Child Nutrition Disorders
Infant Nutrition Disorders
Fetal Nutrition Disorders
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Kidney Failure, Chronic
Body Mass Index
Vitamin A Deficiency
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Parenteral Nutrition, Total
Child Nutrition Sciences
Failure to Thrive
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
World Health Organization
Body Weights and Measures
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Severity of Illness Index
Missions and Missionaries
Thymic Factor, Circulating
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic
HIV Wasting Syndrome
Maternal undernutrition from early- to mid-gestation leads to growth retardation, cardiac ventricular hypertrophy, and increased liver weight in the fetal sheep. (1/1319)Early gestation is critical for placentomal growth, differentiation, and vascularization, as well as fetal organogenesis. The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis proposes that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status result in developmental adaptations that permanently change structure, physiology, and metabolism, thereby predisposing individuals to cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine disease in adult life. Multiparous ewes were fed to 50% (nutrient restricted) or 100% (control fed) of total digestible nutrients from Days 28 to 78 of gestation. All ewes were weighed weekly and diets adjusted for individual weight loss or gain. Ewes were killed on Day 78 of gestation and gravid uteri recovered. Fetal body and organ weights were determined, and numbers, morphologies, diameters, and weights of all placentomes were obtained. From Day 28 to Day 78, restricted ewes lost 7.4% of body weight, while control ewes gained 7.5%. Maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations were reduced in restricted versus control pregnancies. Fetuses were markedly smaller in the restricted group than in the control group. Further, restricted fetuses exhibited greater right- and left-ventricular and liver weights per unit fetal weight than control fetuses. No treatment differences were observed in any gross placentomal measurement. However, caruncular vascularity was enhanced in conceptuses from nutrient-restricted ewes but only in twin pregnancies. While these alterations in fetal/placental development may be beneficial to early fetal survival in the face of a nutrient restriction, their effects later in gestation as well as in postnatal life need further investigation. (+info)
Ovarian responses to undernutrition in pregnant ewes, USA. (2/1319)In most mammals oogonia proliferate by mitosis and begin meiotic development during fetal life. Previous studies indicated that there is a delay in the progression to the first stage of meiotic arrest in germ cells of female fetuses of undernourished ewes. We report that underfeeding (50% NRC requirement beginning on Day 28 of pregnancy) provokes an increase in oxidative base lesions within DNA of mid-gestational (Day 78) fetal oogonia; this condition was associated with up-regulation of the tumor suppressor/cell-cycle arrest modulator p53, antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2, and base-excision repair polymerase beta. Fetal ovarian weights and germ cell concentrations were not altered by nutrient deprivation. Ovaries of ewes on control diets (100% NRC) contained more tertiary follicles than their restricted counterparts; however, peripheral venous estradiol-17beta was not different between groups. There was no effect of treatment on p53 accumulation in maternal oocytes. Luteal structure-function was not perturbed by undernutrition. No fetal losses were attributed to the dietary restriction. It is proposed that DNA of interphase fetal oogonia is vulnerable to oxidative insults perpetrated by a nutritional stress to the dam, and that multiple/integrated adaptive molecular response mechanisms of cell-cycle inhibition (providing the time required for base repairs) and survival hence sustain the genomic integrity and population stability of the germline. (+info)
Influence of varying degrees of malnutrition on IGF-I expression in the rat diaphragm. (3/1319)This study evaluated the impact of varying degrees of prolonged malnutrition on the local insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system in the costal diaphragm muscle. Adult rats were provided with either 60 or 40% of usual food intake over 3 wk. Nutritionally deprived (ND) animals (i.e., ND60 and ND40) were compared with control (Ctl) rats fed ad libitum. Costal diaphragm fiber types and cross-sectional areas were determined histochemically. Costal diaphragm muscle IGF-I mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR. Serum and muscle IGF-I peptide levels were determined by using a rat-specific radioimmunoassay. The body weights of Ctl rats increased by 5%, whereas those of ND60 and ND40 animals decreased by 16 and 26%, respectively. Diaphragm weights were reduced by 17 and 27% in ND60 and ND40 animals, respectively, compared with Ctl. Diaphragm fiber proportions were unaffected by either ND regimen. Significant atrophy of both type IIa and IIx fibers was noted in the ND60 group, whereas atrophy of all three fiber types was observed in the diaphragm of ND40 rats. Serum IGF-I levels were reduced by 62 and 79% in ND60 and ND40 rats, respectively, compared with Ctl. Diaphragm muscle IGF-I mRNA levels in both ND groups were similar to those noted in Ctl. In contrast, IGF-I concentrations were reduced by 36 and 42% in the diaphragm muscle of ND60 and ND40 groups, respectively, compared with Ctl. We conclude that the local (autocrine/paracrine) muscle IGF-I system is affected in our models of prolonged ND. We propose that this contributes to disordered muscle protein turnover and muscle cachexia with atrophy of muscle fibers. This is particularly so in view of recent data demonstrating the importance of the autocrine/paracrine system in muscle growth and maintenance of fiber size. (+info)
The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition. (4/1319)In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981-1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact correlations and of drug-specific diseases. However, in 1984 US government researchers proposed that a virus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the cause of the non-random epidemics of the US and Europe but also of a new, sexually random epidemic in Africa. The virus-AIDS hypothesis was instantly accepted, but it is burdened with numerous paradoxes, none of which could be resolved by 2003: Why is there no HIV in most AIDS patients, only antibodies against it? Why would HIV take 10 years from infection to AIDS? Why is AIDS not self-limiting via antiviral immunity? Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or anti-HIV drugs or are subject to malnutrition? Why is the mortality of HIV-antibody-positives treated with anti-HIV drugs 7-9%, but that of all (mostly untreated) HIV-positives globally is only 1.4%? Here we propose that AIDS is a collection of chemical epidemics, caused by recreational drugs, anti-HIV drugs, and malnutrition. According to this hypothesis AIDS is not contagious, not immunogenic, not treatable by vaccines or antiviral drugs, and HIV is just a passenger virus. The hypothesis explains why AIDS epidemics strike non-randomly if caused by drugs and randomly if caused by malnutrition, why they manifest in drug- and malnutrition-specific diseases, and why they are not self-limiting via anti-viral immunity. The hypothesis predicts AIDS prevention by adequate nutrition and abstaining from drugs, and even cures by treating AIDS diseases with proven medications. (+info)
Co-morbidity and kidney graft failure-two main causes of malnutrition in kidney transplant patients. (5/1319)BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is very frequent in chronic renal failure but, after successful kidney transplantation, body weight gain is common and is widely investigated, while malnutrition after transplantation is underestimated. In the present study, the prevalence of malnutrition in kidney transplant patients and the factors which might contribute to its development are analysed. METHOD: In a population of 452 kidney transplant patients followed-up regularly at our department, body mass index (BMI) was determined. Out of this population, 47 patients (18 females, aged 13-54 years, post-transplantation period 6-180 months) were randomly selected for more detailed examination of their nutritional status using anthropometry (body weight, the mid-arm muscle circumference, skinfold thickness, BMI) as well as biochemical parameters (serum protein, albumin, cholesterol, red blood cell count). Co-morbidity of the selected patients was assessed using the Index of Coexistent Diseases. RESULTS: Among 452 kidney transplant patients, 15% had a BMI of <21 kg/m(2), 45% had a BMI of 21-25 kg/m(2), and 40% had a BMI >25 kg/m(2). After more accurate assessment of nutritional status of the selected 47 patients, a comparison between those who were malnourished (11 patients) and those who were well nourished (20 patients) was made. No significant difference was found in age at transplantation, pre-transplantation time on dialysis, donor origin, early post-transplant course, immunosuppressive therapy, number of rejection episodes or post-transplant period between these two groups. However, malnutrition appeared significantly more frequently in females, and malnourished patients had significantly higher serum creatinine levels. Co-morbidity conditions, assessed by the Index of Disease Severity and Index of Physical Impairment combined peak scores resulting in the final Index of Coexistent Disease, were more frequent and more severe in malnourished patients as compared with well-nourished patients. CONCLUSION: In a population of kidney transplant patients regularly followed-up at our clinic, 15% had malnutrition. Malnutrition is more frequent in females, but kidney graft failure and co-morbidity had a significant role in its development. (+info)
Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger? (6/1319)The pandemic of arsenic poisoning due to contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India, and all of Bangladesh has been thought to be limited to the Ganges Delta (the Lower Ganga Plain), despite early survey reports of arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Union Territory of Chandigarh and its surroundings in the northwestern Upper Ganga Plain and recent findings in the Terai area of Nepal. Anecdotal reports of arsenical skin lesions in villagers led us to evaluate arsenic exposure and sequelae in the Semria Ojha Patti village in the Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, where tube wells replaced dug wells about 20 years ago. Analyses of the arsenic content of 206 tube wells (95% of the total) showed that 56.8% exceeded arsenic concentrations of 50 micro g/L, with 19.9% > 300 micro g/L, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. On medical examination of a self-selected sample of 550 (390 adults and 160 children), 13% of the adults and 6.3% of the children had typical skin lesions, an unusually high involvement for children, except in extreme exposures combined with malnutrition. The urine, hair, and nail concentrations of arsenic correlated significantly (r = 0.72-0.77) with drinking water arsenic concentrations up to 1,654 micro g/L. On neurologic examination, arsenic-typical neuropathy was diagnosed in 63% of the adults, a prevalence previously seen only in severe, subacute exposures. We also observed an apparent increase in fetal loss and premature delivery in the women with the highest concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water. The possibility of contaminated groundwater at other sites in the Middle and Upper Ganga Plain merits investigation. (+info)
