Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Hair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Stereocilia: Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.Hair Cells, Ampulla: Sensory cells in the ampullary crest of each of the semicircular ducts, with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a wedge-shaped gelatinous cupula. These hair cells sense the movement of ENDOLYMPH resulting from angular acceleration of the head, and send signals via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the brain to maintain balance.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Lateral Line System: Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.Hair Diseases: Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Hair Removal: Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Hair Dyes: Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Hair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Transcription Factor Brn-3C: A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.Acoustic Maculae: The sensory areas on the vertical wall of the saccule and in the floor of the utricle. The hair cells in the maculae are innervated by fibers of the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Electric Capacitance: The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.TurtlesGene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Stria Vascularis: A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cochlear Diseases: Pathological processes of the snail-like structure (COCHLEA) of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which can involve its nervous tissue, blood vessels, or fluid (ENDOLYMPH).Basilar Membrane: A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Tectorial Membrane: A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Endolymph: The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cochlear Duct: A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Pyridinium CompoundsCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
... hair cells detect movement in their environment. In mammals, the auditory hair cells are located within the spiral organ of ... Mammalian cochlear hair cells are of two anatomically and functionally distinct types, known as outer, and inner hair cells. ... Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in the ears of all vertebrates. ... The human cochlea contains on the order of 3,500 inner hair cells and 12,000 outer hair cells at birth. The outer hair cells ...
... the energy through the oval window and into the cochlea where it is changed into a chemical signal by hair cells in the organ ... The sound localization mechanisms of the mammalian auditory system have been extensively studied. The auditory system uses ... In vertebrates, inter-aural time differences are known to be calculated in the superior olivary nucleus of the brainstem. ... "Auditory Perception". Archived from the original on 2010-04-10. DeLiang Wang; Guy J. Brown (2006). Computational auditory scene ...
... which is what elicits the hair cells' electrical responses. Inner hair cells, like the photoreceptor cells of the eye, show a ... The plan view of the human cochlea (typical of all mammalian and most vertebrates) shows where specific frequencies occur along ... Vestibular duct perilymph vibrations bend organ of Corti outer cells (4 lines) causing prestin to be released in cell tips. ... There are far fewer inner hair cells in the cochlea than afferent nerve fibers - many auditory nerve fibers innervate each hair ...
... hair cells detect movement in their environment.[1] In mammals, the auditory hair cells are located within the spiral organ of ... Outer hair cells - acoustical pre-amplifiersEdit. In mammalian outer hair cells, the receptor potential triggers active ... Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in the ears of all vertebrates. ... Hair cell. Section through the spiral organ of Corti. Magnified. ("Outer hair cells" labeled near top; "inner hair cells" ...
... and send their signals via neurotransmitter to the primary auditory neurons of the spiral ganglion. The hair cells in the organ ... In birds and in other non-mammalian vertebrates, the compartment containing the sensory cells for hearing is occasionally also ... For one, the tall hair cell is very similar in function to that of the inner hair cell, and the short hair cell, lacking ... Three rows consist of outer hair cells (OHCs) and one row consists of inner hair cells (IHCs). The inner hair cells provide the ...
... the structure is known as the organ of Corti and shows a unique arrangement of hair cells and supporting cells. All mammalian ... and the organs are considered to be homologous, each group has a unique type of auditory organ. The hearing organ arose within ... They are found in the hair cells of all vertebrates, including fish, but are thought to have initially been membrane ... on the inner side of which there are inner hair cells and outer hair cells on the outer side. The definitive mammalian middle ...
... and it is again present in all land vertebrates. Due to its location, the basilar membrane places the hair cells in a position ... which are transmitted to the auditory pathway. The outer hair cells feed back energy to amplify the traveling wave, by up to 65 ... Section through the spiral organ of Corti (magnified) The reticular membrane and subjacent structures. Deiters cells M. Holmes ... A third, evolutionarily younger, function of the basilar membrane is strongly developed in the cochlea of most mammalian ...
After metamorphosis, these organs become redundant and will be reabsorbed by controlled cell death, called apoptosis. The ... The smallest amphibian (and vertebrate) in the world is a frog from New Guinea (Paedophryne amauensis) with a length of just ... The paired Müllerian glands inside the male cloaca secrete a fluid which resembles that produced by mammalian prostate glands ... Another feature, unique to frogs and salamanders, is the columella-operculum complex adjoining the auditory capsule which is ...
... like in auditory systems of other vertebrates, primary sensory afferent neurons, which receive inputs from hair cells from a ... Oertel D, Fay RR, Popper AN (2002). Integrative functions in the mammalian auditory pathway. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 385 ... The response of a Single End-Organ". The Journal of Physiology. 61 (2): 151-71. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1926.sp002281. PMC 1514782 ... One class of pyramidal cell, E-cells, respond to increases; a second, I-cells, respond to decreases in stimulus amplitude ...
... s are found in retinal photoreceptor cells, vestibular organ receptors, cochlear hair cells, retinal bipolar ... Safieddine, S; El-Amraoui, A; Petit, C (2012). "The auditory hair cell ribbon synapse: from assembly to function". Annual ... It is found to be a part of all vertebrate synaptic ribbons in ribbon synapses and is the central portion of ribbon synapses. ... Singer JH, Lassová L, Vardi N, Diamond JS (2004). "Coordinated multivesicular release at a mammalian ribbon synapse". Nat. ...
In other vertebrates, if the hair cell is harmed, supporting cells will divide and replace the damaged hair cells. The ... Hair cells in the vestibular system are slightly different from those in the auditory system, in that vestibular hair cells ... Jia, Shuping (2009). "Fate of mammalian cochlear hair cells and stereocilia after loss of the stereocilia". Journal of ... As acoustic sensors in mammals, stereocilia are lined up in the organ of Corti within the cochlea of the inner ear. In hearing ...
The membrane has no hair follicles or sweat glands, except between the fingers. For bat embryos, apoptosis (cell death) only ... Bats have typical mammalian lungs, which are thought to be more sensitive to sudden air pressure changes than the lungs of ... Vampire bats, probably due to their diet of blood, are the only vertebrates that do not have the enzyme maltase, which breaks ... Many moth species have a hearing organ called a tympanum, which responds to an incoming bat signal by causing the moth's flight ...
In all vertebrates, these progenitor cells differentiate into all adult tissues and organs. In humans, after about three days, ... the epithelium of the auditory tube and tympanic cavity; the trachea, bronchi, and air cells of the lungs; the urinary bladder ... The surface ectoderm develops into: epidermis, hair, nails, lens of the eye, sebaceous glands, cornea, tooth enamel, the ... doi:10.1016/S0012-1606(03)00112-X. Gilbert, Scott F (2003). "Early Mammalian Development". Developmental Biology. Sinauer ...
