Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Ear Ossicles: A mobile chain of three small bones (INCUS; MALLEUS; STAPES) in the TYMPANIC CAVITY between the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and the oval window on the wall of INNER EAR. Sound waves are converted to vibration by the tympanic membrane then transmitted via these ear ossicles to the inner ear.Malleus: The largest of the auditory ossicles, and the one attached to the membrana tympani (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE). Its club-shaped head articulates with the INCUS.Incus: One of three ossicles of the middle ear. It conducts sound vibrations from the MALLEUS to the STAPES.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear: A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR. It arises from the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Ear Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Ear Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Stapes: One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Middle Ear Ventilation: Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Eustachian Tube: A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.Ear Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).Ossicular Prosthesis: An implant used to replace one or more of the ear ossicles. They are usually made of plastic, Gelfoam, ceramic, or stainless steel.Hearing Loss, Conductive: Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.Stapedius: A tiny muscle that arises from the posterior wall of the TYMPANIC CAVITY of MIDDLE EAR with its tendon inserted onto the neck of the STAPES. Stapedius pulls the stapes posteriorly and controls its movement.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Otoscopy: Examination of the EAR CANAL and eardrum with an OTOSCOPE.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Otitis Media, Suppurative: Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MonotremataFossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Platypus: A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Echidna: An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Facial NeoplasmsMammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.MuseumsBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.ArchivesMedical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
"Ear ossicle morphology of the Jurassic euharamiyidan Arboroharamiya and evolution of mammalian middle ear". Journal of ... A description of the middle ear ossicles of Arboroharamiya will be published by Meng et al. (2018). Darin A. Croft; Russell K. ... Leonardo Kerber; Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra (2018). "Morphology of the middle ear ossicles in the rodent Perimys ( ... Matthew J. Mason; Nigel C. Bennett; Martin Pickford (2018). "The middle and inner ears of the Palaeogene golden mole ...
Paleontologists regard this as a defining characteristic of mammalian fossils. Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles ... In mammals, the articular bone has migrated to the middle ear to become the malleus, while the quadrate bone becomes the incus ...
These bones form the middle ear in later mammal groups (see Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles), they include the incus ( ... In Mesozoic mammals these bones gradually change position and size until they are incorporated in the middle ear. Zhe-Xi Luo ... 2011 Developmental patterns in Mesozoic evolution of mammal ears. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 42, 355 ...
Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles DeBraga, M. and Carroll, R.L., 1993. The origin of mosasaurs as a model of ... In mammals the articular and quadrate bones have migrated to the middle ear and are known as the malleus and incus. This ... while the posterior part of that cartilage is ossified and then detaches from the rest of the cartilage to enter the middle ear ...
Evolution of mammalian features[edit]. Jaws and middle ears[edit]. See also: Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles ... This accelerated the development of the mammalian middle ear.. *The increase in the size of the olfactory lobes of the brain ... this animal had a pre-mammalian jaw joint formed by the angular and quadrate bones and that the definitive mammalian middle ear ... the much reduced size of the quadrate bone was an important step in the development of the mammalian jaw joint and middle ear. ...
... which in modern mammals has moved into the middle ear and become part of the ear ossicles as malleus and incus, is still to be ... Nevertheless, its lower jaw retains some of the bones found in its non-mammalian ancestors in a very reduced form rather than ... "The middle ear and jaw articulation of Morganucodon" pages 107-112 Mammals of the Mesozoic: The least mammal-like mammals Close ... There is currently controversy about whether or not to classify Morganucodon as a mammal or as a non-mammalian mammaliaform. ...
The definitive mammalian middle ear and the elongated cochlea allows for better sensitivity for higher frequencies. As in all ... lepidosaurs and archosaurs, the single-ossicle (columellar) middle ear transmits sound to the footplate of the columella, which ... The ear itself contains different portions, including the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear and all of these show ... Land vertebrates evolved middle ears independently in each major lineage, and are this the result of parallel evolution. The ...
Functionally, the mammalian middle ear is very similar to the single-ossicle ear of non-mammals, except that it responds to ... Mammals are unique in having evolved a three-ossicle middle-ear independently of the various single-ossicle middle ears of ... If middle ear pressure remains low, the ear drum may become retracted into the middle ear . One of the functions of the ... The middle ear efficiency peaks at a frequency of around 1 kHz. The combined transfer function of the outer ear and middle ear ...
... and therefore that Teinolophos had a pre-mammalian middle ear; and therefore that the mammalian middle ear ossicles evolved ... The mammalian middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles: malleus, incus, and stapes. The ossicles are a ... "Ear Ossicle Morphology of the Jurassic Euharamiyidan Arboroharamiya and Evolution of Mammalian Middle Ear". Journal of ... and middle ear (with stapes as the only ossicles) to the modern mammalian anatomy. Natural selection could be a factor in the ...