Food insecurity, food choices, and body mass index in adults: nutrition transition in Trinidad and Tobago. (7/1319)BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether food insecurity and obesity were associated in a population sample in Trinidad. METHODS: A sample was drawn of 15 clusters of households, in north central Trinidad. Resident adults were enumerated. A questionnaire was administered including the short form Household Food Security Scale (HFSS). Heights and weights were measured. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and ethnic group. RESULTS: Data were analysed for 531/631 (84%) of eligible respondents including 241 men and 290 women with a mean age of 47 (range 24-89) years. Overall, 134 (25%) of subjects were classified as food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with lower household incomes and physical disability. Food insecure subjects were less likely to eat fruit (food insecure 40%, food secure 55%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.99, P = 0.045) or green vegetables or salads (food insecure 28%, food secure 51%; adjusted OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27-0.79, P = 0.005) on >/=5-6 days per week. Body mass index (BMI) was available for 467 (74%) subjects of whom 41 (9%) had BMI <20 kg/m(2), 157 (34%) had BMI 25-29 kg/m(2), and 120 (26%) had BMI >/=30 kg/m(2). Underweight (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.17-8.81) was associated with food insecurity, but obesity was not (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.55-2.12). CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity was frequent at all levels of BMI and was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables. Food insecurity was associated with underweight but not with present obesity. (+info)
The World Health Organization Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition: methodology and applications. (8/1319)BACKGROUND: For decades nutritional surveys have been conducted using various definitions, indicators and reference populations to classify child malnutrition. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition was initiated in 1986 with the objective to collect, standardize, and disseminate child anthropometric data using a standard format. METHODS: The database includes population-based surveys that fulfil a set of criteria. Data are checked for validity and consistency and raw data sets are analysed following a standard procedure to obtain comparable results. Prevalences of wasting, stunting, under- and overweight in preschool children are presented using z-scores based on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO international reference population. New surveys are included on a continuous basis and updates are published bimonthly on the database's web site. RESULTS: To date, the database contains child anthropometric information derived from 846 surveys. With 412 national surveys from 138 countries and 434 sub-national surveys from 155 countries, the database covers 99% and 64% of the under 5 year olds in developing and developed countries, respectively. This wealth of information enables international comparison of nutritional data, helps identifying populations in need, evaluating nutritional and other public health interventions, monitoring trends in child growth, and raising political awareness of nutritional problems. CONCLUSIONS: The 15 years experience of the database can be regarded as a success story of international collaboration in standardizing child growth data. We recommend this model for monitoring other nutritional health conditions that as yet lack comparable data. (+info)
1. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of protein and energy in the diet. It is common in developing countries and can lead to weight loss, weakness, and stunted growth in children.
2. Iron deficiency anemia: This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, which is necessary for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Malnutrition can also be caused by a lack of essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, and iodine. Symptoms vary depending on the specific deficiency but can include skin problems, impaired immune function, and poor wound healing.
4. Obesity: This type of malnutrition is caused by consuming too many calories and not enough nutrients. It can lead to a range of health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
Signs and symptoms of malnutrition can include:
* Weight loss or weight gain
* Fatigue or weakness
* Poor wound healing
* Hair loss
* Skin problems
* Increased infections
* Poor appetite or overeating
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation
* Impaired immune function
Treatment for malnutrition depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Dietary changes: Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods can help to correct nutrient deficiencies.
* Nutritional supplements: In some cases, nutritional supplements such as vitamins or minerals may be recommended to help address specific deficiencies.
* Medical treatment: Certain medical conditions that contribute to malnutrition, such as digestive disorders or infections, may require treatment with medication or other interventions.
Prevention is key, and there are several steps you can take to help prevent malnutrition:
* Eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods.
* Avoid restrictive diets or fad diets that limit specific food groups.
* Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, which can interfere with nutrient absorption and lead to malnutrition.
* Maintain a healthy weight through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise.
It is important to note that malnutrition can be subtle and may not always be easily recognizable. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing malnutrition, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Causes and risk factors:
1. Poverty and lack of access to nutritious food
2. Poor sanitation and hygiene
3. Inadequate healthcare and nutritional education
4. Conflict and displacement
5. Chronic illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis
1. Wasting and stunting of children
2. Poor appetite and weight loss
3. Fatigue, weakness, and lethargy
4. Increased susceptibility to infections
5. Poor wound healing and skin problems
1. Stunted growth and development
2. Weakened immune system
3. Increased risk of infections and diseases such as diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria
4. Poor cognitive development and reduced educational attainment
5. Increased risk of mortality
1. Clinical evaluation of symptoms and physical examination
2. Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight
3. Laboratory tests to assess nutrient deficiencies and infections
4. Dietary assessment to determine food intake and nutrient adequacy
Treatment and prevention:
1. Providing access to nutrient-dense foods, particularly protein-rich foods such as meat, poultry, fish, beans, and dairy products
2. Addressing underlying causes such as poverty and poor sanitation
3. Implementing nutritional education programs to promote healthy eating habits
4. Providing micronutrient supplements and fortified foods
5. Addressing infectious diseases and providing appropriate medical care
In conclusion, protein-energy malnutrition is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. It can have severe consequences on physical growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term health problems and improve quality of life. Addressing underlying causes such as poverty and poor sanitation is also essential to prevent the condition from occurring in the first place.
Types of Nutrition Disorders:
1. Malnutrition: This occurs when the body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions. Malnutrition can be caused by a lack of access to healthy food, digestive problems, or other underlying health issues.
2. Obesity: This is a condition where excess body fat accumulates to the point that it negatively affects health. Obesity can increase the risk of various diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.
3. Anorexia Nervosa: This is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight or becoming obese. People with anorexia nervosa may restrict their food intake to an extreme degree, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Bulimia Nervosa: This is another eating disorder where individuals engage in binge eating followed by purging or other compensatory behaviors to rid the body of calories consumed. Bulimia nervosa can also lead to malnutrition and other health issues.
5. Diabetes Mellitus: This is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes, in particular, has been linked to poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity.
6. Cardiovascular Disease: Poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke.
7. Osteoporosis: A diet low in calcium and vitamin D can contribute to the development of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures.
8. Gout: This is a type of arthritis caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. A diet rich in purine-containing foods such as red meat, seafood, and certain grains can increase the risk of developing gout.
9. Dental Problems: Poor dietary habits, particularly a diet high in sugar, can contribute to dental problems such as cavities and gum disease.
10. Mental Health Disorders: Malnutrition and other health problems caused by poor dietary habits can also contribute to mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety.
In conclusion, poor dietary habits can have significant negative effects on an individual's overall health and well-being. It is essential to adopt healthy dietary habits such as consuming a balanced diet, limiting processed foods and sugars, and increasing physical activity to maintain good health and prevent chronic diseases.
Child nutrition disorders refer to a range of conditions that affect the health and development of children, primarily caused by poor nutrition or dietary imbalances. These disorders can have short-term and long-term consequences on a child's physical and mental health, academic performance, and overall quality of life.
Types of Child Nutrition Disorders:
1. Malnutrition: A condition where the body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper growth and development. It can be caused by inadequate dietary intake, digestive problems, or other underlying medical conditions.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat that can impair health and increase the risk of various diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and joint problems.
3. Iron Deficiency Anemia: A condition where the body does not have enough red blood cells due to a lack of iron, which is essential for producing hemoglobin.
4. Vitamin D Deficiency: A condition where the body does not have enough vitamin D, which is necessary for bone health and immune system function.
5. Food Allergies: An immune response to specific foods that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild discomfort to life-threatening reactions. Common food allergens include peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs, wheat, and soy.
6. Coeliac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, leading to damage of the small intestine and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
8. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders: A group of conditions characterized by inflammation and eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the gastrointestinal tract, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and difficulty swallowing.
9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits such as constipation or diarrhea.
10. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
11. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Conditions characterized by symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits, but no visible signs of inflammation or structural abnormalities. Examples include functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
12. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders: Conditions that affect the movement of food through the digestive system, such as gastroparesis (slowed stomach emptying) and hypermobile gut syndrome (excessively loose joints).
13. Neurogastroenterology: The study of the interaction between the nervous system and the gastrointestinal system, including conditions such as functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis.
14. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disorders: Conditions that affect children, such as pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and feeding disorders.
15. Geriatric Gastrointestinal Disorders: Conditions that affect older adults, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and dementia, which can impact digestion and nutrition.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of gastrointestinal disorders that exist. Each condition has its unique set of symptoms and characteristics, and may require different treatment approaches.
