A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.
A species of protozoan parasite causing MALARIA. It is the rarest of the four species of PLASMODIUM infecting humans, but is common in West African countries and neighboring areas.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Port-Vila. It was called New Hebrides until 1980. It was discovered in 1606 by the Portuguese, forgotten for 160 years, then visited by Bougainville in 1768 and Captain Cook in 1774. It was under joint British and French administration from 1906 until it became independent in 1980 under the name of Vanuatu. The name is native, meaning our land. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p833 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p570)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.
The status of health in rural populations.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea, bordered west and northwest by SUDAN, and south by ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Asmara.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.
Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Enlargement of the spleen.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
A protozoan parasite that causes avian malaria (MALARIA, AVIAN), primarily in chickens, and is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Size and composition of the family.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A protozoan parasite that occurs naturally in the macaque. It is similar to PLASMODIUM VIVAX and produces a type of malaria similar to vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species has been found to give rise to both natural and experimental human infections.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.

Sex determination in malaria parasites. (1/72)

A century ago, W. G. MacCallum identified distinct male and female forms in malaria parasites of both birds and humans. Since then, scientists have been puzzled by the high female-to-male ratios of parasites in Plasmodium infections and by the mechanism of sex determination. The sex ratio of malaria parasites was shown to become progressively more male as conditions that allow motility and subsequent fertilization by the male parasites become adverse. This resulted from an increased immune response against male gametes, which coincides with intense host erythropoietic activity. Natural and artificial induction of erythropoiesis in vertebrate hosts provoked a shift toward male parasite production. This change in parasite sex ratio led to reduced reproductive success in the parasite, which suggests that sex determination is adaptive and is regulated by the hematologic state of the host.  (+info)

Chitinases of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, a class of enzymes necessary for parasite invasion of the mosquito midgut. (2/72)

The Plasmodium ookinete produces chitinolytic activity that allows the parasite to penetrate the chitin-containing peritrophic matrix surrounding the blood meal in the mosquito midgut. Since the peritrophic matrix is a physical barrier that the parasite must cross to invade the mosquito, and the presence of allosamidin, a chitinase inhibitor, in a blood meal prevents the parasite from invading the midgut epithelium, chitinases ( are potential targets of malaria parasite transmission-blocking interventions. We have purified a chitinase of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum and cloned the gene, PgCHT1, encoding it. PgCHT1 encodes catalytic and substrate-binding sites characteristic of family 18 glycohydrolases. Expressed in Escherichia coli strain AD494 (DE3), recombinant PgCHT1 was found to hydrolyze polymeric chitin, native chitin oligosaccharides, and 4-methylumbelliferone derivatives of chitin oligosaccharides. Allosamidin inhibited recombinant PgCHT1 with an IC(50) of 7 microM and differentially inhibited two chromatographically separable P. gallinaceum ookinete-produced chitinase activities with IC(50) values of 7 and 12 microM, respectively. These two chitinase activities also had different pH activity profiles. These data suggest that the P. gallinaceum ookinete uses products of more than one chitinase gene to initiate mosquito midgut invasion.  (+info)

Malaria parasite development in a Drosophila model. (3/72)

Malaria is a devastating public health menace, killing over one million people every year and infecting about half a billion. Here it is shown that the protozoan Plasmodium gallinaceum, a close relative of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, can develop in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Plasmodium gallinaceum ookinetes injected into the fly developed into sporozoites infectious to the vertebrate host with similar kinetics as seen in the mosquito host Aedes aegypti. In the fly, a component of the insect's innate immune system, the macrophage, can destroy Plasmodia. These experiments suggest that Drosophila can be used as a surrogate mosquito for defining the genetic pathways involved in both vector competence and part of the parasite sexual cycle.  (+info)

Host specificity in avian blood parasites: a study of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus mitochondrial DNA amplified from birds. (4/72)

A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of avian malaria (genera Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) was amplified from blood samples of 12 species of passerine birds from the genera Acrocephalus, Phylloscopus and Parus. By sequencing 478 nucleotides of the obtained fragments, we found 17 different mitochondrial haplotypes of Haemoproteus or Plasmodium among the 12 bird species investigated. Only one out of the 17 haplotypes was found in more than one host species, this exception being a haplotype detected in both blue tits (Parus caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major). The phylogenetic tree which was constructed grouped the sequences into two clades, most probably representing Haemoproteus and Plasmodium, respectively. We found two to four different parasite mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes in four bird species. The phylogenetic tree obtained from the mtDNA of the parasites matched the phylogenetic tree of the bird hosts poorly. For example, the two tit species and the willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) carried parasites differing by only 0.6% sequence divergence, suggesting that Haemoproteus shift both between species within the same genus and also between species in different families. Hence, host shifts seem to have occurred repeatedly in this parasite host system. We discuss this in terms of the possible evolutionary consequences for these bird species.  (+info)

Identification of novel Plasmodium gallinaceum zygote- and ookinete-expressed proteins as targets for blocking malaria transmission. (5/72)

The development of transmission-blocking vaccines is one approach to malaria control. To identify novel Plasmodium zygote- and ookinete-secreted proteins as targets of blocking malaria transmission, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against parasite-secreted proteins found in Plasmodium gallinaceum ookinete culture supernatants. Four MAbs-1A6, 2A5, 2B5, and 4B6-were identified that bound to P. gallinaceum zygotes and ookinetes in diverse patterns in terms of spatial localization on parasites, time course of antigen expression, and Western immunoblot patterns. MAbs 2A5 and 4B6 recognized more than one protein band as detected by Western immunoblot of P. gallinaceum ookinete supernatants. Beginning at 0 h postfertilization, MAb 2A5 recognized a diverse set of antigens; at 10 h postfertilization, MAb 4B6 recognized several antigens as well. MAb 1A6 recognized a single approximately 17-kDa protein, and 2B5 recognized a single approximately 32-kDa protein at 15 h postfertilization. In membrane feeding assays to assess the effect of these MAbs on P. gallinaceum infectivity for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the addition of MAbs 1A6 and 2B5 to infectious blood meals significantly inhibited oocyst development in the mosquito midgut. In contrast, MAb 2A5 seemed to enhance infectivity. These results demonstrate that Plasmodium ookinetes secrete proteins (in addition to previously characterized chitinases) that may be targets for blocking malaria transmission. Future investigation of ookinete-secreted neutralization-sensitive molecules should provide valuable insight into mechanisms by which ookinetes exit the blood meal, penetrate and transverse the peritrophic matrix, and invade the mosquito midgut epithelium.  (+info)

Two functionally distinct organic osmolyte pathways in Plasmodium gallinaceum-infected chicken red blood cells. (6/72)

Red cells infected with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have an increased permeability to a range of small, structurally unrelated solutes via a malaria-induced pathway. We report here a similar pathway present in parasitised red cells from chickens infected with the avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium gallinaceum. Parasitised cells showed a marked increase in the rate of influx of sorbitol (76-fold) and, to a lesser degree, taurine (3-fold) when compared with red cells from uninfected chickens. Pharmacological data suggest that both sorbitol and taurine are transported via a single malaria-induced pathway, which is sensitive to inhibition by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (IC(50) approximately 7 microM). The malaria-induced pathway differed in its inhibition by a range of anion channel inhibitors when compared to the endogenous, volume-activated osmolyte pathway of chicken red cells. There were also differences in the selectivity of sorbitol and taurine by the two permeation routes. The data presented here are consistent with the presence of two distinct organic solute pathways in infected chicken red cells. The first is an endogenous volume-activated pathway, which is not activated by the parasite and the second is a malaria-induced pathway, similar to those that are induced by other types of malaria in other host species.  (+info)

Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites. (7/72)

The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management.  (+info)

Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system. (8/72)

