Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Liquid components of living organisms.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
A sulfamyl diuretic.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)

Fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride. (1/268)

The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans have been observed. The cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. Secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. The results confirm that fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of this insect is dependent on the active transport of sodium ions and show that Na+/k+ exchange pumps are not involved in this process.  (+info)

Contributions of K+:Cl- cotransport and Na+/K+-ATPase to basolateral ion transport in malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster. (2/268)

Mechanisms of Na+ and K+ transport across the basolateral membrane of isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster were studied by examining the effects of ion substitution and putative inhibitors of specific ion transporters on fluid secretion rates, basolateral membrane potential and secreted fluid cation composition. Inhibition of fluid secretion by [(dihydroindenyl)oxy]alkanoic acid (DIOA) and bumetanide (10(-)4 mol l-1) suggested that a K+:Cl- cotransporter is the main route for K+ entry into the principal cells of the tubules. Differences in the effects of bumetanide on fluxes of K+ and Na+ are inconsistent with effects upon a basolateral Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter. Large differences in electrical potential across apical (>100 mV, lumen positive) and basolateral (<60 mV, cell negative) cell membranes suggest that a favourable electrochemical gradient for Cl- entry into the cell may be used to drive K+ into the cell against its electrochemical gradient, via a DIOA-sensitive K+:Cl- cotransporter. A Na+/K+-ATPase was also present in the basolateral membrane of the Malpighian tubules. Addition of 10(-)5 to 10(-)3 mol l-1 ouabain to unstimulated tubules depolarized the basolateral potential, increased the Na+ concentration of the secreted fluid by 50-73 % and increased the fluid secretion rate by 10-19 %, consistent with an increased availability of intracellular Na+. We suggest that an apical vacuolar-type H+-ATPase and a basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase are both stimulated by cyclic AMP. In cyclic-AMP-stimulated tubules, K+ entry is stimulated by the increase in the apical membrane potential, which drives K+:Cl- cotransport at a faster rate, and by the stimulation of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Fluid secretion by cyclic-AMP-stimulated tubules was reduced by 26 % in the presence of ouabain, suggesting that the Na+/K+-ATPase plays a minor role in K+ entry into the tubule cells. Malpighian tubules secreted a Na+-rich (150 mmol l-1) fluid at high rates when bathed in K+-free amino-acid-replete saline (AARS). Secretion in K+-free AARS was inhibited by amiloride and bafilomycin A1, but not by bumetanide or hydrochlorothiazide, which inhibit Na+:Cl- cotransport. There was no evidence for a Na+ conductance in the basolateral membrane of unstimulated or cyclic-AMP-stimulated tubules. Possible mechanisms of Na+ entry into the tubule cells include cotransport with organic solutes such as amino acids and glucose.  (+info)

A cell surface mucin specifically expressed in the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. (3/268)

An invertebrate intestinal mucin gene, AgMuc1, was isolated from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The predicted 122-residue protein consists of a central core of seven repeating TTTTVAP motifs flanked by hydrophobic N- and C-terminal domains. This structure is similar to that of mucins that coat the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Northern blot analysis indicated that the gene is expressed exclusively in the midgut of adult mosquitoes. A length polymorphism and in situ hybridization were used to genetically and cytogenetically map AgMuc1 to division 7A of the right arm of the second chromosome. The subcellular localization of the encoded protein in tissue culture cells was examined by using a baculovirus vector to express AgMuc1 protein tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The results indicated that this protein is found at the cell surface and that both hydrophobic domains are required for cell surface targeting. We propose that AgMuc1 is an abundant mucin-like protein that lines the surface of the midgut microvilli, potentially protecting the intestinal epithelium from the proteinase-rich environment of the gut lumen. An intriguing possibility is that, as an abundant surface protein, AgMuc1 may also interact with the malaria parasite during its invasion of the mosquito midgut.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of the bone morphogenetic protein-related gene, gbb, identifies multiple requirements during Drosophila development. (4/268)

We have isolated mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster gene glass bottom boat (gbb), which encodes a TGF-beta signaling molecule (formerly referred to as 60A) with highest sequence similarity to members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup including vertebrate BMPs 5-8. Genetic analysis of both null and hypomorphic gbb alleles indicates that the gene is required in many developmental processes, including embryonic midgut morphogenesis, patterning of the larval cuticle, fat body morphology, and development and patterning of the imaginal discs. In the embryonic midgut, we show that gbb is required for the formation of the anterior constriction and for maintenance of the homeotic gene Antennapedia in the visceral mesoderm. In addition, we show a requirement for gbb in the anterior and posterior cells of the underlying endoderm and in the formation and extension of the gastric caecae. gbb is required in all the imaginal discs for proper disc growth and for specification of veins in the wing and of macrochaete in the notum. Significantly, some of these tissues have been shown to also require the Drosophila BMP2/4 homolog decapentaplegic (dpp), while others do not. These results indicate that signaling by both gbb and dpp may contribute to the development of some tissues, while in others, gbb may signal independently of dpp.  (+info)

A novel insect V-ATPase subunit M9.7 is glycosylated extensively. (5/268)

Plasma membrane V-ATPase isolated from midgut and Malpighian tubules of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, contains a novel prominent 20-kDa polypeptide. Based on N-terminal protein sequencing, we cloned a corresponding cDNA. The deduced hydrophobic protein consisted of 88 amino acids with a molecular mass of only 9.7 kDa. Immunoblots of the recombinant 9.7-kDa polypeptide, using a monoclonal anti- body to the 20-kDa polypeptide, confirmed that the correct cDNA had been cloned. The 20-kDa polypeptide is glycosylated, as deduced from lectin staining. Treatment with N-glycosidase A resulted in the appearance of two additional protein bands of 16 and 10 kDa which both were immunoreactive to the 20-kDa polypeptide-specific monoclonal antibody. Thus, extensive N-glycosylation of the novel Vo subunit M9.7 accounts for half of its molecular mass observed in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. M9.7 exhibits some similarities to the yeast protein Vma21p which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and is required for the assembly of the Vo complex. However, as deduced from immunoblots as well as from activities of the V-ATPase and endoplasmic reticulum marker enzymes in different membrane preparations, M9.7 is, in contrast to the yeast polypeptide, a constitutive subunit of the mature plasma membrane V-ATPase of M. sexta.  (+info)

Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal Cry1Aa toxin binds to a highly conserved region of aminopeptidase N in the host insect leading to its evolutionary success. (6/268)

Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein, Cry1Aa toxin, binds to a specific receptor in insect midguts and has insecticidal activity. Therefore, the structure of the receptor molecule is probably a key factor in determining the binding affinity of the toxin and insect susceptibility. The cDNA fragment (PX frg1) encoding the Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of an aminopeptidase N (APN) or an APN family protein from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella midgut was cloned and sequenced. A comparison between the deduced amino acid sequence of PX frg1 and other insect APN sequences shows that Cry1Aa toxin binds to a highly conserved region of APN family protein. In this paper, we propose a model to explain the mechanism that causes B. thuringiensis evolutionary success and differing insect susceptibility to Cry1Aa toxin.  (+info)

bloated tubules (blot) encodes a Drosophila member of the neurotransmitter transporter family required for organisation of the apical cytocortex. (7/268)

We have identified a novel member of the vertebrate sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporter family from Drosophila melanogaster. This gene, named bloated tubules (blot), shows significant sequence similarity to a subgroup of vertebrate orphan transporters. blot transcripts are maternally supplied and during embryogenesis exhibit a complex and dynamic pattern in a subset of ectodermally derived epithelia, notably in the Malpighian tubules, and in the nervous system. Animals mutant for this gene are larval lethals, in which the Malpighian tubule cells are distended with an enlarged and disorganised apical surface. Embryos lacking the maternal component of blot expression die during early stages of development. They show an inability to form actin filaments in the apical cortex, resulting in impaired syncytial nuclear divisions, severe defects in the organisation of the cortical cytoskeleton, and a failure to cellularise. For the first time, a neurotransmitter transporter-like protein has been implicated in a function outside the nervous system. The isolation of blot thus provides the basis for an analysis of the relationship between the function of this putative transporter and epithelial morphogenesis.  (+info)

Fluid secretion by isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster Meig.: effects of organic anions, quinacrine and a diuretic factor found in the secreted fluid. (8/268)

Para-aminohippuric acid (PAH, 0.2 and 1 mmol l(-)(1)) had no effect on the basal fluid secretion rate (FSR) of isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster Meig. and did not affect stimulation of the FSR induced by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP). Phenol Red (phenolsulphonphthalein, PSP; 0.5 and 1 mmol l(-)(1)) slowed the FSR and abolished stimulation of the FSR by cAMP. Diodrast (1 mmol l(-)(1)) slightly, but significantly, reduced the FSR and greatly reduced the stimulation of the FSR normally provoked by cAMP and by the 3',5'-monophosphates of guanosine (cGMP), inosine (cIMP) and uridine (cUMP). However, stimulation of the FSR by the 3', 5'-monophosphate of cytidine (cCMP) was little affected by diodrast. Probenecid (0.2 or 1 mmol l(-)(1)) consistently stimulated the FSR, on average by approximately 25 %, but did not markedly inhibit the subsequent stimulation of the FSR by cAMP, cGMP or cIMP. However, the FSR of tubules stimulated by cGMP was temporarily lowered by probenecid. Quinacrine (0.1 mmol l(-)(1)) slowed basal FSR by an average of approximately 30 %, but subsequent stimulation of the FSR by cAMP was not noticeably affected. Both 0.1 mmol l(-)(1) cAMP and 1 mmol l(-)(1) probenecid stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in extracts of Malpighian tubules, but cIMP, cGMP, cUMP and diodrast were without effect in this regard. Uptake of radioactivity from a solution containing 500 nmol l(-)(1) [(3)H]cAMP and 9.5 micromol l(-)(1) cAMP was reduced by more than 90 % by 1 mmol l(-)(1) PSP, by approximately 40 % by 0.2 mmol l(-)(1) probenecid, by 36 % by 1 mmol l(-)(1) diodrast and by 30 % by 1 mmol l(-)(1) PAH. Neither 0.01 mmol l(-)(1) ouabain nor 0.1 mmol l(-)(1) quinacrine affected the uptake of [(3)H]cAMP by the Malpighian tubules. Fluid secreted by isolated Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster contains a factor that stimulated the FSR on average by approximately 50 %. The presence in the secreted fluid of cGMP at a concentration of 8.3 micromol l(-)(1) did not explain the stimulatory effect on FSR. These results support the existence of a carrier-mediated uptake of cyclic nucleotides into the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster, possibly involving a multispecific transporter.  (+info)

