Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Malaria, Avian: Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Rheumatic Fever: A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES. It is characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, such as the heart, blood vessels, and joints (POLYARTHRITIS) and brain, and by the presence of ASCHOFF BODIES in the myocardium and skin.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.AfricaMicroscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Plasmodium malariae: A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Boutonneuse Fever: A febrile disease of the Mediterranean area, the Crimea, Africa, and India, caused by infection with RICKETTSIA CONORII.Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Plasmodium chabaudi: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: An acute febrile illness caused by RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII. It is transmitted to humans by bites of infected ticks and occurs only in North and South America. Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. A cutaneous rash commonly appears on the extremities and trunk about the fourth day of illness.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Paratyphoid Fever: A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.SesquiterpenesAmodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Merozoite Surface Protein 1: A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.Plasmodium ovale: A species of protozoan parasite causing MALARIA. It is the rarest of the four species of PLASMODIUM infecting humans, but is common in West African countries and neighboring areas.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)CambodiaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Plasmodium knowlesi: A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Hemorrhagic Fever, American: Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.IndiaDrug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Vanuatu: A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Port-Vila. It was called New Hebrides until 1980. It was discovered in 1606 by the Portuguese, forgotten for 160 years, then visited by Bougainville in 1768 and Captain Cook in 1774. It was under joint British and French administration from 1906 until it became independent in 1980 under the name of Vanuatu. The name is native, meaning our land. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p833 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p570)Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Blackwater Fever: A complication of MALARIA, FALCIPARUM characterized by the passage of dark red to black urine.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola: A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.VietnamSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Merozoites: Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.Sri LankaRickettsia Infections: Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Severe Dengue: A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.ColombiaParasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Phlebotomus Fever: Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Equatorial Guinea: A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Democratic Republic of the Congo: A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Eritrea: A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea, bordered west and northwest by SUDAN, and south by ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Asmara.BrazilPyrogens: Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Ephemeral Fever: An Ephemerovirus infection of cattle caused by bovine ephemeral fever virus (EPHEMERAL FEVER VIRUS, BOVINE). It is characterized by respiratory symptoms, increased oropharyngeal secretions and lacrimation, joint pains, tremor, and stiffness.Schizonts: Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.Antipyretics: Drugs that are used to reduce body temperature in fever.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.LaosDengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Rickettsia rickettsii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER. Its cells are slightly smaller and more uniform in size than those of RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Mauritania: A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Plasmodium gallinaceum: A protozoan parasite that causes avian malaria (MALARIA, AVIAN), primarily in chickens, and is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Asymptomatic Infections: Infections that do not exhibit symptoms.
Antipyretics: reducing fever (pyrexia/pyresis). *Analgesics: reducing pain (painkillers). *Antimalarial drugs: treating malaria ...
Malaria & Dengue Fever. Link retrieved on 01/15/2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Information for ... Malaria, Dengue and others are current tropical diseases in Cambodia. South coastal provinces are considered of high risk ... The National Malaria Center (CNM). Link retrieved on 01/15/2013 Cambodia portal VisitKep.com Kep-Cambodia.com. ... malaria areas, especially islands and jungle territories, where it is advisable to keep precautionary measures against mosquito ...
Concerning trench fever} Febris quintana. Berlin and Vienna, 1920. Malaria. In Friedrich Kraus (1858-1936) and Theodor Brugsch ... Werner is remembered for his description of trench fever during an outbreak of the disease in World War I. The disorder is ...
Shah S (2010). The Fever: How Malaria Has Ruled Humankind for 500,000 Years. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 94.. ... Shah S (2010). The Fever: How Malaria Has Ruled Humankind for 500,000 Years. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 102.. ... Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.[2] This includes the treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium ... It was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. During the 17th century, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes ...
