sarawak Museum Journal Special Issue No. 6. 80: 221-234. Wilson DE, Reeder DM. 2005. Mammal species of the world. ... The mammals of the Indomalayan region: a systematic review. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Karim, C., A.A. Tuen and M.T. ... 1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 807. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. Hoofer, S. R.; Bussche, R. A. V. D. ( ... Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Order Chiroptera". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ...
doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-7817-4. ISBN 978-1-4684-7819-8. Kermack, K.A. (1956). "Tooth Replacement in Mammal-Like Reptiles of the ... "A contribution to the morphology of the mammal-like reptiles of the suborder Therocephalia". Annals of the South African Museum ... Ligabue-Braun, R.; Verli, H.; Carlini, C.R. (2012). "Venomous mammals: A review". Toxicon. 59 (7): 680-695. doi:10.1016/j. ... Van Valen, L. (1960). "Therapsids as Mammals". Evolution. 14 (3): 304-313. doi:10.2307/2405973. JSTOR 2405973. Folinsbee, K.E ...
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Retrieved 5 January 2009.old-form url Reid, F. A. (1997). Mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico. Pp. 243-244. ISBN 0- ... ISBN 0-226-20721-8 Long, J. L. (2003). Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence. Csiro ... Emmons, L. H. (1997). Neotropical Rainforest Mammals. Pp. 227-229. 2nd edition. ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 1558. ISBN 978- ...
Mammals of Kentucky. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky. Whitaker, John O. (2010). Mammals of Indiana. 601 North Morton ... Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Order Chiroptera". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ...
Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.), Johns Hopkins University Press. Callospermophilus ... North American Mammals. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.. ...
ISBN 0-88240-652-3. Rennick, Penny (November 1996). Mammals of Alaska. Alaska Geographic Society. ISBN 1-56661-034-6. Robb, Bob ...
... demonstrated that large mammal taxa have a longer half life than mammals in general in a semi-global genus dataset, but mammal ... large mammals survive at lower rates than small mammals. Large mammals suffer from compound disadvantages. They have more ... Do large mammals evolve faster than small mammals or vice versa? Because the answer to this question contributes to our ... For example, large mammal species might be preferentially described as new (e.g., more "splitters" among large mammal ...
Starting our foray into micro mammals with the Min. Starting our foray into micro mammals with the Min from Twitter ... Alice Barrs Library/ Notes/ Starting our foray into micro mammals with the Min ... Starting our foray into micro mammals with the Mini-Moose. What would you do with a Mini-Moose? #playfullearning https://t.co/ ...
Author: pijacadmin , Tags: Pet Chat, small mammals, rabbits, chinchillas, hamsters, guinea pigs, pet choice, responsible pet ... Author: pijacadmin , Tags: PIJAC, Birds, Reptiles, small mammals, Fish, Marine Ornamentals, responsible pet ownership, pet- ...
Help us understand how wild mammals share our urban green space by joining our Living with Mammals survey. Record mammals near ... Why count urban mammals?. Towns and cities are home to a surprising number of wild mammals: from pygmy shrews and pipistrelle ... Were running our Living with Mammals 2020 survey for a second time this year for the first time ever. Living with Mammals ... To take part this autumn all you have to do is record the mammals that you see each week and any signs they might leave behind ...
Mammals have a back-bone.Yes but so do Fishes and Frogs and they are not mammals. Mammals are warm-blooded. Yes but so are ... Mammals Mammals are animals. Yes but so are Insects, Reptiles, Spiders, Sponges and Slugs. We need to do better than that. ... So how do we describe a mammal??. Obviously, what we need in order to define a mammal are some characters, or traits that are ... The african Elephant is the largest land mammal. Elephant (Asian). Elephants are good swimmers despite their size, and use ...
Thats mostly because one mammal species -- Homo sapiens -- has taken a heavy toll on its competition. Now, a team of ... There arent many large mammals around anymore in, most of the world. ... There arent many large mammals around anymore in, most of the world. Thats mostly because one mammal species - Homo sapiens ... Today, sub-Saharan Africa is one of the last places in the world with many large mammal species. "Its one of the only places ...
... suggest that the wide-ranging ecological diversity of modern mammals had a precedent more than 160 million years ago. ... The fossils of two interrelated ancestral mammals, newly discovered in China, ... "We know that modern mammals are spectacularly diverse, but it was unknown whether early mammals managed to diversify in the ... Stem mammaliaforms-also known as stem mammals-are long-extinct relatives to the extant mammals (crown Mammalia). Docodonts are ...