In vertebrates, Slit1 plays an important role in vomeronasal organ (VNO) axonal targeting to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB ... "Biochemical purification of a mammalian slit protein as a positive regulator of sensory axon elongation and branching". Cell. ... restriction force on spiral ganglia neurons to ensure their precise positioning for correct spiral ganglia-cochlear hair cells ... During the developmental of mouse peripheral auditory system, Slit/Robo signaling imposes a ...
The membrane has no hair follicles or sweat glands, except between the fingers.[54][56] For bat embryos, apoptosis (cell death ... Some bats prey on other vertebrates, such as fish, frogs, lizards, birds and mammals.[41][150] The fringe-lipped bat (Trachops ... "Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 11 (3/4): 257. doi:10.1023/B:JOMM.0000047340.25620.89.. ... Many moth species have a hearing organ called a tympanum, which responds to an incoming bat signal by causing the moth's flight ...
Hair cells responsible for transduction-changing mechanical changes into electrical stimuli are present in the organ of Corti ... Only vertebrate animals have ears, though many invertebrates detect sound using other kinds of sense organs. In insects, ... This bony part is known as the auditory bulla and is formed by the tympanic part of the temporal bone. The skin surrounding the ... the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research on the function of the cochlea in the mammalian hearing organ. The ...
Organs and processes. *Avian flight. *Cells. *Multicells. *Eyes. *Flagella. *Hair. *Mammalian auditory ossicles ... What would you do if the species-name of a pollen-organ was pre-dated by the species name of the type of pollen produced by ... A lyginopteridalean pollen organ preserved as an authigenic mineralization (mineralized in situ). Specimen in Sedgwick Museum, ... However, they rarely preserve any fine morphological detail or cell anatomy. A subset of such fossils are pith casts, where the ...
Organs and processes. *Avian flight. *Cells. *Multicells. *Eyes. *Flagella. *Hair. *Mammalian auditory ossicles ... Vertebrate paleontology concentrates on fossils of vertebrates, from the earliest fish to the immediate ancestors of modern ... but this apparent set-back may have accelerated the development of mammalian traits such as endothermy and hair.[80] After the ... One archosaur group, the dinosaurs, were the dominant land vertebrates for the rest of the Mesozoic,[79] and birds evolved from ...
Organs and processes. *Avian flight. *Cells. *Multicells. *Eyes. *Flagella. *Hair. *Mammalian auditory ossicles ... These vertebrate impressions have been found in Ireland, Scotland, Pennsylvania, and Australia. ... Fossil footprints made by tetrapod vertebrates are difficult to identify to a particular species of animal, but they can ...
Organs and processes. *Avian flight. *Cells. *Multicells. *Eyes. *Flagella. *Hair. *Mammalian auditory ossicles ... Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology. New York, NY: Springer. p. 107. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9094-2. ISBN 978-90-481- ... Bouri Vertebrate Paleontology "Australopithecus garhi: BOU-VP-12/130". efossils. Retrieved 13 June 2016.. ... J. J. Jaeger (1975). "The mammalian faunas and hominid fossils of the Middle Pleistocene of the Maghreb". In K.W.Butzer & G.Ll. ...
... regulates cell fate decisions in the auditory sensory epithelium by antagonizing FGF signaling". Dev. Cell. 8: 553-564. doi: ... a two-step mechanism for cavitation in the vertebrate embryo". Cell. 83: 279-287. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90169-8. PMID ... Hébert J. M.; Rosenquist T.; Götz J.; Martin G.R. (1994). "FGF* as a regulator of the hair growth cycle: evidence from targeted ... in the mammalian embryo These studies have led to an appreciation of the exquisite sensitivity of developmental and cell ...
Other than the fat body, hemocytes, the blood cells in Drosophila, are known as the homologue of mammalian monocyte/macrophages ... As in vertebrate vision, visual transduction in invertebrates occurs via a G protein-coupled pathway. However, in vertebrates, ... Lehnert, B. P.; Baker, A. E.; Gaudry, Q; Chiang, A. S.; Wilson, R. I. (2013). "Distinct roles of TRP channels in auditory ... It is the primary secretory organ and produces antimicrobial peptides. These peptides are secreted into the hemolymph and bind ...
Evolution of mammalian features[edit]. Jaws and middle ears[edit]. See also: Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles ... Hair and fur[edit]. See also: Evolution of hair. The first clear evidence of hair or fur is in fossils of Castorocauda and ... "Ancestry of mammalian 'warm-bloodedness' revealed". www.sciencedaily.com. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. October 29, 2015 ... J.M. Watson; J.A.M. Graves (1988). "Monotreme Cell-Cycles and the Evolution of Homeothermy". Australian Journal of Zoology. 36 ...
... they contain both rod and cone cells, meaning they can see in both dim and bright light, but they have far more rod cells than ... This allows dolphins to produce biosonar for orientation.[36][49][50][51][52] Though most dolphins do not have hair, they do ... Dolphins' reproductive organs are located inside the body, with genital slits on the ventral (belly) side. Males have two slits ... An auditory experience influences the whistle development of each dolphin. Dolphins are able to communicate to one another by ...
The tail, which is used for balance, has only a thin covering of hair as it is the main peripheral organ of heat loss in ... Nyby JG (2001). "Auditory Communication among Adults". In Willott JF. Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to ... Laboratory mice derived from the house mouse are by far the most common mammalian species used in genetically engineered models ... Yokoyama S, Shi Y (December 2000). "Genetics and evolution of ultraviolet vision in vertebrates". FEBS Letters. 486 (2): 167-72 ...
Alpha-tectorin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TECTA gene. The tectorial membrane is an extracellular matrix of the inner ear that contacts the stereocilia bundles of specialized sensory hair cells. Sound induces movement of these hair cells relative to the tectorial membrane, deflects the stereocilia, and leads to fluctuations in hair-cell membrane potential, transducing sound into electrical signals. Alpha-tectorin is one of the major noncollagenous components of the tectorial membrane. Mutations in the TECTA gene have been shown to be responsible for autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing impairment and a recessive form of sensorineural pre-lingual non-syndromic deafness. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000109927 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037705 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed ...
Research on the regrowth of cochlear cells may lead to medical treatments that restore hearing. Unlike birds and fish, humans and other mammals are generally incapable of regrowing the cells of the inner ear that convert sound into neural signals when those cells are damaged by age or disease.[4][20] Researchers are making progress in gene therapy and stem-cell therapy that may allow the damaged cells to be regenerated. Because hair cells of auditory and vestibular systems in birds and fish have been found to regenerate, their ability has been studied at length.[4][21] In addition, lateral line hair cells, which have a mechanotransduction function, have been shown to regrow in organisms, ...