Cells in freeze-tolerant tissues must survive substantial shrinkage during exposure to the hyperosmolarity that results as solutes are excluded from extracellular ice. We investigated the possibility that this hyperosmotic shock elicits an acute regulatory volume increase (RVI) by monitoring the response of epithelial cell volume in the Malpighian tubules of the New Zealand alpine weta (Hemideina maori) during exposure to low temperature/hyperosmolarity (mimicking freezing conditions) or during an actual freeze/thaw cycle. The cross-sectional area of cells in isolated Malpighian tubules was measured using differential interference contrast microscopy. At 20 degrees C, cells held in saline containing 400 mmol1-1 glucose exhibit an RVI in response to hyperosmotic shock. Cross-sectional area decreased by 30% immediately after a change from iso-osmotic (0.7 osmol1-1) to hyper-osmotic saline (2.1 osmol1-1, equal to the osmotic shock encountered during freezing to -4 degrees C) and then returned to ...
Looking for Malpighian Tubules? Find out information about Malpighian Tubules. excretory organs in the majority of arachnids, myriopods, and insects; they are blind tubular appendages of the intestine, on the boundary between the... Explanation of Malpighian Tubules
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Cell division in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster depends on the presence of a specialised cell at the tip of each tubule (Skaer, H. le B (1989) Nature 342, 566-569). Here we show that cell division also depends on the normal expression of the segment polarity gene, wingless. The pattern of wingless RNA and protein in developing tubules is consistent with a requirement for wingless for cell division. Analysis of the temporal requirement for wingless using a temperature- sensitive allele confirms that the normal expression of wingless is necessary during cell proliferation in the Malpighian tubules. Over-expression of the gene, induced in a stock containing the wg gene under the control of a heat-shock promoter, results in supernumerary cells in the tubules. We discuss the role of wingless in the cell interactions that govern cell division in the Malpighian tubules.. ...
The transmembrane sector of V-ATPases is involved in proton conduction across the membrane where a 15-17 kDa proteolipid forms a putative proton channel. An affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibody was developed to an antigenic and putatively extracellular region of a cloned 17 kDa proteolipid. In larval tissue sections, this antibody labeled the midgut goblet cell apical membrane in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the apical membrane in Malpighian tubules from H. virescens and Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). The antibody also recognized the 17 kDa protein in an immunoblot of H. virescens Malpighian tubule homogenate. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of two transcript sizes in the midgut (1.9 and 1.2 kb) and Malpighian tubules (2.2 and 1.9 kb). Our results strongly support the hypothesis that the 17 kDa protein is a component of the V-ATPase, where it is thought to be the proton-conducting subunit. This polyclonal antibody may provide a powerful tool for ...
My research investigates the molecular mechanisms of fluid secretion by the renal (Malpighian) tubules of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae). Aedes mosquitoes are one of the most important vectors for spreading the viral-based illnesses of yellow fever and dengue fever to humans, whereas Anophelesmosquitoes are the primary vectors of malaria. Malpighian tubules are the kidneys of insects. Our kidneys filter our blood to produce a urine, but the Malpighian tubules of insects must actively secrete fluid to produce a urine. I am interested in elucidating how mosquitoes produce urine, because it is vital to their survival after consuming a human blood meal. That is, the Malpighian tubules excrete the excess fluid and salts absorbed from the blood they ingest. If we can identify key genes/proteins involved with urine production by mosquito Malpighian tubules, then we may be able to interfere with this process via genetic disruption or pharmacological agents, thereby making it less ...
The PhD work presented here is to delineate the roles of Relish and cGMP-dependent kinases in mechanisms of epithelial stress handling using a genetically tractable epithelium, the Drosophila Malpighian tubule, as an in vivo model for stress sensing and response. Relish, a transcription factor, is the insect orthologue of the mammalian NF-kB. It regulates the insects innate immune pathway and is highly expressed in D. melanogaster tubules. We show that Relish expressed in Malpighian tubules modulates organismal tolerance to osmotic stress caused due to a high salt diet (salt stress). In order to determine the genes that are involved in salt stress tolerance, Affymetrix Drosophila GeneChips (microarrays) were run with RNA isolated from the wild-type and Relish mutant tubules from flies fed either on normal food, or on salt food . The transcriptomic data was analysed to find genes that were dependent and independent of Relish in response to stress. Additionally, the data also revealed that ...
Looking for diuretic hormone? Find out information about diuretic hormone. A neurohormone that promotes water loss in insects by increasing the volume of fluid secreted into the Malpighian tubules Explanation of diuretic hormone
1) Microorganisms engulf food by endocytosis-the formation of vacuoles by involution of the cell membrane within the cells. The same vacuoles interact and exchange metabolites with the intracellular environment. Cellular wastes are excreted by exocytosis when the vacuoles merge with the cell membrane and excrete wastes into the environment. (2) Flatworms have an excretory system that consists of two tubules. The cells in the tubules are called flame cells; they have a cluster of cilia that propel waste matter down the tubules and out of the body. (3) Annelids have nephridia which have a tubule with cilia. Excretion occurs through a pore called the nephridiopore. Annelids have a system for tubular reabsorption by a capillary network before excretion. (4) Malpighian tubules are found in some species of arthropods. They are usually found in pairs, and the number of tubules varies with the species of insect. Malpighian tubules are convoluted, which increases their surface area, and they are lined ...
Pseudomonas is a genus of bacteria commonly found in investigations of gut microbes in malaria mosquitoes. Among those mosquitoes is the dominating malaria vector in Asia, Anopheles stephensi, where Pseudomonas is a prevailing bacterium and natural inhabitant of its breeding places. In order to explore the reason for finding Pseudomonas so frequently, an investigation of its localization and transstadial properties was undertaken. A Pseudomonas isolate from An. stephensi was transformed successfully with an endogenous plasmid modified to express green fluorescent protein (GFP). Subsequently, the Pseudomonas-GFP was added to the laboratory larval breeding place of An. stephensi and taken up by the larvae. After 24 hours, the larvae were cleaned and moved to a bath with double-distilled water. Also, female adults were fed sugar solution containing Pseudomonas-GFP. The Pseudomonas-GFP was traced in the alimentary canal of larvae, pupae and adults. Fluorescent microscopy and PCR assays
Schulte, E., 1972: Electron microscopic studies on renal tubules (Malpighian tubules) in Drosophila melanogaster. V. Localization of Na-adenosine triphosphatase
Select any question to share it on FB or Twitter. Characteristics of Brachiopoda: Bilaterally symmetrical. Their body has jointed appendages which help in locomotion. Flatworms have three embryonic germ layers that give rise to surfaces covering tissues, internal tissues, and the lining of the digestive system. The upper lip of the mouth contains epistome and labrum, and the lower lip contains a pair of maxillae. Excretory system: malpighian tubules in insects, green glands in crustaceans, malpighian tubules and coxal glands in arachnids. Ants, flies, cockroaches, shrimp, crabs, spiders and scorpions are examples of arthropods. gribbling. The terrestrial Arthropods excrete through Malpighian tubules while the aquatic ones excrete through green glands or coaxal glands. Nymphs are the larvae of hemimetabolous insects (such as grasshoppers). In arthropods, the respiratory system is open (lacunar). Lv 7. aration of germ layers, is not just a single process. So yes, insects have germ layers that form during
This confidential blood assay for Anti Diuretic Hormone is offered at more than thirty two private outpatient departments across England, Scotland and Wales. Included in each request for Anti Diuretic Hormone are a Doctors Referral, all Phlebotomy fees (your blood taken at a Private Hospital), all laboratory fees and i
absorption. Unabsorbed food particles pass through the proctodeal valve into the hindgut. At the junction of the midgut and hindgut are a group of long, thread-like tubules that flex about in the hemolymph. These tubules are called Malpighian tubules, and they are the insect excretory system. Malpighian tubules filter the hemolymph and form a urine containing water, salts ...
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Tissue specific architecture of nutrient dependent responses in D. melanogaster. The overall aim of this project is to examine the role of tissue-specific changes in mRNA translation in response to dietary restriction (DR) and to examine their role in modulating metabolism, muscle activity and healthspan using D. melanogaster. We have previously demonstrated that modulation of mRNA translation is a key output of the TOR pathway that mediates DR responses on metabolism and lifespan. We have now established a ribotag based method in D. melanogaster to study tissue-specific mRNA translation. Tissue-specific mRNAs are isolated following ribosome affinity purification of tissue-specific tagged ribosomal proteins followed by polysomal profiling. Using this Ribotag approach tissue-specific changes under DR have been measured in muscle, fat, gut, heart, neurons, germline and malpighian tubules, showing a highly tissue specific response upon DR. We are developing mechanistic models of gene expression ...
The action of activated 27,000 Mr toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti toxin) on Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus has been investigated. Its binding to the tubules is slowed by low temperature but is not prevented even at 0 degree C. The binding is less effective at pH 10 than at pH7. Pretreatment of the tubules with 0.1 mmol l-1 ouabain or bumetanide or 1 mumol l-1 5-hydroxytryptamine did not affect the toxicity of the toxin. The toxin causes very large changes in the trans-epithelial potential difference; it changes from 40 mV, lumen negative, often to more than 100 mV, lumen positive. This reflects an initial collapse of the potential of the basal cell membrane, followed by a large positive-going potential change at the luminal cell membrane. Just prior to the effects of the toxin on rapid fluid secretion, the basal cell membrane becomes permeable to sucrose molecules. Raffinose at 170 mmol l-1 in the bathing solution does not protect the tubules from Bti toxin ...