The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidae) represent a superb illustration of evolutionary radiation, with a single colonization event giving rise to 19 extant and at least 10 extinct species [Curnutt, J. & Pimm, S. (2001) Stud. Avian Biol. 22, 15-30]. They also represent a dramatic example of anthropogenic extinction. Crop and pasture land has replaced their forest habitat, and human introductions of predators and diseases, particularly of mosquitoes and avian malaria, has eliminated them from the remaining low- and mid-elevation forests. Landscape analyses of three high-elevation forest refuges show that anthropogenic climate change is likely to combine with past land-use changes and biological invasions to drive several of the remaining species to extinction, especially on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii.  (+info)

Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world, and infect a wide diversity of bird species. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of high quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum. We identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalian Plasmodium species. Consistent with their phylogenetic position, we identify orthologs of genes that had previously appeared to be restricted to the clades of parasites containing P. falciparum and P. vivax - the species with the greatest impact on human health. The subtelomeres of P. relictum and P. gallinaceum contain several novel gene families, including an expanded surf multigene family. We also identify an expansion of reticulocyte binding protein homologs in P. relictum
Blood-sucking arthropods are necessary for the life-cycle of avian malaria parasites. They act as definitive hosts and vectors of avian malaria parasites and are thus responsible for the transmission. Identification of such vector arthropods is therefore essential to unravel the transmission cycles of vector borne diseases like avian malaria [26]. For many parasite species of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus or Leucocytozoon suitable arthropod vectors have already been identified [27]. Mosquitoes are the only known vectors for Plasmodium species.. To identify vectors of avian malaria on Madagascar, we examined 418 mosquitoes from at least 18 species individually using a part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Sequences found in the mosquitoes were compared to a large dataset of sequences isolated from 45 bird species (n = 686) of the same area. Twenty-one mosquitoes were found to contain DNA of avian Haemosporida.. We found Haemoproteus DNA in nine mosquitoes. Haemoproteus species ...
Avian malaria is a devastating disease that has decimated numerous bird species. This study sought to identify the vectors of avian malaria at four central Virginia Prothonotary warbler breeding sites. Twenty one thousand mosquitoes were collected and Culex salinarius, Cx. erraticus, and Cx. pipiens/restuans were found to be the dominant species at these sites. Geographic factors, such as crop land and forest type, were determined to be potential indicators for species abundance variation between sites. Of the mosquitoes collected, ninety one (0.4%) were identified as blood fed. The blood fed mosquitoes were found to have fed on avian, mammalian, amphibian, and reptilian hosts and a 12.1% Plasmodium infection rate. Of the non-blood fed mosquito pools tested, Deep Bottom had the highest rate of infection (10.5%). Of the species tested, Cx. salinarius, Cx. erraticus, and Cx. pipiens/restuans were determined to be the most probable vectors of avian malaria the four sites.
The native Hawaiian honeycreepers represent a classic example of adaptive radiation and speciation, but currently face one the highest extinction rates in the world. Although multiple factors have likely influenced the fate of Hawaiian birds, the relatively recent introduction of avian malaria is thought to be a major factor limiting honeycreeper distribution and abundance. We have initiated genetic analyses of class II β chain Mhc genes in four species of honeycreepers using methods that eliminate the possibility of sequencing mosaic variants formed by cloning heteroduplexed polymerase chain reaction products. Phylogenetic analyses group the honeycreeper Mhc sequences into two distinct clusters. Variation within one cluster is high, with dN , dS and levels of diversity similar to other studies of Mhc (B system) genes in birds. The second cluster is nearly invariant and includes sequences from honeycreepers (Fringillidae), a sparrow (Emberizidae) and a blackbird (Emberizidae). This highly ...
SOARES, CLEBER O et al. PARASITISMO DE LEUCOCITOS Y TROMBOCITOS DE Gallus gallus L. POR Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE). Parasitol. día [online]. 1999, vol.23, n.1-2, pp.44-47. ISSN 0716-0720. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-07201999000100008.. PARASITISM OF LEUKOCYTES AND THROMBOCYTES OF Gallus gallus L. BY Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE) A research about parasitism of the Plasmodium juxtanucleare in crossbred fowls from Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were done. Blood smear were done, and stained by Giemsa stain diluted in sorensen buffer pH6.8. The hemoscopical exam of fowls with high parasitaemia (,10%) showed trophozoite and meront forms in the cytoplasm of leukocytic cells; and trophozoite forms in the cytoplasm of the thrombocytic cells. These observation do conclude that P. juxtanucleare strain from Seropédica produce phanerozoic meronts. This report constitutes the first finding of P. juxtanucleare ...
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Beadell, J. S., Ishtiaq, F., Covas, R., Melo, M., Warren, B. H., Atkinson, C. T., Bensch, T., Graves, Gary R., Jhala, Yadvendradev, Peirce, M. A., Rahmani, A. R., Fonseca, Dina M., and Fleischer, Robert C. 2006. Global phylogeographic limits of Hawaiis avian malaria. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 273 (1604):2935-2944. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3671 ...
An invasive bird species is carrying, and potentially spreading, a high prevalence of avian malaria throughout its range in eastern Australia, a Griffith University PhD candidate has uncovered ...
Like other native forest birds, Alalā can get sick from avian malaria carried by mosquitoes, as well as from toxoplasmosis carried by feral cats and rats. Pox virus, transmitted by mosquitoes or through contact, can cause debilitating lesions.. Learn the basics about avian malaria in Hawaiʻi by clicking here. Also, heres a great article on avian malaria and its impact in Hawaiʻi. What is toxoplasmosis and how does it harm ʻAlalā? Click here to find out ...
Investigating associations between Mhc and parasite prevalence is a common means of studying genetically determined disease resistance in wild animals. Until recently, positive associations between Mhc alleles and parasite prevalence had been taken as evidence of susceptibility to disease, while the potential for quantitative resistance (immuno-alleles that reduce the development of infection) has been largely neglected (see [21]). In this study, we incorporated a detailed investigation of avian malaria infection and analysis of Mhc class I genes in a wild great tit population, to understand the role that Mhc genes play in determining host resistance and susceptibility to Plasmodium infections. We found that the presence of two Mhc supertypes (defined based on functional properties of the ABS) was significantly associated with the probability of host infection with two congeneric Plasmodium species, but in contrasting manners. The direction of the association for one Mhc supertype was indicative ...
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Nov 2;95(5):1121-1129. Overlap in the Seasonal Infection Patterns of Avian Malaria Parasites and West Nile Virus in Vectors and Hosts
We used, to our knowledge for the first time, continuous forest structural parameters to quantify habitat structure, and found significant effects of habitat structure on parasite prevalence that previously have been undetected. We found three times higher prevalence for blackcaps compared with chaffinches. Parasite intensity varied significantly within host species depending on forest type, being lowest in beech forests for both host species. Structurally complex habitats with a high degree of entropy had a positive effect on the likelihood of acquiring an infection, but the effect on prevalence was negative for forest sections with a south facing aspect. For blackcaps, forest gaps also had a positive effect on prevalence, but canopy height had a negative one. Our results suggest that forest types and variations in forest structure influence the likelihood of acquiring an infection, which subsequently has an influence on host health status and body condition; however, responses to some ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The effect of therapy with immune serum has been studied in thirty-two cases of Plasmodium circumflexum infection, all of them produced by blood inoculation. Eighteen of these cases never showed parasites, and seven others developed infections which were definitely milder than those of the controls. The therapeutic serum was in all cases obtained from chronic cases which had previously been superinfected to raise the immune titre. It seems justifiable to conclude that: 1. Passive immunity can be conferred in avian malaria, at least when caused by Plasmodium circumflexum just as it can be in certain types of monkey malaria, and perhaps in human malaria as well. 2. Whatever the nature of the protective substances present in the serum of chronic cases may be, they are present in very low concentration. Their concentration can be raised by superinfection, however. These substances may be strain-specific or species-specific, but the results of these experiments do not give any clear-cut answer to ...