The major unit of functionality of the lateral line is the neuromast. The neuromast is a mechanoreceptive organ which allows the sensing of mechanical changes in water. There are two main varieties of neuromasts located in animals, canal neuromasts and superficial or freestanding neuromasts. Superficial neuromasts are located externally on the surface of the body, while canal neuromasts are located along the lateral lines in subdermal, fluid filled canals. Each neuromast consists of receptive hair cells whose tips are covered by a flexible and jellylike cupula. Hair cells typically possess both glutamatergic afferent connections and cholinergic efferent connections.[12] The receptive hair cells are modified epithelial cells and typically possess bundles of ...
The ribbon synapse is a type of neuronal synapse characterized by the presence of an electron-dense structure, the synaptic ribbon, that holds vesicles close to the active zone. It is characterized by a tight vesicle-calcium channel coupling that promotes rapid neurotransmitter release and sustained signal transmission. Ribbon synapses undergo a cycle of exocytosis and endocytosis in response to graded changes of membrane potential. It has been proposed that most ribbon synapses undergo a special type of exocytosis based on coordinated multivesicular release. This interpretation has recently been questioned at the inner hair cell ribbon synapse, where it has been instead proposed that exocytosis is described by uniquantal (i.e., univesicular) release shaped by a flickering vesicle fusion pore. These unique features specialize the ribbon synapse to enable extremely fast, precise and sustained neurotransmission, which is critical for the perception of complex senses such as ...
... , more commonly known as hair extensions or hair weaves, add length and/or fullness to human hair. Hair extensions are usually clipped on to other hair by incorporating additional human or synthetic hair. Natural human hair can be permed, dyed, and flat ironed whereas synthetic hair cannot. The methods include tape in extensions, clip in or clip on extensions, fusion method, weaving method, and wigs. A hair weave is human or artificial hair utilized for the integration with one's natural hair. Weaves can alter one's appearance for long or short periods of time by adding further hair to one's natural ...
Stereocilin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STRC gene. This gene encodes a protein that is associated with the hair bundle of the sensory hair cells in the inner ear. The hair bundle is composed of stiff microvilli called stereocilia and is involved with mechanoreception of sound waves. This gene is part of a tandem duplication on chromosome 15; the second copy is a pseudogene. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000242866 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000033498 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Verpy E, Masmoudi S, Zwaenepoel I, Leibovici M, Hutchin TP, Del Castillo I, Nouaille S, Blanchard S, Laine S, Popot JL, Moreno F, Mueller RF, Petit C (Nov 2001). "Mutations in a new gene encoding a protein of the ...
... , also known as axillary hair, is the hair in the underarm area (axilla). Underarm hair, as human body hair, normally starts to appear at the beginning of puberty, with growth usually completed by the end of the teenage years. Axillary hair goes through 4 stages of development, driven by weak androgens produced by the adrenal in males and females during adrenarche, and testosterone from the testicle in males during puberty. Like Tanner Staging for pubic hair, axillary hair can be staged according to the staging system, named for Pediatric Endocrinologist, Dr. Joseph Wolfsdorf, as follows: Wolfsdorf Stage 1- no axillary hair Wolfsdorf Stage 2- scant axillary hair (usually coinciding with onset of ...
The semicircular ducts provide sensory input for experiences of rotary movements. They are oriented along the pitch, roll, and yaw axes. Each canal is filled with a fluid called endolymph and contains motion sensors within the fluids. At the base of each canal, the bony region of the canal is enlarged which opens into the utricle and has a dilated sac at one end called the osseous ampullae. Within the ampulla is a mound of hair cells and supporting cells called crista ampullaris. These hair cells have many cytoplasmic projections on the apical surface called stereocilia which are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. As the head rotates the duct moves but the endolymph lags behind owing to inertia. This deflects the cupula and bends the stereocilia within. The bending of these stereocilia alters an electric signal that is ...
The semicircular ducts provide sensory input for experiences of rotary movements. They are oriented along the pitch, roll, and yaw axes. Each canal is filled with a fluid called endolymph and contains motion sensors within the fluids. At the base of each canal, the bony region of the canal is enlarged which opens into the utricle and has a dilated sac at one end called the osseous ampullae. Within the ampulla is a mound of hair cells and supporting cells called crista ampullaris. These hair cells have many cytoplasmic projections on the apical surface called stereocilia which are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. As the head rotates the duct moves but the endolymph lags behind owing to inertia. This deflects the cupula and bends the stereocilia within. The bending of these stereocilia alters an electric signal that is ...
... is the hair that grows on the abdomen of humans and non-human mammals, in the region between the pubic area and the thorax (chest). The growth of abdominal hair follows the same pattern on nearly all mammals, vertically from the pubic area upwards and from the thorax downwards to the navel. The abdominal hair of non-human mammals is part of the pelage, (hair or fur). Before puberty, the abdominal region of both males and females is covered with very fine vellus hair. In response to rising levels of androgens (mainly testosterone) during and after puberty, the skin of the abdomen begins to produce coarser, longer and more pigmented hair (terminal hair). This process primarily affects men. Initially hair grows in a vertical line from the ...
Genetics and health are factors in healthy hair. Proper nutrition is important for hair health. The living part of hair is under the scalp skin where the hair root is housed in the hair follicle. The entire follicle and root are fed by a supply of arteries, and blood carries nutrients to the follicle/root. Any time an individual has any kind of health concern from stress, trauma, medications of various sorts, chronic medical conditions or medical conditions that come and then wane, heavy metals in waters and food, smoking etc. these and more can affect the hair, its growth, and its appearance. Generally, eating a full diet that contains protein, fruits, vegetables, fat, and carbohydrates is important (several vitamins and minerals require fat in order to be delivered or absorbed by the body). Any deficiency ...
The misnomer of 'tracks' comes from the common, long-lasting method of integrating wefts, known as the 'track and sew' method. The 'tracks' are usually cornrows, braided in the direction of how the hair will fall. Toward the face or away, with or without a part, the tracks build the foundation of how the end result will look. The wefts are then sewn onto the braids, usually with a specially made, blunt-ended needle. The needle can be curved or straight. There are many different colors of specially-made thread to choose from, depending on what color of hair you will be integrating. Darker hair lends to darker thread. It should also be noted that when the hair is braided at a high level of tension, the client is at risk for traction alopecia.. Invisible Hair Weave is a long lasting method of attaching commercial ...
... is hair that does not align with the surrounding hairs, but stands up or curls independently, creating a fuzzy or irregular texture. The three main causes of frizz are genetics, hair damage, and humidity. Frizzy hair can be seen as a positive or a negative trait depending on the current fashion and one's personal preference. Many hair products, such as gels, pomades, and hair waxes, are designed to reduce frizz. There is more than one definition of frizz. Researchers who studied the perception of hair health found that while women around the world perceived the absence of frizz as a sign of healthy hair, how they described "frizz" varied widely according to hair type and desired style. As described by ...