... "stranger's fever".[33] Malaria - locally known as "country fever" since yellow fever was largely confined to Charles Town and ... Charles Town suffered between 5 and 8 major yellow fever outbreaks over the first half of the 18th century. It developed a ... Although it did not have the high fatalities of yellow fever, it caused much illness and was also a major health problem ... The white community had recently been decimated by a malaria outbreak and the rebels killed about 25 white people before being ...
In India, the Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita document malaria. These documents list the main symptoms as fever and ... He lists chills, headaches, and fevers as the main symptoms and distinguished between the different kinds of fevers. ... As of 2013, the parasites causing the most deaths globally were as follows: Plasmodium spp.: causes Malaria Entamoeba: causes ... The Emperor Huang Ti recorded the earliest mentioning (2700BC) of malaria in his text Nei Ching. ...
... as Chief Sanitary Officer to fight yellow fever and malaria. In two years, yellow fever was eliminated from the Canal Zone. ... Soon after, malaria was also brought under control. With the appointment of Army Lieutenant Colonel George W. Goethals to the ...
Many died of yellow fever or malaria. Over-hunting had a devastating effect on the animal populations and the Pretoria ... The trek exacted a high toll; 27 of 53 persons perished from malaria, including Tregardt. Eleven years after Tregardt's ... arrived subsequently from Ohrigstad where his followers were being decimated by malaria. He was of the opinion that the ...
... making Dengue fever the most common and clinically important arboviral disease. Yellow fever, alongside malaria, was a major ... "Yellow Fever and Malaria in the Canal". PBS. American Experience. Retrieved 19 June 2013. "Human blood contains the secret ... These symptoms include fever, headache, malaise, rash and fatigue. Rarely, vomiting and hemorrhagic fever may occur. The ... The most common clinical features of infection are fever, headache, and malaise, but encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever may ...
Malaria treatment is available at the larger clinics, but many children and elderly die because they are not taken to the ... Tuberculosis and Lassa fever are also common. Christianity is the dominant religion practiced among Saclepeans, but the city is ... They also receive financial support from international sponsors and NGOs (e.g. Christian Aid). Malaria is still a major health ...
Mosquito Soldiers: Malaria, Yellow Fever, and the Course of the Civil War. (2010) ... Operations in the South meant a dangerous and new disease environment, bringing diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, and malaria ... yellow fever, and malaria. Most sick people turn to local healers, and used folk remedies. Others relied upon the minister- ... Mortality was very high for new arrivals, and high for children in the colonial era.[3][4] Malaria was deadly to many new ...
Woodward took his inspiration from the treatments for malaria and "fen fever". He noted that the formula used to treat fen ... In the 1840s, babies in Eastern England were afflicted by a condition known as "fen fever", and during that time there was also ... fever was an effective "soother of fretful babies and provided relief from gastrointestinal troubles in infants." The original ...
In 2012, it was estimated that about 1.1% of adults aged 15-49 were living with HIV/AIDS.[151] Malaria is also a problem.[152][ ... "Yellow fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo". World Health Organization. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2015.. ... "DRC: Malaria still biggest killer". IRIN. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2015.. ... "Democratic Republic of the Congo, Epidemiological profile, World Malaria Report 2014" (PDF). World Health Organization. ...
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations. Water contact disease: leptospirosis. Animal ... Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever. ...
Fever in the infected snake is irregular. Garnham P.C. (1965) Plasmodium wenyoni sp. nov., a malaria parasite of a Brazilian ...
Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation "International Travel Information". Bureau of ...
Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation "International Travel ...
Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination ...
... malaria and yellow fever transmission are also possible. Therefore, climbers are advised not only to take the utmost precaution ...
Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination ...
Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination ... Government of Canada -- Overcome criminal convictions Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations ...
... malaria and yellow fever transmission are also possible. Therefore, climbers are advised not only to take the utmost precaution ...
Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination ...
Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination ...
He was diagnosed with yellow fever, then malaria. Upon arrival in Old Point Comfort, Virginia, he spent a few weeks resting in ... In early July, Crane was sent to the United States for medical treatment for a high fever. ...
Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, other viral haemorrhagic fevers[1]. Prevention. Coordinated medical services, ... including malaria and dengue fever.[25] The symptoms are also similar to those of other viral haemorrhagic fevers such as ... Other diseases such as malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD.[1] ... Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and ...
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations water contact disease: schistosomiasis ... food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever ...
... making it the second leading parasitic killer after malaria. ... Schistosomiasis, or snail fever, is a neglected tropical ... HKI has helped Sierra Leone provide nearly half a million people with life-saving medicines to treat snail fever. ... Building local capacity to distrubute drugs for prevention and treatment is helping to control and eliminate snail fever and ... with life-saving medicines to treat snail fever through mass drug administrations in high risk communities. Because the ...
These include malaria, typhoid fever, cholera, plague, relapsing fever, meningitis, hepatitis and other viral haemorrhagic ...
... dengue fever, and West Nile Fever. The Body Worn Insect Repellent Consumption Market has seen an increase in the demand for the ... The insect repellent helps in preventing and controlling the outbreak of insect borne diseases like malaria, Lyme disease, ...
Yellow Fever & Malaria Information, by Country. Mark D. Gershman, Emily S. Jentes, Rhett J. Stoney (Yellow Fever) Kathrine R. ... Yellow Fever Vaccine Course*About the Yellow Fever Vaccine Course. *Continuing Education (CE) Credit for Yellow Fever Vaccine ... Fourteen country-specific maps of malaria transmission areas, 11 country-specific maps depicting yellow fever vaccine ... MALARIA. The following recommendations to protect travelers from malaria were developed using the best available data from ...
The spread of dengue fever could cause more sickness and prove more costly globally than malaria, U.S. public health experts ... BOSTON, May 4 (UPI) -- The spread of dengue fever could cause more sickness and prove more costly globally than malaria, U.S. ... Known as "break-bone fever" for its capacity to cause excruciating joint pain, the disease -- transmitted by a bite from the ... Study co-author Donald Shepard of Brandeis Universitys Schneider Institutes for Health Policy said dengue fever inflicts a $ ...
... 08.05.2009. Malaria and the Borrelia infection relapsing fever are diseases with ... Malaria can also revive a dormant Borrelia in the brain and cause the relapsing fever to flare up anew. ... In such cases, the malaria is moderated while the relapsing fever becomes more serious. This is shown in a new doctoral ... This is because the immune defense focuses on the malaria infection, which means that the relapsing fever can grow unhampered. ...
Malaria and dengue fever, both preventable and potentially deadly diseases, are transmitted when children are bitten by ... and identifying the signs and symptoms of malaria and dengue fever. Volunteers with health care backgrounds offer training and ...
With distinguished prose and original reporting from Panama, Malawi, Cameroon, India, and elsewhere, The Fever captures the ... Shah tracks malarias jagged ascent and the tragedies in its wake, revealing a parasite every bit as persistent as the insects ... In The Fever, the journalist Sonia Shah sets out to answer these questions, delivering a timely, inquisitive chronicle of the ... malaria has emerged as a cause c l bre for voguish philanthropists. Bill Gates, Bono, and Laura Bush are only a few of the ...
... probably succumbed to typhoid fever, researchers report in todays New England Journal of Medicine. The Macedonian king was ... long thought to have died from poison or malaria, ... Typhoid Fever, Not Malaria or Poison, May Have Killed Alexander ... Alexander the Great, long thought to have died from poison or malaria, probably succumbed to typhoid fever, researchers report ... Typhoid fever can also cause a paralysis accompanied by very slow breathing, which makes the patient appear dead--which may be ...
Malaria is in vogue. As investigative journalist Sonia Shah reports in The Fever: How Malaria Has Ruled Humankind for 500,000 ... The fever: How malaria has ruled humankind for 500,000 years Christopher V. Plowe ... For most of the final two-thirds of The Fever, Shah focuses on attempts to understand and master malaria, with incisive ... The lesson for todays malaria fighter is that those who underestimate this complexity and attack malaria with simple, one-size ...