... might have been the first animal to have a nearly fully mammalian middle ear. It is the earliest known example of ... Phylogeny Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles Luo, Crompton & Sun 2001, Note 1 Liddell & Scott 1940 Luo, Z.-X. (2001). "A ... including the middle-ear structure characteristic of modern mammals and a relatively large brain cavity. These features had ... then its large brain and advanced ear structure have greatly influenced the interpretation of the earliest stages of mammalian ...
Hearing Middle ear Ossicles Tensor tympani - the other major muscle in the middle ear Stapes - the other bone to which the ... The mammalian stapedius evolved from a muscle called the depressor mandibulae in other tetrapods, the function of which was to ... helping to control the amplitude of sound waves from the general external environment to the inner ear Paralysis of the ... stapedius allows wider oscillation of the stapes, resulting in heightened reaction of the auditory ossicles to sound vibration ...
ISBN 0-03-910284-X. Arensburg, B.; Harell, M.; Nathan, H. (February 1981). "The human middle ear ossicles: Morphometry, and ... The stapes is one of three ossicles in mammals. In non-mammalian four-legged animals, the bone homologous to the stapes is ... The stapes is the third bone of the three ossicles in the middle ear. The stapes is a stirrup-shaped bone, and the smallest in ... The stapes /ˈsteɪpiːz/ or stirrup is a bone in the middle ear of humans and other mammals which is involved in the conduction ...
The densities of middle ear ossicles of golden moles (family Chrysochloridae, order Afrosoricida) were measured using the ... Many mammalian systematists believed that golden moles (Chrysochloridae) were "insectivorans" along with shrews and hedgehogs. ... The middle ear of nine families of golden moles (family Chrysochloridae) were examined to see the ossicular apparatus. The ... The functional morphology of the middle ear apparatus is reconsidered in this light, and it is proposed that adaptations ...
The malleus is one of three ossicles in the middle ear which transmit sound from the tympanic membrane (ear drum) to the inner ... Bone terminology Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles Ligaments of malleus Terms for anatomical location hednk-023-Embryo ... The malleus /ˈmæliəs/ or hammer is a hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is ... The malleus is a bone situated in the middle ear. It is the first of the three ossicles, and attached to the tympanic membrane ...
Definitive mammalian middle earEdit. The mammalian middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles: malleus, incus, ... and therefore that Teinolophos had a pre-mammalian middle ear; and therefore that the mammalian middle ear ossicles evolved ... "Ear Ossicle Morphology of the Jurassic Euharamiyidan Arboroharamiya and Evolution of Mammalian Middle Ear". Journal of ... This intermediate middle ear phenotype is referred to as the partial (or transitional) mammalian middle ear.[42] Maintaining a ...
Morphological differences in the middle ear are observed between species. Ossicles within green finches, blackbirds, song ... As with the mammalian larynx, sound is produced by the vibration of air flowing across the organ. The syrinx enables some ... The middle avian ear is made up of three semicircular canals, each ending in an ampulla and joining to connect with the macula ... Mills, Robert (March 1994). "Applied comparative anatomy of the avian middle ear" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Society of ...
For example, the specimens show evidence of a typical mammalian middle ear, the area just inside the eardrum that turns ... with a groove for ear ossicles on the dentary. They are the longest lived mammalian clade of all time. However, a more recent ... The middle ears of mammals are unique in that they have three bones, as evidenced in the new fossils. Order †Haramiyida Hahn, ... A Jurassic gliding euharamiyidan mammal with an ear of five auditory bones, Nature doi:10.1038/nature24483 Anantharaman, S.; ...
... increasing the sound pressure in the middle frequency range. The middle-ear ossicles further amplify the vibration pressure ... The plan view of the human cochlea (typical of all mammalian and most vertebrates) shows where specific frequencies occur along ... At the far end of the ear canal is the tympanic membrane, which marks the beginning of the middle ear. Sound waves travel ... The stapedius reflex of the middle ear muscles helps protect the inner ear from damage by reducing the transmission of sound ...
Mammals have three little bones in their inner ear, the ear ossicles. The ear ossicles are bones which were, long ago, part of ... fundamental mammalian biology. The essence of mammalian life is to be found in their endothermic temperature physiology, ... In this system, eggs are released from the ovaries mostly in the middle of the cycle, away from the menstrual period. This ... Their inner ear has three tiny bones, the ossicles: malleus, incus and stapes. ...
A microphone placed in the baby's ear canal will pick up the inner ear's response to sound stimulation and allows for ... The ossicles which are connected to the eardrum pass the vibrations to the fluid-filled cochlea. Once the vibrations reach the ... In insect and mammalian taste, receptor cells changes into attractive or aversive stimulus. The number of taste receptors in a ... at the base of the basilar membrane while medium frequency sounds cause vibrations of auditory hair cells located at the middle ...
... "ear" often refers to the external part alone. The middle ear includes the tympanic cavity and the three ossicles. The inner ear ... The complex geometry of ridges on the inner surface of some mammalian ears helps to sharply focus sounds produced by prey, ... The human ear consists of three parts-the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. The ear canal of the outer ear is separated from ... In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts-the outer ear, middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear ...