The symptoms of kwashiorkor include:
3. Weight loss
4. Edema (swelling) particularly in the abdomen, face, and limbs
5. Skin changes such as dryness and thinning
6. Hair loss
7. Weakness and fatigue
8. Increased risk of infections
9. Poor appetite and feeding difficulties in children
Kwashiorkor is caused by a diet that is deficient in protein, which is necessary for growth and repair of body tissues. Without enough protein, the body begins to break down its own tissues, leading to the symptoms mentioned above. It can also be caused by a lack of other essential nutrients such as vitamins and minerals.
Treatment for kwashiorkor typically involves providing the patient with a balanced diet that includes plenty of protein and other essential nutrients. In severe cases, intravenous fluids and medication may be necessary to treat dehydration and other complications.
Prevention is key, and this can be achieved by:
1. Providing a balanced diet that includes plenty of protein and other essential nutrients
2. Avoiding foods that are high in carbohydrates and low in protein
3. Ensuring that children receive adequate breastfeeding or appropriate complementary feeding
4. Addressing poverty and food insecurity, which can contribute to kwashiorkor
5. Promoting good hygiene practices to reduce the risk of infections.
Some common types of infant nutrition disorders include:
1. Cow's milk protein allergy: This is an immune system reaction to the proteins found in cow's milk, which can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting.
2. Lactose intolerance: This is a condition in which the body is unable to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk, leading to gastrointestinal symptoms.
3. Malabsorption disorders: These are conditions that affect the absorption of nutrients from food, such as celiac disease or pancreatic insufficiency.
4. Neonatal jaundice: This is a condition in which the baby's skin and eyes turn yellow due to high levels of bilirubin, a waste product of red blood cells, in the blood.
5. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: This is a condition in which the muscles in the pylorus, the opening between the stomach and small intestine, become thickened, leading to vomiting and dehydration.
6. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a condition in which the muscles that separate the esophagus and stomach do not function properly, allowing stomach acid to flow back up into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn and vomiting.
7. Inborn errors of metabolism: These are genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down certain nutrients or produce certain substances essential for growth and development.
8. Premature birth: Babies born prematurely may be at higher risk for various nutrition disorders due to their underdeveloped digestive system.
9. Feeding difficulties: Infants with feeding difficulties, such as difficulty latching or sucking, may be at higher risk for nutrient deficiencies and other feeding-related disorders.
10. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy: A mother's nutritional intake during pregnancy can affect the developing fetus and increase the risk of certain nutrition disorders in the baby.
It is important to note that not all babies who are born prematurely or have a low birth weight will develop these disorders, and not all babies who exhibit these symptoms have an underlying nutrition disorder. If you suspect that your baby may have a nutrition disorder, it is important to discuss your concerns with your pediatrician or a registered dietitian to determine the appropriate course of action.
There are several factors that can contribute to protein deficiency, including:
1. Poor diet: A diet that is lacking in protein-rich foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts, can lead to protein deficiency.
2. Vegetarian or vegan diet: People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet may be at risk of protein deficiency if they do not consume enough protein-rich plant-based foods.
3. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions, such as celiac disease, can lead to malabsorption of proteins and other nutrients.
4. Pregnancy and breastfeeding: Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding have a higher protein requirement to support the growth and development of their baby.
5. Chronic diseases: Certain chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, can lead to protein deficiency.
Protein deficiency can cause a range of symptoms, including:
1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Muscle wasting and loss of muscle mass
3. Poor wound healing
4. Hair loss
5. Difficulty concentrating and making decisions
6. Mood changes, such as irritability and depression
7. Increased risk of infections
If protein deficiency is not treated, it can lead to a range of complications, including:
1. Stunted growth in children
2. Weakened immune system
3. Poor wound healing
4. Increased risk of infections
5. Nutrient deficiencies
6. Reproductive problems
7. Cardiovascular disease
Treatment for protein deficiency typically involves increasing the intake of protein-rich foods or supplements. The goal is to provide enough protein to support growth and development, as well as overall health and well-being. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms or address underlying conditions.
In addition to dietary changes, other treatments for protein deficiency may include:
1. Nutritional supplements: Protein supplements can be taken to increase protein intake.
2. Vitamin and mineral supplements: If the protein deficiency is due to a lack of certain vitamins or minerals, supplements may be prescribed.
3. Hormone replacement therapy: In cases where protein deficiency is caused by hormonal imbalances, hormone replacement therapy may be recommended.
4. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs, may be prescribed to help manage symptoms of protein deficiency.
5. Addressing underlying conditions: If the protein deficiency is due to an underlying condition, such as kidney disease, treatment will focus on managing that condition.
Preventing protein deficiency is important for maintaining overall health and well-being. Here are some tips for preventing protein deficiency:
1. Eat a balanced diet: Include a variety of protein-rich foods in your diet, such as lean meats, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts.
2. Consult with a healthcare professional: If you are vegetarian or vegan, or if you have certain medical conditions, consult with a healthcare professional to ensure you are getting enough protein.
3. Consider supplements: If you are unable to get enough protein through your diet alone, consider taking protein supplements.
4. Monitor your symptoms: Pay attention to any symptoms of protein deficiency and seek medical attention if they persist or worsen over time.
Overall, preventing protein deficiency is important for maintaining overall health and well-being. If you suspect you or someone you know may have a protein deficiency, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. With proper diagnosis and treatment, protein deficiency can be effectively managed and symptoms can improve.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
Types of Fetal Nutrition Disorders:
1. Iron deficiency anemia: This is the most common nutritional disorder in pregnancy and can lead to low birth weight, premature birth, and developmental delays.
2. Folate deficiency: Folate is crucial for fetal neural tube development. Deficiency can cause birth defects such as spina bifida and anencephaly.
3. Iodine deficiency: Iodine is essential for thyroid function, and deficiency can lead to cretinism, a condition characterized by mental retardation, deafness, and physical defects.
4. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency: These fatty acids are crucial for fetal brain and eye development. Deficiency can lead to vision and cognitive impairments.
5. Maternal diabetes: Poorly managed gestational diabetes can lead to fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, and an increased risk of birth defects.
6. Preeclampsia: This condition is characterized by high blood pressure and protein in the urine and can lead to fetal growth restriction and premature birth.
7. Placental abruption: This is a condition where the placenta separates from the uterus, leading to bleeding and depriving the fetus of essential nutrients and oxygen.
8. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol during pregnancy can lead to a range of physical and cognitive abnormalities in the fetus.
9. Drug exposure: Maternal drug use, particularly opioids and other substances, can affect fetal development and increase the risk of birth defects and growth restriction.
10. Environmental toxins: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as lead and pesticides, has been linked to an increased risk of birth defects and developmental delays.
It's important for pregnant women to be aware of these potential risks and take steps to minimize their impact. This can include maintaining a healthy diet, getting regular prenatal care, avoiding harmful substances, and managing any underlying medical conditions. By taking proactive steps, pregnant women can help ensure the best possible outcomes for their developing fetuses.
Some common types of growth disorders include:
1. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD): A condition in which the body does not produce enough growth hormone, leading to short stature and slow growth.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females, causing short stature, incomplete sexual development, and other health problems.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes excessive hunger, obesity, and other physical and behavioral abnormalities.
4. Chronic kidney disease (CKD): A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose function over time, leading to growth retardation and other health problems.
5. Thalassemia: A genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
6. Hypothyroidism: A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to slow growth and other health problems.
7. Cushing's syndrome: A rare hormonal disorder that can cause rapid growth and obesity.
8. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and other physical abnormalities.
9. Noonan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the heart, lungs, and other organs, leading to short stature and other health problems.
10. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes growth delays, cardiovascular problems, and other health issues.
Growth disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as hormone level assessments or genetic testing. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medication, hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals with growth disorders.
Wasting syndrome is characterized by weight loss, muscle wasting, and a decrease in body condition score. It can also lead to a range of other health problems such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and decreased immune function.
To diagnose wasting syndrome in your cat, your veterinarian will need to perform a series of tests to rule out other potential causes of weight loss and muscle wasting. These tests may include blood work, urinalysis, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound.
Treatment for wasting syndrome will depend on the underlying cause of the condition. For example, if the condition is caused by chronic kidney disease, treatment may involve managing the symptoms of the disease and providing supportive care such as fluid therapy and medication to help slow the progression of the disease.
In addition to medical treatment, there are several things you can do at home to help your cat feel more comfortable and manage their weight loss. These include:
* Providing a high-quality, nutrient-rich diet that is appropriate for your cat's age, health status, and lifestyle.
* Encouraging your cat to drink plenty of water by placing multiple water bowls around the house and making water more appealing through the use of flavored or scented water.
* Providing a safe and comfortable environment for your cat to rest and relax.
* Monitoring your cat's weight and body condition score regularly and working with your veterinarian to adjust their diet and treatment plan as needed.
It is important to work closely with your veterinarian to manage wasting syndrome in your cat, as this condition can have a significant impact on their quality of life and longevity. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cats are able to recover from wasting syndrome and lead happy, healthy lives.