Ancient Chinese anti-fever cure becomes panacea for malaria. An interview with Zhou Yiqing. WHO/Cui Weiyuan ... Q: Did malaria ever affect people in China?. A: Malaria was an epidemic disease in China for more than 3000 years. The symptoms ... Q: What was your first experience of malaria?. A: In the battle to cross the Yangtze River in 1949, I contracted the disease ... Contracting malaria made me realize how bad the disease can be. However, my official participation in the research project ...
People hospitalised with fever in Africa are most likely to be treated for malaria but, in some areas, nearly all of these ... Professor Crump says that malaria has been the diagnosis of choice for fever among healthcare providers and patients in Africa ... African fever patients commonly over-diagnosed with malaria. Monday, July 22, 2013 ... actually had malaria when tested. By contrast, invasive bacterial infections like typhoid fever and animal-associated ...
Rat fever and malaria kill India flood victims as waters subside Monsoon floods have killed 486 people in Kerala state since ... Malaria, dengue fever and chicken pox have also been reported, while more than 5,100 people have acute diarrhoea, authorities ... "Rat fever" and other diseases have killed at least 14 people after southern Indias worst floods in nearly a century, ... "We had anticipated leptospirosis (rat fever) due to contaminated water and are taking all measures to distribute preventive ...
Yellow Fever & Malaria Information, by Country. Mark D. Gershman, Emily S. Jentes, Rhett J. Stoney (Yellow Fever) Kathrine R. ... Fourteen country-specific maps of malaria transmission areas, 11 country-specific maps depicting yellow fever vaccine ... MALARIA. The following recommendations to protect travelers from malaria were developed using the best available data from ... For details, see the Yellow Fever section earlier in this chapter. For the most up-to-date information about yellow fever ...
Information on populationwide interventions for malaria treatment and prevention including masss drug administration and mass ... Mass fever treatment (MFT), like MDA, refers to the treatment of malaria with a curative dose of an antimalarial drug within a ... WHO states that mass treatment of fever cases with an ACT is appropriate as a strategy to reduce mortality once malaria has ... MDA has been implemented in the past as part of attempts to eliminate malaria from an area and to respond to malaria epidemics ...
Anopheles »Anopheles gambiae »Bioinformatics »Biology »Yellow fever »differences »diseases »genomic »malaria »mosquito ... In the malaria mosquito, X and Y chromosomes determine sex, but in the yellow fever mosquito, sex in males is determined just ... Despite these differences, sex chromosome X in the malaria mosquito and chromosome 1 in the yellow fever mosquito evolve much ... Researchers map gene differences in yellow fever, malaria mosquitoes, to help prevent disease. 18.06.2014 ...
A MAN who diagnosed himself as having World Cup fever has actually got malaria, his doctors have confirmed. ... Man who thought he had World Cup fever actually has malaria. 20th June 2018 ... Youve got malaria and World Cup Fever isnt an actual condition, well, you can imagine how surprised I was." ... And when I then got headaches and abdominal pain I just thought, more bloody World Cup fever. ...
The Journal of Malaria chemotherapy, control and Elimination is one of the top online publishing journals for research in the ... Malarial Fever. The Journal of Malaria chemotherapy, control and Elimination is one of the top online publishing journals for ... The symptoms of Malarial fever may appear in cycles. The time between episodes of fever and other symptoms varies with the ... Malarial fever is accompanied with spleen enlargement, dry cough, extreme chills, headache. The open access articles published ...
Similar Threads - Fever Tale Malaria * Biking in Thailand - a beginners tale..... geoffgoeff, Mar 11, 2015, in forum: General ... Fever : a Tale of Malaria.. Discussion in Cambodia Motorcycle Trip Report Forums started by Philippe-Belgium, May 10, 2004. ... I knew it was malaria because the fever had recurred exactly 48 hours after the first crisis. So we were monday already and the ... celebrated with malaria and other diseases. They say that malaria is nasty and/or difficult to cure and I am a living witness ...