In the ear-the lenticular process of the incus is a sesamoid bone and therefore is considered the fourth ossicle of the middle ... Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 23 (3): 309-317. doi:10.1007/s10914-015-9314-9. ISSN 1064-7554. Gray's Anatomy (1918) (Bartleby ... ear. One or both of the sesamoid bones under the first metatarsophalangeal joint (of the great toe) can be multipartite - in ...
Jin Meng; Yuanqing Wang; Chuankui Li (2011). "Transitional mammalian middle ear from a new Cretaceous Jehol eutriconodont". ... Gobiconodonts had a modern ear anatomy, the main difference from therians being that the ear ossicles were still somewhat ... Like many other non-therian mammals, gobiconodonts retained classical mammalian synapomorphies like epipubic bones (and likely ... Thomas Martin; Alexander O. Averianov (2006). "A previously unrecognized group of Middle Jurassic triconodontan mammals from ...
Jin Meng; Yuanqing Wang; Chuankui Li (2011). "Transitional mammalian middle ear from a new Cretaceous Jehol eutriconodont". ... Eutriconodonts had a modern ear anatomy, the main difference from therians being that the ear ossicles were still somewhat ... The authors stated that such placement of eutriconodonts is less likely than their placement within the mammalian crown group, ... Chang-Fu Zhou; Shaoyuan Wu; Thomas Martin; Zhe-Xi Luo (2013). "A Jurassic mammaliaform and the earliest mammalian evolutionary ...
... of the three-ossicle middle ear, of hair, and of mammary glands. By the end of the Triassic, there were many species that ... Nevertheless, mammalian megafauna never quite reached the skyscraper heights of some sauropods. Nonetheless, large reptiles ... and several mammalian groups, placental and marsupial mammals diversified into many new forms and ecological niches throughout ... which evolved in the early Triassic and in the Middle Triassic respectively - is more controversial. Different authors linked ...
A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is a scientific instrument that is used to make non-contact vibration measurements of a surface. The laser beam from the LDV is directed at the surface of interest, and the vibration amplitude and frequency are extracted from the Doppler shift of the reflected laser beam frequency due to the motion of the surface. The output of an LDV is generally a continuous analog voltage that is directly proportional to the target velocity component along the direction of the laser beam. Some advantages of an LDV over similar measurement devices such as an accelerometer are that the LDV can be directed at targets that are difficult to access, or that may be too small or too hot to attach a physical transducer. Also, the LDV makes the vibration measurement without mass-loading the target, which is especially important for MEMS devices. A vibrometer is generally a two beam laser interferometer that measures the frequency (or phase) difference between an internal reference beam ...
The pressure of fluid in an infected middle ear onto the eardrum may cause it to rupture. Usually this consists of a small hole (perforation), which allows fluid to drain out. If this does not occur naturally, a myringotomy (tympanotomy, tympanostomy) can be performed. A myringotomy is a surgical procedure in which a tiny incision is created in the eardrum to relieve pressure caused by excessive buildup of fluid, or to drain pus from the middle ear. The fluid or pus comes from a middle ear infection (otitis media), which is a common problem in children. A tympanostomy tube is inserted into the eardrum to keep the middle ear aerated for a prolonged time and to prevent reaccumulation of fluid. Without the ...
As the dentary continued to enlarge during the Triassic, the older quadrate-articular joint fell out of use. Some of the bones were lost, but the quadrate (which is directly connected to the stapes), the articular (connected to the quadrate) and the angular (connected to the articular) became free-floating and associated with the stapes. This occurred at least twice in the mammaliformes ("almost-mammals"). The Multituberculates, which lived from about 160M years ago (mid-Jurassic) to about 35M years ago (early Oligocene) had jaw joints that consisted of only the dentary and squamosal bones, and the quadrate and articular bones were part of the middle ear; but other features of their teeth, jaws and skulls are significantly different from those of mammals.[26][39]. In the lineage most closely related to mammals, the jaws of Hadrocodium (about 195M ...
... , also known as a grommet or myringotomy tube, is a small tube inserted into the eardrum in order to keep the middle ear aerated for a prolonged period of time, and to prevent the accumulation of fluid in the middle ear. The operation to insert the tube involves a myringotomy and is performed under local or general anesthesia. The tube itself is made in a variety of designs. The most commonly used type is shaped like a grommet. When it is necessary to keep the middle ear ventilated for a very long period, a "T"-shaped tube may be used, as these "T-tubes" can stay in place for 2-4 years. Materials used to construct the tube are most often plastics such as silicone or Teflon. Stainless steel tubes exist, but are no longer in frequent use. Guidelines state that tubes are an option in: ...
