Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Malaria, Avian: Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.AfricaCulicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Plasmodium malariae: A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Plasmodium chabaudi: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.SesquiterpenesResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Merozoite Surface Protein 1: A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.Plasmodium ovale: A species of protozoan parasite causing MALARIA. It is the rarest of the four species of PLASMODIUM infecting humans, but is common in West African countries and neighboring areas.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Plasmodium knowlesi: A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.CambodiaChemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Researcher-Subject Relations: Interaction between research personnel and research subjects.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Vanuatu: A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Port-Vila. It was called New Hebrides until 1980. It was discovered in 1606 by the Portuguese, forgotten for 160 years, then visited by Bougainville in 1768 and Captain Cook in 1774. It was under joint British and French administration from 1906 until it became independent in 1980 under the name of Vanuatu. The name is native, meaning our land. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p833 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p570)Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.IndiaDrug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Merozoites: Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.United StatesHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Equatorial Guinea: A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.VietnamHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Eritrea: A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea, bordered west and northwest by SUDAN, and south by ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Asmara.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.ColombiaBrazilAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sri LankaEthics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Schizonts: Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Case Management: A traditional term for all the activities which a physician or other health care professional normally performs to insure the coordination of the medical services required by a patient. It also, when used in connection with managed care, covers all the activities of evaluating the patient, planning treatment, referral, and follow-up so that care is continuous and comprehensive and payment for the care is obtained. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.LaosClinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
... its 60 researchers and technicians mainly study malaria. Originally located at the Panum Institute, it was moved to the ... "Chloroquine Making a Comeback Against Malaria?". AllAfrica.com, Oct 23, 2012 Ganapathy Subramanian (3 December 2014). ...
"Global researchers to meet in Kenya for mosquito conference". xinhuanet.com. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2015. "Kenya ... They also organize conferences where entomologists discuss topics in mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, malaria, and ... Ndonga, Wambui (3 October 2012). "Kenya must change tact to tackle malaria - expert". Capital News. Retrieved 8 October 2015. " ... Kazoka, Ludovick (8 October 2015). "Many malaria sufferers are oblivious to health status". Daily News. Retrieved 12 October ...
Leslie Pitterson (8 September 2011). "Shooting Blanks:Researchers Say Spermless Mosquitoes Could Tide Malaria Spread". Clutch ... Studying the malaria problem Godfray and his coworkers presented data suggesting that use of spermless mosquitoes may be a ...
"NIH-Supported Researchers Identify New Class of Malaria Compounds" (Press release). U.S. National Institutes of Health. March ... against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax at all life cycle stages that play a role in the transmission of malaria, ...
Military Malaria Vaccine Program (2006)". p. 116. "Top honour for top Queensland researcher" (Press release). QIMR Berghofer ... His research interests are in the field of immunity and immunopathogenesis to malaria and group A streptococcus/rheumatic fever ...
"Caltech researcher David Anderson wins Perl-UNC Neuroscience Prize". EurekAlert.org. Retrieved 18 October 2017. [1][dead link ... "New Gates Grant Supports CUMC Malaria Research - Columbia University Medical Center". Cumc.columbia.edu. 27 August 2010. ...
Further animal studies have been performed and researchers have begun human-stage trials. "NITD 609". Medicines for Malaria ... far easier than current standard treatments in which malaria drugs are taken between one and four times a day for up to seven ... a model of blood-stage malaria). Given its good physicochemical properties, promising pharmacokinetic and efficacy profile, the ... a potent compound class for the treatment of malaria". Science. 329 (5996): 1175-80. doi:10.1126/science.1193225. PMC 3050001 ...
". "NICHD Researchers Honored by World Health Organization for Developing Vaccines Against Hemophilus Influenzae". "Society ... ". "Malaria Vaccine Prompts Victims' Immune System to Eliminate Parasite From Mosquitoes". "NICHD Congressional Budget ... ". "NICHD Researchers Honored by World Health Organization for Developing Vaccines Against Hemophilus Influenzae". "Society ... ". "Science Blog: NICHD Researchers Honored by World Health Organization for Developing Vaccines Against Hemophilus Influenzae ...
Malaria - Round Two Grid helps find one picture in a million Framework of Qualifying Guidance for Building Grid projects. ... All of the UK universities and institutions with researchers working on the LHC are members. As of 2011 the list is as follows ... WISDOM a French-based project looking at cures for avian flu and malaria. IMENSE, used the GridPP infrastructure for proof of ... Econophysica - A small company who worked with researchers at Queen Mary, University of London looking at mathematical models ...
"National Farm Medicine Center director travels to Ghana as part of President's Malaria Initiative". Hub City Times. Retrieved ... "Upper Midwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center - Researchers and Staff". umash.umn.edu. Retrieved February 18, 2016. " ...