Using one of the largest DNA data sets for a group of birds and employing next-generation sequencing methods, Smithsonian scientists and collaborators have determined the evolutionary family tree for one of the most strikingly diverse and endangered bird families in the world, the Hawaiian honeycreepers. Not only have the researchers determined the types of finches that the
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Gametocyte infectivity and oocyst development of the avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium gallinaceum, can be reduced or eliminated in mosquitoes by immunizing the chickens on which the mosquitoes feed with infected red blood cells that have been treated with formalin or x-rays. Protection of the mosquito appears to be related to the immobilization of the microgametes in its gut and is associated with the immunoglobulin G fraction of serum.. ...
A cytostome (from cyto-, cell and stome-, mouth) or cell mouth is a part of a cell specialized for phagocytosis, usually in the form of a microtubule-supported funnel or groove. Food is directed into the cytostome, and sealed into vacuoles. Only certain groups of protozoa, such as the ciliates and excavates, have cytostomes. An example is Balantidium coli, a ciliate. In other protozoa, and in cells from multicellular organisms, phagocytosis takes place at any point on the cell or feeding takes place by absorption. The cytostome forms an invagination on the cell surface and is typically directed towards the nucleus of the cell. The cytostome is often labeled as the entire invagination, but in fact the cytostome only constitutes the opening of the invagination at the surface of the cell. The rest of the invagination is classified as the cytopharynx. The cytopharynx works in conjunction with the cytostome in order to import macromolecules into the cell. This strong association between the cytostome ...
Avian malaria parasites are a highly diverse group that commonly infect birds and have deleterious effects on their hosts. Some parasite lineages are geographically widespread and infect many host species in many regions. Bird migration, natural dispersal, invasive species and human-mediated introductions into areas where competent insect vectors are present, are probably the main drivers of the current distribution of avian malaria parasites. A total of 412 and 2588 wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were captured in 2012 and 2013 in two areas of the Iberian Peninsula (central and southern Spain, respectively). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples; parasite lineages were sequenced and identified by comparing with GenBank and/or MalAvi databases. Thirteen Plasmodium lineages were identified in house sparrows corresponding to three major clades. Five individuals were infected by the African Plasmodium lineage PAGRI02, which has been proposed to actively circulate only in Africa. Despite the
The malaria parasite invades the midgut tissue of its mosquito host as a motile form called the ookinete. We have examined the pellicle of the ookinete of Plasmodium gallinaceum by freezefracture and quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy. The general organization is analogous to that of invasive stages of other members of Apicomplexa. The pellicle is composed of three membranes: the plasma membrane, and the two linked intermediate and inner membranes, which in the ookinete form one flattened vacuole that is located beneath the plasma membrane. The edges of this vacuole form a longitudinal suture. Beneath the vacuole is found an array of microtubules that are connected to the inner membrane by intramembranous particles. During freezefracture, the membranes can split along their hydrophobic planes, thus yielding six fracture faces, each of which displays a characteristic pattern of intramembranous particles. Additionally, we find that the ookinete pellicle differs from all other apicomplexan ...
Coquillettidia is a mosquito genus erected by entomologist Harrison Gray Dyar, Jr. in 1904 based primarily on unique features of its peculiar male genitalia. The specific epithet honors Dyars colleague Daniel William Coquillett. The genus comprises three subgenera, Austromansonia, Coquillettidia, and Rhynochotaenia, and 57 species, of which Coquillettidia perturbans is perhaps the best known. Not all species have been well documented, but females of some are known to feed primarily on birds but will also bite cattle. The females bite primarily at night, and are most active during the early part of the night. They occasionally attack humans during daylight hours in shady places when their habitat is entered. Adult females lay their eggs on the surface of water in areas of emergent vegetation to which hatchling larvae attach themselves with a modified siphon, on the roots or submerged stems, and where they remain throughout development; pupae also attach themselves the plants by means of a ...
Parasites are thought to adversely affect the physical performance of their hosts [1] and to be key factors in shaping life history, with effects cascading to communities and ecosystems [2]. Haemosporidian parasites, the causative agents of malaria in the broader sense, commonly occur in temperate and tropical regions and infect a variety of host species including humans, other mammals, reptiles and birds. Depending on lineage and host species, the parasites invade their hosts inner organs and, particularly, red blood cells [3]. The infection follows a typical pattern with an acute (symptomatic) phase with high levels of parasites in the blood (parasitaemia) followed by a chronic phase with low (or zero) parasitaemia [3]. Malaria in wildlife is often a mild disease, but can have severe consequences, particularly when encountered in new environments by immunologically naive hosts [4]. Acute infections (with high parasitaemia) can result in substantial declines in red blood cell content [5] owing ...
Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria, Woodworth, B. L., Atkinson C. T., LaPointe D. A., Hart P. J., Spiegel C. S., Tweed E. J., Henneman C., LeBrun Jaymi J., Denette T., DeMots R., et al. , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 02/2005, Volume 102, p.1531 - 1536, (2005) ...
abstract = {During the development of Plasmodium sp. within the mosquito midgut, the parasite undergoes a series of developmental changes. The elongated ookinete migrates through the layers of the midgut where it forms the oocyst under the basal lamina. We demonstrate here that if Aedes aegypti or Anopheles gambiae, normally susceptible to Plasmodium gallinaceum and P. berghei, respectively, are immune activated by the injection of bacteria into the hemocoel, and subsequently are fed on an infectious bloodmeal, there is a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of infection of oocysts on the midgut. Only those mosquitoes immune activated prior to, or immediately after, parasite ingestion exhibit this reduction in parasite development. Mosquitoes immune activated 2-5 days after bloodfeeding show no differences in parasite burdens compared with naive controls. Northern analyses reveal that transcriptional activity for mosquito defensins is not detected in the whole bodies of Ae. ...
Based on the well-known k-mer model, we propose a k-mer natural vector model for representing a genetic sequence based on the numbers and distributions of k-mers in the sequence. We show that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between a genetic sequence and its associated k-mer natural vector. The k-mer natural vector method can be easily and quickly used to perform phylogenetic analysis of genetic sequences without requiring evolutionary models or human intervention. Whole or partial genomes can be handled more effective with our proposed method. It is applied to the phylogenetic analysis of genetic sequences, and the obtaining results fully demonstrate that the k-mer natural vector method is a very powerful tool for analysing and annotating genetic sequences and determining evolutionary relationships both in terms of accuracy and efficiency ...
HONOLULU) - To protect Hawaiʻis unique, imperiled native birds, researchers from the University of Hawaiʻi are teaming up with the DLNR Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to adapt a birth control method used across the U.S. mainland to control mosquitoes. Mosquitos are a nuisance and a hazard both to people and to Hawaiis native birds, which are in danger of extinction from decades of habitat loss, predation and diseases like avian malaria and avian pox.. Scientists from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa and at the University of Hawaii at Hilo are taking the first steps to adapt a safe, targeted, and efficient mosquito control method known as Incompatible Insect Technique to reduce the population of the disease-carrying mosquitoes that harm native birds in Hawaiʻi. Incompatible Insect Technique acts like a birth control method for mosquitoes and it has already been adopted and proven successful around the country and the world to protect ...
Advances in parasitology / Ben Dawes. - London : Academic, 1963. - 29 v. ; 25 cm. - Volume 1 : Experimental research on avian malaria / Clay G. Huff ; Coccidia and coccidiosis in the domestic fowl and turkey / C. Horton Smith, P. L. Long ; The infective stage of nematode parasites and its significance in parasitism / W. P. Rogers, R. I ...