When rapid ambient pressure increase occurs as in diving or aircraft descent, this pressure tends to hold the Eustachian tubes closed, preventing pressure equalization across the ear drum, with painful results.[4][5][6] To avoid this painful situation, divers, caisson workers and aircrew attempt to open the Eustachian tubes by swallowing, which tends to open the tubes, allowing the ear to equalize itself. If this fails, then the Valsalva maneuver may be used. This maneuver, when used as a tool to equalize middle ear pressure, carries with it the risk of auditory damage from over pressurization of the middle ear.[1][5][7][8] It is safer, if time permits, to attempt to open the Eustachian tubes by swallowing a few times, or yawning, or by using the Valsalva technique of breathing a very small amount of air gently into nostrils held closed by ...
The round window is one of the two openings from the middle ear into the inner ear. It is sealed by the secondary tympanic membrane (round window membrane), which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering the inner ear through the oval window. It allows fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and that audition will occur. The round window is situated below and a little behind the oval window, from which it is separated by a rounded elevation, the promontory. It is placed at the bottom of a funnel-shaped depression (the round window niche) and, in the macerated bone, opens into the cochlea of the internal ear; in the fresh state it is closed by a membrane, the secondary tympanic membrane (Latin: membrana tympani secundaria, or membrana fenestra cochleae)) or round window ...
The majority (98%) of people with cholesteatoma have ear discharge or conductive hearing loss, or both, in the affected ear.[citation needed] Other more common conditions (e.g. otitis externa) may also present with these symptoms, but cholesteatoma is much more serious and should not be overlooked. If a patient presents to a doctor with ear discharge and hearing loss, the doctor should consider cholesteatoma until the disease is definitely excluded. Other less common symptoms (all less than 15%) of cholesteatoma may include pain, balance disruption, tinnitus, earache, headaches and bleeding from the ear. There can also be facial nerve weakness. Balance symptoms in the presence of a cholesteatoma raise the possibility that the cholesteatoma is eroding the balance organs in ...
A labyrinthine fistula is an abnormal opening in the inner ear. This can result in leakage of the perilymph into the middle ear.[1] This includes specifically a perilymph fistula (PLF), an abnormal connection between the fluid of the inner ear and the air-filled middle ear. This is caused by a rupture of the round window or oval window ligaments separating the inner and middle ear.[1] Another type of labyrinthine fistula is a semicircular canal dehiscence, which allows the inner ear to be influenced by the intracranial pressure directly. ...
Studies have shown that ear bones in mammal embryos are attached to the dentary, which is part of the lower jaw. These are ossified (turned into bone) portions of cartilage -- called Meckel's cartilage -- that are attached to the jaw. As the embryo develops, the cartilage hardens to form bone. Later in development, the bone structure breaks loose from the jaw and migrates to the inner ear area. The structure is known as the middle ear, and is made up of the incus, stapes, malleus, and tympanic membrane. These correspond to the quadrate, prearticular, articular, and angular structures in earlier land vertebrates.[1] ...
... is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes middle ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, traveler's diarrhea, and certain other intestinal infections. It may also be used for a number of sexually transmitted infections including chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Along with other medications, it may also be used for malaria. It can be taken by mouth or intravenously with doses once per day. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and upset stomach. An allergic reaction or a type of diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile is possible. No harm has been found with its use during pregnancy. Its safety during breastfeeding is not confirmed, but it is likely safe. Azithromycin is an azalide, a type of macrolide antibiotic. It works by decreasing the production of protein, thus stopping bacterial growth. Azithromycin was first made in 1980. It is on the World Health Organization's List of ...
During the early 1940s Axis engineers developed a sonic cannon that could cause fatal vibrations in its target body. A methane gas combustion chamber leading to two parabolic dishes pulse-detonated at roughly 44 Hz. This sound, magnified by the dish reflectors, caused vertigo and nausea at 200-400 metres (220-440 yd) by vibrating the middle ear bones and shaking the cochlear fluid within the inner ear. At distances of 50-200 metres (160-660 ft), the sound waves could act on organ tissues and fluids by repeatedly compressing and releasing compressive resistant organs such as the kidneys, spleen, and liver. (It had little detectable effect on malleable organs such as the heart, stomach and intestines.) Lung tissue was affected at only the closest ranges as atmospheric air is highly compressible and only the blood rich alveoli ...
The inner ear is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear. It is mainly responsible for sound detection and balance.[1] In mammals, it consists of two main working parts inside a bony labyrinth: [2] ...