In the last 20 years researchers focused on the activity of artemisinin against malaria. Therefore, fewer studies have been ... "Malaria Update", Focus on Ethiopia, April 2005, UN-OCHA website (accessed 12 March 2009) Fairhurst, RM; Nayyar, GM; Breman, JG ... Malaria is caused by apicomplexans, primarily Plasmodium falciparum, which largely reside in red blood cells and itself ... The efficacy of tea made from A. annua in the treatment of malaria is dubious. Research has found that artemesinin is not ...
"Cool Job: Malaria researcher Alexis Kaushansky, Ph.D". The Seattle Times. August 9, 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2012. "LinkedIn: ... Kolata, Gina (June 16, 1994). "After Decades, Researchers Find Hormone That Helps Clot Blood". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 ...
It was named after the American malaria researcher Martin D. Young. In the Malayan gibbon, the parasite causes severe malaria. ... Eyles D.E.; Fong Y.L; Dunn F.L.; Guinn E.; Warren M.; Sandosham A.A. (1964). "Plasmodium youngi n. sp., a malaria parasite of ... Plasmodium youngi is a protozoan parasite which can cause malaria in certain primates. It is known to infect and cause severe ...
This gives researchers around the world access to Japanese expertise and investment. The Fund deliberately refers to grants as ... Diseases targeted by the Fund include malaria, tuberculosis, and neglected tropical diseases. The Fund also works with ... Medicines for Malaria Venture, and Geneva-based Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative to screen the large quantity of ... for prevention and treatment of malaria," Science Translational Medicine, July 2015, Vol. 7, Issue 296, pp. 296ra111, (http:// ...
"UWC Researcher Dr Imogen Wright: Runner-Up for the African Innovation Prize". www.uwc.ac.za. Retrieved 2017-11-06. Shapshak, ... "Malaria, HIV/Aids Solutions Win Big At Innovation Prize for Africa". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-11-06. "Imogen Wright: Asking the " ...
Brown continued work in the Omo until a military coup in 1974 forced researchers from Ethiopia. For a brief period after his ... Brown entered Ethiopia by land rover from Turkana, but became ill with malaria. He would later state that he became deeply ...
"NIAID researchers explore link between Ebola virus survival and malaria-causing parasite". Homeland Preparedness News. ... "CDC - Malaria Parasites - About". CDC: Malaria. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 28 December 2015.. ... Researchers did their work at an ebola treatment unit in Monrovia, Liberia.[32] Researchers also found that the greater the ... "CDC - Malaria Parasites - Biology". CDC: Malaria. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 28 December 2015. ...
In 2012, IHME researchers estimated 1.2 million people died from malaria in 2010, double the WHO's estimate. The Disease ... For example, IHME researchers helped create the 2010 WHO World Malaria Report, generating all the estimates for insecticide- ... It evaluates interventions such as vaccines, malaria control policies, cancer screenings, and birth care. To enable researchers ... The Malaria Control Policy Assessment project evaluates the effectiveness of malaria-control interventions in Uganda and Zambia ...
He also discovered that the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium, originated in gorillas. He was one of the first researchers to ... finding a likely candidate for the form that causes malaria in humans. In the eighties, Sharp collaborated with Desmond G. ...
Doctor Pedro Leiva revealed that the cure for malaria was contained in the bark of the cinchona tree. The Bethlehem Brothers ... Two of the pioneering researchers at the hospital were Luis Chusig and Pedro Leiva. Chusig, an indigenous Ecuadorian who had to ...
His work helped inspire researchers and veterinarians today to try to find a cure for malaria in animals. In 11th century, Banu ... after observing the parasites in a blood smear taken from a soldier who had just died of malaria. For this, he received the ... "Alphonse Laveran's discovery 100 years ago and today's global fight against malaria". J R Soc Med. 74 (7): 531-6. PMC 1439072 ... Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran discovered that the cause of malaria is a protozoan, ...
CDDEP researchers are contributing to the Lancet Series on Malaria Elimination as well as to the 5th report in Roll Back ... Researchers at CDDEP were involved in carrying out the economic analysis for a number of chapters as well as in writing the ... CDDEP researchers have been involved with the global subsidy idea behind AMFm since 2002, when the U.S. Institute of Medicine ... CDDEP researchers also co-led DCPP in India. That effort resulted in a book, "Choosing Health: An Entitlement for All Indians ...
Researchers are currently focusing on the development of various vaccines against many diseases including AIDS, malaria, dengue ... Some German researchers had also discovered the diphtheria toxin and were trying to immunize some guinea pigs through the use ... Some researchers won fame by discovering antitoxins and Daniel Bovet received the 1957 Nobel Prize for his discoveries on ... In addition to the isolation of HIV-1 and HIV-2, in the recent past researchers at the Institut Pasteur have developed a test ...
Researchers and vaccine developers have been working on many approaches to bring forward the availability of a malaria vaccine ... Toward A New Generation Of Vaccines For Malaria And Other Diseases in 'Science Daily'. Race for Malaria Money Scientists Herald ... Today,[when?] after more than 33 years of research, there is still however no licensed malaria vaccine. ... Holloway, M. (1996) Profile: Manuel Elkin Patarroyo - The Man Who Would Conquer Malaria, Scientific American 275(6), 52-56. - ...