Whirlpool Refrigerator Water Valve - Replaces:61001884, 61001019, 69364-1, 894425, ap4071381, ps2060635 - Fits Models: ATF1836ARB,ATF1836ARQ,ATF1836ARS,ATF1836ARW,ATF2136ARB,ATF2136ARQ,ATF2136ARS,ATF2136ARW,ATF2138AEB,ATF2138AEQ,ATF2138AES,ATF2138AEW,CT19B6FQ,CT19B6FW,CT19F6FQ,CT19F6FW,CT19G6FQ,CT19G6FW,CT21B6FQ,CT21B6FW,CTF1722ARA,CTF1722ARW,CTF1722GRQ,CTF1722GRW,CTF1826ARB,CTF1826ARQ,CTF1826ARU,CTF1826ARW,CTF1921ARA,CTF1921ARW,CTF1922ARQ,CTF1922ARW,CTF1922GRQ,CTF1922GRW,CTF1925GRQ,CTF1925GRW,CTF2125GRQ,CTF2125GRW,CTF2126ARB,CTF2126ARQ,CTF2126ARU,CTF2126ARW,LTF1812ARB,LTF1812ARW,LTF1812ARZ,LTF2112ARB,LTF2112ARW,LTF2112ARZ,MTF1893ARB,MTF1893ARQ,MTF1893ARS,MTF1893ARW,MTF1895AEB,MTF1895AEQ,MTF1895AES,MTF1895AEW,MTF1896AEB,MTF1896AEQ,MTF1896AES,MTF1896AEW,MTF1943ARA,MTF1943ARW,MTF1955DRA,MTF1955DRW,MTF1955ERQ,MTF1955ERW,MTF1955GRQ,MTF1955GRW,MTF1956GEB,MTF1956GEQ,MTF1956GEW,MTF1972HRB,MTF1972HRQ,MTF1972HRW,MTF1976HRB,MTF1976HRQ,MTF1976HRW,MTF2155ERQ,MTF2155ERW,MTF2155GRQ,MTF2155GRW,MTF2156GEB,MTF2156GEQ
Life Cycle: Chromidina spp. have a polymorphic dixenous life cycle, with two different budding processes which are monotomy and palintomy. The adult stage, the vermiform tropho-tomont, has a maximum body length varying from 400 µm to 2,000 µm. Some rare adult stages can have an accelerated growth process. Their size increases so quickly that their length can measure up to 5,000 µm. Given their unusual extended size, these adult stages are called hypertrophonts. The tropho-tomont is uniformly ciliated and has no cytostome. It is attached through its anterior end to the host kidney tissues with its body bathing in the renal fluids, and feeds by nutriment absorption from host cells and fluids. Division by monotomy produces a single long bud from the posterior end, the apotomite, which is morphologically similar to its parent and develops into a second generation of trophotomonts after detachment and colonisation of the host kidney. Division by palintomy produces smaller buds that form a typical ...
Response of An. stephensi selected for susceptibility to P. gallinaceum based on mean oocyst load.The cumulative response to selection is regressed on the cumul
Author Summary Mosquito-borne diseases cause tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide. New approaches to control vector-borne diseases include interruption of the association between pathogens and vectors by genetic manipulation of vectors and the development of transmission-blocking vaccines. Potential success of these approaches requires in-depth knowledge of the molecular interactions between vector defense mechanisms and the ability of a pathogen to overcome these defenses. A combination of the genome-wide microarray and transgenic approaches has permitted us to decipher repertoires of genes controlled by two major immune pathways, Toll and IMD, in the Dengue-fever mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. We have shown that these pathways interact to bring about a high level of immune genes by means of generating a transgenic strain, which ectopically expresses the NF-κB factors of TOLL and IMD. In Ae. aegypti, a malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum elicited the transcription of a distinct subset of
Summary Aedes aegypti females were fed through a membrane on Plasmodium gallinaceum-infected red blood cells suspended in whole chicken serum, serum fractions, or saline solution. The relative effect of the ingested host proteins on the development of the parasites in the mosquitoes was determined by counting the oöcysts on the guts of the mosquitoes after a 6-day incubation period. The relative effectiveness of the test materials was as follows. A protein containing both globulin and albumin fractions was about equal to whole serum. Chick serum albumin, fraction V, was inferior to whole serum, but superior to saline solution. A protein fraction containing the globulin but not albumin was comparable to saline solution. The results of these experiments suggest that albumin may be the most important single component of vertebrate blood serum that supports growth of the oöcysts of malaria parasites in susceptible mosquitoes. However, for maximum growth the total protein of the serum must be present.
Overview:. Both wildlife and human health in Hawaii and other island ecosystems in the Pacific Basin face continued threats from introductions of diseases and vectors. Accidental introduction of mosquito-borne avian malaria and pox virus to Hawaii is an outstanding example of how biological invasions can have a profound effect on endemic wildlife. The geographic distribution, density, and community structure of endemic Hawaiian avifauna has changed dramatically in the last century, in large part because of the spread of these diseases and their introduced mosquito vector. More recently, the spread of chikungunya virus in the Caribbean and western Pacific and west nile virus on the mainland U.S. place the Hawaiian Islands at high risk for introduction of new human diseases. USGS scientists have collected and analyzed large spatial and temporal datasets on the prevalence and incidence of avian malaria and pox virus in forest bird populations in the Hawaiian Archipelago and American Samoa, the ...
Diversity, Prevalence, and Host Specificity of Avian Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in a Western Amazon Assemblage. Abstract: We used PCR and DNA sequencing to screen for haemosporidian parasites (Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) in 2,488 individual birds from 104 species and 22 families, primarily understory suboscine passerines, captured in a lowland Amazonian forest in Ecuador as a first major step to understanding the transmission dynamics of this cosmopolitan group of parasites in this region.
The birds Columbidae livia (Pigeons) were screened for malaria parasite by microbiological technique using Giemsa Staining Technique. The slides we examined for the presence of plasmodium parasite (Parasitaemia Value). Results indicated the presence of malaria parasites namely Haemoproteus columbae in three Columbidae livia (Pigeons) with a frequency of 50%. The parasitaemia value is 100-1000 cells per microscopic field. Chloroquine at 2.2mglml concentration was found to be efficacious upon the infected pigeons. The finding therefore signaled the presence of Haemoproteus columbae; a fearful malaria parasite in pigeons that needs serious attention. The need to elucidate the molecular virulence and virulence nature of the parasite is high.ano, ...
Abstract Because salivary function and blood location are impaired in sporozoite-infected mosquitoes, we determined whether such pathology also could lead to an increased biting rate. For 5 days, we compared relative daily biting rates of Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoite-infected mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) and noninfected mosquitoes with an olfactometer. Mosquitoes then were exposed for 5 min to an anesthetized guinea pig. Infected mosquitoes exhibited a significant increase in olfactometer response which was also reflected in a decreased egg output. We conclude that if duration of contact with a host is limited, then infected mosquitoes may make more attempts at probing before being successful, and thus enhance transmission.
Unfortunately, said study co-author, USGS scientist Dr. Dennis LaPointe, this seasonal movement happens at the same time that mosquito populations soar at mid-elevations, which fuels high disease-transmission rates there. Theres a continuous source of disease-susceptible birds each fall.. Although most disease transmission now occurs in these mid-elevation forests, this will change if the projected 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Centigrade) raise in temperature occurs.. With this kind of temperature change, about 60 to 96 percent of the high-elevation disease refuges would disappear, said Atkinson. For example, available high-elevation forest habitat in the low-risk disease zone would likely decline by nearly 60 percent at Hanawi Natural Area Reserve on Maui to as much as 96 percent at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge on Hawaii Island. On other islands, such as Kauai, with lower elevations and no low-risk zones even now, predicted temperature changes would likely be catastrophic ...
Body elongate, extensible and contractile with a distinct tail; cytosome located at the anterior end surrounded by a ridge; both cytostome and cytopharynx with trichocysts; macronucleus four in number and arranged radially; six compact micronuclei; contractile vacuoles several and arranged in a row ...
Efficient and accurate protein secretion is a fundamental process that plays a pivotal role in the ability of al eukaryotic cells to function, grw and communica...
The present study was carried out to know the status of haemoprotozoan infection of domestic pigeon in Assam by microscopic examination of blood of pigeons for a period of one year which revealed an overall prevalence of 53.39%. Three species viz. Haemoproteus columbae (29.93%), Plasmodium relictum (21.29%) and Leucocytozoon sp. (2.16%) were identified either in single or mixed infection. According to age, highest prevalence was recorded in adult (61.81%) and lowest in squab (36.25%). Comparatively, infection was recorded higher in females (58.22%) than males (48.79%). Season wise, infection was recorded highest during Pre-monsoon (72.22%) and lowest during Post-monsoon. Amplification of cyt b gene of Haemoproteus columbae in positive samples by PCR showed clear band at 207 bp. Amplification of mt- cyt b gene of Haemoproteus spp. and Plasmodium spp. by PCR on positive samples revealed clear band at 525 bp.
BACKGROUND: Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) species (Haemoproteidae) are widespread blood parasites that can cause disease in birds, but information about their vector species, sporogonic development and transmission remain fragmentary. This study aimed to investigate the complete sporogonic development of four Haemoproteus species in Culicoides nubeculosus and to test if phylogenies based on the cytochrome b gene (cytb) reflect patterns of ookinete development in haemosporidian parasites. Additionally, one cytb lineage of Haemoproteus was identified to the species level and the in vitro gametogenesis and ookinete development of Haemoproteus hirundinis was characterised. METHODS: Laboratory-reared C. nubeculosus were exposed by allowing them to take blood meals on naturally infected birds harbouring single infections of Haemoproteus belopolskyi (cytb lineage hHIICT1), Haemoproteus hirundinis (hDELURB2), Haemoproteus nucleocondensus (hGRW01) and Haemoproteus lanii (hRB1). Infected insects were ...