當美國著名流行歌手克莉絲汀·阿奎萊拉把"同性戀"維多利亞女王的原畫,連同另外兩幅Banksy畫作以25,000鎊購入之後[25],Banksy的藝術作品拍賣紀錄於2006年10月19日創出新高,那是一套六張超級名模姬·摩絲的絲紡畫像,風格類近於安迪·華荷操刀的瑪麗蓮·夢露肖像;它在倫敦的蘇富比拍賣會上以50,400鎊的價碼銷出,成交價較拍賣的底價足足高出了五倍。然後在同一個拍賣會上,Banksy一幀綠中掛紅的《蒙羅麗莎》變調之作又以57,600鎊被有心人投得[26]。在12月,倫敦CNN國際新聞網絡的專欄作家马克斯·福斯特(英语:Max Foster)開始稱這股旋風為「Banksy效應」,來形容在他個人的成功背後,以往總是寂寂無聞的一眾街頭藝術家也終於漸漸引起社會上廣泛的注目[27]。 2007年2月21日,倫敦蘇富比拍賣行再次刷新Banksy作品的最高售出單價:價值102,000鎊的《Bombing Middle ...
Evolution of mammalian features[edit]. Jaws and middle ears[edit]. See also: Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles ... This accelerated the development of the mammalian middle ear.. *The increase in the size of the olfactory lobes of the brain ... this animal had a pre-mammalian jaw joint formed by the angular and quadrate bones and that the definitive mammalian middle ear ... the much reduced size of the quadrate bone was an important step in the development of the mammalian jaw joint and middle ear. ...
Definitive mammalian middle earEdit. The mammalian middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles: malleus, incus, ... and therefore that Teinolophos had a pre-mammalian middle ear; and therefore that the mammalian middle ear ossicles evolved ... "Ear Ossicle Morphology of the Jurassic Euharamiyidan Arboroharamiya and Evolution of Mammalian Middle Ear". Journal of ... This intermediate middle ear phenotype is referred to as the partial (or transitional) mammalian middle ear.[42] Maintaining a ...
... and therefore that Teinolophos had a pre-mammalian middle ear; and therefore that the mammalian middle ear ossicles evolved ... The mammalian middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles: malleus, incus, and stapes. The ossicles are a ... "Ear Ossicle Morphology of the Jurassic Euharamiyidan Arboroharamiya and Evolution of Mammalian Middle Ear". Journal of ... and middle ear (with stapes as the only ossicles) to the modern mammalian anatomy. Natural selection could be a factor in the ...
"Ear ossicle morphology of the Jurassic euharamiyidan Arboroharamiya and evolution of mammalian middle ear". Journal of ... A description of the middle ear ossicles of Arboroharamiya will be published by Meng et al. (2018). Darin A. Croft; Russell K. ... Leonardo Kerber; Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra (2018). "Morphology of the middle ear ossicles in the rodent Perimys ( ... Matthew J. Mason; Nigel C. Bennett; Martin Pickford (2018). "The middle and inner ears of the Palaeogene golden mole ...
2002 Ontogenetic and phylogenetic transformations of the ear ossicles in marsupial mammals. J. Morphol. 251, 219-238. (doi: ... 2011 Transitional mammalian middle ear from a new Cretaceous Jehol eutriconodont. Nature 472, 181-185. (doi:10.1038/nature09921 ... 2013 Evolution of the mammalian middle ear and jaw: adaptations and novel structures. J. Anat. 222, 147-160. (doi:10.1111/j. ... 2001 An ossified Meckels cartilage in two cretaceous mammals and origin of the mammalian middle ear. Science 294, 357-361. ( ...
It provides the link between the outside world and the inner ear, where sound is transduced and routed to the brain for ... The middle ear is a composite organ formed from all three germ layers and the neural crest. ... Non-mammalian vertebrates have a single ossicle, the columella. Mammals have three functionally equivalent ossicles, designated ... The middle ear is a composite organ formed from all three germ layers and the neural crest. It provides the link between the ...
The middle ear ossicles have to withstand the forces produced by the tympanic membrane vibrations. Thus a large mammal with a ... The extent of innervation depends on the nature of the tissue, but mammalian skin and skin-related tissues are relatively ... needs massive middle ear ossicles, which in turn results in a decreased capability for the transmission of high-frequency ... 2016). The behaviors used by bears to locate sound are described as erecting the ears while lifting the head, then visual ...
Sonderheft zum Band 70 von Mammalian Biology, S. 25.. 2004. LANGE S., BURDA H., BENNETT N. C., NEMEC P.: The use of middle ear ... Lange S., Burda H., Bennett N. C. & Nemec P. (2005): Middle ear ossicles as a diagnostic trait in African mole-rats (Rodentia: ... LANGE S., BURDA H.: Can we see what they hear? Functional morphology of the inner and middle ear in African mole-rats. 9th ... LANGE S., BURDA H.: Morphology of the middle ear in cryptic species and its value for diagnosis and eco-functional analysis. ...
... including the middle ear ossicles. The mammalian middle ear, or the area just inside the ear drum, is ringed in shape and ... where the middle ear bones are part of the mandible and the definitive middle ear of living and fossil mammals. Liaoconodon hui ... Previously discovered fossils have filled in parts of the mammalian middle-ear puzzle. An early mammal, Morganucodon that dates ... although studies of developing embryos have linked reptilian bones of the lower jaw joint to mammalian middle ear bones. ...