Patrick Duffy is a malaria researcher who, with Michal Fried, is responsible for breakthrough research on pregnancy malaria. ... He directs the Malaria Program at SBRI, leads an International Malaria Research Training Program for young African scientists, ... Duffy and his colleagues are developing vaccines against malaria. ... targeted at identifying the immune responses that prevent severe disease and death due to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.. ...
Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, other viral haemorrhagic fevers[1]. Prevention. Coordinated medical services, ... Researchers looking at slides of cultures of cells that make monoclonal antibodies. These are grown in a lab and the ... Early symptoms of EVD may be similar to those of other diseases common in Africa, including malaria and dengue fever.[25] The ... Researchers speculated that the disease disappeared due to the precautions taken by locals, the quarantine of the area, and ...
8. NMRC researchers played a key role in the design of the study, particularly in testing the efficacy of the vaccine by ... partnered with other federal and industry partners to publish the results of a successful clinical trial of a new malaria ... Researchers from the Naval Medical Research Center (NMRC) ... 8. NMRC researchers played a key role in the design of the ... Malaria continues to present a major challenge to force health protection during operations in any environment where malaria is ...
Researchers have identified a new means to eradicate malaria infections by rapidly killing the blood-borne Plasmodium parasites ... Lead researcher Dr Matthew Fuchter, from Imperial College London, said: "Plasmodium falciparum causes 90 per cent of malaria ... Malaria causes up to 3 million deaths each year, predominantly afflicting vulnerable people such as children under five and ... They hope it will lead to the development of an effective malaria cure within the next ten years. ...
... the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute have discovered that the parasite that causes the most common form of malaria ... Researchers sequence genome of malaria-causing parasite Case Western Reserve University. Journal. PLOS Neglected Tropical ... Researchers sequence genome of malaria-causing parasite Even when on different continents, organism features same mutations ... "Our work provides the first report on genome-wide variation of this malaria parasite and provides the malaria research ...
... falciparum malaria in utero. The researchers looked for malaria-specific immune responses in T cells in the newborn babies ... Little is known about how immunity to malaria develops in infants, a process which researchers must understand in order to ... Researchers Discover The Key To Malaria Susceptibility In Children. by Sam Savage ... In particular, it is unclear how a mothers malaria infection affects a childs acquisition of anti-malaria immunity.. From a ...
... say researchers, as new research highlights the inadequacies of current test kits.,/p, ... p,Malaria tests must be made more reliable, ... Malaria tests largely unreliable, say researchers. By Katherine ... Soaring demand for the fast diagnosis of malaria is only likely to be met when more reliable tests are invented, according to a ... Soaring demand for the fast diagnosis of malaria is only likely to be met when more reliable tests are invented, according to a ...
A Yale-led team of researchers have created a vaccine that protects against malaria infection in mouse models, paving the way ... Yale researchers identify target for novel malaria vaccine. Yale University. Journal. Nature Communications. Funder. National ... The researchers also noted that because the PMIF protein has been conserved by evolution in different malaria strains and ... A Yale-led team of researchers have created a vaccine that protects against malaria infection in mouse models, paving the way ...
International groups of researchers analyzed the DNA from hundreds of malaria parasites to find out how they learned to shrug ... Reuters: Study finds gene markers for drug-resistant malaria in Cambodia. "…[The researchers] say their work could help doctors ... Researchers Identify Gene Marker For Piperaquine-Resistant Malaria In Cambodia. Nov 04, 2016 ... BBC News: Malaria drugs complete failure tracked. "…Artemisinin resistance has been known about for years, but a recent rise ...
Riverside has generated a 3D model of the human malaria parasite genome at three different stages in the parasites life cycle ... Researchers generate 3D model of human malaria parasite genome. *Download PDF Copy ... Proteasome inhibitors show potential for combating multidrug-resistant malaria. *Malaria drug may help those with hereditary ... The parasite that causes malaria in humans is Plasmodium falciparum. The female Anopheles mosquito transmits P. falciparum from ...
Researchers have revealed a key discovery in understanding how the most deadly species of malaria parasite, Plasmodium ... Researchers have revealed a key discovery in understanding how the most deadly species of malaria parasite, Plasmodium ... and it is this stage that is responsible for the symptoms and mortality associated with malaria. Researchers have tried for ... Malaria kills approximately one million people every year, mostly children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa. ...
Tulane University researchers have developed a new drug that is effective against non-severe cases of malaria, according to ... "Super malaria" resistant to standard medications in South East Asia. *Penn researchers find evidence of new malaria species in ... Researchers recruited 66 adult men in Mali with uncomplicated malaria, which is defined as malaria that isnt life threatening ... Tulane University researchers have developed a new drug that is effective against non-severe cases of malaria, according to ...