Mammal Ages Michael O. Woodburne. Stratigraphy Volume 3, No. 4 pp. 229-261 ... ABSTRACT: The developmental history of North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMAs), their integration with radioisotopic and ...
Discover the world of Britains small mammals on this one day introductory course. Learn about the animals which make up this ...
2004 Paleocene biochronology: the Puercan through the Clarkforkian land mammal ages. In Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic mammals of ... 2003 Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 1056-1061. (doi: ... 2013 Response to comment on The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 341, 613. (doi: ... 2013 The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339, 662-667. (doi:10.1126/science. ...
... the other Mammals" (the Greek παρά para means "beside"). Thomas had included one other mammal among the edentates, the aardvark ... When teeth of the extinct gondwanathere mammals were first discovered in Argentina in the 1980s, they were thought to be ... The term "Paratheria" was coined by British mammalogist Oldfield Thomas in 1887 in a review of tooth development in mammals. He ... Consequently, he suggested that they should be given a grouping separate from the other major groupings of mammals, for which ...
The Mammals Official Website The Mammals YouTube The Mammals Live Archive Collection at the Internet Archives live music ... "Premiere: The Mammals (feat. Mike + Ruthy): "On My Way Home"". No Depression. 2017-03-27. Retrieved 2019-01-14. "The Mammals ... "The Mammals: Recording Around Their Home, Literally". tapeop.com. Retrieved 2019-01-17. Davies, Mike (2018-05-04). "The Mammals ... "The Mammals and May Erlewine". Glasgow Life. Retrieved 2019-01-14. folkradiouk (2019-01-17). "Video Premiere: The Mammals - ...
Mammals are critical in maintaining ecosystem functions and services through their diverse roles as grazers, browsers, ... Mammals also provide numerous direct benefits to humans; they are an important food source for many cultures and are used in ... Mammals are critic. al in maintaining ecosystem functions and services through their diverse roles as grazers, browsers, ... It shows that for mammals, the overall trend is one of decline. ... The Global Mammal Assessment Programme. Mammals on The IUCN Red ...
Earliest crown mammals[edit]. The crown group mammals, sometimes called true mammals, are the extant mammals and their ... Mammals of the Mesozoic: The least mammal-like mammals *^ Hu, Yaoming; Meng, Jin; Clark, James M (2009). "A New Tritylodontid ... Mammals or mammaliaforms[edit]. Some writers restrict the term "mammal" to the crown group mammals, the group consisting of the ... Definition of "mammal"[edit]. Figure 1:In mammals, the quadrate and articular bones are small and part of the middle ear; the ...
WikiProject Mammals (Rated Template-class). MammalsWikipedia:WikiProject MammalsTemplate:WikiProject Mammalsmammal articles. ... This template is within the scope of WikiProject Mammals, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of mammal-related ... You might get a better audience if you bring it up at WT:MAMMAL, I wasnt aware of the Mammal classification article. Rgrds. -- ... Ill post on WT:MAMMAL shortly with a proposal to revisit the overall scheme on Mammal classification. Gnostrat (talk) 22:00, ...
Earths LAND MAMMALS By Weight [[A graph in which one square equals 1,000,000 tons. Dark grey squares represent humans, light ... Image URL (for hotlinking/embedding): https://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/land_mammals.png ...
Dr. Steve K. Windels, wildlife biologist for Voyageurs National Park, explains how national parks make critical conservation research possible and gives insight into the work being done with wolves at Voyageurs.
pieces breaking off with groups of mammals - different conditions evolved different mammals - geographic isolation Mammals ... Infraclass Metatheria - all marsupial mammals Infraclass Eutheria - all placental mammals NONEUTHERIAN MAMMALS: MONOTREMES AND ... Second largest order of mammals with ~170 genera and 850 species Characterized as the only mammal to have evolved true flight ... Age of mammals ~30 mammalian orders Mesozoic mammals tended to be somewhat insignificant - limited fossil evidence indicated ...
Join the Marine Mammal Foundation in National Science Week 2020 with our Virtually Marine Mammals online presentation! There is ... Sign up form for participating in Marine Mammal Foundations Virtually Marine Mammals Science Week series. ... From resident dolphins and seals to migratory whales, Victorias coasts have an incredible diversity of marine mammals.. This ... In this exciting online presentations, learn about the incredible marine mammal diversity of Victoria, including the newly ...