The evolution towards the mammalian middle ear ossicles was clearly related to the acquisition of better high frequency sound ... Yes? , , Is the posterior part of this double hinge homologous to one of the middle , , ear bones (hammer, anvil, stapes) in ... The , articular and the quadrate then migrated into the mammalian inner ear to , become the hammer and anvil, respectively. ...
... and the definitive mammalian middle ear and represents a more advanced stage in the evolution of the mammalian middle ear. From ... mandibular during chewing are likely to be one of the selection pressures that caused the detachment of the auditory ossicles ... A special feature of Origolestes is that its middle ear also retained the surangular bone, in addition to the stapes, malleus, ... among known Mesozoic mammals and provide rich and unequivocal fossil evidence for future study of the mammalian middle ear ...
Mechanisms of Mammalian Middle Ear Ossicle Transition from the Reptilian Jaw Joint. Janine Ziermann (Howard Univ. College of ... Origin of the mammalian nose. Timothy Smith (Slippery Rock Univ.). Nasal morphometry in primates: Is there a sensory trade-off ... Laura Dyer (Middle Georgia State College). BMPER-mediated BMP Signaling Promotes Cardiac Development. L. Bruno Ruest (Texas A&M ... Mammalian DRC, Ciliary, Motility and Left-Right Body Asymmetry. 2:30pm 4:30pm (Room 105). Major Transformations of the Amniote ...
The mammalian stapes is the same as that of their ancestors. But the malleus and incus have moved into the middle ear from ... Mammals, including humans, have three ear ossicles (small bones), the malleus, incus and stapes (or hammer, anvil, and stirrup ... Life is stranger than fiction: the reptilian lower jaw has been subsumed into the mammalian middle ear to enhance the hearing ... Most amazing of all is the evolutionary transition to the mammalian middle ear. ...
... auditory ossicles of the mammalian middle ear: the stapes, malleus, and incus. Using a different example, Laverack makes this ... ear canals which, through vestibular sensations, provide a sense of balance or imbalance, and (at the fetal stage) of receptors ...
Kerber, Leonardo; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R (2018). Morphology of the Middle Ear Ossicles in the Rodent Perimys( ... Evolution of the Vertebrate Ear. Germany: Springer, 207-243.. Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Werneburg, Ingmar (2016). Mammalian ... Monnet, C; Brack, P; Bucher, H; Rieber, H (2008). Ammonoids of the Middle/Late Anisian boundary (Middle Triassic) and the ... Mariotti, N; Weis, R; Di Cencio, A; Clément, A; De Baets, K (2012). New records of early Middle Jurassic belemnites in the ...
This article refers to a bone in the mammalian ear. ... The stapes or stirrup is the stirrup-shaped small bone or ossicle in ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... Inner ear ... Not all bones are interconnected directly: There are six bones in the middle ear called the ossicles (three on each side) that ... The malleus is hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is attached to the inner ...
A new developmental mechanism for the separation of the mammalian middle ear ossicles from the jaw. Urban, D. J., Anthwal, N., ...
A new developmental mechanism for the separation of the mammalian middle ear ossicles from the jaw. Urban, D. J., Anthwal, N., ... Having three ossicles in the middle ear is one of the defining features of mammals. All reptiles and birds have only one middle ... ear ossicle, the stapes or columella. How these two additional ossicles came to reside and function in the middle ear of ... The development of the mammalian outer and middle ear. Anthwal, N. & Thompson, H., Feb 2016, In : Journal of Anatomy. 228, 2, p ...
Outer ear: Pinna , Ear canal Middle ear: Eardrum , Ossicles (Malleus, Incus & Stapes) , Stapedius , Tensor tympani , Eustachian ... This article refers to a bone in the mammalian ear. ... The stapes or stirrup is the stirrup-shaped small bone or ossicle in ... is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. ... The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are ... The malleus is hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is attached to the inner ...
... became modified along with the stapes to form the three ossicles of the middle ear. What had been the amphibian ... As noted, the mammalian auditory system did not evolve from the lateral line but from from the jaw and scapula and a cluster of ... These adaptions in turn appear to have been made possible via major alterations in the brain, as well as the middle ear, which ... In any case, the therapsids became increasingly mammal like in regard to their skull, teeth, the formation of a middle ear, and ...
The tiny middle ear bones, or ossicles (the malleus, incus and stapes), have to be able to withstand the greater forces ... Large tympanic membranes do, however, present a problem: Mammalian tympanic membranes are extremely thin and the risk of ... the membrane that closes the middle ear off from the exterior) and spacious middle ears. How do these three factors favour ... In normal air-conducted hearing sound waves set the tympanic membrane and the middle ear bones (or ossicles) in vibration, thus ...
... evolved their distinct ear and jaw bones. The multiple part jaw bones of reptiles somehow evolved into the ear bones of mammals ... The ear bones of an ancient, extinct mammal from china hold the key to how humans (and other mammals) ... "transitional mammalian middle ear" because it has a number of differences from the mammalian ear. The definitive mammalian ear ... As sound waves hit the ear drum, these waves are transferred through three tiny bones, or ossicles. Each of these bones serves ...