A diuretic hormone (DH) of unusual structure was isolated from extracts of heads of Tenebrio molitor. The hormone is a 47 amino acid peptide, Mr = 5,029.9, with the sequence AGALGESGASLSIVNSLDVLRNRLLLEIARKKAKEGANRNRQILLSL. This peptide increases cyclic AMP production in Malpighian tubules of T. moli …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative kidney tubule sources, isolation, perfusion, and function. AU - Beyenbach, Klaus W.. AU - Dantzler, William H.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - This chapter focuses on the treatment of comparative kidney tubule sources, isolation, perfusion, and function must emphasize the unique physiological systems of animals and review the experimental techniques for studying them. Accordingly, this chapter summarizes the unique renal tubular functions insofar as they are known in an invertebrate and in non-mammalian vertebrates: in an insect, and in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, in that order. The Ramsay method is the most widely practiced experimental technique for studying the functions of Malpighian tubules in vitro. The isolated Malpighian tubule is placed into a known volume of Ringer under paraffin oil. The only segments of avian renal tubules perfused in vitro are the early distal tubule of the reptilian-type nephrons and the thick ascending limb of the ...
Genes that code for proteins involved in organelle biogenesis and intracellular trafficking produce products that are critical in normal cell function. Conserved orthologs of these are present in most or all eukaryotes including Drosophila melanogaster. Some of these genes were originally identified as eye color mutants with decreases in both types of pigments found in the fly eye. These as criteria were used for identification of such genes, four eye color mutations that are not annotated in the genome sequence: chocolate, maroon, mahogany, and red Malpighian tubules were molecularly mapped and their genome sequences have been evaluated. Mapping was performed using deletion analysis and complementation tests. chocolate is an allele of the VhaAC39-1 gene, which is an ortholog of the Vacuolar H+ ATPase AC39 subunit 1. maroon corresponds to the Vps16A gene and its product is part of the HOPS complex, which participates in transport and in organelle fusion. red Malpighian tubule is the CG12207 ...
This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. HHSN272201400029C.. Bioinformatics Resource Centers for Infectious Disease: VectorBase , EuPathDB , IRD , PATRIC , ViPR ...
This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. HHSN272201400029C.. Bioinformatics Resource Centers for Infectious Disease: VectorBase , EuPathDB , IRD , PATRIC , ViPR ...
Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) continues to be trusted for quantification of mRNA in an effort to determine crucial genes involved with different natural processes. research of insects. For this function, ten applicant reference genes had been looked into in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of the oriental fruit travel, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, -TUB + Take action5 are the most appropriate research genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while Take action3 + -TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the 63902-38-5 supplier stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, Take action2 + -TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, -TUB ...
Locusta-diuretic peptide (Locusta-DP)-like immunoreactive material was detected throughout the locust central nervous system (CNS) and in associated neurohaemal organs. HPLC fractionation of brain and corpora cardiaca extracts showed that immunoreactive material co-eluted with the synthetic peptide and was biologically active. The presence of Locusta-DP in these tissues was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The peptide was shown to be released from corpora cardiaca, and could be detected in haemolymph of fed locusts. Antibodies raised against Locusta-DP(29-46) specifically blocked an increase in amaranth clearance by recently fed locusts, thereby demonstrating the role of Locusta-DP in the control or post-feeding diuresis.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from mutations in CFTR, which encodes an anion channel that mediates transepithelial secretion of chloride and bicarbonate. A hallmark of CF is mucoviscidosis, the secretion of tenacious, viscous mucus that plugs ducts and glands of epithelia-lined organs, including the lungs and intestines. Goblet cells secrete mucins; however, it is not clear if these cells have altered exocytosis in the CF intestine. Jinghua Liu and colleagues at the University of Missouri evaluated goblet cells within intestinal organoid cultures from a murine CF model. Compared to those from WT mice, CF goblet cells exhibited altered exocytosis, including granule swelling and incomplete mucus discharge. Additionally, CF goblet cells exhibited distorted morphology and ectopic granule localization. Increasing the luminal bicarbonate concentration largely restored abnormal exocytosis defects, suggesting goblet cell alterations directly result from loss of CFTR function. Mucin granules within CF ...
Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger that plays a critical role in both excitable and non-excitable cells. Calcium mobilisation in identified cell types within an intact renal epithelium, the Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubule, was studied by GAL4-directed expression of an aequorin transgene. CAP2b, a cardioactive neuropeptide that stimulates fluid secretion by a mechanism involving nitric oxide, causes a rapid, dose-dependent rise in cytosolic calcium in only a single, genetically-defined, set of 77 principal cells in the main (secretory) segment of the tubule. In the absence of external calcium, the CAP2b-induced calcium response is abolished. In Ca2+-free medium, the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, elevates [Ca2+]i only in the smaller stellate cells, suggesting that principal cells do not contain a thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular pool. Assays for epithelial function confirm that calcium entry is essential for CAP2b to induce a physiological response ...
ABSTRACT. The Embioptera are rather generalized insects whose internal anatomy is simple and not subject to great modifications. For this reason these insects form an ideal group for elementary anatomical and histological studies (fig. 2). The digestive tract is a long, simple tube without convolutions or diverticulae from the buccal cavity to the rectum. The buccal structures are of the chewing type. The oesophagus and ingluvia are differentiated only by slight dilation of their walls. In nymphs and females the proventriculus is very distinct due to folds which flatten as the structure becomes packed with food. The enteron is the largest in such forms and in both sexes limited caudally by the Malpighian tubules. The proctodeus has six large rectal papillae. The nervous system is complete with only the fifth abdominal segment lacking a ganglion in the metathorax includes the ganglion of the first abdominal segment. The brain exhibits very clear structure in histological sections. The tracheal ...
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Arbovirus Summary Archives. (2008). Repellents, Traps, Virus Information, Maps, etc. Pest Alert. http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/pestalert/arbovirus/arbovirus.htm (14 May 2008). Barrera R. 1996. Competition and resistance to starvation in larvae of container-inhabiting Aedes mosquitoes. Ecological Entomology. 21: 117-127. Carpenter SJ, LaCasse WJ. 1955. Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 360 pp. Centers for Disease Control. (2007). Chikungunya fever fact sheet. Division for Vector-borne Infectious Diseases: Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/chikungunya/ (13 May 2008). Centers for Disease Control. (2016). Surveillance and Control of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the United States. Division of Vector-Borne Diseases: Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/resources/vector-control.html (4/8/2016).. Clements AN. 1999. The Biology of Mosquitoes, Vol. II. Egg laying. Cabi, Wallingford. ...
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension outreach is a partnership between state, federal, and county governments to provide scientific knowledge and expertise to the public. The University of Florida (UF), together with Florida A&M University (FAMU), administers the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
With the spread of the Zika virus, the threat posed by the tiny mosquito has been magnified into shark-size proportions.But among the more than 3,000 species of the insect worldwide, only two in the Americas are known carriers of the virus: the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus).The potential range of the two species in the
A study has found a track by Skrillex, the electronic artist known for his dubstep music, could be an effective way to protect against mosquitoes.Insect and disease scientists from around the world played the electronic music to yellow fever mosquitoes (aedes aegypti) to investigate the effects.
Renal function is essential to maintain homeostasis. This is particularly significant for insects that undergo complete metamorphosis; larval mosquitoes must survive a freshwater habitat whereas adults are terrestrial, and mature females must maintain ion and fluid homeostasis after blood feeding. To investigate the physiological adaptations required for successful development to adulthood, we studied the Malpighian tubule transcriptome of Anopheles gambiae using Affymetrix arrays. We assessed transcription under several conditions; as third instar larvae, as adult males fed on sugar, as adult females fed on sugar, and adult females after a blood meal. In addition to providing the most detailed transcriptomic data to date on the Anopheles Malpighian tubules, the data provide unique information on the renal adaptations required for the switch from freshwater to terrestrial habitats, on gender differences, and on the contrast between nectar-feeding and haematophagy. We found clear differences ...
Rhodnius prolixus are ectoparasitic solenophages that feed primarily on the blood of mammals and birds. Rhodnius prolixus have sucking mouthparts which fold back beneath the head and thorax when at rest. The mouthparts consist of long stylets that include a short labrum with a long tubular labium that contains the mandibles and the maxillae. The maxillae enclose a food canal for sucking fluid, and a salivary canal that injects saliva to help digest host tissue.. The saliva contains some anticoagulants, and the painless bites of R. prolixus are usually around the eyes and mouth of the host, where they can suck blood for several minutes. Endosymbiotic bacteria help to digest the blood ingested by R. prolixus. The bacteria are contained in epithelial cells of the triatomine gut and are found among many of its tissues throughout its growth and maturation.. Dogs, cats, and rats are important Rhodnius prolixus hosts in urban environments. Some other less common hosts include opossum, armadillos, bats, ...