101 - 1,000 = High, 1,001 - 10,000 = Very High, ,10,000 = Extreme.. 25/4/2001: Numbers have declined dramatically and were low from all but Heatherbrae, which had medium (97) numbers with 84 Culex australicus. 18/4/2001: Gan Gan had a medium collection of 84 mosquitoes, with 42 Coquillettidia variegata. Saltash had the highest number this week, with a high collection of 603 and 298 were Culex annulirostris. Medowie yielded medium numbers (52), with 25 Culex annulirostris. Karuah also collected medium (69) numbers, with 39 Aedes vigilax. Heatherbrae yielded a high collection (155), with 68 Culex annulirostris. 10/4/2001: Numbers are down upon the previous week but still high from all sites. Gan Gan trapped 165 mosquitoes, with 44 Coquillettidia linealis. Saltash yielded 169, with 78 Aedes vigilax. Medowie collected 148, with 77 Aedes procax. Karuah trapped 182 mosquitoes, with 117 Aedes vigilax. Heatherbrae trapped 921, with 402 Culex annulirostris. 3/4/2001: Numbers ...
This is a family of Red-legged Honeycreepers. The male is blue, the female is green and the young are born green and then change if they are males. The third picture is a baby begining to change feathers. ...
Trichostomatida (subphylum Ciliophora, class Ciliatea) An order of ciliate protozoa that are characterized by the structure of the cytostome region, where there is a ciliated depression leading into a
Malaria must be considered in any person who has traveled to the tropics and presents with an unexplained febrile illness. Five species of the protozoan Plasmodium infect humans: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi. The organism is transmitted by the anopheline mosquito bite and travels hematogenously first to the liver, where asexual reproduction occurs (exoerythrocytic stage). The liver cell ruptures, releasing merozoites that invade erythrocytes, multiply, and cause hemolysis (erythrocytic stage). Malaria also may be transmitted by blood transfusion or passed transplacentally from mother to fetus. ...
Phagocytosis (literally, cell eating) is a form of endocytosis where large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or food vacuole. ... Microtubules are protein structures found within cells. ... Vacuoles are large membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells where they serve a variety of different functions: capturing food materials or unwanted structural debris surrounding the cell, sequestering materials that might be toxic to the cell, maintaining fluid balance (called turgor) within the cell, exporting unwanted substances from the... Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled creatures with nuclei that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Classes & Subclasses Class Karyorelictea Class Heterotrichea (e. ... This article is about the protist group called excavates. ... ...
The Apicomplexan order Haemosporina Danilewsky, 1885 contains a range of blood parasites including Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus which are common in avian hosts and Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria in mammals including humans, birds and lizards worldwide. According to various authors the order is composed of either only one family Plasmodiidae, or is split into four families. In the latter system the three closely related families are represented by Haemoproteidae (containing genus Haemoproteus), Garniidae (containing genus Fallisia), and Plasmodiidae (composed of 8 genera). The last single-generic family Leucocytozoidae is more distantly related to the above-mentioned groups.. The term malaria parasite is quite often used in current literature, however, it is not well defined. One suggestion (Valkiunas 2005) is that malaria parasite be restricted to species with asexual replication in the vertebrate blood (it means only to Plasmodium). However, common names should have ...
A Booby bird takes a rest on board the Greenpeace ship, Esperanza. 22 Nov, 2007. In 2004, the Poouli or black-faced honeycreeper disappeared from Maui, the last member of its genus Melamprosops. Hawaii also recently lost two species of Nukupuu honeycreepers, the Oahu alauahio, and the Maui akepa. We have bid farewell in recent decades to Australias masked owl, the Grand Cayman oriole, New Providence yellowthroat, Gonave Island chat-tanager, Santa Barbara song sparrow, and Floridas Dusky seaside sparrow. Gone forever.. Ornithologists face a challenge to know if a species is technically extinct, since it is difficult to confirm that no breeding pairs exist. Some species, known to exist in remnants, appear functionally extinct, including the Giant Ibis with less than 100 breeding pairs. Birds require specific habitats and diets, are vulnerable to domestic cats and other introduced predators, and serve as a fragile indicator for Earths general ecological health.. Global challenge A 2005 ...
Kauais honeycreepers are losing their last refuges from mosquito-borne diseases that are spreading due to climate change. Some could become extinct within a decade.
Parasites come in every which size and color. Some are opaque, sort of whitish but translucent, some are red, some are more yellowish to almost gold, and a few are brilliant shades of blue, everything from dark blue to lapis lazuli. They also come in all sorts of shapes and sizes, from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Some have appendages that seem to help them to navigate. Many are partnered, in which case the male is usually smaller and often differently shaped on the ends.
I also had found this weird snake like looking parasite. Its made of blood tissue and looked like it had eyes. https://www.curezone.org/ig/i.asp?i=110529
  • Avian malaria is a common disease in songbirds, caused by protozoa in the genera Plasmodium , Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon . (bioone.org)
  • Of these genera, species within the Leucocytozoon, Parahaemorptoeus, and Plasmodium genera have been found to infect avian species [3] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Avian malaria is an insect-borne disease induced by a so far unknown number of protozoan blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus (hematozoa) ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We tested the ability of laser capture microdissection microscopy to isolate parasite cells from individual avian erythrocytes for four avian Plasmodium species, and subsequently applied whole genome amplification and Illumina sequencing methods to Plasmodium relictum (lineage pSGS1) to produce sequence reads of the P. relictum genome. (springer.com)
  • Carlson JS, Giannitti F, Valkiūnas G, Tell LA, Snipes J, Wright S, Cornel AJ (2016) A method to preserve low parasitaemia Plasmodium -infected avian blood for host and vector infectivity assays. (springer.com)
  • We determined prevalence and altitudinal distribution of introduced avian malarial infections ( Plasmodium relictum ) and pox-like lesions ( Avipoxvirus ) in forest birds from Kīpahulu Valley, Haleakalā National Park, on the island of Maui, and we identified primary larval habitat for the mosquito vector of this disease. (bioone.org)
  • We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds ( Plasmodium and Haemoproteus ) over their history of parasite-host relations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • in the decline of endemic Hawaiian birds, few studies have been conducted on the dynamics of this disease, its impact on free‐living avian populations, or its interactions with avian malaria ( Plasmodium relictum ). (usgs.gov)
  • We propose a unified database of avian blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon identified by a partial region of their cytochrome b sequences. (lu.se)
  • Here we report the sequencing and analysis of high quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalian Plasmodium species and using amino acid divergence between species, we estimate the avian and mammalian-infective lineages diverged in the order of 10 million years ago. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Avian malaria is a parasitic disease of birds, caused by parasite species belonging to the genera Plasmodium and Hemoproteus (phylum Apicomplexa, class Haemosporidia, family Plasmoiidae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian malaria is most notably caused by Plasmodium relictum, a protist that infects birds in all parts of the world apart from Antarctica. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the anti-Plasmodium antibody levels of penguins to avian malaria on entry into the SANCCOB facility from 2001 to 2004 and during their rehabilitation process. (sun.ac.za)
  • Mortalities did not depend on the birds' abilities to produce an anti-Plasmodium antibody response and oiling had no influence on immunity or prevalence of avian malaria infections. (sun.ac.za)
  • Avian malaria prevalence and mortality are not influenced by oiling or anti-Plasmodium antibody responses. (sun.ac.za)
  • De novo synthesis of thiamine (vitamin B1) is the ancestral state in Plasmodium parasites - evidence from avian haemosporidians. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of parasites, of the genus Plasmodium, which infects birds. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Malaria infection in mosquitoes is traditionally detected by microscopic examination for Plasmodium oocysts and sporozoites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to confirm sporogony of avian Plasmodium spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that C. p. pallens and C. inatomii are natural vectors of four and three lineages of avian Plasmodium spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. (altmetric.com)
