Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Sezary Syndrome: A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative ERYTHRODERMA; PRURITUS; peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear (cerebriform) cells in the skin, LYMPH NODES, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Pleural Effusion, Malignant: Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Leukemia, Hairy Cell: A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.Leukemia, B-Cell: A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.Reed-Sternberg Cells: Large cells, usually multinucleate, whose presence is a common histologic characteristic of classical HODGKIN DISEASE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Fertility Preservation: A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous: A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Mice, Inbred BALB CCarcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PropiophenonesBreast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Telomerase: An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Leukemia, T-Cell: A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Thionucleosides: Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Receptor, EphA2: An Eph family receptor found abundantly in tissues of epithelial origin. It is expressed in a diverse array of tissues during embryonic development, suggesting that it may play a role in embryogenesis. In adult tissues high levels of the receptor are expressed in the LUNG; SKIN; SMALL INTESTINE and OVARY.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Immunoblastic: Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Meningeal Carcinomatosis: Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Cell SeparationBlast Crisis: An advanced phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia, characterized by a rapid increase in the proportion of immature white blood cells (blasts) in the blood and bone marrow to greater than 30%.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Mesothelioma: A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Tumor Lysis Syndrome: A syndrome resulting from cytotoxic therapy, occurring generally in aggressive, rapidly proliferating lymphoproliferative disorders. It is characterized by combinations of hyperuricemia, lactic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia.Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell: Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell: A lymphoid leukemia characterized by a profound LYMPHOCYTOSIS with or without LYMPHADENOPATHY, hepatosplenomegaly, frequently rapid progression, and short survival. It was formerly called T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.DimethylformamideGene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse: Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Immunomagnetic Separation: A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
In malignant B cells, miRNAs participate in pathways fundamental to B cell development, like B cell receptor (BCR) signalling, ... Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... Malignant B cell characteristics[edit]. Normal B cells of a germinal center possess rearranged immunoglobulin heavy and light ... cell-cell interactions in immune niches, and the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins.[11] MiRNAs influence B cell ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... or plasma cell gingivitis, which may be accompanied by glossitis and cheilitis.[10] Apart from BMS itself, a full list of ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... Chemokines are produced by activated CD8+ T cells that attract additional inflammatory cells, thereby promoting continued ... The inflammatory infiltrate in oral LP is primarily composed of CD8+ T cells. A potential pathway for CD8+ T cell-mediated ... Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)[edit]. SCC can present as erythematous or white patches, ulcers, or exophytic masses. The ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... The relative increase in percentage of CD8+ T cells, caused by a reduction in numbers of CD4+ T cells may be implicated in RAS- ... Mast cells and macrophages are also involved, secreting TNF-α along with the T cells. When early aphthous ulcers are biopsied, ... and the ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of individuals with aphthous stomatitis is decreased.[5] ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... An odontoblast cell showing odontoblast process (not in proportion - in reality this process is far longer than the body of the ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... shedding of surface epithelial cells).[5] Many people with BHT are heavy smokers.[5] Other possible associated factors are poor ...
Cytotoxic drugs administered during chemotherapy target cells with fast turnovers such as malignant cells. However, the ... Malignant ulcers are likely to be single in number, and conversely, multiple ulcers are very unlikely to be oral cancer. The ... Only the superficial epithelial cells of the epidermis or of the mucosa are lost, and the lesion can reach the depth of the ... The most common type of oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. The main causes are long-term smoking and alcohol consumption ( ...
... are a diverse group of benign or malignant tumors that arise from the body's neuroendocrine cells, which are responsible for ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ... The pancreas has many functions, served by the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acinar cells. ... "islet cell cancers",[28] even though it is now known that they do not actually arise from islet cells as previously thought.[27 ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... The double-stranded DNA of the virus is incorporated into the cell physiology by infection of the nucleus of a nerve's cell ... "Cell Host & Microbe. 10 (4): 379-89. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2011.08.015. PMC 3201796. PMID 22018238.. ... 1999). "A Novel Role for 3-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry". Cell. 99 (1): 13-22. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ...
Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ... cytologically benign cells (with nuclei of uniform size, regular nuclear membranes, and light chromatin) and, ... have the characteristic pineocytomatous/neurocytic rosettes, which is an irregular circular/flower-like arrangement of cells ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... The involvement of a subset of T cells (Th17) seems to be important.[9] The primary cause is not well known. In fact, no one ... eye inflammation (iritis, uveitis, retinal vasculitis, cells in the vitreous). *genital ulcers (including anal ulcers and spots ... "Humoral and cell mediated immune response to cow's milk proteins in Behçet's disease". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61 (5): 459-62. doi ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... Histologically, the epithelial cells show signs of intracellular and extracellular edema.[citation needed] ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... Inflammation (day 1): Virus begins reproducing and infecting cells at the end of the nerve. The healthy cells react to the ... Post-scab (12-14 days): A reddish area may linger at the site of viral infection as the destroyed cells are regenerated. Virus ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ...
Pre-malignant plasma cell dyscrasias: *Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance. *Smoldering multiple myeloma ...
For instance, if a doctor does not find any malignant cells in a patient this null result (finding nothing) is evidence of ... A biopsy shows the absence of malignant cells.. *One very carefully inspects the back seat of one's car and finds no adult- ...