A new insect member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors, Hyphantria cunea STAT (HcSTAT), was cloned from the lepidopteran H. cunea. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain were well conserved. During all developmental stages, the gene was expressed at a low level in the haemocytes, fat body cells, midgut, epidermis and Malpighian tubules. The haemocytes and Malpighian tubules showed transcriptional activation of HcSTAT upon Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial challenges. These challenges increased the induction and nuclear translocation of the HcSTAT protein that recognizes a STAT target site in H. cunea haemocytes. In vivo treatment with sodium orthovanadate translocated HcSTAT to the haemocyte nucleus. This study shows the involvement of the haemocyte Janus kinase/STAT pathway after microbial infection in lepidopteran insects ...
Wiwatpanit, T, *Powers, B., and Dickinson, PS. (2012). INter-animal variability in the effects of C-type allatostatin on the cardiac neuromuscular system in the lobster Homarus americanus. Journal of Experimental Biology 215, 2308-18.. Christie, AE, Stemmler EA, Dickinson PS (2010). Crustacean neuropeptides. Dell Mol Life Sci. 2010 Dec; 67(24):4135-69.. Christie, AE, *JS Stevens, *MR Bowers, MC Chapline, DA Jensen, K Schregg, *J Goldwaser, *MA Kwiatkowski, *TK Pleasant Jr, *L Shoenfeld, *LK Tempest, *CR Williams, *T Wiwatpanit, *ER Gabranski, CM Smith, KM Beale, DW Towle, DA Schooley and PS Dickinson (2010). Identification of a calcitonin-like diuretic hormone that functions as an intrinsic modulator of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, cardiac neuromuscular system. Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 118-127.. *Stevens, JS., *CR. Cashman, CM. Smith, KM, Beale, DW. Towle, AE. Christie and PS. Dickinson (2009). The peptide hormone pQDLDHVFLRFamide (crustacean myosuppressin) modulates the ...
To identify genes differentially expressed in the fatbody of Drosphila melanogaster bigmax mutants, a loss-of-function allele was generated by P-element mobilization. Mutant and wildtype first instar larvae were raised on two different sources of food, control and high-sugar media. When the animals reached the wandering third instar stage, animals were sacrificed and their fat bodies dissected. Total RNA was extracted, labeled fluorescently and hybridized competitively to Agilents 4x44K Drosophila Gene Expression Microarrays. On each array, three different samples were analyzed: 1. wildtype animals raised on control food, 2. wildtype animals raised on high-sugar food and 3. bigmax mutant animals raised on high-sugar food.
Abstract: Currently, there are significant gaps in understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in nociceptor sensitivity. Dysregulated nociceptor sensitivity is the likely pathogenesis in many types of chronic pain, a disease that ails over 100 million people in the United States alone. To improve current chronic pain therapies, it is essential to define the regulatory mechanisms responsible for nociception. The goal of this study was to characterize how genes classically involved in RNA processing and translation regulate nociceptor sensitivity. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used for this study because of their quantifiable response to noxious stimuli and the powerful tools available for genetic manipulations. My results suggest that eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and components of the exon junction complex (EJC) control nociceptor sensitivity by regulating RNA processing and translation, suggesting a major role for RNA metabolism and translation in controlling ...
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Crop C. Hepatic caeca D. Rectum. Crop C. Hepatic caeca D. Rectum 22. Hepatic caeca produce digestive enzymes. esophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca, in-testine, and liver ranged from 0.443 to 0.974 (Fig. Hepatic ceaca secrete digestive juice. The partly digested food is stored in_____in cockroach? What is their function? Hunger contractions are _____ contractions A. Antiperistalsis B. Peristalsis C. Voluntary D. None of these 23. Short Answer Type Questions. Hepatic caeca or gastric caeca is a ring of 6-8 blind tubules that are present at the junction of foregut and midgut. It is also an important site for β-oxidation of fatty acids and degradation of cholesterol to form cholic acid of bile. The hepatic caeca which are also known as gastric caeca is a 6-8 narrow and hollow ring-like blind tubules which are present in the junction of the foregut and midgut. The main organs of excretion and osmoregulation in insects are the Malpighian tubules acting in concert with the rectum and/or ileum (Fig. Fill ...
popcorn has characteristics different from other known strains. The original one described, W. pipientis, was detected in the ovary of the mosquito Culex pipiens. Since then, RLOs have been reported in the salivary glands or Malpighian tubules of mosquitoes (19) and flies (20). However, popcorn is seen to widely proliferate in the brain, muscle, and retina of Drosophila and to cause tissue degeneration and early death of its adult host. The dynamics of its growth, rapid in adults but not in earlier stages, presents an interesting system for the study of the host-symbiont relationship. It is conceivable that the availability of some essential substrate might be limited early on, due to the great developmental demands of the host, whereas in the adult, essentially postmitotic fly, nutrients might become more available, enabling massive proliferation of the bacteria to begin. Alternatively, a repressive mechanism of the host may be released. popcorn may have special features in its life cycle, as ...
166 meanings of MT acronym and MT abbreviation. Get the Medical definition of MT by All Acronyms dictionary. Top Definition: Malpighian tubules In Medical dictionary category.. List page number 3
Allergenome characterization of the mosquito Aedes aegypti Allergy , 2017, 72 , 14991509 J. F. Cantillo, L. Puerta, P. Puchalska, S. Lafosse-Marin, J. L. Subiza, E. Fernndez-Caldas Abstract Saliva and muscle-derived mosquito allergens have been purified and characterized. However, the complete set of allergens remains to be elucidated. In this...
Dr. Zhe Han, Center for Precision Disease Modeling, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 670 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201. Email: zhan{at}som.umaryland.edu ...
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Which mosquitoes are targeted using SIT technology?. Mosquito control agencies are public health entities that control nuisance mosquitoes and the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. SIT and similar male release strategies are being explored to target the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), two invasive insects in the United States that are capable of transmitting pathogens causing dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika, and chikungunya. By minimizing these mosquitoes, disease concerns could be greatly reduced.. How are SIT mosquitoes produced?. SIT was traditionally a form of radiation-based sterilization of male insects, but has begun to include other techniques that achieve the same goal. Key organizations involved in work being conducted in the United States include: United States Department of Agriculture, University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and companies such as MosquitoMate, Verily, and Oxitec. Three male release ...
Which mosquitoes are targeted using SIT technology?. Mosquito control agencies are public health entities that control nuisance mosquitoes and the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. SIT and similar male release strategies are being explored to target the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), two invasive insects in the United States that are capable of transmitting pathogens causing dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika, and chikungunya. By minimizing these mosquitoes, disease concerns could be greatly reduced.. How are SIT mosquitoes produced?. SIT was traditionally a form of radiation-based sterilization of male insects, but has begun to include other techniques that achieve the same goal. Key organizations involved in work being conducted in the United States include: United States Department of Agriculture, University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and companies such as MosquitoMate, Verily, and Oxitec. Three male release ...
Scientists from Goethe University and Senckenberg Society for Nature Research are developing maps on the Zika virus infection risk. The spread of infectious diseases such as Zika depends on many different factors. Environmental factors play a role, as do socioeconomic factors. Recently, several attempts have be made to predict the transmission risk of the Zika virus at a global and local level, but the spatial and temporal patterns of transmission are still not well understood. Researchers from Goethe University and the Senckenberg Society for Nature Research in Frankfurt were now able to generate reliable maps for the transmission risk of the Zika virus in South America. The results have been published in the scientific journal PeerJ. Based on the models for South America, they will use the method to determine the Zika risk for Europe as well.. In most cases, mosquitoes of the genus Aedes transmit the Zika virus to humans. Primary vectors are the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the ...
The present paper reviews the biology of reed beetles (Donaciinae), presents experimental data on the role of specific symbiotic bacteria, and describes a molecular method for the detection of those bacteria. Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous. They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots. The larvae pupate there in a water-tight cocoon, which they build using a secretion that is produced by symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria are located in four blind sacs at the foregut of the larvae; in (female) adults they colonize two out of the six Malpighian tubules. Tetracycline treatment of larvae reduced their pupation rate, although the bacteria could not be fully eliminated. When the small amount of bacterial mass attached to eggs was experimentally removed before hatching, symbiont free larvae resulted, showing the external transmission of the bacteria to the offspring. Specific primers
The cellular changes constituting morphogenesis are executed by structural molecules involved with adhesion and cytoskeletal structure. The actin based cytoskeleton, rho/racGTPases, as well as the cadherin-catenin complex have been implicated in epithelial folding and convergent-extension (Sullivan and Theurkauf, 1995; Lu and Settleman, 1998; Tepass, 1999), although a detailed model placing functional interconnections between the different molecules has not yet materialized. The present paper demonstrates that a finely adjusted level of DE-cadherin is required for optic placode morphogenesis, and that β-catenin, as well as EGFR signaling, is involved in this process. Reduction in DE-cadherin results in dissociation of the placode around the time when it normally invaginates, suggesting that the forces exerted on the epithelial sheet while folding may disrupt cell contacts. A similar phenotype was described for other epithelial invaginations, including the Malpighian tubules and stomatogastric ...