Fundamental » All languages » Vietnamese » All sets » Lifeforms » Animals » Chordates » Vertebrates » Mammals. Vietnamese terms ... Pages in category "vi:Mammals". The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Category:vi:Mammals&oldid=47129799" ...
Fundamental » All languages » Swedish » All sets » Lifeforms » Animals » Chordates » Vertebrates » Mammals Swedish terms for ... Pages in category "sv:Mammals". The following 3 pages are in this category, out of 3 total. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Category:sv:Mammals&oldid=47128390" ...
Explore facts and photos about mammals found in the United States. Learn about their range, habitat, diet, life history, and ... The United States has more than 400 mammal species. Of those mammals, nearly a quarter are listed on the U.S. endangered ... Unlike other classes of animals, female mammals produce milk to nourish their young. Almost all mammals give birth to live ... Mammals-a group that include humans-are warm-blooded animals with hair and vertebrates, or backbones. ...
... study fossils and the evolution of mammals, print out classroom activities, find mammal links, and more. ... Explore mammals, learn about their anatomy and behavior, ... Introduction to Mammals. Groups of Mammals. Ice Age Mammals. ... All About Mammals What Is a Mammal?. Mammals are animals that have hair, are warm-blooded, and nourish their young with milk. ... Mammal Extremes. *Fastest mammal (also the fastest land animal): the cheetah (60-70 mph = 97-110 kph) *Slowest mammal - the ...
Mammals: The mammalian kidney is a compact organ with two distinct regions: cortex and medulla. The functional unit of the ... Mammals. The mammalian kidney is a compact organ with two distinct regions: cortex and medulla. The functional unit of the ... Like mammals, and unlike the lower vertebrates, birds and reptiles have skins impermeable to water and thus are well adapted to ...
More than half of all the genera of mammals known to science are present in the collection. ... Explore one of the largest fossil mammal collections of its type in the world. ... More than half of all the genera of mammals known to science are present in the collection. The cataloged collection contains ... In 1968, the fossil collection of Childs Frick, consisting mostly of fossil mammals, was donated to the AMNH. More recently, ...
Tag Archives: Meet the Mammals SEFS Students Volunteer at "Meet the Mammals". Posted on December 5, 2015. by SEFS ... Posted in Uncategorized , Tagged Burke Museum, Canada lynx, Jack DeLap, Jeff Bradley, Laurel Peelle, Meet the Mammals, Sharlene ... Mammal experts were on hand all day to answer questions about their particular specimens, and other activities ranged from live ... Last month, SEFS grad students Laurel Peelle and Jack DeLap volunteered in the annual "Meet the Mammals" event held at the ...
Birds and Mammals. The risk assessment for birds and mammals uses a tiered approach to assess the risk of mortality and ... De-husking of seeds by small mammals. During evaluation of seed treatment applications, the risk assessment for small mammals ... Prior to refinement, the risk is contextualised by estimating the area that would need to be foraged by a bird or mammal to ... Proportion of different food types in the bird and mammal diet. PD - the proportion of different food types in the bird and ...
... on a contraceptive vaccine for female mammals. It was bioengineered by Jurrien Dean of Bethesda, Maryland. The vaccine inhibits ... Immature ova in mammals are surrounded by a protein called zona pellucida.. Tests on mice and hamsters show that antizona sera ... world (WO 90/15624) on a contraceptive vaccine for female mammals. It was. bioengineered by Jurrien Dean of Bethesda, Maryland ...
Cladistic Analysis of Marine Mammals Introduction. Whales and dolphins are both marine mammals. So are walruses, seals, otters ... You will then use this phylogenetic tree to test our hypothesis that all marine mammals have a single common land mammal ... First, we will explore the relationship of the marine mammals to each other vs. their evolutionary relationship to land mammals ... Second, each student will then develop a cladogram which includes a selection of marine mammals and land mammals which ...
Please feel free to send pictures of your pets enclosed or any visible health concernts to [email protected] prior your appointment ...
This category is located at Category:Marine mammals. Note: This category should be empty. Any content should be recategorised. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Sea_mammals&oldid=297508295" ...
... dolphins and a host of other marine mammals that live in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Charting marine mammal behavior is no easy feat, but thats exactly what a group of international citizen scientists is doing ... Charting marine mammal behavior is no easy feat, but thats exactly what a group of international citizen scientists is doing ... dolphins and a host of other marine mammals that live in the Mediterranean Sea. ...