The three-ossicle mammalian middle ear is very different from that of other land tetrapods, which possess a single ossicle, the ... The air-filled cavity and ossicles of the mammalian middle ear conduct sound to the cochlea. Using transgenic mice, we show ... The mammalian middle ear is an air-filled cavity housed within the auditory bulla with three ossicles suspended within it, ... unlike the heterogeneous mammalian middle ear epithelium, no regional differences were found in the avian middle ear epithelium ...
... tightly connected parts of the ear adapt independently to the amazingly diverse functional and environmental regimes ... This evolutionary transformation of the primary jaw joint into the mammalian ear ossicles is one of the most iconic transitions ... the inner and middle ears achieve their final size already before or early after birth, which further challenges evolutionary ... "Evolution of the mammalian ear: An evolvability hypothesis". DOI: doi.org/10.1007/s11692-020-09502-0 ...
A new developmental mechanism for the separation of the mammalian middle ear ossicles from the jaw. Proc Biol Sci. 2017 Feb 8; ... 4.1 A new developmental mechanism for the separation of the mammalian middle ear ossicles from the jaw ... Multiple mammalian lineages independently evolved a definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) through breakdown of Meckels ... indicating that changes in TGF-β signalling might be key during mammalian evolution. Furthermore, the apoptosis that we observe ...
  • A human ear (also called auricle or pinna) The ear is the sense organ that detects sound. (statemaster.com)
  • The external ear consists of the pinna 3 and the ear canal. (al-islam.org)
  • The pinna is made of cartilage and is so formed as to act as a receiving antenna in charge of guiding the incoming sound waves towards the ear canal. (al-islam.org)
  • 1) Pinna or auricle - the outside part of the ear. (al-islam.org)
  • In most animals, the visible ear is a flap of tissue that is also called the pinna . (wikidoc.org)
  • The pinna may be all that shows of the ear, but it serves only the first of many steps in hearing and plays no role in the sense of balance. (wikidoc.org)
  • Although the word "ear" may properly refer to the pinna (the flesh covered cartilage appendage on either side of the head), this portion of the ear is not vital for hearing. (wikidoc.org)
  • Henry's pocket is a pretty great anatomical term, and there's another one for the tufts of fur that grow on the interior of cat's pinnae-they're called "ear furnishings" by cat fanciers and breeders. (petmd.com)
  • Mutants exhibit enlarged ear pinnae with a distinctive ventrolateral shift. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In early postnatal mice, the future middle ear cavity is filled with neural crest cells surrounding the developing ossicles, which are positioned in the dorsal region of the future cavity (the attic), in addition to mesodermal cells that will mature to form the middle ear muscles. (willcov.com)
  • In the chick and gecko, no rupture of the endoderm during middle ear development was observed using histology, and mesenchyme did not enter the cavity, which remained air-filled. (willcov.com)
  • In contrast, in another mammal, the shrew, a similar filling of the middle ear cavity to that in the mouse was observed during development. (willcov.com)
  • As the neural crest derived epithelium is simple and unciliated, its function to clear away mucus and debris efficiently would be limited, compared to the endodermally derived epithelium, which provides a logical explanation for why middle ear infections are more common and more severe in the neural crest lined attic than in the ventral endoderm lined region of the cavity. (willcov.com)
  • A finite element modeling approach will be used to test the hypothesis that the complex shape of the human middle-ear cavity functions to break up resonant modes that would otherwise decrease hearing sensitivity at specific resonant frequencies. (grantome.com)
  • It has an enlarged cranial cavity, but no postdentary trough on the mandible, indicating separation of the middle ear bones from the mandible. (nih.gov)
  • The ear muscles are supplied by the facial nerve , which also supplies sensation to the skin of the ear itself, as well as to the external ear cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • ShareThis Willis, K. L. , J. Christensen-Dalsgaard , D. R. Ketten , and C. E. Carr , ' Middle ear cavity morphology is consistent with an aquatic origin for testudines ', PLOS One, vol. 8, issue 1:e54086, 01/2013. (whoi.edu)
  • Otitis media refers to an infection that leads to the accumulation of fluid in the middle ear cavity. (78stepshealth.us)
  • The aim of this study was to conduct a review of studies that describe the discomaleolar ligament and determine if an anatomically and functionally independent structure and its relation to the middle ear is considered. (bvsalud.org)
  • But first, to tell the story, we have to know just a bit about the human ear. (blogspot.com)
  • The human ear can generally hear sounds with frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz (the audio range) . (wikidoc.org)
  • This video describes the examination of the ear, beginning with a review of its surface and interior anatomy ( Figure 1 ). (jove.com)
  • Described by Jin Meng, Yuanqing Wang, and Chuankui Li in Nature last week, the ear anatomy of this small, Early Cretaceous creature had an intermediate arrangement. (wired.com)
  • Anatomy of the petrosal and middle ear of the brown rat, Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) (Rodentia, Muridae). (carnegiemnh.org)