... the sensory epithelium repairs to close the lesions but no new hair cells arise and hearing impairment ensues. For any cell ... Following the loss of hair cells from the mammalian cochlea, ... In non-mammalian vertebrates, lost hair cells are then replaced ... Hair Cells, Auditory / cytology, pathology, transplantation*. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred CBA. Organ of Corti ... outer hair cell, IHC = inner hair cell; Dc = Deiters cell, ip = inner pillar cell, op = outer pillar cell, Hc = Hensens cell ...
The mammalian cochlea is the most elaborate of vertebrate auditory organs. The elegantly coiled, mechanically tuned cochlear ... mimicking hair cell cytoplasm) (Fig. S2). Such immediate rupture of individual hair cells might occur in vivo (7). More ... 2010) Damage-induced cell-cell communication in different cochlear cell types via two distinct ATP-dependent Ca waves. ... duct and functional differentiation between inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs), afferent and efferent neuronal ...
... cell cycle regulation, and hair cell orientation. In regenerating sensory organs from non-mammalian species, Wnt signaling can ... cell cycle regulation, and hair cell orientation. In regenerating sensory organs from non-mammalian species, Wnt signaling can ... This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of Wnt signaling and Wnt-responsive cells in hair cell development and ... This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of Wnt signaling and Wnt-responsive cells in hair cell development and ...
In contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit the capability to regenerate missing hair cells. Researchers have been examining ... Sensory hair cells are the specialized mechanosensory receptors found in vertebrate auditory, vestibular, and lateral line ... organs that transduce vibratory and acoustic stimuli into the sensations of hearing and balance. Hair cells can be damaged due ... Hair cells --- auditory --- Regeneration --- Cell Death --- ototoxicity --- Hearing Loss --- Otic development --- Cochlea --- ...
... hair cells detect movement in their environment. In mammals, the auditory hair cells are located within the spiral organ of ... Mammalian cochlear hair cells are of two anatomically and functionally distinct types, known as outer, and inner hair cells. ... Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in the ears of all vertebrates. ... The human cochlea contains on the order of 3,500 inner hair cells and 12,000 outer hair cells at birth. The outer hair cells ...
In non-mammalian vertebrates, auditory or vestibular hair cell death is followed by robust regeneration which restores hearing ... Since there is no cell line that satisfactorily represents mammalian hair cells, research on hair cells relies on primary organ ... and the hair cells of the utricle are similar in both structure and function to the hair cells in the auditory organ, the organ ... Hair cell regeneration is mediated by glia-like supporting cells, which contact the basolateral surfaces of hair cells in the ...
... hair cells in lower vertebrates are able to be spontaneously regenerated once lost. In contrast, mammalian hair cells no lo... ... are the sensory receptors of the auditory and vestibular systems in the ears of vertebrates. Hair cells transduce mechanical ... especially in the mammalian hearing organ. While mechanotransduction through shearing of the stereocilia bundle is a shared ... feature of all hair cells, major differences exist among hair cells of vertebrates. For example, hair cells in zebrafish and ...
In the postembryonic and adult mammalian auditory sensory epithelium, the organ of Corti, no hair-cell regeneration has ever ... However, other vertebrate classes have retained the capacity to regenerate sensory hair cells (1-4). In birds, for example, the ... inner and outer pillar cells (PC), Deiters cells (DC), and Hensens cells (HC). Hair-cell and supporting-cell regions are ... the mammalian auditory sensory epithelium, the organ of Corti, thus far has shown no ability to regenerate hair cells, and it ...
Moreover, even mature mammalian supporting cells can differentiate into sensory hair cells, when inducted with certain genes. ... inner ear structure that contains the receptor organ for hearing. Sensory hair cells are shown in pink and supporting cells in ... So why cant mammals replace these cells as other vertebrates do? Why do surrounding supporting cells simply expand to create a ... This is called auditory neuropathy. In a study published in the Journal of Neuroscience, White and colleagues linked this ...
Previous work indicated that immediately following sound exposure, zebrafish saccules exhibit significant hair cell loss that ... suggesting that GH could play an important role in sensory hair cell regeneration in the teleost ear. ... GH injection increased cell proliferation in the inner ear of non-sound-exposed zebrafish, ... Additionally, we investigated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on cell proliferation in control zebrafish utricles and ...
... the energy through the oval window and into the cochlea where it is changed into a chemical signal by hair cells in the organ ... The sound localization mechanisms of the mammalian auditory system have been extensively studied. The auditory system uses ... In vertebrates, inter-aural time differences are known to be calculated in the superior olivary nucleus of the brainstem. ... "Auditory Perception". Archived from the original on 2010-04-10. DeLiang Wang; Guy J. Brown (2006). Computational auditory scene ...
The discovery that non-mammalian vertebrates can regenerate new auditory and vestibular hair cells after damage suggests the ... My research currently involves the mammalian inner ear. The mammalian organ of Corti is made up of hair cells and support cells ... In particular the auditory part called the organ of Corti which is made up of hair cells and support cells that are arranged in ... which are the progenitor cells that form new hair cells. Our efforts are aimed at characterizing properties of hair cell ...
We measured calcium current in hair cells of the chickens auditory organ, the basilar papilla analogous to the mammalian ... mediates calcium ion influx and controls neurotransmitter release in excitable cells. Hair cells in vertebrates cochlea are ... Hair Cells, Vestibular , Neurons, Afferent , Neurotransmitter Agents , Organ of Corti , Potassium , Synaptic Transmission , ... The purpose of this study was to measure calcium current from hair cells to investigate basic activity and characteristics of ...
We measured calcium current in hair cells of the chickens auditory organ, the basilar papilla analogous to the mammalian ... mediates calcium ion influx and controls neurotransmitter release in excitable cells. Hair cells in vertebrates cochlea are ... Mammalian , Egtazic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Egtazic Acid/pharmacology , Hair Cells, Auditory/cytology , Hair Cells, ... Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Cell Membrane Permeability/physiology , Hair Cells, Auditory/physiology , Ion Channels/ ...
14.2 Mammalian Olfactory Systems.. 14.3 The Vertebrate Vomeronasal Organ (VNO) and Pheromones. ... Chapter 9: Equilibrium and Hearing: The Uses of Hair Cells.. 9.1 Anatomy and Physiology of Hair Cells. ... 10.3 The Avian Auditory Pathway and the Mapping of Auditory Space by the Barn Owl. ... These show the similarities in the molecular architecture and in the physiology of sensory cells across species and across ...
The auditory hair cells in the organ of Corti located in the cochlea also fall into two categories, inner hair cells and outer ... Inner ear hair cell development. Mammalian inner ear hair cells function as mechanoreceptors to transduce sound and ... A homology between hair cells in vertebrates and chordotonal organs in flies has been recently revealed (Hassan and Bellen, ... 3I,J) each show one inner hair cell and two outer hair cells. Thus, though some hair cells appear to be missing, hair cell- ...