A common cause of acute renal failure. The tubules are cells that form the tube carrying urine from the kidneys down to the bladder. They are needed to take back water from the newly-filtered urine and return it to the blood. If these cells are damaged or die, the body does not get the water it needs back from the kidneys. The tubules are very sensitive to a lack of oxygen. If a person is in shock there may not be enough blood getting to the kidneys. Some drugs can harm the tubule cells as well. ATN is reversible by finding out the underlying problem and treating it as soon as possible. ...
Metabolic signaling, mitochondrial function and polarity of both podocytes and nephrocytes are in the focus of the CMMC CAP group of P. Brinkkötter.
Apyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhodnius prolixus after artificial and forced feeding.The activity was expressed as ng of inorganic phosphate
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... ns have four Malpighian tubules. Unlike in other beetles, yolk chambers alternate with egg chambers in the ovarian ...
The number of malpighian tubules differs between castes; in M. dispar, males have 16 tubules, queens range from 23 to 26, and ... Gray, B.; Lamb, K. P. (June 1968). "Some observations on the malpighian tubules and ovarioles in Myrmecia dispar (Clark) ( ...
The number of Malpighian tubules possessed by a given insect varies between species, ranging from only two tubules in some ... Long, slender (extratory) malpighian tubules can be found between the junction of the mid- and hind gut. The reproductive ... There are typically four to six Malpighian tubules. The nervous system in beetles contains all the types found in insects, ... The uric acid is formed using hemolymph waste products diffused from the Malpighian tubules (element 20). It is then emptied ...
There are typically four to six Malpighian tubules. The nervous system in beetles contains all the types found in insects, ...
... the number of malpighian tubules in workers is 21. The related black-headed sugar ant (Camponotus nigriceps) has a similar ...
They excrete waste through a single pair of malpighian tubules. Scolopendra gigantea, also known as the Amazonian giant ...
Extraction is by various combinations of nephridia and Malpighian tubules. The tubules filter wastes out of the blood and dump ... To conserve water, air-breathing chelicerates excrete waste as solids that are removed from their blood by Malpighian tubules, ... 9 Malphigian tubules 10 Cloacal chamber 11 Rear aorta 12 Spinneret 13 Silk gland 14 Trachea 15 Ovary (female) 16 Book lung 17 ...
... s may have one to hundreds of Malpighian tubules (element 20). These tubules remove nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph ... Envaginations at the anterior end of the hindgut form the Malpighian tubules, which form the main excretory system of insects. ...
Species in this genus that usually infect the malpighian tubules of invertebrates. Legerella helminthorum infects the ...
... is a genus of single cell eukaryotes that pathogenically inhabit the Malpighian tubules of insects. Ivanic ... Radek, Ranate; Wellmanns, Daniel; Wolf, Anja (2011). "Two new species of Nephridiphaga (Zygomycota) in the Malpighian tubules ... though whether in the gut or elsewhere is not known.Plasmodia inhabit and feed on Malpighian tubule cells where they are in ... "Ultrastructural investigation of the spore-forming protist Nephridiophaga blattellae in the Malpighian tubules of the German ...
sSJs are in gut endoderm and Malpighian tubules, while pSJs are in the ectodermally derived epithelia. sSJs and pSJs vary in ... Characterize the properties of the paracellular pathway in insect Malpighian tubules (MTs). Some unusual septate junctions have ...
The malpighian tubules are relatively large until approximately the twelfth larval instar. Ctenolepisma longicaudata is a ...
Because of this, blind-ended ducts called Malpighian tubules come into play. These ducts emerge as evaginations at the anterior ... Excretion and osmoregulation in insects are not orchestrated by the Malpighian tubules alone, but require a joint function of ... These tubules continually produce the insect's uric acid, which is transported to the hindgut, where important salts and water ...
In insects, a system involving Malpighian tubules is utilized to excrete metabolic waste. Metabolic waste diffuses or is ... actively transported into the tubule, which transports the wastes to the intestines. The metabolic waste is then released from ...
It is possible that the bio-luminescence in adults is simply a carry-over from the larval form because the Malpighian tubules ... It occurs in modified excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules in the abdomen. The luciferase enzyme in this species shares ...
It occurs in modified excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules in the abdomen. The body of the larva is soft while the head ...
The digestive system is typical of insects, with Malpighian tubules discharging into the midgut. Carbohydrates are digested ... Saliva is abundant but largely free of enzymes, helping to move food and Malpighian secretions along the gut. Some grasshoppers ...
The anterior and superior cavities are formed by the bases of four Malpighian tubules. The superior cavity opens into the lumen ...
The excretory system includes a nephridium and one or two pairs of Malpighian tubules. The sexes are separate in mites; males ...
Development occurs in the epithelial cells of the gut or rarely in the Malpighian tubules. The gamontocysts are enclosed in a ... Syzygy and encystment occur in the lumen of the gut (or tubule). About 25-30 spores are generated from each gametocyst. Crawley ...
taeniorhynchus Malpighian tubules in a process that changes the microvillar border to impede fluid transport. The parasite ... Bradley, Timothy J.; Donald M. Sauerman, Jr.; Nayar, Jai K. (1984). "Early Cellular Responses in the Malpighian Tubules of the ...
An analysis of these organs showed that the Bombus morio Malpighian tubules are made up of two cell types, and the ileum four ... The Malpighian tubules are significant for excretory features by throwing out excess and unnecessary solutes. Ileum, on the ... Instead, the excretion system in the Bombus morio, consisting of the Malpighian tubules, ileum, and rectum, gives the bees an ...
Malpighian tubules excrete nitrogenous waste into the digestive system, which typically consists of a simple tube. Although the ...
The excretory organs are two pairs of malpighian tubules, located near the mid-part of the gut. The digestive tract is a simple ...
Long, slender (excretory) malpighian tubules can be found between the junction of the mid- and hind gut. The reproductive ...
... these may be excretory organs similar to the Malpighian tubules of arthropods, although the details remain unclear. Also, ...
In gravid females from these genera, the Malpighian tubules switch over from production of regular brochosomes, described above ... Brochosomes are produced within cells of specialized glandular segments of the Malpighian tubules - the primary excretory ... Rakitov R.A. (1999) Secretory products of the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae (Hemiptera, Membracoidea): an ultrastructural ... Rakitov R.A. (1996) Post-moulting behaviour associated with Malpighian tubule secretions in leafhoppers and treehoppers ( ...
... comprises the Malpighian tubules and the hindgut (the ileum and rectum). Malpighian tubules secrete primary urine, most of ... in which isolated Malpighian tubules are placed in droplets of saline solution under liquid paraffin. The ends of the tubules ... They act either on the Malpighian tubules to inhibit urine production, or on the hindgut to stimulate reabsorption. To date, ... For example, in vivo experiments have demonstrated that the fluid secreted by the Malpighian tubules of the desert beetle, ...
The midgut has been described, while the excretory system consists of Malpighian tubules and a pair of coxal glands. Female ...
... in midgut and Malpighian tubules of the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 82 (3): 167-175. doi: ...
The malpighian tubules, which vary in number from two in some species to more than 100 in others, end blindly in the body ... The primary urine issuing from the malpighian tubules has to pass through the rectum before it leaves the insects body, and in ... The malpighian tubules of insects: Although some terrestrial arthropods (e.g., land crabs, ticks) retain the coxal glands of ... The malpighian tubules of insects. Although some terrestrial arthropods (e.g., land crabs, ticks) retain the coxal glands of ...
Malpighian tubule* Any of the organs that are involved in the excretion of nitrogenous waste in insects, arachnids, and ... Malpighian tubule A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ... Malpighian tubule Any of the organs that are involved in the excretion of nitrogenous waste in insects, arachnids, and ... In insects Malpighian tubules open into the intestine; they selectively extract from the blood uric acid, which - together with ...
Malpighian tubules in most insects also contain accessory musculature associated with the tubules which may function to mix the ... Malpighian tubules are slender tubes normally found in the posterior regions of arthropod alimentary canals. Each tubule ... Complex cycling systems of Malpighian tubules have been described in other insect orders. Hemipteran insects use tubules that ... Aphididae completely lack a Malpighian tubule system. Pre-urine is formed in the tubules, when nitrogenous waste and ...
The uric acid is absorbed by the Malpighian tubules and the low pH in the tubule lumen causes uric acid to precipitate out as ... The grasshoppers tubules, as with other insect Malpighian tubules, discharge into the posterior region of the gut tube (the ... View a second image of grasshopper Malpighian tubules.. Named for the famous seventeenth century Italian biologist and ... Grasshopper Malpighian Tubules. The challenges of survival for terrestrial insects such as the grasshoppers (order Orthoptera) ...
The Drosophila Malpighian tubule as a model for mammalian tubule function.. Rodan AR1,2. ... Tools to measure Malpighian tubule transport continue to advance, including use of a transgenic sensor to quantify ... The Malpighian tubule, the Drosophila renal epithelium, is described here, including tools available to study transport; ... New studies in Drosophila kidney stone models have characterized zinc transporters and used Malpighian tubules to study the ...
Generation of Malpighian tubule cDNA. To prepare Malpighian tubule cDNA, 175 Malpighian tubules were isolated from 35 female ... For each innexin, the Malpighian tubule cDNA was used as a template in lane `a, and Malpighian tubule RNA was used as a ... Revised electrical circuit model of the Aedes Malpighian tubule. In previous studies we have modeled the Malpighian tubule as a ... Expression of innexin transcripts in Aedes Malpighian tubules. In Aedes Malpighian tubule cDNA we detected partial PCR products ...
Bombyx ortholog of the Drosophila eye color gene brown controls riboflavin transport in Malpighian tubules.. Zhang H1, Kiuchi T ... profiles of Bm-brown and found that this gene was specifically and continuously expressed in larval Malpighian tubules (MTs), ...
