Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Milk Substitutes: Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Grewia: A plant genus of the family TILIACEAE. Members contain lupeol and betulin TRITERPENES.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Dysautonomia, Familial: An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1348; Nat Genet 1993;4(2):160-4)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Oxytropis: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System: Neurologic disorders associated with exposure to inorganic and organic forms of MERCURY. Acute intoxication may be associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, mental status changes, and PARAPARESIS. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury usually occurs in industrial workers, and manifests as mental confusion, prominent behavioral changes (including psychosis), DYSKINESIAS, and NEURITIS. Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch20, pp10-15)Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Mice, Inbred ICRSpinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Mice, Inbred C57BLBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Another major difference from amphibians is the increased brain size, more specifically, the enlarged cerebrum and cerebellum. ... The increased size of these two regions of the brain allowed for improved motor skills and an increase in sensory development. ... Although their brain size is small when compared to birds and mammals, these enhancements prove vital in hunting strategies of ... Lepidosauromorpha contained at least one major group of the Mesozoic sea reptiles: the mosasaurs, which emerged during the ...
Left frontal lobe (click to view animation) Lobes Base of brain. Human brain showing the four major lobes of the cerebrum. ... Horizontal section.Deep dissection Broca's area Limen insulae Regions in the human brain Muzio, Bruno Di. "Frontal pole , ... The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the ... Frontal lobe Frontal lobe Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia.Superior view. ...
... cells are most likely found in the supratentorial region of the brain that houses the cerebrum, an area ... These tumors can be present in major brain areas not associated with the main cerebral hemispheres, including the cerebellum, ... Malignant astroblastoma distorts the function of surrounding brain regions, and pressure is the primary result. Along with ... More than other brain tumors, astroblastoma is frequently a recurring tumor; its rate remains high, even after resection as ...
In large brains, some functions tend to be strongly lateralized. E.g., the language regions (Broca's and Wernicke's area) are ... In holoprosencephaly the hemispheres of the cerebrum or part of it are not aligned on the left and right side but on the ... the contralateral organization is manifested by major decussations (latin: the Latin notation for ten, 'deca', is an uppercase ... The anterior head region turns to the left, as shown in the schema. The forebrain is not a superficial structure, but it is so ...
This region is known as the paleomammalian brain, the major parts of which are the hippocampi and amygdalas, often referred to ... The other two major brain areas (the cerebrum and cerebellum) are based on a cortical architecture. At the outer periphery of ... The pons and medulla are major structures found there. A new region of the brain developed about 250 million years after the ... Early australopithecine brains were little larger than chimpanzee brains. The increase has been seen as larger human brain ...
In humans, the cerebrum is the largest and best-developed of the five major divisions of the brain. The cerebrum is made up of ... Cerebrum. Lateral face. Deep dissection. Cerebrum. Medial face. Deep dissection. List of regions in the human brain The word ... In the human brain, the cerebrum is the uppermost region of the central nervous system. The prosencephalon is the embryonic ... The cerebrum is a major part of the brain, controlling emotions, hearing, vision, personality and much more. It controls all ...
The highest expression of VLDLR is found in the brain. Although VLDLR is found in almost all regions of the brain, its highest ... and region-specific pyramidal neurons. Despite its major role in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism, VLDLR is not found in ... which is mainly expressed in non-muscular tissues including the cerebrum, cerebellum, kidney, spleen, and aortic endothelial ... This is demonstrated through the alignment of the two receptors according to their linker region; in LDLR, the linker region is ...
For the large region of the brain, see Cerebrum.. The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain ... The name cerebellum is a diminutive of cerebrum (brain);[86] it can be translated literally as little brain. The Latin name is ... These changes may differ from those of other parts of the brain. The cerebellum is the youngest brain region (and body part) in ... Marshall LH, Magoun HW (1998). Discoveries in the human brain. Neuroscience prehistory, brain structure, and function. Totowa: ...
Some abnormalities in the average size or shape of some regions of the brain have been found in some disorders, reflecting ... The main risks appear to be from a cumulative combination of such experiences over time, although exposure to a single major ... Studies of schizophrenia have tended to find enlarged ventricles and sometimes reduced volume of the cerebrum and hippocampus, ... Differences have also been found in the size or activity of certain brain regions in some cases. Psychological mechanisms have ...