Marine Mammals Management, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, conserves wildlife and wilderness in northeast Alaska ... The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (MMPA), as amended, prohibits, with certain exceptions, the take of marine mammals in ... Marine Mammals Management Fisheries & Ecological Services Alaska Region Home. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Home Page , ... the total of such taking will have no more than a negligible impact on these marine mammal species and does not have an ...
The Mammals, 1952 Vincent Black Lightning (orig. Richard Thompson) *The Mammals, Chan Chan (orig. Compay Segundo) *The Mammals ... The Mammals: Lay Down Yr Mountain (text Allan Ginsburg) *Mississippi Fred McDowell: When I Lay My Burden Down(trad.) Cover Lay ... The Mammals, House Carpenter/Pipeline. (from Evolver). As always, all album and label links above take you direct to the source ... The Mammals: Quite Early Morning *Marlene Dietrich: Where Have All The Flowers Gone. *removed at artist/label request. ...
Mammal Mammal, (class Mammalia), any member of the group of vertebrate animals in which the young are nourished with milk from ... Mammalogy Mammalogy, scientific study of mammals. Interest in nonhuman mammals dates far back in prehistory, and the modern ... Miners cat Miners cat, carnivorous mammal, a species of cacomistle ... * Mink Mink, either of two species of the weasel ... It is the rarest living rhinoceros and one of the worlds most endangered mammals. Some 46-66 adults survive, all restricted to ...
The researchers focused on a gene, Prx1, that plays a part in the elongation of limb bones in mammals. The genes expression is ... Mixing Mammals. Putting bat DNA into mice sheds light on how limbs evolved. ... Starting with a basic limb pattern, "successive slight modifications," he wrote, eventually produce the various mammal limbs we ...
Owning a small mammal can be a big responsibility, even though the animal itself may be tiny. If you decide that a small mammal ... Pick a small mammal pet that is bright, alert, and active. Small mammal pets should have a glossy coat free of droppings. Do ... Before choosing your small mammal. *Check your state, local, and property laws before choosing or buying a small mammal. Just ... including small mammals. Although rare, Salmonella infections associated with small mammals have been linked to some outbreaks ...
... and presses his face against the fence of his pen at the Pacific Marine Mammal Center in Laguna Beach. Tommy arrived at the ... 250 marine mammals each year. The animals taken in by the center are ... to provide marine mammals like Tommy with the food, medicine and care ... The Pacific Marine Mammal Center is where Tommy grew up and for ... 10 the Marine Mammal Center will. host a holiday gathering at ...
... can be identified by the presence in females of mammary glands that produce milk for offspring. Mammals are warm- ... Globally, 1,199 species of mammals, or about 22 percent of the total 5,513 described mammal species, were deemed endangered or ... The platypus and four echidna species are the sole surviving mammalian egg-layers.) Mammals now encompass approximately 5,400 ... Their gradual evolution from mammal-like "reptiles" called "synapsids" spanned about 70 million years. The first clear evidence ...
  • Controlling for sampling biases, calculating per capita origination and extinction rates of boundary-crossers and estimating survival probabilities using capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods, we found the recurring pattern that large mammal genera and species have higher origination and extinction rates, and therefore shorter durations. (pnas.org)
  • That's mostly because one mammal species - Homo sapiens - has taken a heavy toll on its competition. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Today, sub-Saharan Africa is one of the last places in the world with many large mammal species. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Elsewhere in the world, most large mammal species have been eradicated, or nearly so. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • And in many places, the surviving large mammal species, like Europe's brown bears, have been driven into mountainous areas, where there are fewer people. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • In this hypothetical world without humans, parts of North America and South America - both of which are poor in big mammals here in the real world - would be home to more species than sub-Saharan Africa. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • These anthropogenic stressors have led to an evident conservation crisis: a quarter of the extant marine mammal species that have been assessed and now considered at risk of extinction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • biological organization to influence the viability of individuals and populations, and discuss which aspects of environmental change could be the most likely to shift the physiological thresholds of different marine mammal species. (bioportfolio.com)
  • For each gene with imprinted expression in mammals this project will identify orthologues in nonmammalian vertebrate and invertebrate species. (findaphd.com)
  • Compare the skeletal structure of the three basic mammal stances. (johnmuirlaws.com)
  • Understand basic mammal skeletal structure and the key differentiations between major groups. (johnmuirlaws.com)