... i in 6-16 sets of five Malpighian tubules each. Values are mean ± S.E.M. (number of tubule sets). The temporal relationship ... The dependence of electrical transport pathways in Malpighian tubules on ATP Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... The apical brush border membrane of principal cells in Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti. The apical membrane is ... Electrophysiological study of a principal cell by the two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) method in isolated Malpighian tubules ...
... were measured in the Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti following the in vitro application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and ... in isolated tubules. These data suggest that the mosquito leucokinins may function on the Malpighian tubules of A. aegypti by ... Effects of putative diuretic factors on intracellular second messenger levels in the Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti J ... The physiological relevance of these data to the regulation of mosquito Malpighian tubule function is discussed. ...
Expression of multidrug resistance proteins is localized principally to the Malpighian tubules in larvae of the cabbage looper ... We have specifically located TrnMRP protein expression in a subpopulation of Malpighian tubule secondary cells. Expression of ... we have identified high expression levels of both transporters in the Malpighian tubules relative to levels in other major ... Expression of multidrug resistance proteins is localized principally to the Malpighian tubules in larvae of the cabbage looper ...
... tubule has long been a model system for the study of fluid secretion and its neurohormonal control, as well as studies on ion ... Dow JA (2009) Insights into the Malpighian tubule from functional genomics. J Exp Biol 212:435-445PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentral ... The insect renal (Malpighian) tubule has long been a model system for the study of fluid secretion and its neurohormonal ... Dow JA, Davies SA (2006) The Malpighian tubule: rapid insights from post-genomic biology. J Insect Physiol 52:365-378PubMed ...
Blood meal response of Malpighian tubules (Esquivel et al., 2016) RNA-Seq experiment info 0.11 ... Gene AALF000534 Expression in Experiment Blood meal response of Malpighian tubules (Esquivel et al., 2016) ...
Lessons Learned About Adult Kidney Stem Cells From the Malpighian Tubules of Drosophila. Shree Ram Singh and Steven X. Hou ... Lessons Learned About Adult Kidney Stem Cells From the Malpighian Tubules of Drosophila ... Lessons Learned About Adult Kidney Stem Cells From the Malpighian Tubules of Drosophila ... Lessons Learned About Adult Kidney Stem Cells From the Malpighian Tubules of Drosophila ...
Cell division in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster depends on the presence of a specialised cell at the tip of ... We discuss the role of wingless in the cell interactions that govern cell division in the Malpighian tubules. ... The wingless product is required for cell proliferation in the Malpighian tubule anlage of Drosophila melanogaster ... The wingless product is required for cell proliferation in the Malpighian tubule anlage of Drosophila melanogaster ...
Malpighian tubules) in Drosophila melanogaster. V. Localization of Na-adenosine triphosphatase ... Electron microscopic studies of the renal tubules malpighian tubules in drosophila melanogaster part 5 localization of sodium ... Electron microscopic studies of the renal tubules malpighian tubules in drosophila melanogaster part 4 localization of sodium ... Electron microscopic studies of the renal tubules malpighian tubules in drosophila melanogaster part 2 trans cellular membrane ...
Malpighian Tubules. Known as: Tubules, Malpighian Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They ... Cadmium transport by the gut and Malpighian tubules of Chironomus riparius.. *Erin M. Leonard, Laura M Pierce, Patricia L ... Malpighian tubules (MTs) are highly specific organs of arthropods (Insecta, Myriapoda and Arachnida) for excretion and… (More) ... The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans… ...
Electron microscopic studies of the renal tubules malpighian tubules in drosophila melanogaster part 2 trans cellular membrane ... Electron microscopic studies of the renal tubules malpighian tubules in drosophila melanogaster part 3 intra cellular storage ... Electron microscopic studies of the renal tubules malpighian tubules in drosophila melanogaster part 5 localization of sodium ... Electron microscopic studies of the renal tubules malpighian tubules in drosophila melanogaster part 4 localization of sodium ...
israelensis (Bti toxin) on Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus has been investigated. Its binding to the tubules is slowed ... israelensis on Malpighian tubules of the insect, Rhodnius prolixus Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... the onset of staining of the tubule cells with Trypan Blue. Exposing tubules to saline that is calcium-free and/or magnesium- ... Pretreatment of the tubules with 0.1 mmol l-1 ouabain or bumetanide or 1 mumol l-1 5-hydroxytryptamine did not affect the ...
Drosophila melanogaster has four renal tubules (Malpighian tubules), which are in the abdominal cavity bathed by hemolymph ( ... 40-41 tubules per genotype. P=0.13, one-way ANOVA. (B) Compared with control tubules, tubules in which the wild type (WT) D. ... 24-29 tubules per genotype. P=0.16, one-way ANOVA. (C) Compared with control tubules, tubules overexpressing DmMo25 during ... The malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster: A novel phenotype for studies of fluid secretion and its control. J Exp Biol ...
Find out information about Malpighian Tubules. excretory organs in the majority of arachnids, myriopods, and insects; they are ... blind tubular appendages of the intestine, on the boundary between the... Explanation of Malpighian Tubules ... Malpighian Tubules. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia. Malpighian Tubules. excretory organs in the ... In the wall of the Malpighian tubules there is a muscle layer which enables them to contract. In arachnids the Malpighian ...
The morphogenetic process in which a bud forms from the embryonic hindgut tube to form the Malpighian tubule. A bud is a ... Malpighian tubule bud morphogenesis. Known as: Malpighian tubule formation The morphogenetic process in which a bud forms from ... Nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity was detected in fat body and the Malpighian tubles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Main NO… ... the embryonic hindgut tube to form the Malpighian tubule. A bud is a protrusion that forms from… Expand ...
They are usually found in pairs and the number of tubules varies with the species of insect. Malpighian tubules are convoluted ... Malpighian tubules work cooperatively with specialized glands in the wall of the rectum. Body fluids are not filtered as in the ... Malpighian tubules of insects and other terrestrial arthropods remove nitrogenous wastes and other solutes from the hemolymph. ... Malpighian tubules are found lining the gut of some species of arthropods. ...
Colonization of the Malpighian tubules by Pseudomonas bacteria seems to be important for the transstadial passage from larvae ... In addition to the midgut, the Malpighian tubules of both larvae and adult mosquitoes were colonized by the bacteria. Also ... Pseudomonas-GFP that was distributed through sugar solution was able to colonize the Malpighian tubules of adult females. ... From: Malpighian tubules are important determinants of Pseudomonas transstadial transmission and longtime persistence in ...
Malpighian tubules, and ovaries were isolated from the carcass. Following removal of the ovaries and foregut, the Malpighian ... To isolate the Malpighian tubules, the penultimate abdominal segment of a cold-anesthetized female was gently pulled with a ... Malpighian tubule dissection and RNA isolation. All dissections were performed between 1-4 pm to limit gene expression ... Additional file 1: Table S1. This table provides links to video examples of the Malpighian tubule dissections described in the ...
The Malpighian tubules were dissected in 0.7% NaCl and stained in 0.1 μg/ml DAPI/0.7% NaCl on a multiwell slide. For each larva ... Larvae for the Malpighian tubule assays were cultured at 25° under identical conditions of low crowding for each experiment. To ... Assays of Malpighian tubule pigmentation:. Wandering third instar female larvae of the appropriate genotype were collected as ... For assessing the effects of E(var)3-9 mutations on lt variegation in the Malpighian tubules, the larvae were heterozygous for ...
Dibutyryl cAMP activates bumetanide-sensitive electrolyte transport in Malpighian tubules. J. L. Hegarty, B. Zhang, T. L. ... Dibutyryl cAMP activates bumetanide-sensitive electrolyte transport in Malpighian tubules. Together they form a unique ...
There are at least 5 defined domains in the Malpighian tubules (48). Of the 17 P450s detected in the Malpighian tubules, 15 are ... Malpighian Tubules, and Fat Body.. Hybridization signals for 35 P450s were detected in combinations of the midgut, Malpighian ... 2006) The Malpighian tubule: rapid insights from post-genomic biology. J Insect Physiol 52:365-378. ... First, it has been shown that the transcription factor dGATAe is expressed in the Malpighian tubules and midgut, where it has ...
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES ON THE CELLS OF THE MALPIGHIAN TUBULES OF THE GRASSHOPPER (ORTHOPTERA, ACRIDIDAE) By H. W. Beams, T ... For purposes of description, the cells of the Malpighian tubules of the grasshopper may be divided into basal, intermediate, ... Correlation of Ultrastmctural Organization and Function in Normal and Experimentally Changed Proximal Convoluted Tubule Cells ...
3A and Table S2, we detected significant Q5GT activity in Malpighian tubules, anterior silk gland, midgut, hemocytes, and fat ... 3A). The expression level of Bm-UGT10287A was extremely low in Malpighian tubules, anterior silk glands, and hemocytes, where ... Bm-UGT10286 was strongly expressed in Malpighian tubules, anterior silk glands, and hemocytes, where strong Q5GT activity was ... In contrast, however, +/+ animals completely lost Q5GT activity in Malpighian tubules, anterior silk glands, midgut, and ...
Adephagans have four Malpighian tubules. Unlike in other beetles, yolk chambers alternate with egg chambers in the ovarian ...
  • Malpighian tubule Any of the organs that are involved in the excretion of nitrogenous waste in insects, arachnids, and centipedes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Malpighian tubule system is a type of excretory and osmoregulatory system found in some insects, myriapods, arachnids and tardigrades. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malpighian tubules in most insects also contain accessory musculature associated with the tubules which may function to mix the contents of the tubules or expose the tubules to more hemolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemipteran insects use tubules that permit movement of solutes into the distal portion of the tubules while reabsorption of water and essential ions directly to the hemolymph occurs in the proximal portion and the rectum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although primarily involved in excretion and osmoregulation, Malpighian tubules have been modified in some insects to serve accessory functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In insects which feed on plant material containing noxious allelochemicals, Malpighian tubules also serve to rapidly excrete such compounds from the hemolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Named for the famous seventeenth century Italian biologist and microscopist, Marcello Malpighi, terrestrial insects use Malpighian tubules to eliminate the end products of nitrogen metabolism, and through uricotely, to conserve water. (fsu.edu)