A new reference tool that PATH and our partner have developed will support researchers in creating malaria diagnostics that can ... Almost half of the worlds population is at risk for malaria, and there are more than 200 million cases annually. ... The Q-Plex™ Human Malaria Array (5-Plex) is a new tool that is aiding researchers in developing more sensitive malaria rapid ... This allows researchers who use the Q-Plex Human Malaria Array (5-Plex) as a reference test to evaluate rapid diagnostic tests ...
Researchers from University of Illinois have come up with a novel way of developing antibiotics to fight malaria, potentially ... Researchers from University of Illinois have come up with a novel way of developing antibiotics to fight malaria, potentially ... Malaria. Malaria is caused by a parasite that enters blood through the bite of an infected mosquito. It is characterized by ... When the parasites that cause malaria were discovered by others to have a pathway that FR900098 could disrupt, researchers saw ...
Candidate Malaria Vaccine Represents Potentially Encouraging Anti-Malaria Strategy, Researchers Say. Sep 09, 2011 ... A team of researchers led by Stephen Hoffman of Sanaria Inc. has created a candidate malaria vaccine against Plasmodium ... "An effective malaria vaccine … must prevent infection in greater than 80 percent of recipients for six to 24 months in order to ... Navy researcher, who added, "Past results suggest that this target is possible," according to Science. "A new clinical trial in ...
... could be a way to block the parasites life cycle and prevent the development of malaria. ... Researchers in Japan have discovered that the Plasmodium parasites responsible for malaria rely on a human liver cell protein ... Newswise - Researchers in Japan have discovered that the Plasmodium parasites responsible for malaria rely on a human liver ... "Most anti-malaria drugs targeting Plasmodium-derived molecules eventually lead to drug resistance in these parasites. However, ...
How malaria manipulates the immune system to allow the parasite to persist in the bloodstream has been discovered by ... Malaria-water Malaria Mosquito Diseases Fever Malaria - Protection Strategies Therapeutic Drug Monitoring ... Malaria: The Invincible Might of a Parasite, Nestled in a Mite. Malaria is a disease that is preventable and curable, yet ... Researchers Identify Key to Cure Bloodstream Malaria Infections. by Thilaka Ravi on December 14, 2011 at 10:59 AM Tropical ...
"Malaria researchers finally have an efficient way to shuffle genes into P. falciparum, which should lead to valuable ... Einstein researchers find key to unlocking worlds deadliest malaria parasite. 27.07.2006 ... Einstein researchers wanted to see if they could use the Bronx Bombers enzyme to introduce any gene of interest into P. ... The other Einstein researchers involved in this study were Rebecca A. Muhle and Pedro A. Moura. Their collaborators, from the ...
... hope to understand how the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum evolved resistance to the once-effective medication ... Malaria is responsible for 1-3 million deaths a year, most of whom are children under 5 in sub-Saharan Africa, said J. Koji Lum ... Lum considers malaria the most important infectious disease in human history. It continues to exact a devastating toll, in part ... Malaria is relatively easy to eliminate in places that have a good health-care infrastructure. In the developing world, ...
A team of researchers at McMaster University has uncovered the existence of malaria 2,000 years ago at the height of the Roman ... Researchers uncover the existence of malaria 2,000 years ago during the Roman Empire A team of researchers at McMaster ... A team of researchers at McMaster University has uncovered the existence of malaria 2,000 years ago at the height of the Roman ... Researchers used skeletal remains from three sites in southern Italy to uncover evidence that proves the existence of malaria ...
Researchers Sequence Chimpanzee Parasites to Learn About Evolution of Human Malaria Species Mar 22, 2016 ... Home » Researchers Sequence Chimpanzee Parasites to Learn About Evolution of Human Malaria Species ... NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - An international team led by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania has used selective whole- ... CNN reports that researchers have tied a new variant to opioid addiction risk. ...
... could be a way to block the parasites life cycle and prevent the development of malaria. ... Researchers in Japan have discovered that the Plasmodium parasites responsible for malaria rely on a human liver cell protein ... exoerythrocytic form that gives rise to malaria. But in cells lacking CXCR4 (right), the parasite remains trapped in its rod- ...
The researchers say that the genome of the malaria mosquito is clearly separated into gene-rich and gene-poor compartments, ... Researchers map gene differences in yellow fever, malaria mosquitoes, to help prevent disease. 18.06.2014 ... researchers can compare the chromosome organization and evolution between this mosquito and the major carrier of malaria, the ... Anopheles »Anopheles gambiae »Bioinformatics »Biology »Yellow fever »differences »diseases »genomic »malaria »mosquito ...
How Cellphones Helped Researchers Track Malaria In Kenya By editor • Oct 11, 2012 ... To curb malaria throughout Kenya, the disease-travel map points out precise areas for concentrating malaria control efforts and ... Researchers at Harvard School of Public Health tracked the texts and calls from nearly 15 million cellphones in Kenya for an ... Malaria is caught from mosquitoes, but people play a significant role in moving the parasite around. "Most people who carry the ...