... and is due to deuterium's action in generally inhibiting cell division. It is more toxic to malignant cells than normal cells ... used in boron neutron capture therapy ... D2O is more toxic to malignant than normal animal cells ... Protozoa are able to ... The deuterium cell is larger and it is a modification of the direction of division.[26][27] The cell membrane also changes, and ... When a large fraction of water (, 50%) in higher organisms is replaced by heavy water, the result is cell dysfunction and death ...
Marks, R; Rennie, G; Selwood, TS (9 April 1988). "Malignant transformation of solar keratoses to squamous cell carcinoma". ... It works in two ways, first by disrupting cell membranes and mitochondria resulting cell death, and then by inducing antibody- ... These cells have been observed to proliferate into the dermis as buds and duct-like structures.[22] ... Moy, RL (Jan 2000). "Clinical presentation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma". Journal of the American Academy ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... The virus has never been successfully recovered from human nerve cells by cell culture. The complete sequence of the viral ... the virus replicates in neuronal cell bodies, and virions are shed from the cells and carried down the axons to the area of ... This was finally proved by the first isolation of the virus in cell cultures, by the Nobel laureate Thomas Huckle Weller, in ...
Postovit LM, Seftor EA, Seftor RE, Hendrix MJ (2007). "Targeting Nodal in malignant melanoma cells". Expert Opin. Ther. Targets ... "Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways cooperate to maintain pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells". J. Cell Sci. 118 (Pt 19): ... Stem cells in human reproduction: basic science and therapeutic potential. CRC Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-415-39777-3. CS1 maint ... Cell. Biol. 22 (13): 4439-49. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.13.4439-4449.2002. PMC 133918 . PMID 12052855. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, ...
As TK1 is present in cells during cell division, it is reasonable to assume that the TK activity in malignant tissue should be ... cells. The negative cells can then be expanded and used for the fusion with TK+ plasma cells. After fusion, the cells are grown ... TK1 is synthesized by the cell during the S phase of cell division. After cell division is completed, TK1 is degraded ... as the diseased cells replicate much more frequently than normal cells and also against some non-malignant diseases related to ...
... Malignant plasma cells (plasmacytoma), many displaying characteristic "clockface nuclei", also seen in normal ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
Telomerase activity in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. D Broccoli, J W Young, and T de Lange ... These data indicate that human telomerase is not restricted to immortal cells and suggest that the somatic expression of this ... and monocytes/B cells. Semiquantitative comparison revealed considerable overlap between telomerase activities in samples from ...
We shall first briefly review the reactivity on normal lymphoid cells of various monoclonal antibodies we have used to study ... malignant tumor cell populations. We then emphasize the most important... ... Boumsell L., Bernard A. (1983) Surface Antigens on Normal and Malignant Lymphoid Cells. In: Chandra P. (eds) Biochemical and ... review the reactivity on normal lymphoid cells of various monoclonal antibodies we have used to study malignant tumor cell ...
First, they removed the nucleus from a melanoma cell and injected it into a de-nucleated egg cell (a process known as nuclear ... "It s important to note," says Blelloch, "that the stem cells from the cloned melanoma were incorporated into most, if not all, ... But in spite of this, when certain cancer-related genes in these mice were activated, they developed malignant tumors at a much ... Researchers have known for decades that cancer begins when certain key genes in an otherwise healthy cell mutate, and tumor ...
One healthy stem cell can grow and develop into a group of liver cells or blood cells or nerve cells -- just about any ... An abnormal stem cell can develop into a group of abnormal cells, such as breast cancer cells, which can then grow and spread. ... Stem cells have the ability to develop into many different types of cells. ... These cancerous stem cells appear to make HER2-positive breast cancers grow and spread. The researchers found a much lower ...
Researchers explain now manipulation of the microenvironment can allow malignant breast cancer cells to revert to normal cells ... She describes how manipulation of the microenvironment can allow malignant breast cancer cells to revert to normal cells again ... that normal cells can become malignant if the microenvironment is adversely affected, and that cancer cells even with many ... a network of fibrous and globular proteins that surrounds breast cells) of non-malignant breast cells can lead to genomic ...
Cell Death Differ. 2004 Apr;11(4):448-57. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Cell Death Differ. 2004 Apr;11(4):448-57.. Role of autophagy in temozolomide-induced cytotoxicity for malignant glioma cells.. ... In this study, we present that temozolomide (TMZ), a new alkylating agent, inhibited the viability of malignant glioma cells in ... At a clinically achievable dose (100 microM), TMZ induced autophagy, but not apoptosis in malignant glioma cells. After the ...
... as well as reprogramming cell metabolism and signaling. On the contrary, elevated ROS levels can induce tumor cell death. This ... current data on the mechanisms of ROS generation and existing antioxidant systems balancing the redox state in mammalian cells ... are by-products of normal cell activity. They are produced in many cellular compartments and play a major role in signaling ... and other tissue-associated cells. This forms a distinct tumor microenvironment that comprises cell-cell and cell-extracellular ...
... 04.03.2008. A protein that governs development of human ... surrounding cells, tissues and vasculature). During cancer progression, malignant cells also receive and release signals from ... Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they can become any of 200-plus cell types in the adult body, depending on the ... Melanoma cells responded to the hESC-derived factors within three days, but breast cancer cells required two additional days to ...