TMC1 and TMC2 Localize at the Site of Mechanotransduction in Mammalian Inner Ear Hair Cell Stereocilia. Cell Rep. 2015 Sep 08; ... Differential distribution of stem cells in the auditory and vestibular organs of the inner ear. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2007 ... Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Oct 24; 97(22):11730-5. View ... Functional development of mechanosensitive hair cells in stem cell-derived organoids parallels native vestibular hair cells. ...
It is not known whether the auditory hair cells of fishes possess a similar tonotopic organization in the saccule, which is ... The hair cell bundles were counted at 19 specific locations in each saccule to determine the extent and location of hair cell ... All sound-exposed fish exhibited significant hair cell and hearing loss following sound exposure. The location of hair cell ... and there was a significant linear relationship between hair cell loss and hearing loss. The pattern of hair cell loss as a ...
... in non-mammalian vertebrate species, such as birds, neighboring glia-like supporting cells regenerate auditory hair cells by ... 2011) Effects of DAPT and Atoh1 overexpression on hair cell production and hair bundle orientation in cultured Organ of Corti ... However, non-mammalian species regenerate lost auditory hair cells. In avians, supporting cells replace lost sensory hair cells ... 6) for outer hair cells. Such Vm values show that the recorded hair cell-like cells as well as control hair cells were healthy ...
... the inner and outer hair cells. Primary information is conducted via the inner hair cells and their synapses onto the auditory ... They observed that parvalbumin-β was confined to outer hair cells and its concentration peaked at P10 at 2 ng/μg of organ of ... Fuchs PA (1996) Synaptic transmission at vertebrate hair cells. Curr Opin Neurobiol 6: 514-519. ... 2A) or in inner hair cells from P26 animals (Fig. 2C). In contrast, the cell bodies of inner hair cells from P7 pre-hearing ...
A molecular signature makes it possible to trace the details of hair cell replacement in the mammalian inner ear. ... Until recently, auditory brainstem implants have been restricted to patients with tumors on their auditory nerves. ... A teaching obligation in graduate school introduced James Hudspeth to a career focused on how vertebrates sense sounds. ... Scientists map the position of cells within the organ of Corti.. 0 Comments ...
The ear is part of the auditory system. In ... The ear is the organ that detects sound. It not only receives ... The organ of Corti (OC) is the auditory epithelium of the mammalian cochlea comprising sensory hair cells and supporting cells ... Vertebrates have a pair of ears placed somewhat symmetrically on opposite sides of the head. This arrangement aids in the ... they explain the mechanics of hair cell bundles:. Hair-cell mechanotransduction occurs within each bundle of stereocilia … that ...
... which will lead to a nonspecific uptake by macrophages into cells. Auditory hair cell replacement and hearing improvement by ... during mammalian embryogenesis generic tadalis sx 20mg mastercard, The specific cell targeting treatment of the inner ear ... This site-specific response might be in the development of the vertebrate inner ear. Apoptosis 2004; explained by the different ... Rapid recovery from acoustic trauma: chicken soup, potato knish, or drug interaction? Shearing motion in the hearing organ ...
Mammalian auditory hair cells (HCs) are inserted into a well structured environment of supporting cells (SCs) and acellular ... 2007) Shaping the mammalian auditory sensory organ by the planar cell polarity pathway. Int J Dev Biol 51:535-547. ... 2011) Sensory regeneration in the vertebrate inner ear: differences at the levels of cells and species. Hear Res 273:72-79. ... 1996) Mechanical properties of the lateral cortex of mammalian auditory outer hair cells. Biophys J 71:421-429. ...
Common in vitro experiments have distorted the true mechanics of mammalian hair cell stereocilia. ... Until recently, auditory brainstem implants have been restricted to patients with tumors on their auditory nerves. ... A teaching obligation in graduate school introduced James Hudspeth to a career focused on how vertebrates sense sounds. ... Organ Engineer Cleared of Misconduct. By Bob Grant , August 31, 2015 The Karolinska Institute has rejected the conclusions of ...
  • This benefit, however, has been gained at a significant cost in the metabolic and mechanical vulnerability of cochlear hair cells and neurons. (pnas.org)
  • In the auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), many ILD sensitive neurons have response functions that decline steeply from maximum to zero spikes as a function of ILD. (wikipedia.org)
  • At later developmental stages, Gfi1 expression in the ear is refined to the hair cells and neurons throughout the inner ear. (biologists.org)
  • The temporal theory argues that the perception of pitch depends upon the temporal patterns with which auditory neurons respond to sound, since waveforms of stimuli are well represented by patterns of phase-locking in the auditory nerve [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is currently unknown whether frequency discrimination in fishes is largely due to peripheral processes (hair cells and their associated primary afferent neurons) or central processes (e.g., brainstem and midbrain auditory nuclei). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been proposed that when HCs are irreversibly damaged by noise or ototoxic drugs, surrounding SCs seal the epithelial surface and likely extend the survival of auditory neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. (statemaster.com)
  • One of the most amenable mechanosensory model organs, the Drosophila Johnston Organ (JO), sits in the 2nd antennal segment and harbours discrete populations of mechanosensory neurons which have been linked to the submodalities of wind/gravity and sound. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This type of hair cell comes under type I spiral ganglion neurons and humans have around 3000 to 3500 inner hair cells. (typesof.com)
  • In the same year, David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel began investigating properties of neurons in the visual cortex of cats, processing in the mammalian visual system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bricaud O, Collazo A (2011) Balancing cell numbers during organogenesis: Six1a differentially affects neurons and sensory hair cells in the inner ear. (springer.com)
  • Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. (edu.au)
  • Affected motor neurons undergo cell death 2 days prior to the normal wave of developmental cell death that coincides with innervation of muscle targets, providing in vivo evidence for the idea that developing neurons with long-range axons are programmed to die unless their axons arrive at intermediate targets on schedule. (elifesciences.org)
  • We tested higher resolution image acquisition down to 3.0 μm voxel size in human and 0.5 μm in mice, which provided a unique level of detail and enabled us to visualize single neurons and hair cells in the mouse inner ear, which could offer an alternative quantitative analysis of cell numbers in smaller animals. (edu.au)
  • Quite remarkably, the capture of acoustic energy and its transduction into neuronal signals are assisted by the active mechanical and metabolic participation of the cells responsible for the capture of mechanical energy, the mechanoreceptor neurons ( Göpfert & Robert 2007 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • During development neurons are generated by sequential divisions of neural stem cells, or neuroblasts. (ucla.edu)
  • Their derivatives generate a large variety of cell types ranging from simple lens fibre cells to sensory receptors and neurons. (stembook.org)
  • It generates odorant and pheromone receptor cells that project to the olfactory and accessory olfactory bulb, as well as supporting cells and a diverse set of neurons that express GnRH , somatostatin, neuropeptide Y and calbindin and migrate along the olfactory nerve into the CNS (Murakami and Arai, 1994 , Hilal et al. (stembook.org)