"Swedish researchers lead fight for new malaria drugs" * Pingback: Swedish Professor Joel Tarning awarded for malaria research ... Swedish researchers lead fight for new malaria drugs. by Christer Nilsson • December 30, 2003. • 1 Comment ... Mahidol´s malaria researchers cooperate with field units in Thailand where blood samples are taken and sent to Bangkok for ... The blood samples contain lots of information for the researchers. Some reveal usage of drugs the parasite causing malaria is ...
A new target for drug development in the fight against the deadly disease malaria has been discovered by researchers at MIT. ... which transforms these red blood cells in a way that is vital to the spread of malaria. "The clinical symptoms of malaria are ... In addition to malaria, the technique could also be used to target the parasite Eimeria, which affects cattle and poultry, ... The researchers identified proteins secreted by Toxoplasma that appeared to be homologues, or of shared ancestry to, this ...
Australian researchers say they are closer to creating a vaccine to prevent malaria, which could potentially save hundreds of ... He said researchers had taken a novel approach to previous research.. "It involves the entire malaria parasite, which we ... Malaria vaccine that could save lives a step closer thanks to Gold Coast researchers. ABC Gold Coast ... Australian researchers say they are closer to creating a vaccine to prevent malaria, which could potentially save hundreds of ...
  • Our naval forces may be deployed on short notice to regions where malaria presents a leading infectious disease threat to mission success. (military.com)
  • Malaria is the second leading cause of infectious disease worldwide, and took more than a half million lives in 2013. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lum considers malaria the most important infectious disease in human history. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The DNA data show that P. vivax has clearly had a different history of association with global human populations than other malaria parasites, indicating that unique aspects of its biology may have influenced the ways in which it spread around the world," adds Daniel Neafsey, associate director of the Genomic Center for Infectious Disease at the Broad Institute, who generated the data and co-led the analysis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The infectious disease affects more than 200 million people across the world and causes nearly half a million deaths every year, according to the World Health Organization's 2018 report on malaria. (samsciences.com)
  • Malaria is an infectious disease that can be fatal if not treated promptly. (health.news)
  • Dr. Smith is interested in partnerships that can translate his laboratory's findings about P. falciparum interactions with host endothelial proteins adjunct treatments for severe malaria and new approaches to treat vascular dysfunction from infectious or non-infectious disease. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • It was thought that both the coastal and Lake Victoria region contributed to the spread of malaria," says epidemiologist Caroline Buckee , who led the study. (wwno.org)
  • In a resource-limited setting, Dionne-Odom's research will hopefully find an effective prophylaxis for these patients that will improve adverse birth outcomes, improve maternal health and combat the spread of malaria in vulnerable populations. (uabmedicine.org)
  • Drug resistance has been implicated in the regularly, as well as in areas where transmission has spread of malaria to new areas and re-emergence of been largely controlled or eliminated. (cdc.gov)
  • Soaring demand for the fast diagnosis of malaria is only likely to be met when more reliable tests are invented, according to a leading diagnostics expert. (scidev.net)
  • In addition to developing the crowd-sourced gaming platform that allows players to assist in identifying malaria in cells imaged under a light microscope, Ozcan's research group created an automated algorithm for diagnosing the same images using computer vision, as well as a novel hybrid platform for combining human and machine resources toward efficient, accurate and remote diagnosis of malaria. (healthcanal.com)
  • She is conducting research on the treatment and diagnosis of malaria in general and in pregnant women in particular. (malariaworld.org)
  • Since 2010, WHO has also recommended that clinical diagnosis of malaria should be confirmed before treatment by looking for parasites in patients' blood (parasitology). (plos.org)
  • Serre and Ernest R. Chan, a postdoctoral research fellow at the Genomic Medicine Institute, sequenced the genomes of parasites in blood samples taken from two P. vivax malaria patients in Madagascar and three in Cambodia, after first removing the white blood cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • We are studying not only well characterized P. vivax and nonhuman primate malaria isolates, but also field isolates from human and nonhuman primate malarias in order to assess the demographic history of the extant populations, explore host-specificity, and assess putative genetic variation that may be under positive selection by the host immune system. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Escalante will also explore the dynamics of nonhuman malarial parasites as part of his vivax-macaque malaria project. (bio-medicine.org)
  • P. vivax causes an estimated 15.8 million clinical malaria cases each year. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • P. vivax is significantly more genetically diverse than the more widely studied and deadlier malaria species P. falciparum, which may make it more elusive to methods of control and thus more difficult to eliminate. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • A Prospective Birth Cohort Study in Kenya", investigated how prenatal malaria exposure affects anti-malaria immunity in young children and their susceptibility to subsequent malaria infections. (redorbit.com)
  • Better rapid diagnostic tests that can be easily used in remote settings are critical to making sure people with malaria infections get diagnosed and get the right treatment. (path.org)
  • By rescuing this immune system pathway, University of Iowa researchers and colleagues were able to cure mice of bloodstream malaria infections. (medindia.net)