A protein important in embryo formation has been discovered in malignant melanoma cells by researchers of Northwestern ... nodal inhibition promoted the reversion of these cells toward a normal skin cell type. Like embryonic stem cells, malignant ... neural and stem cells.. The Hendrix lab has long hypothesized that the plastic nature of malignant melanoma cells serves as an ... Protein Involved In Embryo Formation Found In Malignant Cells. by Medindia Content Team on July 31, 2006 at 8:08 PM Cancer News ...
... cells from which malignant brain tumors are believed to originate and regenerate -- and created an experimental vaccine to ... Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute and Department of Neurosurgery identified immune system targets on cancer stem cells -- ... Like normal stem cells, cancer stem cells have the ability to self-renew and generate new cells, but instead of producing ... Cedars-Sinai researchers target cancer stem cells in malignant brain tumors Approach aims to prevent brain cancer recurrence by ...
... known to cause leukemia and sarcomas in animals has been found for the first time in malignant human prostate cancer cells. ... Researchers find first evidence of virus in malignant prostate cells. September 7, 2009. ... They also did not find the virus in malignant cells.. Singh and her fellow researchers examined more than 200 human prostate ... Along with providing the first proof that XMRV is present in malignant cells, the study also confirmed that XMRV is a ...
If enough cells change their morphology, its fairly easy ... whether a potential drug is having an effect on cancer cells is ... Computer Vision System Helps Spot Tumor Cells Turning Malignant. October 24th, 2016 Editors Diagnostics, Oncology, Pathology ... If enough cells change their morphology, its fairly easy to see the change under a microscope. Spotting individual cells that ... The Brown team taught a computer to spot the difference by first showing it cells that started as epithelial and were forced to ...
Quantification of CD11b+ cell frequency out of total white blood cells and of Ly6Chi cell frequency out of CD11b+ cells. **P , ... cells (Ly6C+; Figure 1, C and D). Among BM progenitor cells, more than 80% of Lin- KDRGFP+ cells were hematopoietic stem cells ... B) Lin-c-Kit+Sca-1- cells from naive mice (black), Lin-c-Kit+Sca-1- KDR-GFP+ cells (red), and Lin-c-Kit+Sca-1-KDR-GFP- cells ( ... Populations of myeloid cells, T cells, and B cells residing in the peripheral blood are shown in Figure 4, A-D. Populations of ...
Search terms included "PEComa," "perivascular epithelioid cell," "perivascular epithelioid cell tumor," "clear cell sugar tumor ... "malignant" subgroup. No cases of malignant behavior were noted in patients in the "benign" or "uncertain malignant behavior" ... "perivascular epithelioid cell" (PEC) for these cells in 1992 and proposed the presence of this distinctive cell, distinguished ... "Malignant" Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasm: Risk Stratification and Treatment Strategies. Jonathan S. Bleeker,1 J. ...
Gene expression profile of Setd2-deleted hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) partially resembles that of Dnmt3a/Tet2 ... although the number of phenotypic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in Setd2-deleted mice is unchanged, functional assays, ... which plays an important role in hematopoietic malignant transformation. Setd2 deficiency also induces DNA replication stress ... which results in proliferation and cell cycle abnormalities and genomic instability, allowing accumulation of secondary ...
Screening malignant melanoma cell lines against NAs revealed high sensitivity to several of them. This was believed to be due ... NUCLEOSIDE ANALOG ACTIVITY IN MALIGNANT MELANOMA CELL LINES. Fyrberg, Anna Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health ... Downregulation of dGK in the melanoma cell line RaH5 using siRNA did not cause resistance to NAs as expected, but instead cells ... to the high levels of dGK expression in these cells. ... seen in transfected cells.. Place, publisher, year, edition, ...
Recovery of Cell-Associated Phage from RG2 Rat Glioma Cells. In each round of selection, phage associated with glioma cells ... For example, the multifunctional adhesion molecule involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, CD44s, was shown to be ... After incubation with RG2 cells, phage not bound to the cells were removed in multiple washing steps. To determine cell- ... Phage probes for malignant glial cells. Tatiana I. Samoylova, Valery A. Petrenko, Nancy E. Morrison, Ludmila P. Globa, Henry J. ...
A few cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the larynx have been reported to date. All ages may be affected, but the ... Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the larynx after radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma. ... A few cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the larynx have been reported to date. All ages may be affected, but the ... Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were strongly positive for vimentin and α1-antichymotrypsin but were negative for ...
Benign granular cell tumors and malignant granular cell tumors. Tumors of the Peripheral Nervous System, Atlas of Tumor ... Drugs & Diseases , Oncology , Granular Cell Tumors Q&A Which gross and microscopic features are characteristic of malignant ... Granular cell tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis of 21 benign tumors and one malignant tumor. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1990 Jul. ... Malignant granular cell tumor of soft tissue: diagnostic criteria and clinicopathologic correlation. Am J Surg Pathol. 1998 Jul ...
AU cell-surface antigen of human malignant melanoma: solubilization and partial characterization. T E Carey, K O Lloyd, T ... AU cell-surface antigen of human malignant melanoma: solubilization and partial characterization ... AU cell-surface antigen of human malignant melanoma: solubilization and partial characterization ... AU cell-surface antigen of human malignant melanoma: solubilization and partial characterization ...