  • The ear is part of the auditory system . (wikidoc.org)
  • Mechanism unknown ( neural excitation within auditory auditory system ) May be peripheral or central Etiology Tinnitus with CHL 1- Ear wax. (studyres.com)
  • In reality, both place and temporal cues may be processed differentially at various levels of the auditory system as the information passes from the sensory epithelia of the ear to the auditory nuclei of the brainstem, and on to the mid- and forebrain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All non-mammalian tetrapods use this system including amphibians , turtles , lizards , snakes , crocodilians , dinosaurs (including the birds ), ichthyosaurs , pterosaurs and therapsids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lange, S., Stalleicken, J. & Burda, H. (2004): Functional Morphology of the Ear in Fossorial Rodents, Microtus arvalis and Arvicola terrestris . (uni-due.de)
  • And it fortunately preserved the delicate morphology of the ear ossicles [bones]," study researcher Jin Meng, of the American Museum of Natural History, said. (livescience.com)
  • One of the things that we struggle with in patients who have middle ear infections is that cats have a septum , like a bony shelf, that separates their middle ear into two compartments," says Dr. Christine Cain, the section chief of dermatology and allergy at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. (petmd.com)
  • They suggest that the incorporation of the bones of the primary jaw joint into the ear has considerably increased the genetic, regulatory, and developmental complexity of the mammalian ear, which, in turn, has increased the degrees of freedom for an independent adaptation of the different functional ear units. (newswise.com)
  • The incorporation of the bones of the primary jaw joint into the ear has considerably increased the genetic, regulatory, and developmental complexity of the mammalian ear. (newswise.com)
  • It is well known that the morphometry of the middle ear plays a key role in sound transmission, but the lack of knowledge about the relationships between middle-ear structures and sound transmission has resulted in unsatisfactory and variable outcomes of middle-ear repairs, particularly at high frequencies where sound localization cues may be important for hearing in noisy situations. (grantome.com)
  • ABR threshold measurements and pathological structures in Six1 +/- adult mouse ears. (biologists.org)
  • A search was performed of scientific literature identified articles where the anatomical structures associated with the temporomandibular joint and the middle ear were identified, 24 articles were selected according to the selection criteria. (bvsalud.org)
  • The fossil is particularly complete, and its skull was prepared from both dorsal and ventral sides, allowing Meng and colleagues to see that the incus and malleus have detached from the lower jaw to form part of the middle ear. (amnh.org)
  • The skull of an ancient mammal-like creature shows an intermediate jaw and ear development. (livescience.com)
  • An obvious change is the thickening of the skull elements as ontogeny progresses -- particularly the bones that surround the braincase and the ear region (contrast the thickness of the bones in the unreduced coronal slice #401 in day 27 and the unreduced coronal slice #390 in day 90, shown below). (digimorph.org)
  • 5. White cats with blue eyes have higher than normal incidences of congenital deafness due to genetic anomalies that result in the degeneration of some of the important sensory parts of the ear. (petmd.com)
  • Acquired conductive deafness may result from otitis externa, otitis media, excess cerumen production, or congenital defects in the ossicles (rare). (vin.com)
  • Patients with BOR syndrome and ear and branchial defects can be easily identified in early childhood, whereas more time is required for identifying kidney defects [ 5 , 6 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • At this time the sense organs also acquire the protection of delicate cartilaginous sensory capsules, the olfactory, optic, and otic capsules associated with the nasal pits, eyes, and internal ears respectively. (sci-books.org)
  • Findings of age-related inhibitory changes within mammalian auditory circuits are similar to age and deafferentation plasticity changes observed in other sensory systems. (biologists.org)
  • A study on the morphological diversity of sparassodonts and its implications for the structure of the terrestrial carnivore guild from the middle Cenozoic of South America is published by Croft et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • This extends the earliest record of these crucial mammalian features by some 45 million years and suggests that separation of the middle ear bones from the mandible and the expanded brain vault could be correlated. (nih.gov)
  • A late Middle Pleistocene Denisovan mandible from the Tibetan Plateau. (mpg.de)
  • Paleontologists from the American Museum of Natural History and the Chinese Academy of Sciences announce the discovery of Liaoconodon hui, a complete fossil mammal from the Mesozoic found in China that includes the long-sought transitional middle ear. (amnh.org)
  • There is currently controversy about whether or not to classify Morganucodon as a mammal or as a non-mammalian mammaliaform. (alchetron.com)
  • Palaeontologists have announced the discovery of Liaoconodon hui , a complete fossil mammal from the Mesozoic found in China that includes the long-sought transitional middle ear. (wordpress.com)
  • From the Middle Jurassic coal-bed of northeastern China was reported the first Chinese Mesozoic mammal, Manchurodon. (prehistoriclife.xyz)