Sodium Channel Blockers
NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
Epithelial Sodium Channels
NAV1.2 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.
NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
Ion Channel Gating
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
NAV1.6 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
NAV1.1 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Defects in the SCN1A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with DRAVET SYNDROME, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2 (GEFS+2), and familial hemiplegic migraine type 3.
NAV1.3 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
NAV1.4 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
NAV1.9 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Sodium Channel Agonists
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying
Calcium Channel Blockers
Potassium Channel Blockers
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers
Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino Acid Sequence
Calcium Channels, L-Type
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel beta-1 Subunit
A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit abundantly expressed in SKELETAL MUSCLE; HEART; and BRAIN. It non-covalently associates with voltage-gated alpha subunits. Defects in the SCN1B gene, which codes for this beta subunit, are associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 1, and Brugada syndrome 5.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Shaker Superfamily of Potassium Channels
Epithelial Sodium Channel Blockers
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel beta-3 Subunit
Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels
Acid Sensing Ion Channels
Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels
Calcium Channels, N-Type
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Kv1.2 Potassium Channel
Calcium Channels, T-Type
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel beta-2 Subunit
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel beta-4 Subunit
Degenerin Sodium Channels
A family of mechanosensitive sodium channels found primarily in NEMATODES where they play a role in CELLULAR MECHANOTRANSDUCTION. Degenerin sodium channels are structurally-related to EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS and are named after the fact that loss of their activity results in cellular degeneration.
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
TRPC Cation Channels
Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
A peripheral arterial disease that is characterized by the triad of ERYTHEMA, burning PAIN, and increased SKIN TEMPERATURE of the extremities (or red, painful extremities). Erythromelalgia may be classified as primary or idiopathic, familial or non-familial. Secondary erythromelalgia is associated with other diseases, the most common being MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
Kv1.1 Potassium Channel
Epithelial Sodium Channel Agonists
Kv1.3 Potassium Channel
Calcium Channel Agonists
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
TRPV Cation Channels
TRPM Cation Channels
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
KCNQ Potassium Channels
Kv1.5 Potassium Channel
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels
Kv1.4 Potassium Channel
Shab Potassium Channels
Amino Acid Substitution
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Shaw Potassium Channels
Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
KCNQ2 Potassium Channel
Shal Potassium Channels
Transient Receptor Potential Channels
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
Cell Membrane Permeability
Long QT Syndrome
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
An autosomal dominant defect of cardiac conduction that is characterized by an abnormal ST-segment in leads V1-V3 on the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM resembling a right BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK; high risk of VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA; or VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION; SYNCOPAL EPISODE; and possible sudden death. This syndrome is linked to mutations of gene encoding the cardiac SODIUM CHANNEL alpha subunit.
G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels
Paralyses, Familial Periodic
A heterogenous group of inherited disorders characterized by recurring attacks of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis or myotonia. These conditions have in common a mutation of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle. They are frequently associated with fluctuations in serum potassium levels. Periodic paralysis may also occur as a non-familial process secondary to THYROTOXICOSIS and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Kidney Tubules, Collecting
Calcium Channels, P-Type
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
KCNQ3 Potassium Channel
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).
Heart Conduction System
Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels
Sensory Receptor Cells
Protein Structure, Secondary
"Voltage-gated", also called "voltage-sensitive" and "voltage-dependent" sodium channel also known as "VGSCs" or "Nav channel" ... Nav1 and Nav2), whereas vertebrate Nav channels are of the Nav1 family. Sodium-channel proteins in the mammalian brain are ... of some voltage gated sodium channels in a very powerful and reversible manner, without affection of other ion channels. " ... April 2012). "Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels at 60: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology". The Journal of Physiology. 590 ( ...
Sodium Channel NaV1.5 Expression is Enhanced in Cultured Adult Rat Skeletal Muscle Fibers, The Journal of Membrane Biology | 10...
"Sodium Channel NaV1.5 Expression is Enhanced in Cultured Adult Rat Skeletal Muscle Fibers, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on ... Beta 3: an additional auxiliary subunit of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel that modulates channel gating with distinct ... Immunocytochemical localization of the mammalian voltage-dependent sodium channel using polyclonal antibodies against the ... lp/springer_journal/sodium-channel-nav1-5-expression-is-enhanced-in-cultured-adult-rat-lAZWCBiJ8J ...