UC San Diego researchers describe how circular extrachromosomal DNA in cancer cells boosts aggressiveness and resistance to ... Home / Newsroom / Releases / Vicious Circles: Ring-shaped DNA Provides Cancer Cells with a Malignant Twist ... Vicious Circles: Ring-shaped DNA Provides Cancer Cells with a Malignant Twist ... The latest findings dramatically underscore how cancer cells dont play by the same biological rules as eukaryotic cells. ...
Ring-Shaped DNA Provides Cancer Cells With a Malignant Twist. Oncology Times: December 20, 2019 - Volume 41 - Issue 24 - p 21 ... The latest findings dramatically underscore how cancer cells dont play by the same biological rules as eukaryotic cells. ... providing a mechanism by which certain daughter cells could receive multiple cancerous copies within one cell division. It is a ... Laid out end-to-end, all of the DNA in a single cell nucleus would extend roughly 6 feet and all of the DNA in one persons ...
In particular, the bulk of miR-451 and miR-1246 produced by malignant mammary epithelial cells was released, but the majority ... As a result, the search for such diagnostics in body fluids has focused on miRNAs that are abundant in the cells of origin. ... Here we report that released miRNAs do not necessarily reflect the abundance of miRNA in the cell of origin. We find that ... of these miRNAs produced by non-malignant mammary epithelial cells was retained. Our findings suggest the existence of a ...
Squeezing stops malignant breast cancer cells from spreading and turns them back into healthy cells, according to new research ... colonies of malignant breast epithelial cells. Compressed colonies of malignant breast epithelial cells are smaller and more ... "Squeezing" stops malignant breast cancer cells from spreading and turns them back into healthy cells, according to new research ... They found that when the drug was added to the cell, despite being physically compressed, the malignant cells returned to their ...
When tumor cells encapsulate a photosensitizer, they can be easily excited into an excited state by a light source. In this ... Most importantly, cell viability studies revealed that PpIX-loaded polymersomes had a low toxicity to healthy fibroblasts (20% ... Results of some studies have showed that cancer cells can be effectively killed by using either a light source or an individual ... It is known that photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for several tumor types especially melanoma cells. During ...
  • Application of an autophagy inhibitor that works after the association of LC3 with autophagosome membrane, such as bafilomycin A1, is expected to enhance the cytotoxicity of TMZ for malignant gliomas. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether combining of Temozolomide and cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK) transfusion can prolong survival of patients with Advanced Malignant Gliomas. (
  • In particular, MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been reported to be closely associated with invasion and angiogenesis in malignant gliomas. (
  • These results suggest that MMI-166 may have potentially suppressive effects on the invasion and angiogenesis of malignant gliomas. (
  • Malignant gliomas are characterized by high invasive potential and strong angiogenic ability. (
  • The control of tumour invasion and angiogenesis are the key problems for the improvement of treatment results of malignant gliomas. (
  • A study found that HER2-positive breast cancers seem to have a large number of abnormal, cancerous stem cells. (
  • These cancerous stem cells appear to make HER2-positive breast cancers grow and spread. (
  • The researchers found a much lower number of cancerous stem cells in HER2-negative breast cancers. (
  • This study suggests that cancerous stem cells may be the reason why HER2-positive breast cancers are more aggressive. (
  • Along with providing the first proof that XMRV is present in malignant cells, the study also confirmed that XMRV is a gammaretrovirus, a simple retrovirus first isolated from prostate cancers in 2006 by researchers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and the Cleveland Clinic. (
  • While histopathologic features of tumor cell morphology, invasiveness, and metastasis remain the "gold standard" for diagnosis and staging of cancers, molecular profiles of neoplastic cells based on DNA, mRNA, and/or protein alterations are rapidly being developed and utilized not only to augment diagnosis, but to provide new therapeutic measures ( 2 ). (
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx accounts for 35% of laryngeal cancers. (
  • The aggressiveness-promoting enzyme, called monoacylglycerol lipase (or MAGL for short), may provide a new target for treating more malignant forms cancers or for preventing cancer progression. (
  • A few cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the larynx have been reported to date. (
  • In order to evaluate plasma cells, their prognostic significance and their relationship with other clinical and histological parameters, 132 cases of malignant melanoma (29 plasma cell positive and 103 plasma cell negative) were studied. (
  • Radioimmunity and ELISA methods were employed to detect the TXB2, GMP-140, vWF, cGMP and FN in 78 cases of malignant tumor and 40 healthy control persons. (
  • We shall first briefly review the reactivity on normal lymphoid cells of various monoclonal antibodies we have used to study malignant tumor cell populations. (
  • On the contrary, elevated ROS levels can induce tumor cell death. (
  • However, when the group exposed metastatic tumor cells to the microenvironment of hESCs containing Lefty, they witnessed dramatically reduced Nodal expression (production) in these cancer cells together with decreased tumor cell growth and invasiveness and an increase in apoptosis, or programmed cell suicide. (
  • MPNST (MPNST and ST8814) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (LS141 and DDLS) human tumor cell lines were characterized for Ras activation and B-Raf expression. (
  • Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were strongly positive for vimentin and α 1 -antichymotrypsin but were negative for cytokeratins and S-100 protein. (
  • Patients with a history of any other neoplastic disease less than 5 years ago (excepting treated carcinomas in situ of the cervix and basal/squamous cell carcinomas of the skin). (