1. Scurvy: A disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in the diet, leading to bleeding gums, weakened immune system, and poor wound healing.
2. Rickets: A disease that affects children and is caused by a lack of calcium and vitamin D, leading to soft and weak bones.
3. Anemia: A condition where the body does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin, which can be caused by a lack of iron, folate, or vitamin B12.
4. Beriberi: A condition that affects the heart and nervous system and is caused by a lack of vitamin B1 (thiamine), leading to muscle weakness, fatigue, and heart failure.
5. Goiter: An enlarged thyroid gland that can be caused by a lack of iodine in the diet, leading to hypothyroidism and other complications.
6. Pellagra: A disease caused by a lack of niacin (vitamin B3) in the diet, leading to diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia.
7. Kwashiorkor: A condition that occurs in children who are malnourished due to a lack of protein in their diet, leading to edema, skin lesions, and diarrhea.
8. Marasmus: A severe form of malnutrition that can be caused by a lack of calories, protein, or other essential nutrients, leading to weight loss, wasting, and weakened immune system.
Deficiency diseases can be prevented by consuming a well-balanced diet that includes a variety of whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. In some cases, deficiency diseases may also be treated with supplements or other medical interventions.
It is important to note that deficiency diseases can have far-reaching consequences for individuals, families, and communities. Malnutrition can lead to reduced productivity, increased healthcare costs, and a lower quality of life. Therefore, it is essential to prioritize nutrition and take steps to prevent deficiency diseases.
There are several types of diarrhea, including:
1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.
Symptoms of diarrhea may include:
* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Fatigue and weakness
Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea
Complications of diarrhea can include:
* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.
Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.
Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.
Anorexia Nervosa can be further divided into two subtypes:
1. Restrictive Type: This type of anorexia is characterized by restrictive eating patterns, such as limiting food intake and avoiding certain types of food. People with this type may have a fear of gaining weight or becoming fat.
2. Binge/Purge Type: This type of anorexia is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors, such as vomiting, using laxatives, or exercising excessively. People with this type may feel a loss of control during binge episodes and may experience guilt or shame afterward.
Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa can include:
* Restrictive eating habits
* Obsession with weight loss or body image
* Denial of hunger or fatigue
* Excessive exercise
* Difficulty maintaining a healthy weight
* Osteoporosis or other medical complications
Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of psychotherapy used to help individuals with anorexia nervosa change their negative thought patterns and behaviors related to food and body image. Family-based therapy can also be effective in treating adolescents with anorexia nervosa.
It is important to note that Anorexia Nervosa is a serious mental health condition that can have life-threatening consequences if left untreated. If you or someone you know is struggling with anorexia, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with anorexia nervosa can recover and lead a healthy, fulfilling life.
In medicine, thinness is sometimes used as a diagnostic criterion for certain conditions, such as anorexia nervosa or cancer cachexia. In these cases, thinness can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires medical attention.
However, it's important to note that thinness alone is not enough to diagnose any medical condition. Other factors, such as a person's overall health, medical history, and physical examination findings, must also be taken into account when making a diagnosis. Additionally, it's important to recognize that being underweight or having a low BMI does not necessarily mean that someone is unhealthy or has a medical condition. Many people with a healthy weight and body composition can still experience negative health effects from societal pressure to be thin.
Overall, the concept of thinness in medicine is complex and multifaceted, and it's important for healthcare providers to consider all relevant factors when evaluating a patient's weight and overall health.
Hypoalbuminemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Liver disease: The liver is responsible for producing albumin, so any damage to the liver can lead to low levels of albumin in the blood.
2. Malnutrition: A diet that is deficient in protein can lead to low levels of albumin.
3. Kidney disease: The kidneys are responsible for filtering waste products and excess fluids from the blood, and they also play a role in regulating albumin levels. Damage to the kidneys can lead to hypoalbuminemia.
4. Inflammation: Inflammation in the body can cause damage to the liver and kidneys, leading to low levels of albumin.
5. Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as liver cancer, can cause hypoalbuminemia by damaging the liver and disrupting the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body.
6. Inherited disorders: Certain inherited disorders, such as nephrotic syndrome, can lead to hypoalbuminemia.
7. Medications: Certain medications, such as diuretics, can cause hypoalbuminemia by increasing urine production and leading to a loss of albumin in the urine.
Hypoalbuminemia can have serious consequences if left untreated, including fluid accumulation in the body (edema), increased risk of infection, and impaired wound healing. Treatment for hypoalbuminemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as managing liver disease or kidney disease, correcting malnutrition, or treating inflammation with medications. In severe cases, albumin replacement therapy may be necessary to help maintain blood pressure and prevent fluid accumulation in the body.
Infantile diarrhea is a common problem in infants and young children. It is characterized by frequent, loose, and watery stools that may be accompanied by vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, and intestinal malabsorption disorders.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Frequent, loose, and watery stools (more than 3-4 per day)
3. Fever (temperature >100.4°F or 38°C)
4. Abdominal pain
5. Blood in the stool
6. Dehydration (signs include dry mouth, decreased urine output, sunken eyes, and dry diaper)
1. Stool culture to identify the causative agent
2. Blood tests to check for electrolytes and signs of dehydration
3. X-ray or ultrasound abdomen to rule out any intestinal obstruction
4. Other tests such as urine analysis, blood glucose, and liver function tests may be done based on the severity of the diarrhea and the child's overall condition.
1. Fluid replacement: Replacing lost fluids with oral rehydration solutions such as Pedialyte or Gatorade is essential to prevent dehydration.
2. Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
3. Dietary modifications: Breastfeeding should be continued or initiated in infants under 6 months old. For formula-fed infants, a special formula that is easier to digest may be recommended. Solid foods should be introduced gradually.
4. Medications: Anti-diarrheal medications such as loperamide may be given to help slow down bowel movements and reduce the frequency of stools.
5. Hospitalization: In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor the child's condition and provide intravenous fluids if oral rehydration is not effective.
1. Dehydration: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to dehydration, which can cause serious complications such as seizures, brain damage, and even death if left untreated.
2. Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, leading to muscle cramps, weakness, and heart problems.
3. Infection: Diarrhea can be a sign of an underlying infection, which can lead to more severe complications if left untreated.
4. Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, especially in children who are not getting enough nutrients.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease: Repeated episodes of diarrhea can lead to inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
1. Hand washing: Frequent hand washing is essential to prevent the spread of infection and diarrhea-causing bacteria.
2. Food safety: Ensure that food is cooked and stored properly to avoid contamination and infection.
3. Vaccination: Vaccines are available for some types of diarrhea-causing infections, such as rotavirus, which can help prevent severe diarrhea in children.
4. Breastfeeding: Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life can help protect infants against diarrhea and other infections.
5. Probiotics: Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can help maintain a healthy gut microbiome and prevent diarrhea.
1. Oral rehydration therapy: ORS or other oral rehydration solutions can help replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
2. Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat diarrhea caused by bacterial infections.
3. Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter anti-diarrheal medications such as loperamide can help slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
4. Probiotics: Probiotic supplements or probiotic-rich foods like yogurt can help restore the balance of gut bacteria and treat diarrhea.
5. IV fluids: In severe cases of diarrhea, IV fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
It's important to note that while these remedies can help alleviate symptoms, they may not address the underlying cause of the diarrhea. If diarrhea persists or worsens, medical attention should be sought. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat any underlying conditions or infections causing the diarrhea.
A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.
The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:
1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.
Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:
1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.
Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:
1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.
Imaging studies may include:
1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.
Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:
1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.
Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:
1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.
There are several types of malabsorption syndromes, including:
1. Celiac disease: An autoimmune disorder that damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with nutrient absorption.
2. Crohn's disease: An inflammatory bowel disease that can damage the small intestine and lead to malabsorption.
3. Whipple's disease: A bacterial infection that causes inflammation and damage to the small intestine.
4. Giant cell enteropathy: An immune-mediated disorder that damages the small intestine and interferes with nutrient absorption.
5. Postoperative malabsorption: Malabsorption that occurs after surgery on the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic insufficiency: A condition in which the pancreas is unable to produce enough digestive enzymes to break down food properly.
7. Bacterial overgrowth: An overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine can interfere with nutrient absorption.
8. Food allergies or intolerances: Certain foods can cause an immune response or irritation to the small intestine, leading to malabsorption.
The symptoms of malabsorption syndromes vary depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and nutrient deficiencies. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the malabsorption and may involve dietary changes, medication, or surgery.
The symptoms of noma typically begin with swelling and redness of the face and neck, followed by skin ulcers and tissue death. The infection can spread quickly, leading to serious complications such as sepsis, meningitis, and death.
Noma is caused by a combination of bacterial and fungal infections, with Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus being the most common pathogens. The condition is often associated with poor oral hygiene, dental caries, and gum disease, which provide an entry point for bacteria into the skin.
There are several risk factors for developing noma, including:
1. Malnutrition and poverty
2. Poor oral hygiene and dental care
3. Chronic diseases such as HIV/AIDS and malaria
4. Weakened immune system due to underlying medical conditions or medications
5. Exposure to unsanitary environments and poor living conditions
Treatment of noma typically involves a combination of antibiotics, debridement of dead tissue, and wound care. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue and restore function to the affected areas.