Anti-SCN1B (Navβ1) (extracellular) Antibody | #ASC-041 | Alomone Labs
Your top supplier for voltage-gated Na+ channel research! ... 3 Mammalian sodium channels are heterotrimers, composed of a ... Home › Products › Ion Channels › Na+ Channels › Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels › Antibodies to NaV Channels ... Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) are essential for the generation of action potentials and for cell excitability.1 To date, ... Peptide CKRRSETTAETFTE, corresponding to amino acid residues 43-56 of rat β1 subunit of voltage-gated Na+ channels (Accession ...
Guinea pig Anti-SCN2A (Nav1.2) Antibody | #AGP-026 | Alomone Labs
Your top supplier for voltage-gated sodium channel research! ... Mammalian sodium channels are heterotrimers, composed of a ... Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) are essential for the generation of action potentials and for cell excitability.1 NaV ... Sodium channels in the adult central nervous system and heart contain β1 through β4 subunits, whereas sodium channels in adult ... Alternative Name BII, Brain type II Na+ channel, Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha ...
Frontiers | Saltatory conduction in unmyelinated axons: clustering of Na+ channels on lipid rafts enables micro-saltatory...
... anatomically specialized regions which contain very high densities of sodium ion (Na+) channels. Therefore, saltatory ... This localized concentration of Na+ channels resembles in structure the ion channel organization at the nodes of Ranvier, yet ... This localized concentration of Na+ channels resembles in structure the ion channel organization at the Nodes of Ranvier, yet ... By investigating the efficiency of AP propagation over Nav1.8 channels, we find however that the specific inactivation ...
Neosaxitoxin - Wikipedia
"Voltage-gated", also called "voltage-sensitive" and "voltage-dependent" sodium channel also known as "VGSCs" or "Nav channel" ... Nav1 and Nav2), whereas vertebrate Nav channels are of the Nav1 family. Sodium-channel proteins in the mammalian brain are ... of some voltage gated sodium channels in a very powerful and reversible manner, without affection of other ion channels. " ... April 2012). "Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels at 60: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology". The Journal of Physiology. 590 ( ...
Marine Drugs | Free Full-Text | µ-Conotoxins Modulating Sodium Currents in Pain Perception and Transmission: A Therapeutic...
µ and µO-CTX are two isoforms that specifically target voltage-gated sodium channels. These, by inducing the entrance of sodium ... In this review, we describe the current knowledge of µ-CTX interacting with the different sodium channels subtypes, the ... Hyperexcitability and mutations of sodium channels are responsible for perception and transmission of inflammatory and ... Mahdavi, S.; Kuyucak, S. Molecular dynamics study of binding of µ-conotoxin GIIIA to the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1. 4. ...
New and Developing Drugs for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetes | SpringerLink
Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic ... Review of the inherited pain syndromes associated with mutations in the NaV1.7 sodium channel. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Devor M, Govrin-Lippmann R, Angelides K. Na + channel immunolocalization in peripheral mammalian axons and changes following ... Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2005;57:397-409.PubMed ...
Frontiers | Propranolol Blocks Cardiac and Neuronal Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels | Pharmacology
Heterologous Expression of Sodium Channels. A recombinant human NaV1.5 sodium channel cDNA in a mammalian expression plasmid ( ... Figure 8. Biophysical effects of lidocaine on NaV1. 5-F1760A channels. (A) Current-voltage relationships in the absence and ... Propranolol blocks cardiac and neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels. Dao W. Wang1,2, Akshitkumar M. Mistry1, Kristopher M. ... Voltage-gated sodium channels are established pharmacological targets for local anesthetics and many other drugs with shared ...
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Short Toxin-like Proteins Abound in Cnidaria Genomes | HTML
Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins. Many of ... Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors ... Actions of sea anemone type 1 neurotoxins on voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms. Toxicon 2009, 54, 1102-1111. [Google ... The analysis of neurotoxin (Nav1) evolution exposed extensive genomic expansion of this region . Gene expansion has shaped ...