  • An association was observed between the MCV of neoplastic cells and the classification according to Rappaport. (
  • Using Affymetrix microarrays, we have compared the gene expression profiles of highly purified malignant plasma cells from nine patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and eight myeloma cell lines to those of highly purified nonmalignant plasma cells (eight samples) obtained by in vitro differentiation of peripheral blood B cells. (
  • To accomplish this goal I have isolated a multiprotein DNA replication complex (which we have designated the DNA synthesome) from both normal breast tissue cells and malignant breast cancer cells and have begun to determine the ability of the DNA synthesome from both cell types to faithfully copy a target gene used in our in vitro replication assay system. (
  • The chemoattractant activity of CCL22 for regulatory T cells in vitro and in vivo was also observed. (
  • Our study aimed to evaluate the antitumour effects of MMI-166 (Nalpha-[4-(2-Phenyl-2H- tetrazole-5-yl) phenyl sulfonyl]-D-tryptophan), a third generation MMP inhibitor, on three human glioma cell lines (T98G, U87MG, and ONS12) in vitro and in vivo. (
  • C 24 H 20 N 6 O 4 S) (Figure 1 ), a third generation MMP inhibitor, on the invasive and angiogenic processes of human malignant glioma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. (
  • She also describes how the tissue culture of the extracellular matrix affects the cancerous cells' resistance to chemotherapy, independently of the characteristics of the malignancy itself. (
  • In some of their earliest work, Dr. Bissell and her collaborators reported when breasts cells were placed on Petri dish tissue culture (2-D environment), even with all the right hormones and nutrients, they grew but did not differentiate and behave as breast cells do in the body. (
  • The remarkable similarity of the responses of the two tumor types is likely attributable to the commonality of plasticity (for example, the aberrant and unregulated expression of Nodal) that indiscriminately unifies highly aggressive cancer cells, regardless of their tissue of origin," Hendrix said. (
  • Malignant granular cell tumor of soft tissue: diagnostic criteria and clinicopathologic correlation. (
  • Scientists presenting the latest findings Dec. 17 at the annual meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology in San Francisco said that "tissue organization is sensitive to mechanical inputs from the environment" during the beginning stages of a cell's growth and development. (
  • Provided are methods and compositions for detecting and treating normal, hypoplastic, ectopic or remnant tissue, organ or cells in a mammal. (
  • The method comprises parenterally injecting a mammalian subject, at a locus and by a route providing access to said tissue or organ, with an composition comprising antibody/fragment which specifically binds to targeted organ, tissue or cell. (
  • In this study, we have isolated and characterized the SP and non-SP (NSP) populations from normal (NK) and malignant (RCC) human kidney tissue. (
  • NK specimens were taken from patients undergoing non-renal cancer surgery and paired malignant and macroscopically normal tissue samples were taken from patients undergoing surgery for RCC. (
  • SP cells demonstrated greater proliferative potential in colony-forming efficiency, long-term culture, and spheroids assays and were shown to be maintained upon tissue culture passage. (
  • alveolar soft part sarcoma one with a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue. (
  • EVs were isolated from HCT116 colon cancer cells, 1459 non-malignant colon fibroblast cells, and tumor and normal colon tissue from a patient sample. (
  • Because this protein appears to be associated with resistance of the cancer stem cells to treatment with radiation or chemotherapy or both, we see it as an ideal target for immunotherapy. (
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy has been examined and is used for sarcomas typically occurring in children and young adults (e.g., osteogenic sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma) but is of marginal, if any, benefit for the types of sarcomas more commonly encountered in adults (e.g., liposarcomas, leiomyosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma). (
  • RATIONALE: Umbilical cord blood transplantation may be able to replace immune cells that were destroyed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy. (
  • Therefore, by using a reduced intensity chemotherapy regimen before transplant and transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells, we hope to improve engraftment while at the same time decrease the potential for severe side effects associated with a conventional transplant which uses extremely high doses of chemotherapy. (
  • These data indicate that human telomerase is not restricted to immortal cells and suggest that the somatic expression of this enzyme may be more widespread than was previously inferred from the decline of human telomeres. (
  • A protein that governs development of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) also inhibits the growth and spread of malignant melanoma, the deadliest skin cancer, Northwestern University researchers have discovered. (
  • In subsequent experiments, Hendrix, Postovit and co-researchers found that aggressive melanoma and breast cancer produce a "morphogenic" protein called Nodal, which is essential for human embryonic stem cell pluripotency (Topczewska et al, Nature Medicine 12:925-932, 2006). (
  • Cedars-Sinai researchers have studied dendritic cell immunotherapy since 1997, with the first patient human clinical trial launched in 1998. (
  • SALT LAKE CITY) - In a finding with potentially major implications for identifying a viral cause of prostate cancer, researchers at the University of Utah and Columbia University medical schools have reported that a type of virus known to cause leukemia and sarcomas in animals has been found for the first time in malignant human prostate cancer cells. (
  • Human DNA typically forms long, twisting double helices of genetic material: roughly 3 billion base pairs organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes miraculously squeezed into every cell nucleus, each averaging just six micrometers in diameter. (