  • Single-unit recording is an extracellular measure of the action potentials of the neurons housed in an individual sensillum, or sensory hair. (sdbonline.org)
  • The dDO, which is the main first-order auditory nucleus in bony fishes, includes neurons that receive direct input from the otolithic end organs of the inner ear and project to the auditory midbrain. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • There are two groups of such auditory projection neurons: medial and lateral. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Neurophysiological studies show that a large population of auditory neurons found exclusively in female coquis are maximally sensitive around 2,090 hertz, in the frequency range of the qui . (acoustics.org)
  • Although the effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics on hair cells have been investigated for decades, their influences on the dendrites of primary afferent neurons have not been widely studied. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • For auditory receptor neurons, the physical stimulus corresponds to the mechanical displacement of the receiver (for example, the stereocilia of cochlear hair cells). (nature.com)
  • To faithfully encode the fine temporal features of sound, auditory receptor neurons should correct for both fluctuations in the mean and variance of receiver movements, without mean adaptation affecting sound sensitivity. (nature.com)
  • The courtship song vibrates the arista (a feathery extension of the Drosophila antenna that serves as the sound receiver)-this causes rotation of the antenna and thereby opens mechanosensitive channels housed within antennal neurons, so-called Johnston's organ (JO) neurons (JONs) 11 , 12 (Fig. 1a , top). (nature.com)
  • 2004 ). Nevertheless, some initial fiber growth to sensory epithelia occurs even in the absence of BDNF, provided the death of sensory neurons is prevented through elimination of the cell death promoting factor Bax (Hellard et al. (wiley.com)
  • However, nonmammalian hair-cell epithelia are capable of regenerating sensory hair cells as a consequence of nonsensory supporting-cell proliferation. (pnas.org)
  • Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding how supporting-cell proliferation is induced in the otherwise quiescent supporting-cell populations of the avian auditory epithelia and, to some extent, in the mammalian vestibular epithelia ( 7 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • In reality, both place and temporal cues may be processed differentially at various levels of the auditory system as the information passes from the sensory epithelia of the ear to the auditory nuclei of the brainstem, and on to the mid- and forebrain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the labyrinth, some regions of epithelial cells become specified to develop as the specialized sensory epithelia that will act as the primary transducers of sound, motion and gravity, while other regions retain a simple cuboidal epithelial morphology. (biologists.org)
  • Our goal is to describe the otic lineage from an early placodal progenitor until it splits up into multiple cell types making up the sensory epithelia, innervating ganglia, and accessory structures. (stanford.edu)
  • This application proposes to investigate the following hypotheses: 1) Members of the TGF2 superfamily regulate progenitor cell proliferation in mature inner ear sensory receptor epithelia, and 2) Robust regenerative proliferation of progenitor cells in mature inner ear sensory epithelia may require a simultaneous release from tonic negative regulation coupled with mitogenic signaling by the TGF2 pathway. (grantome.com)
  • We are investigating the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF2) signaling in regulating the proliferation of progenitor cells in mature inner ear sensory epithelia. (grantome.com)
  • Working with pure sensory epithelia from young rodents we have identified a number of the intracellular and extracellular signals that can trigger the cell replacement events that are the first stages of the regenerative processes in non-mammalian ears. (virginia.edu)
  • When balance epithelia from young rodents are exposed to forskolin for just 15 minutes and then cultured with the neuregulin growth factor, rhGGF2 for 72 hours the majority of the supporting cells are induced to enter S-phase, replicate their DNA, and begin the cycle of cell division. (virginia.edu)
  • Under control conditions only a small fraction of the cells in the hair cell epithelia from newborn rodents will enter S-phase and divide, but other investigations in our lab showed that those cells actually have high capacities for proliferation when they are stimulated by the addition of rhGGF2 and other appropriate mitogenic compounds. (virginia.edu)
  • The discovery of the postnatal response decline in mammalian sensory epithelia also provides a potential opportunity for gene expression profiling that is aimed at the discovery of potential targets for drugs that could reverse the mitotic response declines that leave our ears at risk of permanent damage. (virginia.edu)
  • We have entered into two collaborations that have and are utilizing gene chip (oligonucleotide microarray) technology to simultaneously measure and compare the expression of thousands of genes in the sensory epithelia from embryonic and neonatal rodent ears as those ears pass through the developmental stages when they lose most of the capacity for effective cell replacement. (virginia.edu)
  • In addition, we utilized the bird internal hearing utricle and saccule, two vestibular body organs whose physical maculae can become enzymatically separate and peeled aside from root cells, permitting the pick of physical epithelia that comprise exclusively of locks cells, and non-sensory cells including assisting cells. (bio-naturlan.com)
  • Outcomes and Conversation Dissociation of vestibular physical epithelia into solitary cells We utilized poultry embryos at their 18tl day time of incubation for remoteness of locks cells, supporting and non-sensory cells. (bio-naturlan.com)
  • These experiments implicate planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in motor axon growth and they highlight the question of how PCP proteins, which form cell-cell complexes in epithelia, function in the dynamic context of axonal growth. (elifesciences.org)
  • The latter are specialised neurogenic epithelia outside of the central nervous system, which arise from unique multipotential cells in the pre-placodal region. (stembook.org)
  • 2004 ). Some in vitro data suggest that afferent growth to sensory epithelia happens even in the absence of all hair cells (Sobkowicz, 1992 ), whereas other data show that hair cells can attract afferent fibers but that this action is not mediated by neurotrophins (Bianchi and Cohan, 1993 ). (wiley.com)
  • The neurotransmitters diffuse across the narrow space between the hair cell and a nerve terminal, where they then bind to receptors and thus trigger action potentials in the nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • IHCs, the primary sensory cells of the inner ear, make synaptic contact with VIIIth nerve afferents and are responsible for the transmission of the signal to the central nervous system (CNS). (oxfordre.com)
  • From there the vestibulocochlear (eighth cranial) nerve transmits the vibrations, translated into nerve impulses, to the auditory center in the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The microscopic hairlike projections on the surface of these cells are the key structure responsible for converting sound waves to electrical signals that travel to the brain through the auditory nerve. (hearinghealthfoundation.org)
  • These are the sensory hearing cells, connected at their base with the auditory nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This movement stimulates the sensory hair cells to send impulses along the auditory nerve to the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is estimated that 10% of the population is affected by sensorineural or """"""""nerve"""""""" deafness that usually arises from sensory hair cell loss or damage. (grantome.com)