Prevention of noma is challenging, but it can be reduced by improving access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities, as well as promoting good oral hygiene and dental care practices. Vaccination against Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus may also help prevent the condition.
Overall, noma is a severe and debilitating condition that disproportionately affects children in resource-poor settings. Early recognition and prompt treatment are essential to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.
Causes of Vitamin A Deficiency:
1. Poor diet: A diet that is deficient in vitamin A-rich foods, such as dark leafy greens, liver, and dairy products, can lead to a deficiency.
2. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions, such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and pancreatic insufficiency, can impair the body's ability to absorb vitamin A from food.
3. Pregnancy and lactation: The increased demand for nutrients during pregnancy and lactation can lead to a deficiency if the diet does not provide enough vitamin A.
4. Chronic diseases: Certain chronic diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and kidney disease, can increase the risk of vitamin A deficiency.
Symptoms of Vitamin A Deficiency:
1. Night blindness: Difficulty seeing in low light environments, such as at night or in dimly lit rooms.
2. Blindness: In severe cases, vitamin A deficiency can lead to complete blindness.
3. Dry skin: Vitamin A is important for healthy skin, and a deficiency can cause dry, rough skin that may be prone to dermatitis.
4. Increased risk of infections: Vitamin A plays a role in immune function, and a deficiency can increase the risk of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and other infections.
5. Bitot's spot: A condition that causes white patches on the cornea, which can be a sign of vitamin A deficiency.
6. Dry eyes: Vitamin A is important for healthy tear production, and a deficiency can cause dry, itchy eyes.
7. Weakened immune system: Vitamin A plays a role in immune function, and a deficiency can weaken the body's ability to fight off infections.
8. Increased risk of cancer: Some studies suggest that a vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as colon, breast, and lung cancer.
9. Reproductive problems: Vitamin A is important for reproductive health, and a deficiency can cause irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, and other reproductive problems.
10. Poor wound healing: Vitamin A is important for healthy skin and wound healing, and a deficiency can cause poor wound healing and an increased risk of infection.
In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency is a common problem worldwide, especially in developing countries, and can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important to ensure adequate intake of vitamin A through diet or supplements, particularly for pregnant women, children, and individuals with chronic illnesses. If you suspect you may have a vitamin A deficiency, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider to determine the appropriate course of treatment.
1) Electrolyte imbalances: The rapid ingestion of large amounts of food can cause an imbalance of electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and magnesium.
2) Insulin resistance: The body may become resistant to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels.
3) Hyperinsulinemia: Elevated levels of insulin can cause a range of symptoms including confusion, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, headache, and even seizures.
4) Metabolic acidosis: The rapid breakdown of fat for energy can lead to the production of ketones, which can cause metabolic acidosis.
5) Cardiac arrhythmias: The rapid change in electrolyte levels and insulin resistance can lead to cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and even ventricular fibrillation.
6) Cerebral edema: In severe cases, refeeding syndrome can cause cerebral edema, leading to seizures, coma, and even death.
It is important for individuals who have been malnourished or starved to be reintroduced to food gradually, under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, to prevent refeeding syndrome.
There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:
1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.
Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.
Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.
In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.
Types of Infection:
1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.
Symptoms of Infection:
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
Treatment of Infection:
1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.
Prevention of Infection:
1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.
There are several types of avitaminosis, including:
1. Scurvy: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin C, leading to symptoms such as bleeding gums, joint pain, and weakened immune system.
2. Beriberi: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin B1 (thiamine), leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and heart failure.
3. Pellagra: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin B3 (niacin), leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia.
4. Anemia: A condition caused by a lack of vitamins and minerals necessary for red blood cell production, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
5. Rickets: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin D and calcium, leading to softening of the bones in children.
6. Osteomalacia: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin D and calcium, leading to softening of the bones in adults.
7. Vitamin B12 deficiency: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin B12, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and neurological problems.
The treatment for avitaminosis depends on the specific type and severity of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes may be sufficient, while in other cases, supplements or medication may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are several different types of weight gain, including:
1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:
1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.
Causes of weight gain:
1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.
Treatment options for obesity:
1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.
Overnutrition can also occur in individuals who have a poor understanding of appropriate portion sizes or who have difficulty regulating their food intake due to psychological or environmental factors. Some common causes of overnutrition include:
1. Overeating: Consuming more food than the body needs, often due to emotional or social reasons.
2. Consuming high-calorie foods and beverages: Foods and drinks that are high in sugar, fat, and salt can lead to overnutrition.
3. Lack of physical activity: Insufficient exercise can contribute to weight gain and overnutrition.
4. Poor portion control: Eating large portions or not understanding appropriate serving sizes can lead to overnutrition.
5. Psychological factors: Stress, emotional eating, or binge eating can contribute to overnutrition.
6. Environmental factors: Living in an environment that does not support healthy eating, such as having limited access to healthy food options or being surrounded by high-calorie foods.
To prevent or manage overnutrition, individuals should focus on maintaining a balanced diet, portion control, regular physical activity, and managing stress and emotions around food. Treatment for overnutrition may involve weight loss programs, nutrition counseling, and lifestyle changes.
FTT is typically diagnosed when a child's weight or height is below the 10th percentile for their age, and they are not gaining weight or growing at a normal rate despite adequate nutrition and appropriate medical care. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Poor nutrition or inadequate caloric intake
* Genetic disorders that affect growth
* Chronic illnesses such as asthma, gastrointestinal problems, or heart disease
* Environmental factors such as poverty, neglect, or poor living conditions
* Hormonal imbalances
FTT can have significant long-term consequences for a child's health and development. Children who fail to thrive may be at increased risk for:
* Delayed cognitive and social development
* Behavioral problems such as anxiety or depression
* Poor school performance
* Increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease later in life.
Treatment for FTT depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Nutritional supplements or changes to the child's diet
* Medical treatment for any underlying chronic illnesses
* Addressing environmental factors such as poverty or neglect
* Hormone replacement therapy if hormonal imbalances are suspected
* Psychosocial interventions to address behavioral problems or other issues that may be contributing to the child's FTT.
It is important for parents and caregivers to monitor their child's growth and development and seek medical attention if they notice any signs of FTT, such as:
* Poor weight gain or growth rate
* Delayed physical milestones such as sitting, crawling, or walking
* Poor appetite or difficulty feeding
* Frequent illnesses or infections.
Anorexia can have serious physical and emotional consequences, including:
* Malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies
* Osteoporosis and bone loss
* Heart problems and low blood pressure
* Hormonal imbalances
* Depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders
* Social isolation and difficulties in relationships
There are two main types of anorexia:
* Restrictive type: Characterized by restrictive eating habits and a fear of gaining weight.
* Binge/purge type: Characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors, such as vomiting or using laxatives.
Treatment for anorexia typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication. Family-based therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy are some of the common approaches used to treat anorexia. Medications such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.
In conclusion, anorexia is a complex and serious eating disorder that can have long-lasting physical and emotional consequences. It is important to seek professional help if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With appropriate treatment, individuals with anorexia can recover and lead a healthy and fulfilling life.
The exact cause of cachexia is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a combination of factors such as inflammation, hormonal imbalances, and changes in metabolism. Treatment for cachexia often focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the wasting, such as managing cancer or HIV/AIDS, as well as providing nutritional support and addressing any related complications.
In the medical field, cachexia is a serious condition that requires careful management to improve quality of life and outcomes for patients. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the signs and symptoms of cachexia and to provide appropriate treatment and support to affected individuals.
There are several types of edema, including:
1. Pitting edema: This type of edema occurs when the fluid accumulates in the tissues and leaves a pit or depression when it is pressed. It is commonly seen in the skin of the lower legs and feet.
2. Non-pitting edema: This type of edema does not leave a pit or depression when pressed. It is often seen in the face, hands, and arms.
3. Cytedema: This type of edema is caused by an accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the limbs, particularly in the hands and feet.
4. Edema nervorum: This type of edema affects the nerves and can cause pain, numbness, and tingling in the affected area.
5. Lymphedema: This is a condition where the lymphatic system is unable to properly drain fluid from the body, leading to swelling in the arms or legs.
Edema can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as imaging studies and blood tests. Treatment options for edema depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications, lifestyle changes, and compression garments. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to remove excess fluid or tissue.
There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:
* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.
Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:
* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels
However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.
Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:
* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.
The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:
* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.
It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.
Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.
Some common types of intestinal diseases, parasitic include:
1. Amoebiasis: This is an infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.
2. Giardiasis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Giardia duodenalis, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
3. Cryptosporidiosis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.
4. Isosporiasis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Isospora belli, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
5. Tapeworm infections: These are infections caused by tapeworms, such as Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Dipylidium caninum (dog tapeworm), which can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
6. Strongyloidiasis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue.
Intestinal diseases, parasitic can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as stool samples or blood tests. Treatment depends on the specific type of infection and may include antiparasitic medications, anti-diarrheal medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
Some common types of deglutition disorders include:
1. Dysphagia: This is a condition where individuals have difficulty swallowing food and liquids due to weakened or impaired swallowing muscles.