Most recent papers with the keyword Sodium channelopathies | Read by QxMD
... and pseudo-tetrameric P-loop channels are used to elaborate homology models of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels with ... www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597987/trafficking-and-localization-to-the-plasma-membrane-of-nav-1-5-promoted-by-the-%C3%AE-2- ... Voltage-gated sodium channels belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated cation channels. Their structure is based on domains ... the α subunit of the major cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel. This channel forms a protein complex including one or two ...
JCI - A disease mutation reveals a role for NaV1.9 in acute itch
The voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.9 is an effector of peripheral inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. J Neurosci. 2006;26( ... A quantitative analysis of intron effects on mammalian gene expression. RNA. 2003;9(5):607-617.. View this article via: PubMed ... Functional analysis of stably expressed human Nav1. Biophys J. 2012;102:527a. ... Ahern CA, Payandeh J, Bosmans F, Chanda B. The hitchhikers guide to the voltage-gated sodium channel galaxy. J Gen Physiol. ...
CK2-An Emerging Target for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders
CK2 was further found to directly phosphorylate the voltage gated sodium channel NAv1, thereby enhancing its binding to ankyrin ... Ceglia I., Flajolet M., Rebholz H. Predominance of CK2α over CK2α′ in the mammalian brain. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2011;356:169-175 ... CK2 activity is required for the interaction of FGF14 with voltage-gated sodium channels and neuronal excitability. FASEB J. ... Another family of membrane proteins that modulate synaptic activity are the voltage gated sodium channels (NAvs). Recently, the ...
Peptide Inhibitors - Psyclo Peptide
... venom peptide ProTx-II with lipid membranes is a prerequisite for its inhibition of human voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1. 7 ... NKA, a member of the tachykinin peptide family, is widely distributed in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. ... In addition, voltage-gated sodium channels play important roles in action potential generation and propagation. Among them, Na ... ProTx II has the potency to inhibit the human voltage-gate sodium channel 1.7 (hNa V1.7), which is involved in nociception and ...
HGFR - Discovery of novel inhibitors for the treatment of glaucoma
Intro The NaV1.6 isoform from the voltage-gated sodium route was found out in first, and is currently a well-established ... Following an approach previously applied to sodium channel NaV1.5 with significant success(Veeraraghavan, et al., 2018), we ... Further, this type of region was selected predicated on its uniqueness to NaV1.6 (in comparison to other NaV1.x proteins) and ... high amount of conservation across mammalian species. A GREAT TIME search revealed an extremely significant (E = 3 10C7) ...
Transmural cellular heterogeneity in myocardial electromechanics, The Journal of Physiological Sciences | 10.1007/s12576-017...
Heterogeneous expression of voltage-gated potassium channels in the heart: roles in normal excitation and arrhythmias ... Molecular identity of the late sodium current in adult dog cardiomyocytes identified by Nav1. 5 antisense inhibition ... The effects of shortening on myoplasmic calcium concentration and on the action potential in mammalian ventricular muscle ... Na+ channel distribution and electrophysiological heterogeneities in guinea pig ventricular wall. Osadchii, OE; Soltysinska, E ...
Annotation score: 4 out of 5
... and Nav1.6/SCN8A and shows higher affinity for insect Nav1/para channels (site 3). Induces tonic repetitive firing of nerve ... Selectively slows channel inactivation of mammalian Nav1.1/SCN1A, Nav1.3/SCN3A, ... Ion channel impairing toxin, Neurotoxin, Toxin, Voltage-gated sodium channel impairing toxin. ... Selectively slows channel inactivation of mammalian Nav1.1/SCN1A, Nav1.3/SCN3A, and Nav1.6/SCN8A and shows higher affinity for ...
Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials
sodium channel complex. GO:0034706 9.43. SCN2A SCN1B SCN1A 12. voltage-gated sodium channel complex. GO:0001518 9.17. SCN9A ... Modulation of sodium current in mammalian cells by an epilepsy-correlated beta 1-subunit mutation. 61 6 ... voltage-gated sodium channel activity. GO:0005248 9.23. SCN9A SCN8A SCN7A SCN3A SCN2A SCN1B ... Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Beta Subunit 1. Protein Coding. 800.39. Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 6 ...