  • Malpighian tubules of insects initiate the formation of urine by secreting fluid into the blind-ended (distal) segment of the tubule. (biologists.org)
  • In arachnids and myriopods there is one pair of Malpighian tubules, in orthopterous insects up to 120 pairs, and in hymenopterous insects up to 150 pairs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In aquatic insects the Malpighian tubules perform an osmoregulatory function. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Malpighian tubules of insects and other terrestrial arthropods remove nitrogenous wastes and other solutes from the hemolymph. (chromoscience.com)
  • urine is produced by tubular secretion mechanisms by the cells lining the Malpighian tubules that are bathed in hemolymph (a mixture of blood and interstitial fluid that is found in insects and other arthropods as well as most mollusks). (chromoscience.com)
  • The Malpighian tubules of insects are an excellent model for examining the properties of secretion in a transporting epithelium. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The excretory organs of insects are called malpighian tubules. (reference.com)
  • The function of the Malpighian tubules in insects is similar to the function of the kidneys in vertebrates. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Malpighian tubules and hindgut perform these same functions for insects. (asu.edu)
  • To conserve water, air-breathing chelicerates excrete waste as solids that are removed from their blood by Malpighian tubules , structures that also evolved independently in insects . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Drosophila Malpighian tubule as a model for mammalian tubule function. (nih.gov)
  • Study of the Drosophila Malpighian tubule affords opportunities to better characterize the molecular physiology of epithelial transport mechanisms relevant to mammalian renal physiology. (nih.gov)
  • The development of this first physiological assay for a Drosophila epithelium, allowing combined approaches of integrative physiology and functional genomics, has now provided biologists with an entirely new model system, the Drosophila Malpighian tubule, which is utilized in multiple fields as diverse as kidney disease research and development of new modes of pest insect control. (springer.com)
  • Our previous studies showed a conserved role for WNK in the regulation of transepithelial ion transport in the Drosophila Malpighian tubule. (asnjournals.org)
  • Our results start to sketch out a relatively complete picture of the zinc excretion process in Drosophila Malpighian tubules, and may provide a reference for relevant mammalian studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this work, we screened all the potential zinc transporter Zip (SLC39) and ZnT (SLC30) members for their likely roles in zinc excretion in Malpighian tubules, an insect organ functionally analogous to mammalian kidneys. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The malpighian tubules, which vary in number from two in some species to more than 100 in others, end blindly in the body cavity (which is a blood space) and open not directly to the exterior but to the alimentary canal at the junction between midgut and hindgut. (britannica.com)
  • Some reabsorption of water and salts can occur in the tubule itself but most reabsorption occurs in the hindgut. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Each tubule consists of a single layer of cells that is closed off at the distal end with the proximal end joining the alimentary canal at the junction between the midgut and hindgut. (wikipedia.org)
  • The grasshopper's tubules, as with other insect Malpighian tubules, discharge into the posterior region of the gut tube (the hindgut) and function in a similar fashion to the kidneys of higher terrestrial animals. (fsu.edu)
  • The morphogenetic process in which a bud forms from the embryonic hindgut tube to form the Malpighian tubule. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We identified numerous P450s expressed in the fat body, Malpighian (renal) tubules, and in distinct regions of the midgut, consistent with hypothesized roles in detoxification processes, and other P450s expressed in organs such as the gonads, corpora allata, oenocytes, hindgut, and brain. (pnas.org)
  • A) Diagram of flea beetle foregut (fg), midgut (mg), hindgut (hg), and Malpighian tubules (mt). (B to G) Immunochemical localization of P. stewartii (green fluorescence) in propidium iodide-stained guts (red fluorescence). (asm.org)
  • The primary urine is formed by a process of secretion in the following way: Potassium ions are actively transported from the blood into the cavity of the tubule and are necessarily followed by negatively charged ions so as to maintain electroneutrality. (britannica.com)
  • The insect renal (Malpighian) tubule has long been a model system for the study of fluid secretion and its neurohormonal control, as well as studies on ion transport mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Raffinose at 170 mmol l-1 in the bathing solution does not protect the tubules from Bti toxin action but dextran, Mr5000, at 60 mmol l-1 significantly delayed failure of fluid secretion and, even more, the onset of staining of the tubule cells with Trypan Blue. (biologists.org)
  • Exposing tubules to saline that is calcium-free and/or magnesium-free, or has a composition adjusted to be similar to that of the intracellular milieu, does not affect the time course of failure of fluid secretion induced by the toxin. (biologists.org)
  • The secretion of ions alters the osmotic pressure which draws water, electrolytes, and nitrogenous waste (uric acid) into the tubules. (chromoscience.com)
  • 5. Since previous studies showed that cAMP stimulates secretion of Na in these tubules, it is concluded that cAMP stimulates active Na transport that is responsible for the observed increase in V t . 6. (elsevier.com)
  • Fluid secretion by insect Malpighian tubules is controlled by haemolymph-borne factors. (biologists.com)
  • The cardioacceleratory peptide CAP 2b , originally isolated from Manduca sexta , also increases intracellular cyclic GMP levels and inhibited fluid secretion by Tenebrio molitor tubules, with an EC 50 value of 85 nmol l -1 . (biologists.com)
  • Fluid secretion by insect Malpighian tubules is stimulated by diuretic hormones. (biologists.com)
  • 2 - 4 NCC and NKCC2 reabsorb sodium chloride in the distal convoluted tubule and thick ascending limb, respectively, of the mammalian nephron. (asnjournals.org)
  • As excretory organs, the Malpighian tubules not only get rid of nitrogenous wastes, they help properly maintain the internal ionic balance of the insect. (fsu.edu)
  • Specifically, tubule can refer to: a small tube or fistular structure a minute tube lined with glandular epithelium any hollow cylindrical body structure a minute canal found in various structures or organs of the body a slender elongated anatomical channel a minute tube, especially as an anatomical structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was infecting B. mori larvae and various organs and target tissues were identified, however, there was no information about the infection of Malpighian tubules ( MT ). The MT comprises the excretory system of B. mori and acts in the elimination of toxic substances and in hydroelectrolytic homeostasis . (bvsalud.org)
  • The arrangement of epithelia as tubules is a widespread feature of organs. (elifesciences.org)
  • Larvae of all species in genus Arachnocampa use modified and swollen Malpighian tubules to produce a blue-green light attracting prey towards mucus-coated trap lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • exigua larvae, Tre2 was found highly expressed in the midgut, Malpighian tubules and fat body, but much less so in the brain, cuticle, trachea and testes (Tang et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyp302a1 , Cyp306a1 , Cyp315a1 , and Cyp307a2 are all expressed in the prothoracic glands of late embryos and larvae and catalyze steps in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway ( 18 - 21 ), while Cyp314a1 ( shade ), responsible for catalyzing the conversion from ecdysone to 20H, is expressed in the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and the fat body ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Since the early 1930s it has been known that reed beetles live in close symbiosis with bacteria that colonize blind sacs in the midgut of the larvae, but in the adult beetles they occupy the so-called Malpighian tubules, which are comparable to our kidneys. (uni-mainz.de)
  • In biology, a tubule is a general term referring to small tube or similar type of structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The uric acid is absorbed by the Malpighian tubules and the low pH in the tubule lumen causes uric acid to precipitate out as dry matter. (fsu.edu)
  • By short-circuiting the transepithelial voltage with the diuretic peptide leucokinin-VIII we largely eliminated electrical coupling of principal cells through the tubule lumen, thereby allowing coupling through gap junctions to be analyzed. (biologists.org)
  • the other passes through the apical membrane of one cell into the tubule lumen and then across the apical membrane into the neighboring cell. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, gap junctions couple neighboring cells directly, whereas the tubule lumen couples them indirectly. (biologists.org)
  • Urate is transported against an electrochemical gradient into the lumen of the lower Malpighian tubule oiRhodnius. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Na + and/or K + ions are actively transported into the lumen of the tubules. (chromoscience.com)
  • In this exercise students expose tubules from cockroaches or crickets to chlorophenol red and visually estimate the dye concentration in the lumen. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • 2. V t avaraged 53±3 (110) mV lumen positive (mean±SE, number of tubules), and was inhibited by dinitrophenol, but not by amiloride, furosemide, or ouabain (all added to the serosal medium). (elsevier.com)
  • Epithelial tubules transport nutrients, gasses, or fluids, modifying such contents as they transit the lumen. (elifesciences.org)
  • Pre-urine is formed in the tubules, when nitrogenous waste and electrolytes are transported through the tubule walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, PCR studies on cDNA derived from Aedes Malpighian tubules reveal the expression of four innexin-like transcripts. (biologists.org)
  • Malpighian tubules work cooperatively with specialized glands in the wall of the rectum. (chromoscience.com)
  • The primary sites of infection were the Malpighian tubules and the silk glands. (bioone.org)