  • We've been very interested in the infections that have been problematic over time and malaria is just one of those,' he said. (cbc.ca)
  • To figure out how this travel pattern contributes to malaria transmission, Buckee and her team laid the cellphone data onto maps of malaria infections. (wwno.org)
  • A separate study that spanned 2,652 essential drugs - including medicines for malaria, tuberculosis and bacterial infections - found that the failure rate among WHO-approved products was 6.8 percent. (naija.ng)
  • What we know is that some people who develop malaria and recover, develop an immune response that seems to then protect them against, you know, subsequent infections or attacks," he said. (malaria.com)
  • P. falciparum is the parasite that causes severe infections if not treated immediately, while P. knowlesi , a parasite that naturally infects macaques, is the only source of zoonotic, or animal-to-human-transmitted, malaria. (health.news)
  • By reducing the number of malaria parasites in pupils, this approach could also help to cut infections in their communities, according to the researchers, who said malaria control strategies should be a formal part of education health plans. (ntv.co.ug)
  • According to Cui, fake drugs to treat malaria are often sold in the border regions of Southeast Asia. (psu.edu)
  • Chloroquine - which is normally used mainly to prevent and treat malaria - was administered via the named drug, Plaquenil. (freerepublic.com)
  • Our work provides the first report on genome-wide variation of this malaria parasite and provides the malaria research community with more than 80,000 genetic markers that can now be used for trait mapping or population monitoring," Serre said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The 3D structure for the malaria parasite genome revealed one major repression center. (news-medical.net)
  • If we understand how the malaria parasite genome is organized in the nucleus and which components control this organization, we may be able to disrupt this architecture and disrupt, too, the parasite development,' Le Roch said. (news-medical.net)
  • Le Roch's lab is now looking at other stages of the malaria life cycle in order to identify components responsible for the 3D genome architecture. (news-medical.net)
  • But we found, to our surprise, that the genome architecture is closely linked to virulence even in the case of the malaria parasite. (news-medical.net)
  • This ancient malaria genome is now helping scientists to better understand the disease, the ancient makeup of the virus is 'relatively similar to today's malaria,' Poinar stated. (cbc.ca)
  • The large size of the yellow fever mosquito's genome - about one third of the human genome size and five times larger than the malaria mosquito's genome - complicated genomic mapping efforts. (innovations-report.com)
  • This gives researchers the ability to 'see' how the genome is changing under drug selection," Tan said. (nd.edu)
  • These conditions enabled researchers to identify genome regions showing signatures of emerging drug resistance. (nd.edu)
  • A team of researchers has used whole genome analysis and chemogenetics to identify new drug targets and resistance genes in the parasite. (psu.edu)
  • This exploration of the P. falciparum resistome - the collection of antibiotic resistance genes - and its druggable genome will help guide new drug discovery efforts and advance our understanding of how the malaria parasite evolves to fight back," said senior author Elizabeth Winzeler , professor of pharmacology and drug discovery in the Department of Pediatrics at UC San Diego School of Medicine. (psu.edu)
  • Our £18 billion investment portfolio gives us the independence to support such transformative work as the sequencing and understanding of the human genome, research that established front-line drugs for malaria, and Wellcome Collection, our free venue for the incurably curious that explores medicine, life and art. (wellcome.ac.uk)
  • Single-cell genome processing yields surprising results about the origin of complex malaria and study finds that the management of malaria in children at schools is ineffective. (fightmalaria.co.uk)
  • Researchers are just beginning to scratch the surface of how several newly recognized epigenetic changes function in the genome. (the-scientist.com)
  • Chris was also one of the originators and UK co-ordinator of the malaria genome project, and continues to be involved in its update and curation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A recently discovered compound from the aminopyridine class not only has the potential to become part of a single-dose cure for all strains of malaria, but might also be able to block transmission of the parasite from person to person. (futuretimeline.net)
  • Our NMRC researchers are dedicated to conducting medical research to enhance deployment readiness of DoD personnel worldwide and to protect our warfighters in harm's way," said Nathan. (military.com)
  • CLEVELAND - Scientists at Case Western Reserve University and the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute have discovered that the parasite that causes the most common form of malaria share the same genetic variations - even when the organisms are separated across continents. (eurekalert.org)
  • In research published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal, the team also said a simple test using blood taken from a finger pinprick could show whether a malaria patient has parasites with the genetic markers - allowing doctors to prescribe an alternative treatment…" (Kelland, 11/3). (kff.org)
  • Her research team also found that those genes that need to be highly expressed in the malaria parasite - for example, genes involved in translation - tend to cluster in the same area of the cell nucleus, while genes that need to be tightly repressed - for example, genes involved in virulence - are found elsewhere in the 3D structure in a 'repression center. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have leveraged the results of their research into tuberculosis to craft a tool for unlocking the secrets of another of the world's leading infectious killers-malaria. (innovations-report.com)