Nonbinary branching of myelinated dendrites at nodal networks on afferent terminal arbors in paddlefish electroreceptors -...
... in which each progeny dendrite started at a narrowed nodal segment expressing voltage gated sodium ion channels at high density ... Nav1.x, Kv1.1), or after migration of DiI in dendrite membranes. Branched afferent terminals formed a laminar radial radiation ... as were nodes at branch points of mammalian muscle afferents. . Hence our results on myelinated afferent nonbinary branching ... and voltage gated ion channels including NaV1.x sodium channels (Fig. 1C3, 1C4) and KV1.1 potassium channels (. not shown. ), ...
Goldin AL Diversity of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1999 Apr 30 , 868 (38-50). ... The type 1 channels (Nav1.x) share significant sequence similarity with each other,4 and all but one have been functionally ... The phylogenetic relationship of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit genes, including Scn7A can be found at [ ... The glial voltage-gated sodium channel: cell- and tissue-specific mRNA expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1992 Aug 1 , ...
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Background The Nav1.7 subtype of voltage-gated sodium channels is specifically expressed in sensory and sympathetic ganglia ... Gene expression analysis showed that that NaV 1.7 was virtually the only tetrodotoxin-sensitive NaV1 gene expressed in guinea ... After undergoing trauma, many non-mammalian organisms, including reptiles, birds, and zebrafish, are capable of regenerating ... Little is known about the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) that control neurotransmission in the parasympathetic ...
... ion channels expressed in the mammalian brain which includes 145 voltage-gated ion channels of which 40 are voltage-gated ... sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium etc.) and by their gating activity (voltage gating, ligand gating, other forms of gating ... Title: A kinetic map of the homomeric voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) family Authors: Rajnish Ranjan, Emmanuelle Logette, ... A vast amount of data on Kv channel kinetics is available in the literature. The genes coding for the Kv channels have been ...
Difference between revisions of "2012 Group Project 2" - Embryology
TTX resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1. .. 8, responsible for hyperexcitability of nociceptors. , are expressed. ... Touch receptors in mammalian skin cartoon.jpg,thumb,450px, Division of Mechanoreceptors in the Skin]]. ... resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 is expressed as early as embryonic day 17 (E17) in rat.  These channels play ... tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 is expressed as early as embryonic day 17 (E17) in rat. ,ref ...
1 - Asx options market trading hours
... that depends upon the voltage-gated Na channel (Nav1. Zudem stoßen Sie bei der körperlichen Untersuchung nicht selten auf ... The proportion of early diagnosed gastric cancers was only 37, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose E468 Cross-linked sodium carboxy ... C-Jun and a number of Jun family members were isolated from mamma- lian cells based on their abilities to homo- or ... Inactivation of Na channels d. You can choose between popular deposit methods tradiny as Credit Card, Wire Transfer, CashU and ...
RBPMS Antibody, Guinea Pig - PhosphoSolutions
2015. Expression and cellular localization of the voltage-gated calcium channel α2δ3 in the rodent retina. Journal of ... 2019. Nav1. 6 promotes inflammation and neuronal degeneration in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Journal of ... 100 µl in PBS + 0.03% sodium azide. Adequate amount of material to conduct 10-mini Western Blots. ... Recent findings show that antibodies against RBPMS are robust reagents that exclusively identify RGCs in multiple mammalian ...
Activity-induced Ca2+ signaling in perisynaptic Schwann cells of the early postnatal mouse is mediated by P2Y1 receptors and...
... inactivating Nav1.4 voltage-gated sodium channels at the NMJ, and consequently blocking the production of muscle action ... Accumulation of Nav1 mRNAs at differentiating postsynaptic sites in rat soleus muscles * MA Stocksley ... Glial cells decipher synaptic competition at the mammalian neuromuscular junction * H Darabid ... followed by activation of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC), leading to action potentials and contraction of muscle (brown ...