  • The auditory system is housed within the temporal bone of the skull and consists of the outer ear , middle ear, inner ear, nerve of hearing (N. VIII), and central auditory nervous system . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sound waves are perceived by the brain through the firing of nerve cells in the auditory portion of the central nervous system. (wikidoc.org)
  • Reijntjes DOJ, Köppl C , Pyott SJ (2020) Volume gradients in inner hair cell-auditory nerve fiber pre- and postsynaptic proteins differ across mouse strains. (uol.de)
  • Heeringa AN, Zhang L , Ashida G, Beutelmann R, Steenken F, Köppl C (2020) Temporal coding of single auditory nerve fibers is not degraded in aging gerbils. (uol.de)
  • Fischer BJ, Wydick J, Köppl C , Peña JL (2018) Multidimensional stimulus encoding in the auditory nerve of the barn owl. (uol.de)
  • Design and implantation of bionic implants for restoring impaired hair cell function relies on accurate knowledge about the microanatomy and nerve fiber pathways of the human inner ear and its variation. (edu.au)
  • For the first time, human embryonic stem cells have been transformed into nerve cells that helped mice regain the ability to learn and remember.A study at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is the first to show that human stem cells can successfully implant themselves in the brain and then heal neurological deficits, says senior author Su-Chun Zhang, a professor of neuroscience and neurology. (ucla.edu)
  • Together with the crossed vestibular efferents, descending auditory efferent axons form a compact bundle within the vestibular nerve root, the fibers pass the cochlear nuclei and send collateral projections into this structure before exiting the brainstem as a ventral component of the inferior division of the vestibular nerve (Warr 1992). (oae.it)
  • Shepherd RKHatsushika SClark GM Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve: the effect of electrode position on neural excitation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Aralla R , Ashida G, Köppl C (2020) Binaural responses in the auditory midbrain of chicken ( Gallus gallus ). (uol.de)
  • However, we did find that macrophage-depleted cochleae contained reduced numbers of proliferative mesothelial cells below the basilar membrane. (jove.com)
  • Quantitative PCR results showed a non-monotonic increase in BK alpha subunit expression throughout embryonic development of the chick auditory organ (i.e. basilar papilla).Therefore, post-transcriptional mechanisms seem to play a key role in the delayed emergence of calcium-sensitive currents.We suggest that regulation of translation and trafficking of functional alpha subunits, near voltage-gated calcium channels, leads to functional BK currents at the onset of hearing. (nih.gov)
  • Quantitative PCR results showed a non-monotonic increase in BK alpha subunit expression throughout embryonic development of the chick auditory organ (i.e. basilar papilla). (nih.gov)
  • Duckert LG, Rubel EW (1990) Ultrastructural observations on regenerating hair cells in the chick basilar papilla. (springer.com)
  • Our results provided novel insights into the functional significance of miRNAs in the basilar membrane cells development, and revealed the potential importance of miRNAs in the hair cell by regulation of Wnt and TGF-β signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The two populations do not relate in a simple way to the two types of hair cells and afferent terminals: type I and II hair cells are distributed throughout both zones and supply calyces and boutons of both populations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Becker L, Schnee ME, Niwa M et al (2018) The presynaptic ribbon maintains vesicle populations at the hair cell afferent fiber synapse. (springer.com)
  • Certainly, physical locks cells are interesting because present-day study looks for to understand the procedure of mechanoelectrical transduction, or pursues the particular protein that lead to the exclusive features of the locks cells afferent bows synapses, among a electric battery of additional interesting topics encircling locks cell biology , . (bio-naturlan.com)
  • Throughout its descending course the efferent auditory pathway interacts with the afferent auditory pathway through feedback loops. (oae.it)
  • Blanco-Sánchez B, Clément A, Fierro J Jr, Stednitz S, Phillips JB, Wegner J, Panlilio JM, Peirce JL, Washbourne P, Westerfield M (2018) Grxcr1 promotes hair bundle development by destabilizing the physical interaction between harmonin and Sans Usher syndrome proteins. (springer.com)
  • Köppl C , Wilms V, Russell IJ, Nothwang HG (2018) Evolution of endolymph secretion and endolymphatic potential generation in the vertebrate inner ear. (uol.de)
  • Kuokkanen PT, Kraemer A, Kempter R, Köppl C , Carr CE (2018) Auditory brainstem response wave III is correlated with extracellular field potentials from nucleus laminaris of the barn owl. (uol.de)
  • Manley GA , Lukashkin AN, Simoes P, Burwood GWS, Russell IJ (2018) The Mammalian Ear: Physics and the Principles of Evolution. (uol.de)
  • They also serve to govern self-renewal of somatic stem cells in several adult tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • The best-characterized in vitro model system of mature mammalian hair cells utilizes organ cultures of utricles from adult mice ( Figure 1 ) 1-6 . (jove.com)
  • The focus of the pilot project should be relevant to "Environmental Agents as Modulators of Human Disease and Dysfunction," with special emphasis on proposals addressing how the environment modifies stem cell function, affects early life origins of adult diseases, and disrupts host/pathogen interactions . (rochester.edu)
  • Immunolabeling of adult cochleas has suggested that calretinin and the α isoform of parvalbumin occur only in inner hair cells (Dechesne et al. (jneurosci.org)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are found in organ tissue and have the capacity to produce specialized cell types for that particular organ. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Adult stem cells were recently found in the mouse utricle, a part of the inner ear involved in balance and motion. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Researchers at the Eaton-Peabody Laboratory have successfully isolated adult stem cells from the tissue of the mouse utricle. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • We wanted to develop a technique that eliminates these requirements by making use of a practical feature of adult physical locks cells - their capability to quickly consider up particular styryl chemical dyes , . (bio-naturlan.com)
  • While some, like the otic and olfactory placode, undergo complex patterning events to form adult organs, others are simple neurogenic centres that shed neuroblasts into the underlying mesenchyme. (stembook.org)
  • Single-unit studies were begun with the maxillary palp, one of the two olfactory organs in the adult fly, because of its numerical simplicity. (sdbonline.org)
  • Our experiments focus on the function of deafness genes isolated from forward genetic screens and developmental aspects of sensory hair-cell activity and synaptogenesis. (stanford.edu)
  • hearing aid hearing aid, device used in some forms of deafness to amplify sound before it reaches the auditory organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This project is highly significant, since exploring the strategies of maintaining, rescuing, and repairing injured hair cells are essential to the biological remediation and prevention of hair cell-related hearing loss and deafness. (elsevier.com)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Because the majority of Americans with hearing loss, some 30 million in all, have some kind of hair cell damage, understanding the cellular process of damage repair and exploring the possibilities of rescuing and repairing injured hair cells are essential to the biological remediation and prevention of hair cell-related hearing loss and deafness. (elsevier.com)
  • Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched using the Endnote software for the publications about the role miRNA-183 family in inner ear: hair cell development and deafness published from 2000 to 2016. (ejao.org)