  • These findings, published in the August issue of Nature Methods, "should substantially speed up research efforts to bring malaria under control," says Dr. David Fidock, senior author of the paper and an associate professor of microbiology & immunology at Einstein. (innovations-report.com)
  • But such familiarity with the bloodsucking insect does not explain why Niklas Lindegardh and his fiancée Anna Annerberg are key persons in a malaria drug research project that aims to release new and better medicines against this dangerous disease. (scandasia.com)
  • Instead it is the leading role in worldwide malaria research at Dalarna University, their home institution in Sweden, which lies behind the couple's move this summer from a quiet Borlänge to noisy Bangkok and the faculty of tropical medicine at Mahidol University. (scandasia.com)
  • That is why malaria research gets less funding than projects for other new drugs. (scandasia.com)
  • While his research leaves nothing to chance, is the reason he once became interested in malaria purely a lucky coincidence. (scandasia.com)
  • Dalarna University accepted me and there I got involved in a malaria research project, managed by Yngve Bergqvist. (scandasia.com)
  • He said researchers had taken a novel approach to previous research. (abc.net.au)
  • Dr Matthew Grigg's groundbreaking research into monkey malaria has already changed WHO treatment guidelines and saved lives across Southeast Asia, writes Sarah Condie. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • His team's research has drastically improved our understanding of the treatment and epidemiology of P. knowlesi malaria, and has already changed WHO malaria treatment guidelines that will save many lives in the future. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • The protective gene was identified in a study conducted by a team of investigators from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Malaria Research Institute, the Imperial College of London and the University of Texas Medical Branch. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It may help provide better tools for controlling the disease in the future," said lead author Eappen G. Abraham, PhD, research associate in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology and the Malaria Re search Institute at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. (bio-medicine.org)
  • More research is needed, but we plan to apply this knowledge in the development of new approaches to control the disease," said co-author Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena, PhD, a professor in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology and the Malaria Research Institute at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Do South African Malaria Researchers Need a Virtual Research Environment? (ariadne.ac.uk)
  • Because the purpose of a VRE is to help researchers in all disciplines manage the increasingly complex range of tasks involved in carrying out research a VRE provides a framework of resources to support the underlying processes of research on both small and large scales, particularly for those disciplines which are not well catered for by current infrastructure. (ariadne.ac.uk)
  • April 23, 2012 - Children's Discovery Institute researcher Audrey Odom, MD, PhD , recently was recognized for her breakthrough research on potential new cures for malaria by The Academy of Science‑St. Louis. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • There's often a lack of ability to treat people suffering from severe malaria,' said Professor Mats Wahlgren, who leads the research group. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • She is currently working as researcher at the department of Biomedical Research at the Royal Tropical Institute. (malariaworld.org)
  • Dr Rowena Martin, a leading researcher of malaria drug resistance at the Australian National University's Research School of Biology, agrees that swift action is vital. (radioaustralia.net.au)
  • This time around, malaria research teams are doing everything they can to contain the drug-resistant strain. (radioaustralia.net.au)
  • This malaria project is one of several ongoing CHI-UAB global research projects focusing on improving maternal and child health. (uabmedicine.org)
  • and John Tan, managing director of the Genomics Core Facility , in collaboration with Tim Anderson of Texas Biomedical Research Institute and Francois Nosten, M.D., of the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit in Thailand. (nd.edu)
  • This program called "PRISM" is based in Uganda and represents the East African region for the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research network. (nih.gov)
  • NAIROBI] Children sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are less likely to die from malaria and nets should be distributed free to all who need them, according to research from Kenya. (scidev.net)
  • Researchers from the Kenya Medical Research Institute analysed children aged 0-4 years old in four districts of Kenya. (scidev.net)
  • The competition, led by the British Library and supported by the open access journals eLife and Europe PMC, aims to promote a wider understanding of biomedical research by challenging early career researchers to summarise selected scientific research in plain English. (wellcome.ac.uk)
  • The writing prize aims to bridge this gap between public access to biomedical research and the wider understanding of these findings, while also giving young researchers experience in communicating scientific findings. (wellcome.ac.uk)
  • We assimilate malaria research and communicate key findings in podcast form. (fightmalaria.co.uk)
  • However, cerebral malaria research has been hampered by the inaccessibility of the brain and the lack of appropriate in vitro models. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • For example, Dr. Smith's group is working in collaboration with Dr. Zheng's lab in the Department of Bioengineering at the University of Washington and a clinical research team from Michigan State University and the Blantrye Malaria Project to study parasite isolates from cerebral malaria patients in novel 3D human brain microvessel models. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • The conference is the main European malaria research meeting and attracts over 250 participants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The researchers, led by Mario Falchi from Imperial College London (ICL) and Philippe Froguel from ICL and Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, and including researchers from Qatar and Saudi Arabia, studied the influence of a CNV affecting the number of copies of the salivary amylase gene AMY1 and obesity, publishing their findings in Nature Genetics . (natureasia.com)