APP processing in Alzheimer's disease | Molecular Brain | Full Text
... including the voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1) β2 subunit, Golgi-localized membrane-bound α2,6-sialyltransferase, P-selectin ... Elements of neural adhesion molecules and a yeast vacuolar protein sorting receptor are present in a novel mammalian low ... and had subtle electrophysiological alterations in the steady-state inactivation of their voltage-gated sodium channels. They ... possibly through regulating the potassium ion channel expression, hence affecting neuronal excitability . One study using ...
Publications | neuro.ulaval.ca
Regulation of Cardiac Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel by Kinases: Roles of Protein Kinases A and C. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2017;. * ... Biophysical characterization of the Varroa destructor NaV1 sodium channel and its affinity for τ-fluvalinate insecticide. FASEB ... The making of a mammalian peroxisome, version 2.0: mitochondria get into the mix. Cell Death Differ. 2017;24(7):1148-1152. * ... A leaky voltage sensor domain of cardiac sodium channels causes arrhythmias associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. Sci Rep. ...
Skeletal muscleInactivationExtracellularAlpha subunitPotassiumSubunitProteinsGenesIsoformsMutationsSubtypesNomenclatureSelectivelyInhibitorNeuron2017Nav1.5Pharmacological2018ToxinsSubunitsConductanceNeuronsMolecularVertebrateTissue specificChannelopathiesBlockersSensoryGeneElectrophysiologicalTetrodotoxinCardiacNeuronalExcitableReceptorPotentialsPeptidesExcitabilityAntibodyBrainRolesLipidAdultPhysiologyAntibodiesFamilyPainPropertiesMembraneTargetHighSiteHuman heartFunctionHighlyBehaviorData
- Gueret, G. 2010-06-02 00:00:00 This study analyzes changes in the distribution, electrophysiological properties, and proteic composition of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) in cultured adult rat skeletal muscle fibers. (deepdyve.com)
- The action of NSTX produces minimal effect on cardiac Nav, where it exhibits about 20-60 fold lesser affinity than in Nav channels from rat skeletal muscle and rat brain. (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium channels in the adult central nervous system and heart contain β 1 through β 4 subunits, whereas sodium channels in adult skeletal muscle have only the β 1 subunit. (alomone.com)
- Site 3 binds alpha-scorpion and sea anemone toxins, which slow sodium channel inactivation. (wikipedia.org)
- By investigating the efficiency of AP propagation over Nav1.8 channels, we find however that the specific inactivation properties of these channels significantly increase the metabolic cost of signaling in C-fibers. (frontiersin.org)
- 7 voltage-sensors to inhibit channel activation and inactivation. (psyclopeptide.com)
- Selectively slows channel inactivation of mammalian Nav1.1/SCN1A, Nav1.3/SCN3A, and Nav1.6/SCN8A and shows higher affinity for insect Nav1/para channels (site 3). (uniprot.org)
- NSTX blocks the extracellular portion, the outer vestibule, of some voltage gated sodium channels in a very powerful and reversible manner, without affection of other ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium-channel proteins in the mammalian brain are composed of an association that include one alpha subunit and one or more auxiliary beta subunits. (wikipedia.org)
- Former five, but more recently, six neurotoxin receptor sites have been recognized between the seven receptor site located in the vertebrate sodium channel receptor alpha subunit: Site 1 binds the sodium channel blockers tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. (wikipedia.org)
- The phylogenetic relationship of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit genes, including Scn7A can be found at  . (epfl.ch)
- See figure 1 in Goldin 2000  for a transmembrane folding diagram displaying the structure of a generic voltage gated sodium alpha subunit. (epfl.ch)
- Owing to the well-defined three-dimensional structure and ability to inhibit voltage-gated sodium (Na V ), potassium (K V ) and calcium (Ca V ) ion channels with high potency and selectivity, disulfide-rich peptide toxins have attracted much attention as potential analgesics. (psyclopeptide.com)
- They are classified in terms of which ion passes through the channel (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium etc.) and by their gating activity (voltage gating, ligand gating, other forms of gating). (epfl.ch)
- There are more than 350 different ion channels expressed in the mammalian brain which includes 145 voltage-gated ion channels of which 40 are voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. (epfl.ch)
- Peptide CKRRSETTAETFTE, corresponding to amino acid residues 43-56 of rat β 1 subunit of voltage-gated Na + channels (Accession Q00954 ). (alomone.com)