2. Aphasia: This is a condition where individuals have difficulty speaking and understanding language, which can also affect their ability to swallow.
3. Apraxia of speech: This is a condition where individuals have difficulty coordinating the muscles of the mouth and tongue to produce speech, which can also affect their ability to swallow.
4. Aspiration: This is a condition where food or liquids enter the trachea instead of the esophagus, which can cause respiratory problems and other complications.
5. Dystonia: This is a condition where individuals experience involuntary muscle contractions that can affect swallowing and other movements.
Deglutition disorders can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including videofluoroscopy, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), and instrumental assessment of swallowing physiology. Treatment options for deglutition disorders depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include speech therapy, medications, surgery, or a combination of these.
In conclusion, deglutition disorders can significantly impact an individual's quality of life, making it important to seek medical attention if swallowing difficulties are experienced. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many individuals with deglutition disorders can improve their swallowing abilities and regain their independence in eating and drinking.
1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.
It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.
There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:
* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Poor sleep
To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.
Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.
Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:
* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.
In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can affect various aspects of the child's development, including:
1. Physical growth and development: PDEDs can lead to changes in the child's physical growth patterns, such as reduced birth weight, short stature, or delayed puberty.
2. Brain development: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect brain development, leading to learning disabilities, memory problems, and cognitive delays.
3. Behavioral and emotional development: Children exposed to PDEDs may exhibit behavioral and emotional difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
4. Immune system functioning: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect the immune system's development, making children more susceptible to infections and autoimmune diseases.
5. Reproductive health: Exposure to certain chemicals during fetal development may disrupt the reproductive system, leading to fertility problems or an increased risk of infertility later in life.
The diagnosis of Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects often requires a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as specialized tests such as imaging studies or laboratory assessments. Treatment for PDEDs typically involves addressing the underlying cause of exposure and providing appropriate interventions to manage any associated symptoms or developmental delays.
In summary, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can have a profound impact on a child's growth, development, and overall health later in life. It is essential for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential risks and to monitor children exposed to substances during fetal development for any signs of PDEDs. With early diagnosis and appropriate interventions, it may be possible to mitigate or prevent some of these effects and improve outcomes for affected children.
Starvation is a condition where an individual's body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions and growth. It can be caused by a lack of access to food, poverty, poor nutrition, or other factors that prevent the intake of sufficient calories and essential nutrients. Starvation can lead to severe health consequences, including weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and even death.
Types of Starvation:
There are several types of starvation, each with different causes and effects. These include:
1. Acute starvation: This occurs when an individual suddenly stops eating or has a limited access to food for a short period of time.
2. Chronic starvation: This occurs when an individual consistently does not consume enough calories and nutrients over a longer period of time, leading to gradual weight loss and other health problems.
3. Malnutrition starvation: This occurs when an individual's diet is deficient in essential nutrients, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Marasmus: This is a severe form of starvation that occurs in children, characterized by extreme weight loss, weakness, and wasting of muscles and organs.
5. Kwashiorkor: This is a form of malnutrition caused by a diet lacking in protein, leading to edema, diarrhea, and other health problems.
Effects of Starvation on the Body:
Starvation can have severe effects on the body, including:
1. Weight loss: Starvation causes weight loss, which can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and a loss of essential nutrients.
2. Fatigue: Starvation can cause fatigue, weakness, and a lack of energy, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
3. Weakened immune system: Starvation can weaken the immune system, making an individual more susceptible to illnesses and infections.
4. Nutrient deficiencies: Starvation can lead to a deficiency of essential nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, which can cause a range of health problems.
5. Increased risk of disease: Starvation can increase the risk of diseases such as tuberculosis, pellagra, and other infections.
6. Mental health issues: Starvation can lead to mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and irritability.
7. Reproductive problems: Starvation can cause reproductive problems, including infertility and miscarriage.
8. Hair loss: Starvation can cause hair loss, which can be a sign of malnutrition.
9. Skin problems: Starvation can cause skin problems, such as dryness, irritation, and infections.
10. Increased risk of death: Starvation can lead to increased risk of death, especially in children and the elderly.
It is important to note that these effects can be reversed with proper nutrition and care. If you or someone you know is experiencing starvation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately.
1. Malaria: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can cause fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms.
2. Giardiasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated food and water. It can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
3. Toxoplasmosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the consumption of contaminated meat or cat feces. It can cause fever, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
4. Leishmaniasis: A group of diseases caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected sandfly. It can cause skin sores, fatigue, and weight loss.
5. Chagas disease: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It can cause heart problems, digestive issues, and brain damage.
6. Trichomoniasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person. It can cause vaginal itching, burning during urination, and abnormal vaginal discharge.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated water and food. It can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
8. Amoebiasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated water and food. It can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.
9. Babesiosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. It can cause fever, chills, and fatigue.
10. Angiostrongyliasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the ingestion of raw or undercooked snails or slugs. It can cause eosinophilic meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
It's important to note that these are just a few examples of parasitic diseases, and there are many more out there. Additionally, while some of these diseases can be treated with antiparasitic medications, others may require long-term management and supportive care. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have been infected with a parasite or if you experience any symptoms that could be related to a parasitic infection.
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Diverticulosis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the intestine, often causing abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
4. Intestinal obstruction: A blockage that prevents food, fluids, and gas from passing through the intestine, often causing abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Intestinal ischemia: A reduction in blood flow to the intestine, which can cause damage to the tissues and lead to life-threatening complications.
6. Intestinal cancer: Cancer that develops in the small intestine or large intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.
7. Gastrointestinal infections: Infections caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites that affect the gastrointestinal tract, often causing symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Intestinal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the movement of food through the intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.
9. Malabsorption: A condition in which the body is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, often caused by conditions such as celiac disease or pancreatic insufficiency.
10. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A condition in which the intestine becomes narrowed or blocked, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.
These are just a few examples of the many potential complications that can occur when the gastrointestinal system is not functioning properly. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in order to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
The most common types of helminthiasis include:
1. Ascariasis: caused by the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, this is one of the most common intestinal parasitic infections worldwide. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
2. Trichuriasis: caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, this infection can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
3. Hookworm infection: caused by the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, this infection can cause symptoms such as anemia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
4. Strongyloidiasis: caused by the threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis, this infection can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes.
5. Filariasis: caused by the filarial worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa, this infection can cause symptoms such as swelling of the limbs, scrotum, and breasts, as well as skin rashes and fever.
Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as stool samples or blood tests to detect the presence of parasites or their eggs. Treatment usually involves antiparasitic drugs, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove worms that have migrated to other parts of the body. Prevention measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, wearing protective clothing when working or traveling in areas with high prevalence of helminthiasis, and using insecticides to prevent mosquito bites.
In conclusion, helminthiasis is a group of diseases caused by parasitic worms that can affect humans and other animals. The most common types of helminthiasis include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, and filariasis. Diagnosis and treatment involve laboratory tests and antiparasitic drugs, respectively. Prevention measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, wearing protective clothing, and using insecticides. Understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of helminthiasis is essential for effective control and management of these diseases.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Asthenia is a non-specific term that can describe a wide range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and may involve multiple systems of the body. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, which can include medication, lifestyle changes, therapy, or a combination of these.
There are several types of taste disorders, including:
1. Ageusia: A complete loss of the sense of taste.
2. Hypogeusia: A decreased ability to perceive tastes.
3. Dysgeusia: A distorted perception of tastes, often described as a metallic or bitter taste.
4. Parageusia: A change in the sense of taste, such as a sweetness that is perceived as sour or salty.
5. Taste blindness: The inability to distinguish between different tastes.
Taste disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, as they can affect not only the enjoyment of food but also the ability to detect potentially harmful substances. Treatment options for taste disorders depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, therapy, or dietary changes.
Developmental disabilities can include a wide range of diagnoses, such as:
1. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurological disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
2. Intellectual Disability (ID): A condition in which an individual's cognitive abilities are below average, affecting their ability to learn, reason, and communicate.
3. Down Syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, characterized by intellectual disability, delayed speech and language development, and a distinctive physical appearance.
4. Cerebral Palsy (CP): A group of disorders that affect movement, balance, and posture, often resulting from brain injury or abnormal development during fetal development or early childhood.
5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
6. Learning Disabilities: Conditions that affect an individual's ability to learn and process information, such as dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia.
7. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): An injury to the brain caused by a blow or jolt to the head, often resulting in cognitive, emotional, and physical impairments.
8. Severe Hearing or Vision Loss: A condition in which an individual experiences significant loss of hearing or vision, affecting their ability to communicate and interact with their environment.
9. Multiple Disabilities: A condition in which an individual experiences two or more developmental disabilities simultaneously, such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.
10. Undiagnosed Developmental Delay (UDD): A condition in which an individual experiences delays in one or more areas of development, but does not meet the diagnostic criteria for a specific developmental disability.
These conditions can have a profound impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to provide appropriate support and accommodations to help them reach their full potential.