... Malaria is caused when a female Anopheles mosquito bites a person. This mosquito carries malarial ... 2. In malaria fever is natural and hence applying cold packs on the forehead will be really helpful in bringing the fever down. ... High fever, chills, headache and shivering are the common symptoms of malaria. There are some very effective home remedies for ... Take a tsp of it when you still have fever. It is a useful remedy for curing malaria. ...
How Malaria Has Ruled Humankind for 500,000 Years (Sonia Shah) at Booksamillion.com. In recent years, malaria has emerged as a ... The Fever : How Malaria Has Ruled Humankind for 500,000 Years by Sonia Shah Overview - In recent years, malaria has emerged as ... In recent years, malaria has emerged as a cause c l bre for voguish philanthropists. Bill Gates, Bono, and Laura Bush are only ... The Fever captures the curiously fascinating, devastating history of this long-standing thorn in the side of humanity. ...
Fighting Disease From Within the Mosquito May Halt Debgue, Yellow Fever, Malaria. Apr 10, 2013 ... yellow fever and potentially malaria.. When infected with the bacteria Wolbachia, mosquitoes are unable to spread viruses such ... Insecticide use is very common in dengue and malaria-prone regions and so this strategy should select for the survival of only ...
  • In 2018, 'there were 600,000 cases of malaria and we, the scientific organizations, estimate that in 2019 we could reach a million cases' - one in every 30 people. (iran-daily.com)
  • The company downloads fever readings from more than 1 million thermometers in use around the U.S. It predicted the 2018 spread of the flu and bad colds that were often mistaken for the flu last winter . (usatoday.com)
  • Last week, WHO released its 2019 World Malaria Report , which notes that the fight against the mosquito-borne disease has stalled. (ghtcoalition.org)
  • Stoler recently led his colleagues in an investigation of West Africa's mosquito-borne epidemics, finding that not only has the troublesome dengue fever found its way (unannounced) into Ghana, but it's causing rampant confusion in the midst of the undeveloped region's desperate battle against malaria. (natureworldnews.com)
  • Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. (yahoo.com)
  • The mosquito-borne disease, also known as breakbone fever for the pain it causes, has spread from a few countries a few decades ago to more than 100 today, including the southern United States. (foxbusiness.com)
  • In fact, in a malarious area, it can present with such varied and dramatic manifestations that malaria may have to be considered as a differential diagnosis for almost all the clinical problems! (malariasite.com)
  • Recent reports from multiple African sites have observed that clinical diagnosis of severe malaria is often imprecise. (universitypressscholarship.com)
  • Diagnosis can only be made by health professionals taking a blood sample so it is important that you get yourself to adequate medical facilities as soon as possible if you suspect you have contracted Malaria. (bemusedbackpacker.com)
  • The differential diagnosis for fever with a medium to long incubation period in a returning traveler is broad. (ccjm.org)
  • Because the underlying cause of the fever is usually recorded as the diagnosis, accurate statistics for those presenting with FUO are not available. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In areas where yellow fever is common and vaccination is uncommon, early diagnosis of cases and immunization of large parts of the population is important to prevent outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study co-author Donald Shepard of Brandeis University's Schneider Institutes for Health Policy said dengue fever inflicts a $37.8 million burden on Puerto Rico each year, but every $1 invested in traditional surveillance and prevention could save $5 in costs associated with the illness. (upi.com)
  • What is important for malaria prevention? (brainscape.com)
  • Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among Pregnant Women Resident in Urban Slums, Southern Ghana. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Also in contrast to yellow fever, the mainstay of control is a combination of prevention (mostly with vector control, i.e. using bednets, indoor residual spraying and destruction of breeding habitats and larvae) and treatment (using a variety of medications). (malaria.com)
  • Home remedies to combat fever:- **Holy basil leaves are a beneficial remedy in the prevention of malaria . (lybrate.com)
  • Along with preventive medications for malaria, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends specific health precautions for visitors to Central America and Guatemala. (usatoday.com)