- 2-3 Mammalian sodium channels are heterotrimers, composed of a central, pore-forming α subunit and two auxiliary β subunits. (alomone.com)
- An important gene associated with Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus is SCN1B (Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Beta Subunit 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Developmental Biology and G-Beta Gamma Signaling . (malacards.org)
- Investigators from the University of British Columbia, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, and the National Hospital reported their findings on neurotransmitter deficiencies in two patients with mutations in voltage-gated sodium genes (SCN2A and SCN8A) discovered by whole exome sequencing. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Evolution and diversity of mammalian sodium channel genes. (epfl.ch)
- The genes coding for the Kv channels have been cloned and studied in cell lines for many decades. (epfl.ch)
- 9-11 Loss, or function mutations in Na V 1.7 channels, leads to complete ablation of pain perception in humans. (alomone.com)
- Hyperexcitability and mutations of sodium channels are responsible for perception and transmission of inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. (mdpi.com)
- In this study examined a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of IBS patients for SCN5A missense mutations, and compared them to IBS negative controls, and determined the resulting NaV1. (readbyqxmd.com)
- In this review, we describe the current knowledge of µ-CTX interacting with the different sodium channels subtypes, the mechanism of action and their potential therapeutic use as analgesic compounds in the clinical management of pain conditions. (mdpi.com)
- Animal toxins are structurally diverse peptides that are highly potent yet selective on ion channel subtypes and therefore representing valuable probes to elucidate the structures, gating properties and cellular functions of ion channels. (readbyqxmd.com)
- It inhibits multiple sodium channel subtypes but it is reported to be ~100-fold more selective for h Na V 1.7. (psyclopeptide.com)
- Nomenclature of voltage-gated sodium channels. (epfl.ch)
- ProTx-II, a selective inhibitor of NaV1.7 sodium channels, blocks action potential propagation in nociceptors. (psyclopeptide.com)
- Since then, the Hodgkin-Huxley model has been widely used to build ion channel models and to construct biologically realistic neuron models. (epfl.ch)
- Currently neuron models use generic ion channel currents representing a class of ion channels to capture electrical behavior of neurons. (epfl.ch)
- However, if the neuron was reconstructed with the specific combination of ion channels expressed in the neuron, properly modeling the kinetics of each ion channel type and their distributions, then it would be valid to trace casual events down to specific ion channels. (epfl.ch)
- Moreover, often ion channel kinetics are tweaked to accurately capture neuron electrical behavior resulting in significantly altered ion channel models. (epfl.ch)
- Published online 2017 January 5. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- After 4 days of culture, an increase of the NaV1.5 channel type was observed. (deepdyve.com)
- These channels exhibited increased activation time constant (τm) and reduced conductance, similar to what has been observed in denervated muscles in vivo, where the density of NaV1.5 was increasing progressively after denervation. (deepdyve.com)
- Our data evidenced an increase in NaV1.5 channels and the involvement of β subunits in the regulation of sodium current and fiber excitability. (deepdyve.com)
- The SCN5A-encoded voltage-gated mechanosensitive sodium (Na(+)) channel NaV1.5 is expressed in human GI smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Voltage-gated sodium channels are established pharmacological targets for local anesthetics and many other drugs with shared mechanisms of action including certain anti-arrhythmic and anti-epilepsy agents. (frontiersin.org)
- Site 4 binds beta-scorpion toxins, which affect sodium channel activation. (wikipedia.org)
- Toxins such as neosaxitoxin and tetrodotoxin have less affinity for most cardiac Nav channels than for most Nav channels in nerve tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- ProTx-II conforms to the inhibitory cystine knot (ICK) 2 motif, a common structural fold among spider toxins targeting ion channels. (psyclopeptide.com)
- The tarantula toxins ProTx-II and HWTX-IV differentially interact with human Nav1. (psyclopeptide.com)
- Nine types of alpha subunits have been described (Nav1.1 to Nav1.9), and a tenth related isoform (Nax) may also play some role as a Nav channel. (wikipedia.org)
- At day 7, τh was back to normal and τm still increased, in agreement with a decrease in sodium current and conductance at day 4 and normalization at day 7. (deepdyve.com)