  • Because of the many anatomical similarities, the researchers hypothesize that this genetic mechanism may have played a comparable role in early mammal evolution, as in the case of Docofossor . (uchicago.edu)
  • Here, we take a fresh look at this problem using a large fossil dataset of mammals from the Neogene of the Old World (NOW). (pnas.org)
  • The fossils of two interrelated ancestral mammals, newly discovered in China, suggest that the wide-ranging ecological diversity of modern mammals had a precedent more than 160 million years ago. (uchicago.edu)
  • Obviously, what we need in order to define a mammal are some characters, or traits that are possessed by all mammals and are unique to mammals, i.e. they do not occur in fishes and /slugs etc. (ypte.org.uk)
  • This form of epigenetic regulation is unique to mammals and the evolution of imprinting has been hotly debated since its discovery around 30 years ago. (findaphd.com)
  • But if humans had never existed, large mammals would still rule nearly every continent on Earth, according to Faurby and his colleagues. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Because we humans inhabit a rare subset of mammals that pair bond, these parent-child attachment cues have come to serve another, more adaptive purpose. (couplestherapyinc.com)
  • Learning how to draw mammals will open new doors to observation and discovery. (johnmuirlaws.com)
  • Learn techniques to quickly and accurately draw mammals in the field. (johnmuirlaws.com)
  • This workshop will focus on understanding key points of mammal anatomy that help you pose and draw mammals from any angle. (johnmuirlaws.com)
  • Physiological Thresholds in the Context of Marine Mammal Conservation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Finally, the chapter identifies areas of further research in marine mammal conservation physiology in the current context of global environmental change. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Vet pathologist has been awarded the ZSL Silver Medal for his outstanding work in the field of wildlife conservation involving marine mammals. (bioportfolio.com)
  • With claws for climbing and teeth adapted for a tree sap diet, Agilodocodon scansorius is the earliest-known tree-dwelling mammaliaform-long-extinct relatives of modern mammals. (uchicago.edu)
  • We consistently find with every new fossil that the earliest mammals were just as diverse in both feeding and locomotor adaptations as modern mammals," said Zhe-Xi Luo, professor of organismal biology and anatomy at the University of Chicago and an author on both papers. (uchicago.edu)
  • We can now provide fossil evidence that gene patterning which causes variation in modern mammalian skeletal development also operated in basal mammals all the way back in the Jurassic. (uchicago.edu)
  • Do large mammals evolve faster than small mammals or vice versa? (pnas.org)
  • SLOH behavior is more common in some small mammals, and, as a result, SLOH small mammals contribute to higher average survivorship and lower origination probabilities among small mammals. (pnas.org)
  • Agilodocodon , which lived roughly 165 million years ago, had hands and feet with curved horny claws and limb proportions that are typical for mammals that live in trees or bushes. (uchicago.edu)
  • This chapter argues for the need of considering physiological thresholds when examining how drivers of global environmental change can impact marine mammal populations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Having an understanding of mammal anatomy is tremendously helpful. (johnmuirlaws.com)
  • Towns and cities are home to a surprising number of wild mammals: from pygmy shrews and pipistrelle bats, the weight of a twenty-pence coin, to heavyweights, such as badgers and deer. (ptes.org)
  • It's amazing that these arboreal adaptions occurred so early in the history of mammals, and shows that at least some extinct mammalian relatives exploited evolutionarily significant herbivorous niches, long before true mammals. (uchicago.edu)
  • Docofossor also has distinct skeletal features that resemble patterns shaped by genes identified in living mammals, suggesting these genetic mechanisms operated long before the rise of modern mammals. (uchicago.edu)
  • Marine mammal vet's dedication marked by prestigious award. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Entangled seabird and marine mammal reports from citizen science surveys from coastal California (1997-2017). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Blubber proteome response to repeated ACTH administration in a wild marine mammal. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Agilodocodon also had well-developed, flexible elbows and wrist and ankle joints that allowed for much greater mobility, all characteristics of climbing mammals. (uchicago.edu)
  • The spines and ribs of both Agilodocodon and Docofossor also show evidence for the influence of genes seen in modern mammals. (uchicago.edu)
  • These shifting patterns of thoracic-lumbar transition have been seen in modern mammals and are known to be regulated by the genes Hox 9-10 and Myf 5-6 . (uchicago.edu)
  • Multiple studies have shown that smaller sized mammals have higher molecular rates of evolution in absolute time, possibly because of a generation time effect and/or metabolic rate effect ( 3 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 8 ). (pnas.org)