Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Gynecomastia: Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary: Neoplasms, usually carcinoma, located within the center of an organ or within small lobes, and in the case of the breast, intraductally. The emphasis of the name is on the location of the neoplastic tissue rather than on its histological type. Most cancers of this type are located in the breast.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 4: A widely expressed member of the TNF receptor-associated family that may play a role in neuronal development and EMBRYOGENESIS. Although TNF receptor-associated factor 4 does not strongly associate with TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS it may be a signaling partner with the GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED TNFR-RELATED PROTEIN that plays a role in the activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and NF-KAPPA B.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mastectomy, Radical: Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Keratin-6: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
  • In some men with breast cancer, the cancer cells have too much of a growth-promoting protein known as HER2/neu (or just HER2) on their surface. (cancer.org)
  • paciente masculino de 53 años de edad, con diagnóstico de cáncer de mama derecha, tipo adenocarcinoma canalicular infiltrante, estadio clínico IIB, con antecedentes de cáncer de mama en 2 familiares directos, mutaciones del gen BRCA1 y positivo tanto a receptores hormonales como para el gen Her2/Neu. (nih.gov)
  • However, male breast cancer is 3 times less likely to be HER2 positive. (medscape.com)
  • The lesions were found to be estrogen/progesterone receptor positive bilaterally, however, interestingly only the left breast DCIS was HER2 positive. (hindawi.com)
  • A recently published trial looked at 135 cases of male breast cancer, 38 of whom received hormonal therapy (some also received chemotherapy). (oncolink.org)
  • Dr. Arlene Ricardo, a breast surgeon affiliated with Memorial Hermann Southwest Hospital removed Richards cancer without chemotherapy. (chron.com)
  • Black men were 48% less likely to be referred to a medical oncologist and 56% less likely to receive chemotherapy than white men, though neither difference was significant ( P =0.1808 and P =0.5430, respectively). (medpagetoday.com)
  • Clearly, there are major differences (hormonal and otherwise) between males and females which could negatively impact the effectiveness of these therapies. (marinij.com)
  • Compared to its female counterpart, DCIS in males tends to present at a more advanced stage and at a later age [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The most common dominant pathologic subtypes of DCIS in males are papillary and cribriform, respectively [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Because of that, there is a lack of awareness about the disease in males, which leads to late diagnoses and lower chances of survival. (katu.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that men don't necessarily understand the importance of a breast/ovarian cancer gene mutation -- that it is more of a 'feminine' issue -- but this couldn't be further from the truth," she said. (healthday.com)
  • The mammogram showed a suspicious retroareolar mass in the right breast and two foci of pleomorphic microcalcifications within the left breast. (hindawi.com)
  • A left, mediolateral oblique mammogram revealed a well-defined, moderate density mass (arrows) in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. (hindawi.com)
  • He doesn't ask if I'm in a safe place, sitting down, not driving, whatever - just comes right out and tells me they sent it to pathology and the initial report is that it's breast cancer, and that he'd call me back to follow up. (yahoo.com)
  • Because boys and men have low levels of estrogen, they are very unlikely to form fully grown breasts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Men with Klinefelter syndrome have lower than normal levels of androgens and higher than normal levels of estrogen in their bodies. (cancer.ca)
  • Fat cells in the body change androgens into estrogen, so men with more fat cells have higher levels of estrogen in their bodies. (cancer.ca)
  • Men who have a genetic condition called Klinefelter's syndrome often produce higher levels of estrogen. (healthline.com)
  • At certain times, males have glands that can increase in size, most of them benign and transient, with an underlying imbalance between levels of estrogen and androgen causes. (smore.com)