  • We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Spinus spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to measure the avian transcriptome in blood collected before infection (day 0), during peak parasitemia (day 21 post infection), and when parasitemia was decreasing (day 31). (lu.se)
  • The glutamate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium lophurae (avian malaria). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Abstract The agent of avian malaria, Plasmodium lophurae , contains an NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase (EC which is capable of oxidizing glutamate to α-ketoglutarate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase from the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi: partial purification and characterization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The accumulation of amino acids by Plasmodium lophurae (avian malaria). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Incorporation of 14C-amino-acids by malaria (Plasmodium lophurae) IV. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Plasmodium knowlesi (monkey malaria). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Pigment (hemozoin) and Proteins of the Avian Malaria Parasite Plasmodium lophurae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we report the sequencing and analysis of high-quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum We identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The blood fed mosquitoes were found to have fed on avian, mammalian, amphibian, and reptilian hosts and a 12.1% Plasmodium infection rate. (vcu.edu)
  • Organisms that belong to the genus Plasmodium are obligate eukaryotic parasites, best known as the etiological agent of human malaria. (tolweb.org)
  • Organisms of the genus Plasmodium are defined as distinct from other Apicomplexa, and other organisms sometimes considered malaria parasites (Peréz-Tris et al. (tolweb.org)
  • Bensch S, Stjernman M, Hasselquist D, Östman Ö, Hansson B, Westerdahl H, Pinheiro RT (2000) Host specificity in avian blood parasites: a study of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus mitochondrial DNA amplified from birds. (springer.com)
  • Here, the competence of two mosquito species ( Culex pipiens and Aedes ( Ochlerotatus ) caspius ), for the transmission of four avian Plasmodium lineages naturally infecting wild house sparrows was assessed as well as the effects of parasite identity and parasite load on Plasmodium transmission risk through its effects on the transmission rate and mosquito survival. (csic.es)
  • These results confirm the existence of inter- and intra-specific differences in the ability of Plasmodium lineages to develop in mosquito species and their effects on the survival of mosquitoes that result in important differences in the transmission risk of the different avian malaria parasite lineages studied. (csic.es)
  • Avian Plasmodium and malaria-like parasites of the genus Haemoproteus are widespread vector-borne parasites commonly found infecting birds. (csic.es)
  • Avian malaria parasites ( Plasmodium ) are thought to alter the cues such as host odour, used by host-seeking mosquitoes. (csic.es)
  • These results support the host manipulation hypothesis since avian Plasmodium parasites may be capable of altering their host's body odour, thereby making infected individuals more attractive to mosquitoes. (csic.es)
  • Avian Malaria ( Plasmodium spp. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • While under care, these birds may develop avian malaria, a mosquito-transmitted disease caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium . (usp.br)
  • 2. Any of various protozoans of the genus Plasmodium, which includes the parasites that cause malaria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The evolutionary history of human malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium ) has long been a subject of speculation and controversy. (cambridge.org)
  • Presence and diversity of mixed avian Plasmodium spp. (nih.gov)
  • In the late 1800s, avian pox is reported for the first time on Hawaii by naturalists who noticed tumor-like growths, a sign of avian pox, on dead birds in the forests [6] . (kenyon.edu)
  • The spread of both avian malaria and avian pox were thought to be compounded by the introduction of nonnative passerines by bird clubs who would bring non-native birds, and their diseases, from all corners of the world to Hawaii [9] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Common symptoms in birds with malaria: A: Low hematocrit count, B: Lesions in liver, C: Parasitized red blood cells. (kenyon.edu)
  • Plasmochin simplex has rarely been referred to as a prophylactic against malaria infection in man or in birds, although there are many references in the literature to its effect on gametocytes in the blood stream and its potentialities in the prevention of malaria infection in mosquitoes, and thus indirectly in man. (ajtmh.org)
  • to birds that had been inoculated with blood containing malaria parasites, kept the blood of one bird free from parasites for forty days, "with one possible exception. (ajtmh.org)
  • for five days after a single inoculation of blood containing malaria parasites did not prevent the appearance of parasites in the blood of birds. (ajtmh.org)
  • We did not detect malaria or pox in birds caught at 1,400 m in upper reaches of the valley. (bioone.org)
  • Birds with chronic malaria infection were more likely to have both active pox infection and healed pox lesions suggesting a synergistic interaction that may influence the evolution of pox virulence. (usgs.gov)
  • Because pox infection can be assessed visually, and birds have a high recovery rate, this disease may be a sensitive indicator of the seasonal and annual risk of transmission of malaria in Hawaiʻi. (usgs.gov)
  • Haemosporidian parasites, the causative agents of malaria in the broader sense, commonly occur in temperate and tropical regions and infect a variety of host species including humans, other mammals, reptiles and birds. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Given the very high rates of oxygen delivery required by birds to sustain the aerobic demands for flapping flight, it is somewhat perplexing that even successful long-distance migrants commonly display chronic malaria infections [ 4 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, in areas where avian malaria is newly introduced, such as the islands of Hawaiʻi, it can be devastating to birds that have lost evolutionary resistance over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, given that malaria parasites can be found in reptiles, birds and mammals, it is possible to combine the data from these groups and a well resolved large phylogeny is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease in native birds of Peru. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Immunogenetics and Resistance to Avian Malaria in Hawaiian Honeycreepers (Drepanidinae)" and "Newly Emergent and Future Threats of Alien Species to Pacific Birds and Ecosystems" deal with two of the major current threats facing Hawaiian avifauna. (freethesaurus.com)
  • that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. (altmetric.com)
  • As is the case with human malaria, these parasites can cause severe problems for infected birds. (weebly.com)
  • Using recently developed DNA techniques to identify infections, along with traditional parasitology methods (microscopy of blood smears), my PhD work involved several projects to describe the diversity, distribution and ecological impacts of avian malaria parasites in Australian and south Pacific birds. (weebly.com)
  • Filarial nematodes are also vector-transmitted parasites that can co-infect birds alongside malaria. (weebly.com)
  • These worms cause anemia and can cause strong immune responses in birds, but they have been less well-studied compared to malaria parasites. (weebly.com)
  • My research uses DNA techniques to identify malaria / microfilaria co-infections in island birds and blood smears to test for affects on host immune responses ( get the PDF here ). (weebly.com)
  • We predicted that avian malaria prevalence would be influenced by the pattern of farmland and urban areas in the surrounding landscapes and the sizes of the wetlands in which birds were sampled. (edu.au)
  • U of G researchers devised a real-time way to analyze chickens and other farm birds for avian flu. (healthcanal.com)
  • This week, Canadian officials placed eight farms in southern Ontario under quarantine after an avian influenza outbreak caused the sudden deaths of thousands of birds over several days. (healthcanal.com)
  • Asghar M, Hasselquist D, Bensch S (2011) Are chronic avian haemosporidian infections costly in wild birds? (springer.com)
  • Avian influenza (AI) or bird flu is a group of viruses that occur naturally in birds. (hindustanlink.com)
  • As these adamantanes have gotten into nonhuman vectors like birds, the positive selection for resistance to avian flu is rising," said Hill. (bio-medicine.org)
  • While H5N1 is not highly communicable to humans from birds or between humans, experts are concerned future evolution of this subtype or other subtypes, or genetic re-assortment between subtypes, could make an avian influenza strain more contagious with the potential to cause a pandemic. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Although these mosquitoes have been suggested in PCR-based studies to be primary natural vectors of avian malaria in Japan [ 11 - 13 ], sporogony has not been confirmed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study sought to identify the vectors of avian malaria at four central Virginia Prothonotary warbler breeding sites. (vcu.edu)