  • This unique shape in human cancer cells is quite unlike normal human DNA. (
  • The human immune system is made up of two branches: the innate immune system consisting of dendritic cells, macrophages, granulocytes and natural killer (NK) cells mounts a fast but nonspecific response against invading pathogens. (
  • To develop effective new treatments, the proapoptotic effects of PIs, MG132 or Bortezomib, and TRAIL were investigated in MPM cell lines NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452 and NCI-H28, which represent three major histological types of human MPM. (
  • LIM mineralization protein-1 inhibits the malignant phenotypes of human osteosarcoma cells. (
  • By complement fixation assays, the antisera reacted with HeLa cell chromatin but only marginally with human placenta chromatin. (
  • Seven human MPM cell lines were tested with 6/7 (86%) being sensitive to MSCTRAIL. (
  • Functionally, knockdown of Mcl1 or Cdk4 or their combined pharmacologic inhibition resulted in growth arrest and apoptosis in both established human ES cell lines and EF-transformed mouse MSCs. (
  • Despite EF-induced toxicity, murine or human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) tolerate expression, but only murine EF-transduced MSC displayed sarcoma formation upon transplantation in immunocompromised mice. (
  • Fidelity of DNA Replication in Normal and Malignant Human Breast Cells. (
  • 1973-1984, Chairman of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University Texas Medicine Branch 1984-2003, and presently is Professor Emeritus UTMB, Seinior Research Professor, Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling at University of Houston, and Visiting Professor, Johns Hopkins University. (
  • CD4-positive CD25-positive Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells are believed to be involved in the control of the local immune response and in the growth of human lung cancer ( 7 - 9 ). (
  • In this study we have utilized the Hoechst 33342 dye efflux technique to phenotypically characterize the SP from matched normal and malignant human renal specimens. (
  • A method for reliably grafting luciferase-tagged human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells into the sciatic nerve of immunodeficient mice is described. (
  • Here, we show that Malignant Brain Tumor Domain-containing Protein 1 (MBTD1), a member of the polycomb group protein family, is critical for human endometrial stromal cell (HESC) decidualization. (
  • Two human glioma cell lines (T98G and U87MG) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD, USA). (
  • The mutated WT1 peptide epitope 122-140 is able to induce CD4 + and cytotoxic CD8 + WT1-specific T-cell responses that can recognize the native WT1 epitopes on the surface of human WT1 + cancer cells. (
  • Recent research on mouse and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) indicates that Nodal seems to be involved in the maintenance of stem cell self-renewal and pluripotent potentials. (
  • Groundbreaking work by Hendrix and colleagues is elucidating how, by becoming more like unspecialized stem cells, aggressive melanoma cells gain enhanced abilities to migrate, invade and metastasize while remaining virtually undetected by the immune system. (
  • Hendrix and co-researchers previously demonstrated that a three-dimensional matrix conditioned by hESCs induced metastatic melanoma cells to revert to a normal, skin cell-like type with the ability to form colonies in the manner of hESCs (Postovit and Seftor et al, Stem Cells 24:501-505, 2006). (
  • This observation allowed us to appreciate the powerful influence of the hESC microenvironment on the reprogramming of metastatic melanoma cells," Hendrix said. (
  • Melanoma cells responded to the hESC-derived factors within three days, but breast cancer cells required two additional days to achieve the most significant reduction in Nodal. (
  • Yet, despite the inherent differences between melanoma cells and breast cancer cells, these divergent tumor types both underwent cell suicide following exposure to the hESC microenvironment. (
  • A protein important in embryo formation has been discovered in malignant melanoma cells by researchers of Northwestern University. (
  • Scientist discovered this protein called Nodal by injecting malignant melanoma cells in developing zebrafish embryos. (
  • The Hendrix lab has long hypothesized that the plastic nature of malignant melanoma cells serves as an advantage by enhancing the cells' ability to migrate, invade and metastasize virtually undetected by the immune system. (
  • Further, the findings illuminate the remarkable plasticity of melanoma cells and the utility of the developing zebrafish as a model for studying the epigenetic modulation of tumor cells. (
  • AU antigen is defined by reactions of sera from patient AU with cell-surface antigens of cultured autologous melanoma cells (SK-MEL-28). (
  • By use of antibody inhibition tests for antigen detection, limited papain digestion of AU melanoma cells was found to result in the solubilization of AU antigen along with beta2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and HLA allogeneic and xenogeneic specificities. (
  • Maximum yield of AU antigen from AU melanoma cells was obtained after very short (5-15 min) digestion times in contrast to the more prolonged proteolysis required for maximum HLA and beta 2m release. (
  • It is known that photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for several tumor types especially melanoma cells. (
  • Vemurafenib resistance selects for highly malignant brain and lung-metastasizing melanoma cells. (
  • The aim of the present study was to identify possible biomarkers associated with the emergence of drug resistant melanoma cells. (
  • To this end we analyzed the differential gene expression of vemurafenib-sensitive and vemurafenib resistant brain and lung metastasizing melanoma cells. (
  • In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of this propolis sample on A375 melanoma cells. (
  • In this review, we discuss the main sources of ROS production in animal cells and the antioxidant defense systems that could be implicated in the redox state of cancer cells (to a significant or less significant extent). (