- The conceptual transition from conductivity (per surface area) to density of channels, with each channel having only two possible conductance value corresponding to its open and closed states, involves investigating the effects of possible non-uniformities in the distribution of ion channels across the membrane. (frontiersin.org)
- In landmark papers of 1952, Hodgkin and Huxley developed a mathematical model of ion conductance to demonstrate the role of ion channels in the electrical behavior of excitable nerve cells. (epfl.ch)
- Thus, like many other neuronal channels and receptors, Nav channels predated neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- 11 These recent findings highlight the role of this Na V isoform and the subset of DRG neurons that express this channel in physiological pain sensation. (alomone.com)
- The number of ion channels on the surface of neurons' membrane is usually thought to be large enough to justify combining the individual channel conductances into a continuous measure of overall conductivity ( Dayan and Abbott, 2001 ), as originally done by Hodgkin and Huxley (1952) . (frontiersin.org)
- As the electrical properties of these model neurons faithfully capture those of real neurons, we can trace the causal events of an emergent phenomena down to individual neurons, but we cannot go further down to specific ion channels. (epfl.ch)
- Recent molecular anatomy showed that in C-fibers, the very thin (0.1 μm diameter) axons of the peripheral nervous system, Nav1.8 channels are clustered together on lipid rafts that float in the cell membrane. (frontiersin.org)
- Molecular cloning of an atypical voltage-gated sodium channel expressed in human heart and uterus: evidence for a distinct gene family. (epfl.ch)
- Invertebrates possess two Nav channels (Nav1 and Nav2), whereas vertebrate Nav channels are of the Nav1 family. (wikipedia.org)
- The glial voltage-gated sodium channel: cell- and tissue-specific mRNA expression. (epfl.ch)
- Genetic disorders that disrupt the function of these channels produce an array of Na(+) channelopathies resulting in neuronal impairment, chronic pain, neuromuscular pathologies, and cardiac arrhythmias. (readbyqxmd.com)
- This chapter outlines sodium channel models with local anesthetics, anticonvulsants, and antiarrhythmics, which are used to manage pain and treat sodium channelopathies. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Local anesthetic receptor site binds local anesthetics, antiarrhythmic drugs and antiepileptic drugs NSTX and other site 1 blockers have high affinity (very low dissociation constant) and high specificity for Nav channels. (wikipedia.org)
- The Research Pack contains all you need for Na V 1.7 research: Antibodies recognizing different domains of the channel, a classical Na V channel activator and Na V 1.7 specific blockers, all in one economical package! (alomone.com)
- Metoprolol and nadolol did not block Na V 1.5 indicating that sodium channel block is not a class effect of β-blockers. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we report a new clinical case of debilitating itch and altered pain perception resulting from the heterozygous de novo p.L811P gain-of-function mutation in Na V 1.9, a voltage-gated sodium (Na V ) channel subtype that relays sensory information from the periphery to the spine. (jci.org)
- However, the majority of these models are generic Kv channel models which do not represent the kinetics of gene specific ion channel. (epfl.ch)
- Earlier in vitro electrophysiological studies of the effects of propranolol on heart rate and conduction performed in frog atria, rat and canine ventricular myocytes suggested that the drug might be interacting with sodium channels. (frontiersin.org)
- 4-5 The Na V channels are classified into two groups according to their sensitivity to Tetrodotoxin (TTX): TTX-sensitive (Na V 1.1, Na V 1.2, Na V 1.3, Na V 1.4, Na V 1.6 and Na V 1.7) and TTX-resistant (Na V 1.5, Na V 1.8 and Na V 1.9). (alomone.com)
- We directly tested the effects of propranolol on heterologously expressed recombinant human cardiac (Na V 1.5) and brain (Na V 1.1, Na V 1.2, Na V 1.3) sodium channels using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. (frontiersin.org)
- Our findings establish sodium channels as targets for propranolol and may help explain some beneficial effects of the drug in treating cardiac arrhythmias, and may explain certain adverse central nervous system effects. (frontiersin.org)
- These, by inducing the entrance of sodium ions in the cell, modulate the neuronal excitability by depolarizing plasma membrane and propagating the action potential. (mdpi.com)