  • pipiens/restuans were determined to be the most probable vectors of avian malaria the four sites. (vcu.edu)
  • Our goal was to understand how species, season, elevation, malaria infection, and other biological characteristics influenced pox infection in ʻApapane, Hawaiʻi ʻAmakihi, ʻIʻiwi, and Japanese White‐eye across low‐, mid‐, and high‐elevation forests on the island of Hawaiʻi. (usgs.gov)
  • An invasive bird species is carrying, and potentially spreading, a high prevalence of avian malaria throughout its range in eastern Australia, a Griffith University PhD candidate has uncovered. (edu.au)
  • Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world, and infect a wide diversity of bird species. (gla.ac.uk)
  • There exists much controversy on what corresponds as a species in avian malaria parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, considering co-speciation events or even species diversity for malaria parasites is surrounded by much disagreement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caption: The I'iwi, under threat from avian malaria , was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in September. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Climate change appears to be pushing avian malaria north, with potentially devastating consequences for Arctic bird species, many of which have never encountered the disease and thus have no resistance to it. (freethesaurus.com)
  • However, avian malaria parasites are not well studied in Australia, so we don't have a good understanding of how common they are or which bird species are important carriers. (weebly.com)
  • Here we quantify how tropical avian malaria in an abundant sedentary bird species responds at fine spatial scales in a land sharing system. (mendeley.com)
  • Avian malaria is a devastating disease that has decimated numerous bird species. (vcu.edu)
  • We used PCR to identify the malaria parasite species and strain that caused the infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is phylogenetically closer to P. falciparum than many other malaria species and became popular as model due to the large size of its non-primate host. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Primate malaria is transmitted by various species of Anopheles mosquitoes, bird malaria by species of Aedes , Culex , Anopheles , and Culiseta . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a genus of protozoa, several species of which cause malaria, transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Competent hosts for WNV transmission are found almost exclusively among avian species [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This book provides such a synthesis by not only focusing on the antagonistic interactions, but also by providing conceptual chapters on topics going from avian haemosporidians life cycles and study techniques, to chapters addressing current concepts on ecology and evolution. (apress.com)
  • For example, a chapter synthesizing basic biogeography and ecological niche model concepts is presented, followed by one on the island biogeography of avian haemosporidians. (apress.com)
  • Given its conceptual perspective, the book will appeal not only to readers interested in avian haemosporidians, but also to those more generally interested in the ecology, evolution and systematics of host-parasite interactions. (apress.com)
  • His research focuses on understanding the ecology, evolution and systematics of host-parasite-vector interactions, in particular how avian haemosporidians dynamics respond to anthropogenic impacts. (apress.com)
  • His main research interest is in the field of avian malaria, mainly focusing on the negative effects of avian haemosporidians on their host populations, as well as the environmental and global factors determining the emergence of wildlife diseases. (apress.com)
  • Lutz HL, Patterson BD, Kerbis Peterhans JC, Stanley WT, Webala PW, Gnoske TP, Hackett SJ, Stanhope MJ (2016) Diverse sampling of East African haemosporidians reveals chiropteran origin of malaria parasites in primates and rodents. (springer.com)
  • Bensch S, Hellgren O, Pérez-Tris J (2009) MalAvi: a public database of malaria parasites and related haemosporidians in avian hosts based on mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages. (springer.com)
  • Host shifts are widespread among avian haemosporidians, although the success of transmission depends upon parasite?host and parasite?vector compatibility. (csic.es)
  • Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and ecological factors. (altmetric.com)
  • includes the causal agents of malaria in humans and other animals, with an asexual cycle occurring in liver and red blood cells of vertebrates and a sexual cycle in mosquitoes, the latter cycle resulting in the production of large numbers of infective sporozoites in the salivary glands of the vector, which are transmitted when the mosquito bites and draws blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2010). Mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) which are producers of avian malaria. (bartleby.com)
  • Unfortunately, this combined approach has not been adopted, except in studies of human malaria parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection by the human malaria parasite leads to important changes in mosquito phenotypic traits related to vector competence. (csic.es)
  • Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. (lu.se)
  • This study shows how the avian blood transcriptome shifts in response to malaria infection, and we believe it will facilitate further research into the diversity of molecular mechanisms that hosts utilize to fight malaria infections. (lu.se)
  • In this study we aimed to investigate how the badge size of male house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) is correlated to avian malaria infections as well as to prenatal testosterone exposure, measured as the 2D:4D digit ratio. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings show that the multiplex PCR designed here is highly effective at identifying both single and mixed infections from all three genera of avian haemosporidian parasites. (springer.com)
  • Coordination disorders such as paralysis, limping, twisted neck and slow movement may be caused by a variety of factors, such as physical injury, nutrient deficiencies and diseases, including ND (twisted necks or torticolis ), Marek's Disease (paralysis), synovitis (tendon infections in which feet joints feel warm) and Avian Encephalomyelitis (AE). (fao.org)
  • Notably, phylogenetic comparison of 479 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene derived from protozoan cyst-like structures with known sequences of avian hematozoa found 99%-100% homology of parasites from both outbreaks with the avian malaria parasites ( Haemoproteus spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The aim of this study was to use this combined approach to definitively establish whether Culex pipiens pallens and C. inatomii are competent vectors for avian malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Malaria in wildlife is often a mild disease, but can have severe consequences, particularly when encountered in new environments by immunologically naive hosts [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We also identify an expansion of reticulocyte binding protein homologs in P. relictum and within these proteins, we detect distinct regions that are specific to non-human primate, humans, rodent and avian hosts. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Co-speciation and host switching events have contributed to the broad range of hosts that these parasites can infect, causing avian malaria to be a widespread global disease, found everywhere except Antarctica. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diversity of avian malaria parasites and other haemosporidia is extremely large, and previous studies have found that the number of parasites approximates the number of hosts, with significant host switching events and parasite sharing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative analyses of the differentially expressed genes in our study to those found in other hosts of malaria (human and mouse), revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in highly conserved evolutionary responses to malaria infection. (lu.se)
  • The results support an ancient association between malaria parasites and their primate hosts, including humans. (cambridge.org)
  • could be involved in the transmission of avian malaria parasites, the risk of avian malaria parasite spread by this invasive mosquito in Europe would be minimal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Avian flu continues to be a threat to the poultry sector and in some cases presents a health-risk to humans as well. (wur.nl)
  • To date, there is no specific phylogeny for avian malaria parasites and related haemosporidian parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accurate detection and identification are essential components for epidemiological, ecological, and evolutionary surveys of avian haemosporidian parasites. (springer.com)
  • We predict that this one-step multiplex PCR assay, being convenient and inexpensive, will become a widely used method for molecular screening of avian haemosporidian parasites. (springer.com)
  • Seasonal and elevation patterns of pox infection are like those for avian malaria, strongly implicating mosquito vectors, rather than other biting arthropods or contact transmission, as the primary source of transmitting both diseases. (usgs.gov)
  • However, the importance of these factors in the epidemiology of mosquito-borne parasites, such as avian malaria parasites, is largely unknown. (csic.es)