  • This is the main conclusion of a study performed by researchers from Lleida University (UdL), belonging to the research group Metabolic Physiopathology of IRBLleida, lidered by Dr. Reinald Pamplona. (recercaxindependencia.cat)
  • Researchers from Complutense University and Malaga University participated in the research published in Scientific Reports. (recercaxindependencia.cat)
  • The research team included UT Southwestern, the Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Australia, the University of Washington, and the not-for-profit Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV). (scienceabode.com)
  • In 2008, her research team identified an inhibitor of an enzyme that the malaria parasite requires for survival. (scienceabode.com)
  • MMV works with institutions and drug companies worldwide to further research and development of new malaria treatments. (scienceabode.com)
  • This study, published in the journal Science, had a research team describe their trial for a transgenic approach to combating malaria. (naturalnews.com)
  • Microsoft Research recently deployed a video crew to come to ISB to speak with our researchers about proteomics and sharing peptide data. (systemsbiology.org)
  • The Malaria Atlas Project, abbreviated as MAP, is a non-profit project funded primarily by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now, a drug combination -- artemether and lumefantrine -- is the primary treatment for malaria although resistance is also developing to the drug combination in some countries. (news-medical.net)
  • Artemisinin is a natural plant product representing first-line treatment for malaria. (blogspot.com)
  • These highly interrelated projects will be conducted in settings with varied malaria epidemiology and differing population level control intervention to provide critical information needed to optimize strategies for the control and ultimate elimination of malaria in Uganda. (nih.gov)
  • According to the organisation, collaboration with HEWAN would help to achieve the programme's strategic plan of ensuring total elimination of malaria in Nigeria by 2020. (chiomaumeha.com)
  • Responding, Mrs. Chioma Obinna, President, HEWAN, commended the NMEP for its strategic policies and activities toward the elimination of malaria in the country. (chiomaumeha.com)
  • By training hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of members of the public to identify malaria through UCLA's crowd-sourced game, a much greater number of diagnoses could be made more quickly - at no cost and with a high degree of collective accuracy. (healthcanal.com)
  • Congrats Petra Mens, I wish you all the best and many more achievements as you endeavour to eradicate malaria. (malariaworld.org)
  • They hope it will lead to the development of an effective malaria cure within the next ten years. (redorbit.com)
  • Metcalf said that knowing the genes and understanding the pathway that bacteria use to make this antimalarial means the genes can be manipulated to make the compound even more effective against the malaria parasite while remaining harmless to people. (medindia.net)
  • Complementary laboratory-based studies include surveillance for markers of antimalarial drug and insecticide resistance and serologic measures of malaria exposure. (nih.gov)
  • In a recent study, researchers at Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Nigeria looked for scientific basis for the use of Jatropha gossypiifolia , commonly known as bellyache bush, as a natural antimalarial medicine. (health.news)
  • Using mice infected by P. berghei , a parasite that causes malaria-like symptoms in rodents, the researchers evaluated the antiplasmodial and antimalarial activities of extracts and fractions obtained from the leaves of bellyache bush. (health.news)
  • Based on these findings, the researchers concluded that bellyache bush has good antiplasmodial activity and is safe to use as a natural antimalarial medicine . (health.news)
  • The study showed these benefits lasted until the beginning of the next malaria transmission season, suggesting a single annual dose of antimalarial drugs could help protect children from anaemia during the entire school year, she added. (ntv.co.ug)
  • Malaria antibodies in pregnant women may be a marker of exposure, not protection, from malaria and a combination of antimalarial drugs is less efficacious than if used in tandem. (fightmalaria.co.uk)
  • A systematic assessment of the extent of substandard case management practices of malaria in pregnancy is required, as well as quality improvement interventions that reach all providers administering antimalarial drugs in the community. (plos.org)
  • Artemisinin resistance has been known about for years, but a recent rise in resistance to piperaquine as well means the main malaria treatment, taking both together, is starting to fail. (kff.org)
  • Artemisinin, a natural product from a plant used in China for centuries, is the latest candidate drug to combat multidrug-resistant malaria. (nd.edu)
  • WHO recommends prompt diagnosis and quinine plus clindamycin for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the first trimester and artemisinin-based combination therapies in subsequent trimesters. (plos.org)
  • Earlier this week, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Youyou Tu for her discovery of the anti-malaria compound Artemisinin, as well as to William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura for their discovery of a novel therapy for roundworm. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. (plos.org)
  • The evaluation will measure the impact and cost effectiveness of home fortification with micronutrient powders combined with seasonal malaria chemoprevention and parenting education delivered through ECCD centers on children's health, nutrition and child development. (worldbank.org)