  • however, the CDC recommends that travelers who intend to visit rural areas discuss malaria precautions and prevention options with travel clinic staff or a personal physician. (usatoday.com)
  • Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. (tripprep.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there are 300 to 500 million cases of malaria each year. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Between 2016 and 2017 alone, the number of malaria cases in the nation jumped 70 percent. (iran-daily.com)
  • Apr 28, 2017 · Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause long-term health problems and death, especially in severe cases or if a patient does not commence doxycycline treatment soon after the first signs of illness. (yahoo.com)
  • In April this year, Zhou Yiqing and his team won the 2009 European Inventors of the Year award (in the non-European countries category) for developing the first artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for malaria, known as Coartem. (who.int)
  • When Terrie Taylor, a clinical malariologist in Malawi who is featured prominently in The Fever , told me a few years ago that Shah would visit her project, I googled Shah and discovered that her last book was an exposé of multinational drug testing in vulnerable populations, luridly titled The Body Hunters . (jci.org)
  • The clinical manifestations of dengue fever (DF) and malaria are similar. (ajtmh.org)
  • All the clinical features of malaria are caused by the erythrocytic schizogony in the blood. (malariasite.com)
  • What is the clinical presentation of Dengue fever? (brainscape.com)
  • What are the clinical manifestations of the FEBRILE PHASE of Dengue fever? (brainscape.com)
  • What are the clinical manifestations of the CRITICAL PHASE of Dengue fever? (brainscape.com)
  • After four successful Phase 3 clinical trials enrolling more than 3,500 patients in 18 countries, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has granted Pyramax® Granules, a pediatric malaria medicine, a positive opinion under Article 58-a mechanism through which the EMA reviews and issues a scientific opinion on products that are not intended for use in Europe. (ghtcoalition.org)
  • We review clinical and in vitro data suggesting that schizont rupture stimulates bursts of TNF production that mediate paroxysms of malaria fever, and that the fever could possibly be beneficial to the host. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Malaria is an interesting case study because the perceived benefits of overdiagnosis (few missed cases), and the potential harms of underdiagnosis (unpredictable progression to severe malaria and death) led to the promotion of substantial overdiagnosis and overtreatment for many years. (bmj.com)
  • However, it is important to get treatment for this type of malaria immediately, as it can lead to severe malaria if not treated properly. (tambopatareservetours.com)
  • But despite the near absence of jargon, Shah conveys many key concepts of malaria biology, epidemiology, immunology, entomology, treatment, and control with clarity and accuracy and with only an occasional minor stumble (she doesn't get the molecular basis of chloroquine resistance quite right but then neither do many malariologists). (jci.org)
  • In view of the growing threat of multidrug resistance and the need to use extreme measures, MDA can be considered as a component of malaria elimination efforts in the Greater Mekong subregion, in areas with good access to treatment, vector control and good surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • Mass screening and treatment (MSAT) refers to screening all people in a population with an appropriate malaria diagnostic test and providing treatment to those with a positive test result. (cdc.gov)
  • WHO states that mass treatment of fever cases with an ACT is appropriate as a strategy to reduce mortality once malaria has been established as the cause of the epidemic. (cdc.gov)
  • This strategy aims to get treatment to people with probable malaria cases as quickly as possible to cure illness, avert death, and help contain the epidemic. (cdc.gov)
  • 5. Holy basil leaves can be either chewed as it is or had in the form of a decoction, as it is very effective in the treatment of malaria. (hindustanlink.com)
  • Pyramax® Granules is a combination of two antimalarials and was developed by Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), a member of the GHTC, in partnership with Shin Poong Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. The treatment is designed to be easy for children to consume: its bitter taste is masked and it is taken in liquid form, as children often struggle to swallow pills. (ghtcoalition.org)