  • Do mosquito nets really help against the spread of malaria? (wur.nl)
  • Studies on the toxicity and the action of Diamino-Diphenyl Sulphone (‎DDS)‎ in Avian and Simian Malaria. (who.int)
  • 1961)‎. Studies on the toxicity and the action of Diamino-Diphenyl Sulphone (‎DDS)‎ in Avian and Simian Malaria. (who.int)
  • WHO IRIS: Studies on the toxicity and the action of Diamino-Diphenyl Sulphone (DDS) in Avian and Simian Malaria. (who.int)
  • Over the past 20 years, the avian malaria and related parasites (Order: Haemosporida) systems have received increased attention in the tropical regions from a diverse array of research perspectives. (apress.com)
  • Beadell JS, Gering E, Austin J, Dumbacher JP, Peirce MA, Pratt TK, Atkinson CT, Fleischer RC (2004) Prevalence and differential host-specificity of two avian blood parasite genera in the Australo-Papuan region. (springer.com)
  • From these orthologs, we explore differential diversifying selection across the genus and show that the avian lineage is remarkable in the extent to which invasion related genes are evolving. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Using blood smear data, avian malaria prevalence and malaria-related deaths were also monitored from 2002 to 2013. (sun.ac.za)
  • Other AI viruses, termed highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), can cause large numbers of bird illnesses and deaths. (hindustanlink.com)
  • Malaria causes 1 to 1.5 million deaths each year, and in Africa, it accounts for 25 percent of all deaths of children under the age of five. (teachervision.com)
  • According to Waud, as much as 85 percent of deaths in migratory bird populations occur while bird are flying en route to their wintering or breeding grounds. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 2021. The uropygial gland microbiome of house sparrows with malaria infection . (si.edu)
  • For many years, bird blood parasites served as important models in studying human diseases, including malaria. (ramex.com)
  • Treatment for malaria, avian flu, swine flu and other viral and parasitic diseases without prior prescription required. (kiwidrug.com)
  • Avian malaria is one of the most important diseases of captive penguins, and may seriously compromise the rehabilitation of Magellanic penguins. (usp.br)
  • Are diseases such as avian flu occurring more frequently in the Netherlands? (wur.nl)
  • Despite the success of SANCCOB in rehabilitating diseased, injured or oiled penguins, significant mortalities have occurred at the facility as a result of avian malaria. (sun.ac.za)
  • Avian malaria can be contracted during rehabilitation during which penguins are inadvertently exposed to additional threats. (sun.ac.za)
  • Rehabilitation influences exposure of African penguins to avian malaria. (sun.ac.za)
  • Gorillas have become habituated to human presence, and "there is a concern that the habituation is enhancing transmission of pathogens infectious to both people and the gorillas," says parasitologist Thaddeus Graczyk of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, who also works with penguins that have been infected with avian malaria from North America. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. (mdpi.com)
  • Ishtiaq F, Beadell JS, Warren BH, Fleischer RC (2011) Diversity and distribution of avian haematozoan parasites in the western Indian Ocean region: a molecular survey. (springer.com)
  • For over a century, parasitologists classified malaria parasites based on morphological and life-history traits and new molecular data shows that these have variable phylogenetic signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • We screened these for malaria using PCR and molecular techniques. (edu.au)
  • Harrigan RJ, Sedano R, Chasar AC, Chaves JA, Nguyen JT, Whitaker A, Smith TB (2014) New host and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidia in the northern Andes. (springer.com)
  • Check out my Publications for details on some of my projects and see here for my top-cited global review of avian malaria genetic diversity. (weebly.com)
  • We tested for effects of landcover type, composition, configuration, and urbanisation on avian diversity and avian malaria prevalence in 26 communities of wetland-associated passerines in the Western Cape of South Africa. (edu.au)
  • Malaria remains a major vector-borne disease in many parts of Indonesia and large-scale outbreaks of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever are reported every year. (mrc.ac.uk)
  • On the first person thought to have developed the H5N1 avian flu. (wbur.org)
  • The avian flu an Influenza A subtype dubbed H5N1 is evolving a resis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The avian flu, an Influenza A subtype dubbed H5N1, is evolving a resistance to a group of antiviral drugs known as adamantanes, one of two classes of antiviral drugs used to prevent and treat flu symptoms, said CU-Boulder doctoral student Andrew Hill, lead study author. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. (lu.se)
  • Although these models have been largely replaced-first by the discovery of rodent malaria and then by the development of culture techniques-the wealth of avian data and research remains valuable. (ramex.com)
  • Assuming that vector abundance is a key variable associated with infection risk by avian malaria, we caught adult male sparrows from eight different populations in the Camargue, France, four of which were located in a vector-controlled area, and the other four in an untreated area. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Avian blood parasite infection during the non-breeding season: an overlooked issue in declining populations? (cambridge.org)
  • Density dependence, evolutionary optimization, and the diversification of avian life histories. (umsl.edu)
  • Journal of Avian Biology 31: 103-111. (umsl.edu)
  • Journal of Avian Biology 33: 207-211. (umsl.edu)
  • In contrast, resistance of the avian flu virus to the second, newer class of antiviral drugs that includes oseltamivir -- a prescription drug marketed under the brand name Tamiflu -- is present, but is not yet prevalent or under positive genetic selection, said Hill of CU-Boulder's ecology and evolutionary biology department. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The research team used an interactive "supermap" using Google Earth technology that portrays the individual gene mutations and spread of the avian flu around the globe, said Guralnick of CU-Boulder's ecology and evolutionary biology department. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Palinauskas V, Dolnik OV, Valkiunas G, Bensch S (2010) Laser microdissection microscopy and single cell PCR of avian hemosporidians. (springer.com)
  • The data indicate that a systematic procedure combining microscopy and PCR is a feasible and reliable approach to identify natural vectors of wildlife malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All malaria parasites have a sexual life stage that occurs in a blood-feeding insect, which is the definitive host for these organisms (also known as the "vector," in epidemiology). (tolweb.org)
  • Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • While avian pox and avian malaria may have arrived at the same time, P. relictum was first observed on Hawaii in the 1930s on blood smears from a red-billed leiothrix [8] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Research in avian blood parasites has seen a remarkable increase since the introduction of polymerase chain reaction-based methods for parasite identification. (lu.se)
  • The ensuing destruction of host red blood cells can result in disease, called malaria . (wikipedia.org)
  • This study shows that the effects of blood parasites can be assessed without using anti-malaria drugs, which can cause additional risk of oxidative stress. (elsevier.com)
  • A team of scientists has created the first 3-D 'map' of a protein used by malaria parasites to invade human blood cells. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The 'map' shows where the parasite's proteins bind to receptors on red blood cells, allowing the researchers to begin designing inhibitors that could be used in a malaria vaccine. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The tool uses a small blood sample and relies on a simple chemical colour change to see not only whether a chicken has avian flu but also what viral strain is involved. (healthcanal.com)
  • This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. (altmetric.com)
  • Sir Ronald Ross, born in India in 1857, received the 1902 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his pioneering work on malaria, in which he laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods for combating it. (teachervision.com)
  • Ancient accounts of malaria date back to Vedic writings of 1600 B.C.E. in India and to the fifth century B.C.E. in Greece, when the great Greek physician Hippocrates, often called "the Father of Medicine," described the characteristics of the disease and related them to seasons and location. (teachervision.com)
  • Avian flu is an example of such a disease. (wur.nl)
  • Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. (mdpi.com)
  • Can malaria, dengue and Zika be controlled by CRISPR-based gene drive? (eventbrite.com)
  • The subtype H1N1 is human adapted while most H5 are avian oriented, Neethirajan added. (healthcanal.com)
  • These staunch destruction methods might appear harsh but they are implemented based on European legislation, as a mild H5 or H7 subtype avian flu virus can evolve into a harmful variant. (wur.nl)
  • Anthropogenic landscape modification appears to have both direct and indirect effects on avian communities and their associated parasite assemblages, with attendant consequences for avian health. (edu.au)