  • The Northwestern scientists, led by researcher Mary J. C. Hendrix, M.D., additionally found that the protein, called Lefty, prevents aggressive breast cancer cells from metastasizing. (
  • Identifying whether a potential drug is having an effect on cancer cells is not always obvious. (
  • A peptide microarray method was proposed recently by Aina et al ( 4 ) for identification of cell surface binding profiles of cancer cells. (
  • While the method seems promising for profiling cancer cells derived from individual cancer specimens, the diversity of OBOC libraries is relatively low and could be a limiting factor for their broad applications. (
  • But cancer cells, the researchers report, share some similarities with bacteria, which contain circular DNA that is generally more accessible. (
  • Squeezing" stops malignant breast cancer cells from spreading and turns them back into healthy cells, according to new research revealing, for the first time, that simple mechanical forces alone can revert and stop out-of-control growth of cancer cells. (
  • During the PDT process, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an effective photosensitizer, can selectively kill cancer cells by activating a special light source. (
  • Results of some studies have showed that cancer cells can be effectively killed by using either a light source or an individual treatment due to the generation of reactive oxygen species and electrons from a wide range of wavelengths, which suggest that CAP can act as a potential light source for anticancer applications compared with UV light sources. (
  • An enzyme that normally helps break down stored fats goes into overdrive in some cancer cells, making them more malignant, according to new findings by a team at The Scripps Research Institute. (
  • Historically, research has focused on the mechanisms leading to cancer formation and therapies have focused on taking out cancer cells," says Benjamin Cravatt, chair of the Scripps Research Department of Chemical Physiology and corresponding author of the study published in the January 8, 2010 issue of the journal Cell . (
  • The findings also suggest an explanation for the reported link between obesity and cancer by showing that releasing stored fats in cancer cells can push them toward more aggressive behaviors. (
  • To identify possible drivers in this process, Daniel Nomura, a postdoc in Cravatt's lab, compared changes in the functional state of enzymes in non-aggressive cancer cells to that of aggressive ones. (
  • Through a series of experiments where Nomura either inhibited or stimulated MAGL's activity, they were able to establish that this enzyme is capable of converting cancer cells from less to more malignant forms. (
  • Having identified a key player responsible for the aggressive behavior of cancer cells, Cravatt and Nomura wanted to better understand MAGL's role. (
  • They discovered that when the MAGL becomes more active in cancer cells it breaks down stored fats to produce large amounts of free fatty acids-the building blocks of cell membranes and of fatty molecules that serve as signals to and from cells. (
  • So this told us that it is an acquired activity of aggressive cancer cells," says Nomura. (
  • As cancer cells become more aggressive, the lipase is increased and its activity is targeted to the release of free fatty acid. (
  • The finding that MAGL regulates the production of free fatty acids in aggressive cancer cells provides a possible explanation for the reported link between obesity and cancer. (
  • We have shown that cancer cells have their own pathways to produce free fatty acids, which will enable them to become more aggressive," says Cravatt. (
  • Less malignant cancer cells do not appear to have yet adopted an autonomous pathway to increase their own pools of free fatty acids. (
  • Scientists have developed a new carbon nanotube device (pictured above) that's capable of detecting single cancer cells . (
  • The researchers' original microfluidic device from four years ago featured tens of thousands of microscopic silicon posts coated with tumor-sticking antibodies: when cancer cells bumped into the posts, they'd stick. (
  • But if cancer cells didn't bump into a silicon post, they'd go undetected. (
  • When cancer cells migrate, there are " usually only several [cancer] cells per 1-milliliter sample of blood" containing billions of other cells, making cancer exceedingly difficult to detect. (
  • So when will they attach these to nano machines that will live in my body and destory cancer cells the moment they are created? (
  • Cancer Cells In A Growing Malignant Tumor. (
  • Gain‑of‑function of miR‑574‑3p downregulated the expression levels of ADAM28 in liver cancer cells. (
  • Additionally, overexpression of ADAM28 significantly attenuated the suppressive effect of miR‑574‑3p on the growth of liver cancer cells. (
  • Zha Z, Jia F, Hu P, Mai E and Lei T: MicroRNA‑574‑3p inhibits the malignant behavior of liver cancer cells by targeting ADAM28. (
  • The analysis revealed that highly invasive breast cancer cells produce high amounts of hyaluronan and express preferentially HAS2 mRNA, whereas less invasive breast cancer cells produce low amount of hyaluronan and express HAS1 and HYAL1 mRNAs. (
  • I had sentinal lymph node mapping, with all 8 nodes being negative for cancer cells. (
  • As described in the PNAS study, the Lefty protein inhibits production of Nodal and therefore plays a major role in embryonic cell differentiation and development - under normal circumstances. (
  • Genetically defined ES models are needed to understand how EF expression changes bone precursor cell differentiation, how ES arises and through which mechanisms of inhibition it can be targeted. (
  • However, RCC cells differentially express fetal nephron differentiation molecules, suggesting that RCC may arise from cells that have "reexpressed" the differentiation characteristics of the metanephric blastema ( 11 ). (
  • Like many other members of this superfamily it is involved in cell differentiation in early embryogenesis, playing a key role in signal transfer from the node, in the anterior primitive streak, to lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). (
  • Thus, overexpression of Nodal in hESCs lead to the repression of cell differentiation. (
  • Sarcomagenesis was accompanied by upregulation of the CDK4/cyclin D1/pRB axis, and reduced INK4A and P53 expression accelerating cell cycle and survival. (