  • In this regards, Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched for the publications about the role of miRNA-183 family in inner ear: hair cell development and deafness between 2000 and 2016 using the EndNote software. (ejao.org)
  • Only the articles directly addressing the effect of miRNA-183 family in inner ear: Hair cell development and deafness were selected and analyzed. (ejao.org)
  • 73 articles investigated the role of miRNA-183 family in inner ear: hair cell development and deafness. (ejao.org)
  • Although the sensation of hearing requires an intact and functioning auditory portion of the central nervous system as well as a working ear, human deafness (extreme insensitivity to sound) most commonly occurs because of abnormalities of the inner ear, rather than the nerves or tracts of the central auditory system. (wikidoc.org)
  • Not only was a group of de novo genes closely associated with known deafness loci identified, but the data also indicate that the hair cell tip link interacts directly with calcium binding proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular insights and the need to find a cure for hearing impairment caused by ototoxic drugs, noise, and aging--afflicting over 1 billion people worldwide--has boosted interest in examining the genes and molecular mechanisms underlying different biological properties of hair cells, as well as exploring strategies to regenerate and/or repair lost or injured hair cells using stem cell and gene therapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, even mature mammalian supporting cells can differentiate into sensory hair cells, when inducted with certain genes. (rochester.edu)
  • This included cells transitioning from support cells to fully mature sensory hair cells, thereby identifying new genes that are expressed during hair cell development. (hearinghealthfoundation.org)
  • Following the formation of these bodies, the cells were enriched with specific growth factors to form progenitor cells that expressed genes indicating the development of the inner ear. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Direct successful alterations to the cell cycle result in cell death whereas regulation of upstream genes is insufficient to permanently alter cell cycle dynamics. (mdpi.com)
  • However, how these genes are linked functionally and the transcriptional networks controlling hair cell induction remain unclear. (nih.gov)
  • RFX genes are broadly ( RFX1-3, RFX5, RFX7 ) and specifically ( RFX4, RFX6 ) expressed in different cell types, with high expression in four organ systems: immune system, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive system and nervous system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, mouse and rat models have been considered excellent models in the search for functions of genes within complex organisms as most of their physiological functions are very similar to those of humans and, also, their genetic differences are minimal (in comparison to other non-mammalian models). (phenogenomics.cz)
  • Nuclei of cells that entered S-phase have incorporated BrdU (red) . (virginia.edu)
  • however it has good temporal resolution compared to other cells higher than the cochlear nuclei and is sensitive to both timing and amplitude changes in sound. (statemaster.com)
  • The descending (efferent) OC system is known to have cell bodies and axons originating from nuclei within the superior olivary region in the upper pons (superior olivary complex-SOC). (oae.it)
  • For example, simple cells in the visual cortex of the domestic cat ( Felis catus ), respond to edges-a feature which is more likely to occur in objects and organisms in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • This auditory part of the cerebral cortex is in the temporal lobe . (wikidoc.org)
  • The proximal stimulus for all hair cells is deflection of the mechanosensitive hair bundle. (oxfordre.com)
  • Hair cells convert mechanical information contained within the temporal pattern of hair bundle deflections into electrical signals, which they transmit to the brain for interpretation. (oxfordre.com)
  • By contrast, OHCs are signal amplifiers that generate force using active hair-bundle motility and somatic electromotility, the latter in response to depolarization that follows hair bundle displacement. (oxfordre.com)
  • C: Transmission electron micrograph of a P2 + 1 day in culture hair bundle from a mouse OHC. (oxfordre.com)
  • A scanning electron micrograph of the surface of a bullfrog's saccule that shows a hair bundle and cuticular plate that have separated from the soma of a gentamicin-damaged hair cell. (virginia.edu)
  • Electron microscopy, time-lapse, and multi-photon recordings were used to observe bundle separation, survival of bundleless hair cells, and repair of damaged hair cell surfaces as described in Gale et. (virginia.edu)
  • In tmie zebrafish mutants, we observed that GFP-tagged Tmc1 and Tmc2b, which are subunits of the MET channel, fail to target to the hair bundle. (stanford.edu)
  • As a Postdoctoral Associate and Research Associate in The Rockefeller University, he developed models of cochlear mechanics, hair-bundle motility, and synaptic dynamics. (stanford.edu)
  • In response to the quietest sounds we can hear, the hair cell's mechanical sensor, the hair bundle, moves by less than one-billionth of a meter. (stanford.edu)
  • Myosin VIIa, harmonin and cadherin 23, three Usher I gene products that cooperate to shape the sensory hair cell bundle. (labome.org)
  • Together, our findings suggest that PCDH15 and MYO7A cooperate to regulate the development and function of the mechanically sensitive hair bundle. (labome.org)
  • A core cochlear phenotype in USH1 mouse mutants implicates fibrous links of the hair bundle in its cohesion, orientation and differential growth. (labome.org)
  • GFP-tagged Tomt is enriched in the Golgi of hair cells, suggesting that Tomt might regulate the trafficking of other MET components to the hair bundle. (elifesciences.org)
  • We found that Tmc1/2 proteins are specifically excluded from the hair bundle in tomt mutants, whereas other MET complex proteins can still localize to the bundle. (elifesciences.org)
  • 4. Comparative studies of hair cell morphology, function, and gene expression profiles in vertebrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • Atoh1 has been shown to act as a "prohair cell gene" and structures, or sonication. (documentaryheaven.com)
  • Atoh1-based gene therapy, therefore, has the potential to treat noise-induced hearing loss if the treatment is carried out before hair cells die. (elsevier.com)
  • The Myc gene family is uniquely situated to synergize upstream pathways into downstream cell cycle control. (mdpi.com)
  • The identification of the gene, that is responsible for inhibiting the regrowth capability of hair cells, is also of great importance. (typesof.com)
  • There are amino acids can be managed as above can take a week in a toand the decreased size of the mm and ssc possible decrease to a lack of podocyte cell bodies lie within the developing glomeruli results in an earlier appearance and disappearance of handbook of pediatric emergency medicine during intubation a second example of this gene results in. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • The mammalian kallikrein gene cluster exists as a gene cluster (on chromosome 19 in humans) comprise a class of extracellular proteases that mediate tissue homeostasis. (phenogenomics.cz)
  • We thank Blooming Drosophila Stock Center and Yuh-Nung Jan for fly lines and the Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for the microinjection of plasmids into Drosophila embryos. (springer.com)
  • To extend the functional and phenotypic analysis of the acj6 mutations to the level of the single cell, a single-unit recording technique was used to record from Drosophila olfactory hairs. (sdbonline.org)
  • Studies performed on cultured cells and isolated organs/tissues using different animal and cellular models of various diseases are also included and discussed. (doabooks.org)
  • Balance among the proteases and their natural inhibitors determines if tissues and organ architecture are to be built up or disrupted, or whether biological processes are to be initiated or terminated. (phenogenomics.cz)