The term "alcoholic" in this context refers to the fact that the damage is caused by excessive alcohol consumption, rather than any other underlying medical condition or disease process. The suffix "-osis" means "condition" or "disease," and "alcoholic" modifies the noun "liver cirrhosis" to indicate the cause of the condition.
The term "LC-ALD" is used in medical literature and research to specifically refer to this type of cirrhosis caused by alcohol consumption, as opposed to other types of cirrhosis that may be caused by viral hepatitis or other factors.
Giardiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, which is found in contaminated water, food, or direct contact with infected individuals. The parasite enters the small intestine and feeds on the mucosal lining, causing inflammation, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
Giardiasis is a common disease worldwide, affecting approximately 500 million people annually, with higher prevalence in developing countries. In the United States, it is estimated that over 1.5 million people are infected each year, with the highest incidence rates found among children and travelers to endemic areas.
The symptoms of giardiasis can vary in severity but typically include:
* Diarrhea (sometimes bloody)
* Abdominal cramps
* Weight loss
* Nausea and vomiting
In some cases, the infection can lead to more severe complications such as:
* Malabsorption (deficiency of essential nutrients)
* Inflammation of the intestine
* Rectal prolapse
The diagnosis of giardiasis is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and medical history. The most common diagnostic techniques include:
* Microscopic examination of stool samples for the presence of Giardia eggs or trophozoites
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antigens or antibodies against Giardia in stool or blood samples
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite's DNA in stool samples
The treatment of giardiasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. These medications are effective against the parasite and can be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection. The duration of treatment varies depending on the individual case, but it is generally between 5-10 days.
Preventing giardiasis involves avoiding exposure to contaminated water or food sources. Some measures that can be taken to prevent the infection include:
* Avoiding consumption of untreated water, especially when traveling to areas with poor sanitation
* Avoiding contact with people who have diarrhea or are infected with Giardia
* Properly storing and cooking food to kill any parasites that may be present
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food
It is important to note that giardiasis can be a recurring infection, so it is important to take preventive measures consistently.
Examples of communicable diseases include:
1. Influenza (the flu)
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
6. Hepatitis B and C
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:
1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.
Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:
1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.
The exact cause of HIV Wasting Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of factors, including chronic inflammation, immune activation, and the direct effects of HIV on the body's metabolism. The syndrome typically affects individuals with advanced stages of HIV infection and can have a significant impact on their quality of life, functional status, and survival.
Symptoms of HIV Wasting Syndrome include:
1. Weight loss (more than 10% of body weight)
2. Muscle wasting and weakness
4. Decreased appetite
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
9. Poor wound healing
Diagnosis of HIV Wasting Syndrome is based on a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include measurements of serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin, as well as assessment of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Imaging studies, such as computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET), may be used to evaluate body composition and tissue distribution.
Treatment of HIV Wasting Syndrome involves a combination of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and supportive care, including:
1. ART to suppress HIV replication and reduce inflammation
2. Nutritional support with high-calorie diets or supplements
3. Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections
4. Management of related complications such as diarrhea, nausea, and pain
5. Physical therapy to maintain muscle mass and strength.
In addition, HIV Wasting Syndrome is also associated with other comorbidities such as HIV-associated neuropathy, HIV-associated dementia, and HIV-related kidney disease, which can further complicate the management of wasting syndrome. Therefore, it is important to address these comorbidities simultaneously while managing HIV Wasting Syndrome.
Malnutrition in Kerala
Malnutrition in children
Epidemiology of malnutrition
Malnutrition in India
Malnutrition in Nigeria
Global Acute Malnutrition
Malnutrition in Tibet
Malnutrition in Peru
Malnutrition in Zimbabwe
Muesli belt malnutrition
Malnutrition in South Africa
List of types of malnutrition
Drug Resource Enhancement against Aids and Malnutrition
Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition
War crimes during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War
Child health and nutrition in Africa
Colony collapse disorder
Health in Singapore
Our Work | Micronutrient Malnutrition | Nutrition | DNPAO | CDC
Yemen - Starvation, Cholera, Malnutrition | Britannica
Malnutrition: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Lao PDR - Reducing Rural Poverty and Malnutrition Project
Levels and trends in child malnutrition | UNICEF Sri Lanka
Democratising the Fight against Malnutrition - Global Issues
Interactions between malnutrition... preview & related info | Mendeley
Malnutrition Ravages India's Children| Countercurrents
WFP Initiative To Address Female Farmers, Malnutrition In Ecuador | KFF
SEA/RC64/R4 - Regional nutrition strategy: addressing malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.
Browsing by Subject "Malnutrition"
ACE2 - from the renin-angiotensin system to gut microbiota and malnutrition
malnutrition Archives - Georgia Today
500K Children in Somalia to Face Deadly Malnutrition by April 2023 | Save the Children
Alarming increase in malnutrition in Niger | MSF
Children displaced by Boko Haram in Nigeria continue to face malnutrition | Africanews
Nutritious Insects: Saving Children from Malnutrition, Starvation and Diseases | Kenya | World Vision International
One Tasmanian's 54-year obsession to catalogue all of the world's edible plants to end malnutrition - ABC News
North West parents charged with murder after their 4-month-old baby dies of malnutrition | News24
Africa 'set to miss UN development goal on malnutrition' - World Hunger News
WHO, Japan collaborate to address malnutrition in Namibia | WHO | Regional Office for Africa
malnutrition Archives - The St Kitts Nevis Observer
Previous Field Exchange content on continuum of acute malnutrition care | ENN
Despite ongoing humanitarian assistance, levels of acute malnutrition and mortality remain high | FEWS NET
New Research: Vaccines Could Prevent Childhood Malnutrition and Stunting
FAB: 14 June 2016 - BBC News - Obesity boom 'fuelling rise in malnutrition'
Table 1 - Microsporidiosis and Malnutrition in Children with Persistent Diarrhea, Uganda - Volume 15, Number 1-January 2009 -...
The New Humanitarian | Time to prevent child malnutrition in Sahel
- The program, called Strengthening Local Government Capacities to Improve Food and Nutrition Security, will simultaneously address malnutrition in women and children and the challenges that women smallholders face in managing their farm businesses…" (Ng, 5/28). (kff.org)
- This is helping to address malnutrition challenges in the County, resulting from the insufficient consumption of protein among children. (wvi.org)
- The Japanese government through the office of the Ambassador injected approximately N$ 2,6 million into the Ministry of Health and Social Services to address malnutrition while the WHO provided the technical support to successfully implement the project. (who.int)
- His work is used to address malnutrition across the globe and in 2016, he was named an Officer of the Order of Australia. (abc.net.au)
- Universitas Gadjah Mada sends 12 students on community service programme to help address malnutrition and measles incident in Asmat, Papua. (ugm.ac.id)
Double burden of malnutrition1
- Introduction The majority of the populations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are encountering the double burden of malnutrition (DBM): the coexistence of both undernutrition and overnutrition sequalae. (bepress.com)
Acute malnutrition among1
- Prevalence of global acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months ranged from 25.8% in Leitchuor to 30.3% in Kule, approximately twice the WHO emergency threshold of 15% ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- In this context, ACE2 modulates innate immunity and influences the composition of the gut microbiota, which can explain diarrhea and intestinal inflammation observed in Hartnup disorder, Pellagra, or under conditions of severe malnutrition. (nih.gov)
- This included 1.8 million children forecast to be suffering from severe malnutrition and 513,500 of those from severe acute malnutrition. (savethechildren.org)
- FAIRFIELD, Conn. (Dec. 13, 2022)- More than half a million children in Somalia are expected to face the most deadly form of malnutrition by April next year due to drought, higher food prices, conflict, and disease outbreaks, according to new figures released on Tuesday. (savethechildren.org)
- CDC's International Micronutrient Malnutrition Prevention and Control (IMMPaCt) program works to reduce vitamin and mineral deficiencies globally. (cdc.gov)
- See 23 Hidden Clues to Diagnosing Nutritional Deficiencies , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify clues to conditions associated with malnutrition. (medscape.com)
- Regional nutrition strategy: addressing malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. (who.int)
- Exceptionally detailed maps of child growth and education across Africa suggest that no single country is set to end childhood malnutrition by 2030. (worldhunger.org)
- Simplifying the response to childhood malnutrition: MSF's experience with MUAC-based (and oedema) programming. (ennonline.net)
- This introductory critical review addresses childhood malnutrition and its relation to child behavioral development. (bvsalud.org)
- Improving case definitions for micronutrient malnutrition. (cdc.gov)
- Children were especially vulnerable , with about 80 percent of Yemenis under the age of 18 facing threats to their health and survival and about one-third of children under 5 years of age facing acute malnutrition. (britannica.com)
- Malnutrition is directly responsible for 300,000 deaths per year in children younger than 5 years in developing countries and contributes indirectly to more than half of all deaths in children worldwide. (medscape.com)
- Children with chronic malnutrition may require caloric intakes of more than 120-150 kcal/kg/day to achieve appropriate weight gain. (medscape.com)