  • Furthermore, our data suggest that the accumulation of pro-B and large pre-B cells in miR-142 −/− bone marrow is linked to an increase in their survival capacity. (
  • As a result, we have begun a broad-based search for small-molecule organic compounds to target tyrosine- and serine/threonine kinases critical to the survival of STS cells. (
  • Lung cancer is the most common cause of the malignant pleural effusions(MPE).For patients with lung cancer and MPE, the median survival is only 3-4 months.The aim of this study was evaluate the lung cancer patients with MPE clinical and laboratory findings on admission,analysis of 2 years survival and prognostic factors. (
  • The most important variables in predicting survival were lymph node involvement, clinico-pathological type, age, plasma cells, and lymphatic emboli. (
  • This is a clinical trial that will compare survival and sickle related outcomes in adolescents and young adults with severe sickle cell disease after bone marrow transplantation and standa. (
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of normal cell activity. (
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed as natural by-products of normal cell activity and participate in cellular signaling [ 1 ]. (
  • Strikingly, nodal inhibition promoted the reversion of these cells toward a normal skin cell type. (
  • Studies in lab mice showed that the resulting vaccine was able to stimulate an immune response against the CD133 proteins without causing side effects such as an autoimmune reaction against normal cells or organs. (
  • In humans and other eukaryote organisms, normal DNA is packed into cell nuclei by tightly wrapping it around closely bunched clusters of protein complexes called histone octamers. (
  • Thus, while the interaction between Th cells and normal B cells is crucial for the development of an effective immune response, this interaction also contributes to the development and pathogenesis of malignancies. (
  • Others hypothesize a widespread distribution of germ cells to multiple sites during normal embryogenesis, with these cells conveying genetic information or providing regulatory functions at somatic sites. (
  • 2. A method of ablating normal cells in the spleen in immune disease by parenterally administering an unconjugated monoclonal antibody which targets normal cells in the spleen and is directed against normal and malignant B-cells. (
  • 3. A method according to claim 2 , wherein the normal cells in the spleen are normal B cells. (
  • Two unsupervised clustering algorithms classified these 25 samples into two distinct clusters: a malignant plasma cell cluster and a normal plasma cell cluster. (
  • Two hundred and fifty genes were significantly up-regulated and 159 down-regulated in malignant plasma samples compared to normal plasma samples. (
  • This characteristic was not generally found for other normal cell types tested by microelectrode penetration. (
  • In order to better understand the extent to which the intact DNA replication machinery contributes to the overall mutation frequencies observed in normal and malignant breast cells, I have designed experiments to examine the degree of fidelity exhibited during the DNA replication process in both normal and cancerous breast cells. (
  • Cell volumes of normal and malignant mononuclear cells. (
  • Normal T cells were obtained by rosetting mononuclear cells with sheep erythrocytes followed by centrifugation on a gradient composed of Ficoll and diatrizoate salts. (
  • After cell division is completed, TK1 is degraded intracellularly and does not pass to body fluids after normal cell division. (
  • Vaccination With Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed With Tumor Antigens for Treatment of Patients With Malignant Melanoma. (
  • Eligible patients receive vaccination with tumor antigen pulsed autologous monocyte-derived mature dendritic cells with a fixed interval. (
  • Patients with the following types of non-malignant diseases can participate in this study: Bone marrow failure syndromes (including Severe Aplastic Anemia, Severe Congenital Neutropenia, Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia (Kostmann's Syndrome), Diamond-Blackfan Anemia, Schwachman Diamond Syndrome, Primary Immunodeficiency Syndromes, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes, and Histiocytic Disorders) and Hemoglobinopathies (including Sickle Cell Anemia and Sickle/Beta Thalassemia). (
  • Surgical specimens and cell lines from patients with spontaneous MPNST or MPNST arising in the setting of neurofibromatosis show high levels of ras activity ( 7 - 10 ). (
  • Pleural fluid from lung cancer patients was chemotactic for regulatory T cells, and this activity was partly blocked by an anti-CCL22, but not by an anti-CCL17 antibody. (
  • Intrapleural administration of CCL22 of patients produced a marked progressive influx of regulatory T cells into pleural space. (
  • In both patients with GBM and healthy subjects, circulating PD-1 hi Tregs displayed reduced suppression of CD4 + effector T cells, production of IFN-γ, and molecular signatures of exhaustion. (
  • Malignant mesothelioma is most often seen in patients with a history of occupational asbestos exposure. (
  • Since the appearance of atypical resembling malignant cells is very uncommon in benign diseases of the lung, a careful judgment is required to avoid false positive diagnosis. (
  • described the presence of a unique cell with "prominent cytoplasmic borders and clear to granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm" in a perivascular distribution in both angiomyolipoma (AML) of the kidney and clear cell sugar tumor (CCST) of the lung [ 2 ]. (
  • The same group coined the term "perivascular epithelioid cell" (PEC) for these cells in 1992 and proposed the presence of this distinctive cell, distinguished in part by strong HMB-45 positivity, as a common link between a number of rare disorders in disparate locations, including AML, CCST, and lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) of the lung [ 3 ]. (
  • Between 2008-2011, the retrospective cohort study was done in Sureyyapasa Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital and 199 cases of non small cell lung carcinoma with MPE were examined. (
  • We designed and set up novel techniques to facilitate the detection of cancerous cells. (