  • This re-sampling algorithm allows for the specification of several parameters, such that different operational variants of these reactive strategies can be examined, including varying the search radius, screening for fever, or presumptive treatment (fDA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • I think your daughter should visit with a hematologist who can visualize her red blood cells under the microscope and work with a pathologist and possibly an infectious disease specialist to make sure that she has received the optimal treatment and management for this malaria. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • I had my last treatment of malaria falciperum in april this year. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Worse, the approach to malaria treatment is radically different than how doctors treat dengue, as malaria is caused by tiny microorganisms, not a virus. (natureworldnews.com)
  • 2 3 4 Up until about 15 years ago, policy makers, including the World Health Organization, promoted a strategy known as "presumptive treatment of malaria" in areas where diagnostic testing (by light microscopy) was unavailable. (bmj.com)
  • In Uganda, around two thirds of people seek malaria treatment from retail drug stores, where testing is rarely done, 7 and this situation seems to be replicated in other African countries. (bmj.com)
  • A quick and simple First Aid guide on how to administer treatment for Fever. (medindia.net)
  • Early detection and adequate treatment at the right time can reduce deaths due to malaria. (medindia.net)
  • There has been excellent progress in the treatment of malaria. (tambopatareservetours.com)
  • If you get the condition and use the treatment, it is usually very simple and most malaria can be cured in about two weeks. (tambopatareservetours.com)
  • Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is defined by Mosby (2010) as a systemic inflammatory disease which is enabled development with inadequate treatment of upper respiratory tract infections of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. (bartleby.com)
  • The juice or grapefruit itself contains valuable and natural quinine, which is advantageous in the treatment of malaria, according to a study published in the Malaria Journal (Issue 2011). (organicfacts.net)
  • For example, in the 1800s, dammed water provided power for a growing manufacturing base in the northeast, and the proliferation of milldams led to recurring outbreaks of malarial fever in New York and Connecticut. (jci.org)
  • The main symptom indicating malarial fever is beginning of fever with a chill followed by heat, and its closure by excessive sweating . (lybrate.com)
  • This mixture can be consumed daily in the cold stages of malarial fever. (lybrate.com)
  • In The Fever , the journalist Sonia Shah sets out to answer these questions, delivering a timely, inquisitive chronicle of the illness and its influence on human lives. (google.com)
  • We should also not dismiss the fact that her current illness is possibly not related to her history of malaria. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Hi, As you are having constant low grade fever for many days tuberculosis has to be ruled out, consult your doctor and get yourself investigated for TB, with ESR , Total WBC count , DC, mountex test, sputum for AFB, as for as your head ache it may be non specific symptom due to chronic illness. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • By comparison, the viral dengue fever , which remains a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics, only kills up to five percent of treated victims. (natureworldnews.com)
  • Fever accounts for most of the hospital visits in children, since fever is a cardinal feature of any underlying illness. (medindia.net)
  • Dengue fever is a flu-like illness that can be fatal if not treated. (yahoo.com)
  • Popularly, the disease was known as "fever and ague," "chill fever," "the shakes," and by names expressive of the locality in which it was prevalent--such as, "swamp fever" (in Louisiana), "Panama fever," and "Chagres fever. (google.com)
  • Malaria is prevalent throughout tropical and sub tropical regions, and outbreaks of various intensities and length are common in many countries throughout these regions, so the 'danger zones' can often wax and wane. (bemusedbackpacker.com)
  • We have investigated the influence of exposure-related factors and placental malaria on the risk of non-malaria fevers among children in Kintampo, an area of Ghana with high malaria transmission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study provides further understanding of the epidemiology of NMF in a high malaria transmission area and provides basis of planning health interventions that target NMF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The diagnostic test should also show which type of malaria your father has (if indeed he has malaria), and this will also help to determine which is the most appropriate type of medication. (malaria.com)