- Most children with mild malnutrition respond to increased oral caloric intake and supplementation with vitamin, iron, and folate supplements. (medscape.com)
- Well-nourished children grow, develop, learn, play, participate and contribute - while malnutrition robs children of their full potential, with consequences for children, nations and the world. (unicef.org)
- India, whose growing prosperity has hardly made any significant dent into chronic malnutrition of children, slipped three places to 100 in the 2017 Global Hunger Index (GHI) of 119 countries in which it has consistently ranked low .India has historically fared poorly on child nutrition indicators and has been plagued by periodical waves of malnutrition-related deaths in tribal areas. (countercurrents.org)
- Children stunted on account of malnutrition are estimated to go on to earn an average of 20% less as adults. (countercurrents.org)
- There is no getting away from it: millions more children are facing malnutrition, life-changing illness, and death. (savethechildren.org)
- Malnutrition poses a major threat to the well-being of children. (wvi.org)
- Yet, in Elgeyo Marakwet County, 30 percent of children under five years old suffer from chronic or long-term malnutrition (stunting). (wvi.org)
- These malnutrition challenges affect the development of children. (wvi.org)
- Does nutritional supplementation for two weeks prevent malnutrition in ill children? (ennonline.net)
- Nutrition outcomes among children under five remain of high concern across the worst drought- and conflict-affected areas with elevated proxy global acute malnutrition (GAM) rates. (fews.net)
- Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered that vaccinating mice against the toxin can prevent intestinal damage, a finding that suggests new ways to prevent malnutrition and stunting in children. (scitechdaily.com)
- Millions of children in low- and middle-income countries still experience repeated episodes of diarrhea, weakening their bodies and leaving them vulnerable to malnutrition and stunted growth, as well as other infections. (scitechdaily.com)
- Ideally, we'd like to have a vaccine that prevents acute diarrhea, which still kills half a million children a year, and that also protects against long-term effects such as malnutrition, which is perhaps the bigger part of the problem now," said senior author James M. Fleckenstein, MD, a professor of medicine and of molecular microbiology. (scitechdaily.com)
- Children in low- and middle-income countries tend to get diarrhea over and over, and the risk of malnutrition and stunting goes up with each bout. (scitechdaily.com)
- Malnutrition has traditionally been associated with children who are starving, have stunted growth and are prone to infection. (fabresearch.org)
- Malnutrition among children under age five in the Sahel is expected to rise again this year, despite decent rains and more or less average harvest predictions. (thenewhumanitarian.org)
- In many Sahelian countries, treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition has reached a pretty much "optimal" level, said Alima's West Africa director Augustin Augier. (thenewhumanitarian.org)
- Of course the four are interlinked - malnutrition can make children more vulnerable to death from malaria, for instance, and vice versa. (thenewhumanitarian.org)
- And the number of children in the Sahel MSF treats for severe and acute malnutrition grows each year, said Doyon. (thenewhumanitarian.org)
- Field visits to primary health care centres and hospitals that provide screening and treatment for malnutrition for children under 5 years of age were conducted. (who.int)
- This article is drawn on the hearing of mothers of children with malnutrition, who complain of alimentary issues, and is based, as a theoretical reference, on the psychoanalysis of Freud and Lacan. (bvsalud.org)
- Besides some peculiarities, the researched children present a clinical condition of malnutrition related to refusal of being fed. (bvsalud.org)
- Poverty, malnutrition and neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) interact in a multi-causal feedback network. (mendeley.com)
- Additionally, the project sought to improve the quality of antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience and administer interventions to prevent and treat malnutrition in pregnancy. (who.int)
- Relapse after treatment for moderate acute malnutrition: Risk factors and interventions to prevent it. (ennonline.net)
- These programmes and actions were reported by countries for the 2nd WHO Global Nutrition Policy Review 2016-2017 module on actions related to the prevention and treatment of acute malnutrition. (who.int)
- The most helpful laboratory tests for assessing malnutrition in a child are hematologic and protein status studies. (medscape.com)
- More than half of the world's population is adversely affected by malnutrition according to FAO. (globalissues.org)
- It is alleged that the baby died from complications following malnutrition. (news24.com)
- Mamothame said the attending paediatrician confirmed that the baby died of complications of malnutrition. (news24.com)
- Objectif Etudier la prise en charge des enfants souffrant de malnutrition aiguë sévère avec complications au niveau de l'URENI de la Pédiatrie du CHU Gabriel TOURE.Patients et méthodeIls'agissait d'une étude transversale exhaustive avec un recueil rétrospectif des données sur les enfants suivis pour le traitement de la malnutrition Aiguë sévère du 1erjanvier au 31 décembre 2014. (bvsalud.org)
- If you don't get enough nutrients -- including proteins , carbohydrates , fats , vitamins , and minerals - you may suffer from malnutrition. (medlineplus.gov)
- According to the India State-level Disease Burden Report and Technical Paper", the disease burden due to malnutrition dropped in India substantially since 1990bt but was still responsible for 15 per cent of the total disease burden in 2016 and was 12 times higher than in China. (countercurrents.org)
- It is possible, thus, to conclude that the diagnosis of infantile malnutrition must take into consideration psychic factors related to the context of the mother-child relation. (bvsalud.org)
- In response to the large influx of refugees into Ethiopia, the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and other humanitarian agencies established essential health services and nutrition treatment programs coupled with active screening for malnutrition. (cdc.gov)
- There are multiple reasons malnutrition cases have risen this year, including high food prices, conflict, high incidence rates of malaria and improved humanitarian coverage - which may mean better reporting of child malnutrition. (thenewhumanitarian.org)
- Urinary arsenic concentration adjustment factors and malnutrition. (cdc.gov)
- Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered how some types of diarrhea-causing E. coli bacteria damage the intestines, leading to malnutrition and stunting. (scitechdaily.com)
- He is physically showing signs of severe acute malnutrition. (africanews.com)
- The WHO country office in Lebanon convened a technical mission to assess the management of malnutrition at primary and secondary health care levels in the context of the current crises in Lebanon. (who.int)
- This makes it very difficult to elaborate global and national public policies that effectively tackle the structural issues and therefore could be able to not only treat but also prevent new cases of malnutrition. (globalissues.org)
- According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the launch of the "Zero Hunger Challenge" by U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in June 2012 opened the way for new stakeholders to work together in tackling malnutrition. (globalissues.org)
- The World Health Organization (WHO) Representative and the Japanese Ambassador to Namibia visited the Ohangwena region on 30 March 2023 for a field trip to observe the progress made in addressing malnutrition. (who.int)
- Can low-literate community health workers treat severe acute malnutrition? (ennonline.net)
- Stakeholders included experts from the Ministry of Public Health, United Nations agencies, as well as nongovernmental organizations working on the management of malnutrition. (who.int)
- Malnutrition : quantifying the health impact at national and local levels / Monika Blössner and Mercedes de Onis. (who.int)
- Pervasive long-term malnutrition erodes the foundations of the economy by destroying the potential of millions of infants. (countercurrents.org)
- Even the lack of one vitamin can lead to malnutrition. (medlineplus.gov)
- According to Valente, malnutrition is the result of political decisions and public policies that do not guarantee the human right to adequate food and nutrition. (globalissues.org)
- Malnutrition, they said, can only be addressed "in the context of vibrant and flourishing local food systems that are deeply ecologically rooted, environmentally sound and culturally and socially appropriate. (globalissues.org)
- A powerful Declaration submitted by the CSO Forum on the final day of ICN2 called for a commitment to "developing a coherent, accountable and participatory governance mechanism, safeguarded against undue corporate influence … based on principles of human rights, social justice, transparency and democracy, and directly engaging civil society, in particular the populations and communities which are most affected by different forms of malnutrition. (globalissues.org)
- Community case management of severe acute malnutrition in southern Bangladesh. (ennonline.net)
- By Anne Marie Kueter, Claudine Prudhon, Emily Keane and Megan Gayford The implementation of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) as the standard model of. (ennonline.net)
- The outcome of the mission was to gather data to review the national guidelines around the management of malnutrition and their use at field level, as well as to provide recommendations for improvement in regard to malnutrition programming in Lebanon. (who.int)
- They are often abundant in plants native to areas of the developing world where malnutrition is rife but western foods are favoured. (abc.net.au)
- Acute malnutrition levels are within the "Critical" and "Extremely Critical" ranges in woredas of Wag Hamra and North Wollo Zone in Amhara Region, according to the December Rapid Nutrition Assessment (RNA). (fews.net)
- Similarly, nutrition data collected in November and December in the Somali Region found proxy levels of acute malnutrition within the "Critical" and "Extremely Critical" thresholds. (fews.net)
- Malaria is the biggest killer of under-fives in the Sahel, according to MSF research, followed by acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea and acute malnutrition. (thenewhumanitarian.org)
- One third of these deaths took place in Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali Niger and Nigeria, says medical charity Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), with malnutrition being the underlying cause in half of these cases. (thenewhumanitarian.org)
- As a result, malaria cases went down by 67 percent, malaria deaths dropped by 72 percent, and hospitalizations for all illnesses, including malnutrition, dropped by 63 percent. (thenewhumanitarian.org)