- CK2 is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has many bona fide substrates that are crucial in neuronal or glial homeostasis and signaling processes across synapses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Voltage-gated sodium (Na(+)) channels are expressed in virtually all electrically excitable tissues and are essential for muscle contraction and the conduction of impulses within the peripheral and central nervous systems. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Ion channel kinetics are considered among the essential data needed for obtaining a biologically accurate reconstruction of excitable cells. (epfl.ch)
- Pingle SC, Matta JA, Ahern GP (2007) Capsaicin receptor: TRPV1 a promiscuous TRP channel. (springer.com)
- Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na V ) are essential for the generation of action potentials and for cell excitability. (alomone.com)
- hypothesized that action potentials could be propagated along thin ( d ≈ 0.2 μm) axons by "jumping" between individual Na + channels placed a few microns apart. (frontiersin.org)
- ProTx II inhibits current by shifting the voltage dependence of activation to more depolarized potentials. (psyclopeptide.com)
- Furthermore, differently from other peptides that may be subjected to poor absorption, proteolysis and biological half-lives, the presence of disulfide bonds confers to CTX a sort of stability based on the cross-linking between the cysteine side chains [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
- ICK peptides are defined by a 1-4, 2-5, 3-6 cystine connectivity and often have limited regular secondary structure. (psyclopeptide.com)
- Nav channels form the basis for electrical excitability in animals. (wikipedia.org)
- Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min). (alomone.com)
- Finally, we observed that brain sodium channels exhibited less sensitivity to R-(+)-propranolol than Na V 1.5 channels. (frontiersin.org)
- Site 2 binds lipid-soluble sodium channel activators such as veratridine. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, we modeled biophysically realistic unmyelinated axons with both conventional and lipid-raft based organization of Na + channels. (frontiersin.org)
- CK2 also phosphorylates and inactivates the lipid phosphatase PTEN which, by dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), reverses the activation of the AKT pathway [ 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Interaction of tarantula venom peptide ProTx-II with lipid membranes is a prerequisite for its inhibition of human voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1. (psyclopeptide.com)
- Our model is a useful tool to study the effects of denervation in adult muscle fibers in vitro and the expression of sodium channels. (deepdyve.com)
- Voltage-gated", also called "voltage-sensitive" and "voltage-dependent" sodium channel also known as "VGSCs" or "Nav channel" are crucial elements of normal physiology in a variety of animals, including flies, leeches, squid and jellyfish, as well as mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
- 2010). Recent findings show that antibodies against RBPMS are robust reagents that exclusively identify RGCs in multiple mammalian species (Rodriguez et al. (phosphosolutions.com)
- the ca(2+) channel-targeting spider toxin (cst) family. (uniprot.org)
- ProTx II has the potency to inhibit the human voltage-gate sodium channel 1.7 (hNa V 1.7), which is involved in nociception and might have potential as a pain therapeutic. (psyclopeptide.com)
-  None of these channels have been expressed in an exogenous system before 1999, so that it was not possible to draw any conclusions about the properties of these channels before 1999. (epfl.ch)
- Some studies have pointed out that ProTx-II acts by binding to the membrane-embedded voltage sensor domain of h Na V 1.7, but the exact mechanism of action has not been explored clearly. (psyclopeptide.com)
- Because of their importance to the conduction of electrical signals, Na(+) channels are the target of a wide variety of local anesthetic, antiarrhythmic, anticonvulsant, and antidepressant drugs. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Site 5 binds the polyether ladder brevetoxins and ciguatoxin. (wikipedia.org)
- Most data emphasize the role of "STX resistant" Nav channel 1.5 in human heart. (wikipedia.org)
- The type 2 channels (Nav2.x) are approximately 50% identical to the type 1 channels, with significant differences in regions that are critical for channel function. (epfl.ch)
- Myelinated axons feature a highly structured distribution of voltage-gated ion channels, with a characteristic clustering of Na + channels at the nodes of Ranvier. (frontiersin.org)
- Faisal and Laughlin (2007) showed that in order to accurately model thin axons, the behavior of individual ion channels needs to be taken into account. (frontiersin.org)