  • It is unclear as to whether the Malpighian tubules of arachnids and those of the Uniramia are homologous or the result of convergent evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • New studies in Drosophila kidney stone models have characterized zinc transporters and used Malpighian tubules to study the efficacy of a plant metabolite in decreasing stone burden. (nih.gov)
  • Electron microscopic studies on renal tubules (Malpighian tubules) in Drosophila melanogaster. (eurekamag.com)
  • Mechanisms of K+ uptake across the basal membrane of malpighian tubules of Formica polyctena: the effect of ions and inhibitors. (biologists.com)
  • Metabolic wastes like uric acid freely diffuse into the tubules. (chromoscience.com)
  • The malpighian tubules function by collecting water and uric acid from the surrounding blood. (reference.com)
  • Bombyx ortholog of the Drosophila eye color gene brown controls riboflavin transport in Malpighian tubules. (nih.gov)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity was detected in fat body and the Malpighian tubles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Putative roles for several signalling pathways in patterning the tubule P-D axis is hinted at from previous Malpighian tubule studies, or from roles in analogous developmental processes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Current was injected into one principal cell of the isolated Malpighian tubule and membrane voltage deflections were measured in that cell and in two neighboring principal cells. (biologists.org)
  • Dose-response curves of the effects of (A) cyanide (KCN) and (B) dinitrophenol (DNP) on the basolateral membrane voltage ( V bl , solid line) and the input resistance ( R pc , broken line) of principal cells of Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti . (biologists.org)
  • Time course of the effects of 0.3 mmol l -1 cyanide (KCN) on the basolateral membrane voltage ( V bl ), input resistance ( R pc ), and the virtual active transport current ( I at(virt) ) in a representative principal cell, and on intracellular ATP concentrations [ATP] i in 6-16 sets of five Malpighian tubules each. (biologists.org)
  • K + -conductance was evaluated by the effects of a tenfold increase in bath [K + ], from 3.4 mmol l -1 to 34 mmol l -1 , on the basolateral membrane voltage V bl and input resistance R pc of principal cells of Malpighian tubules isolated from Aedes aegypti . (biologists.org)
  • The effect of peritubular BaCl 2 (5 mmol l -1 ), a competitive blocker of K + -channels, was evaluated on basolateral membrane voltage V bl and input resistance R pc of principal cells of Malpighian tubules isolated from Aedes aegypti . (biologists.org)
  • The apical brush border membrane of principal cells in Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti . (biologists.org)
  • Zip71B/dZip5 is localized to the plasma membrane at the basolateral side of the tubules, and is functionally epistatic to the apically localized ZnT35C in regulating the tubule zinc homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) has cryptonephridial type Malphigian tubules ( MT ). This type of MT is characterized by the penetration of the distal part of the MT into the external walls of the rectum , which is usually lined with a perinephral membrane . (bvsalud.org)
  • Replacing Wingless with a membrane-tethered version that is unable to diffuse from the Wingless producing cells results in aberrant patterning of the Malpighian tubule P-D axis and development of short, deformed ureters. (elifesciences.org)
  • Knockdown of Drosophila Mo25 in the Malpighian tubule decreased transepithelial ion flux under stimulated but not basal conditions. (asnjournals.org)
  • 1. Segments of Aedes aegypti Malpighian tubules were isolated and perfused with symmetrical solutions, and the transepithelial electrical potential difference (V t ) and resistance (R t ) were determined. (elsevier.com)
  • We examined the spatial and temporal expression profiles of Bm-brown and found that this gene was specifically and continuously expressed in larval Malpighian tubules (MTs), indicating this gene has a special function in MTs. (nih.gov)
  • Both Coleoptera and Lepidoptera use a cryptonephridial arrangement where the distal end of the tubules are embedded in fat tissue surrounding the rectum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubules are usually bathed in hemolymph and are in proximity to fat body tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The system consists of branching tubules extending from the alimentary canal that absorbs solutes, water, and wastes from the surrounding hemolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compare the structure and function of protonephridia, metanephridia, and Malpighian tubules. (bartleby.com)
  • A recent study generated an RNA-sequencing-based atlas of tissue-specific gene expression, with resulting insights into Malpighian tubule gene expression of transporters and channels. (nih.gov)
  • Distinct and ordered functional regions along the tubule proximo-distal (P-D) axis-expressing specific combinations of transmembrane transporters/channels-often underlies this modifying ability. (elifesciences.org)
  • These glucosinolate transporters are located in the excretory system, the so-called Malpighian tubules. (eurekalert.org)
  • The scientists determined the function of the identified transporters by using RNA interference, an approach in which the expression of a gene of interest is reduced in order to determine its function in the organism: "We silenced the expression of several transporter genes that are localized in the Malpighian tubules and found that the beetles excreted more glucosinolates than a control group of beetles with normal gene expression. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our study is the first to identify transporters in the Malpighian tubules that enable an insect to accumulate plant defense compounds," Yang summarizes. (eurekalert.org)
  • israelensis (Bti toxin) on Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus has been investigated. (biologists.org)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster homologue of an insect calcitonin- like diuretic peptide stimulates V-ATPase activity in fruit fly Malpighian tubules. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • In the present study we ascertain the functional presence of gap junctions between principal cells of Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito. (biologists.org)
  • All of the mosquito leucokinins, with the exception of CDP-I, significantly stimulated intracellular IP(3) in isolated tubules. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that the mosquito leucokinins may function on the Malpighian tubules of A. aegypti by increasing the intracellular Ca(2+) levels through the release of IP(3) sensitive Ca(2+) stores. (nih.gov)
  • The physiological relevance of these data to the regulation of mosquito Malpighian tubule function is discussed. (nih.gov)
  • Williams, JC & Beyenbach, KW 1984, ' Differential effects of secretagogues on the electrophysiology of the Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito ', Journal of Comparative Physiology B , vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 301-309. (elsevier.com)
  • The distension of the body after ingestion is the stimulus that causes certain cells in the central nervous system to release a hormone that acts upon the malpighian tubules to promote a brisk flow of primary urine. (britannica.com)
  • We present electrical, physiological and molecular evidence for substantial electrical coupling of epithelial cells in Malpighian tubules via gap junctions. (biologists.org)
  • The analysis of an equivalent electrical circuit of the tubule yielded an average gap-junction resistance ( R gj ) of 431 kΩ between two cells. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, voltage recordings from two or more adjacent principal cells of the same tubule are strikingly similar in amplitude and frequency under control and experimental conditions, which is consistent with electrical coupling. (biologists.org)
  • Over-expression of the gene, induced in a stock containing the wg gene under the control of a heat-shock promoter, results in supernumerary cells in the tubules. (biologists.org)
  • For purposes of description, the cells of the Malpighian tubules of the grasshopper may be divided into basal, intermediate, and apical zones. (core.ac.uk)
  • Wingless signalling, emanating from the midgut, directly activates odd skipped expression several cells distant in the proximal tubule. (elifesciences.org)
  • The primary urine issuing from the malpighian tubules has to pass through the rectum before it leaves the insect's body, and in the rectum its composition is markedly changed. (britannica.com)
  • The insect excretory system therefore comprises the malpighian tubules and the rectum acting together. (britannica.com)
  • Rectum and malpighian tubules. (google.com.au)
  • moubata the rectum receives only the malpighian tubules and there is no con nection between intestine and rectal ampulla). (google.com.au)
  • View a second image of grasshopper Malpighian tubules. (fsu.edu)
  • Cell division in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster depends on the presence of a specialised cell at the tip of each tubule (Skaer, H. le B (1989) Nature 342, 566-569). (biologists.org)
  • The physiological demonstration of gap junctions and the molecular evidence for innexin in Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti call for the double cable model of the tubule, which will improve the measurement and the interpretation of electrophysiological data collected from Malpighian tubules. (biologists.org)
  • Tools to measure Malpighian tubule transport continue to advance, including use of a transgenic sensor to quantify intracellular pH and proton fluxes. (nih.gov)
  • 0.05) increased tubule intracellular cAMP concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of tubules with either 5-HT or CDP-II resulted in significant increases in both intracellular cAMP and IP(3) concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • In conditions in which tubule intracellular chloride concentration decreased from 30 to 15 mM as measured using a transgenic sensor, Drosophila WNK activity acutely increased. (asnjournals.org)
  • Pretreatment of the tubules with 0.1 mmol l-1 ouabain or bumetanide or 1 mumol l-1 5-hydroxytryptamine did not affect the toxicity of the toxin. (biologists.org)
  • Malpighian tubules are slender tubes normally found in the posterior regions of arthropod alimentary canals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of the Malpighian tubules revealed that most host nuclei are infected by an endosymbiotic, intranuclear bacterium that was determined as an Alphaproteobacterium of the genus Rickettsia . (wiley.com)
  • Cadmium transport by the gut and Malpighian tubules of Chironomus riparius. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis of epithelial K(+) transport in Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for spatial and temporal heterogeneity. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Finally, using a tubule calcification model, we were able to show that knockdown of Zip71B/dZip5 or ZnT35C was able to mitigate stone formation, consistent with their roles in tubular zinc homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)