The telencephalon (cerebrum) is the largest region of the mammalian brain. This is the structure that is most easily visible in ... Stroke, caused by the blockage or rupturing of blood vessels in the brain, is another major cause of death from brain damage. ... Vertebrate brain regions[sunting sumber]. (See related article at List of regions in the human brain) ... For other uses of the term brain see brain (disambiguation). For information on the human brain specifically, please see its ...
Lateral View of the Brain. Brain Lobes. Poles of cerebral hemispheres List of regions in the human brain Neuroanatomy Guilherme ... If not specified, the expression "lobes of the brain" refers to the cerebrum. Terminologia Anatomica (1998) divides cerebrum ... The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal ... but have been shown also to be related to different brain functions. The cerebrum, the largest portion of the human brain, is ...
L-2-HGA particularly affects a region of the brain called the cerebellum, which is involved in coordinating movements. As a ... and abnormalities in the largest part of the brain (the cerebrum), which controls many important functions such as muscle ... The major types of this disorder are called D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA), L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), and ... Combined D,L-2-HGA causes severe brain abnormalities that become apparent in early infancy. Affected infants have severe ...
Ischemia is the loss of blood flow to the focal region of the brain. This produces heterogeneous areas of ischemia at the ... within the brain. Major modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis include: Hypertension Smoking Obesity Diabetes. Controlling ... The carotid arteries cover the majority of the cerebrum. The common carotid artery divides into the internal and the external ... Regions with blood flow of less than 10 mL/100 g of tissue/min are core regions (cells here die within minutes of a stroke). ...
The brain was globular and similar in shape to that of birds and troodontid theropods, the cerebrum was expanded in a way ... The robust hind limbs and hip region indicates the animal moved slowly. The large size of the animal may have helped it against ... The 2014 cladogram suggested that ornithomimosaurians diverged into two major lineages in the Early Cretaceous; Deinocheiridae ... The brain was proportionally small and compact, and its Reptile Encephalisation Quotient (brain-body ratio) was estimated at ...
... these results indicate that motor timing is not controlled by a single brain region, but by a network of regions that control ... The motor and auditory areas are located in the cerebrum of the brain. The motor area processes the rhythm of the music (Dean, ... In one conventional sense, tonality refers to just the major and minor scale types - examples of scales whose elements are ... They found that as these chills increase, many changes in cerebral blood flow are seen in brain regions such as the amygdala, ...
Lateral view of a human brain, main gyri labeled. Drawing of a cast to illustrate the relations of the brain to the skull. ( ... the cortical region responsible for the sensation of sound; Wernicke's area, Brodmann 22p, an important region for the ... It is the major area involved in the comprehension of language. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is involved in auditory ... Superior temporal gyrus labeled at center, in green section.) Cerebrum. Lateral view. Deep dissection. Superior temporal gyrus ...
... is a fruticose lichen that grows on trees and shrubs in the fog regions along the Pacific Coast of North ... Province of northern Chile The epithet is in reference to the apical swollen lobes that resemble the cerebrum of the brain. ... Zeorin and (-)-16 α-hydroxykaurane are the major lichen substances that are always present along with bourgeanic acid and an ... Vermilacinia cerebra is also distinct for the longitudinally 3-5 ribbed branches. These features are evident in a 2012 image of ...
The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum. The MCA arises ... Pink is region supplied by middle cerebral artery.). The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. The middle cerebral ... Anterior temporal: This artery extends in the similar fashion as the temporopolar artery and vascularizes the same regions. ... The M1 segment perforates the brain with numerous anterolateral central (lateral lenticulostriate) arteries, which irrigate the ...
... as mood stabilizers like lithium appear to have protective and growth-stimulating effects in multiple regions of the brain, ... Antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics are the major classes of medications used to treat schizophrenia. Psychotherapy is a ... and this loss extends into the cerebrum, parahippocampal gyrus, and the hippocampus. There are increases in the temporal and ... the overall brain volume can also be measured. Research shows that the overall brain volume is not statistically significantly ...
The central nervous system consists of the two major structures: the brain and spinal cord. The brain is encased in the skull, ... The brain (cerebrum as well as midbrain and hindbrain) consists of a cortex, composed of neuron-bodies constituting gray matter ... These 12 nerves exist in the head and neck region and are called cranial nerves. Cranial nerves bring information to the CNS to ... The brain is the major functional unit of the central nervous system. While the spinal cord has certain processing ability such ...
Further proliferation of the cells in these regions gives rise to three distinct areas of the brain: the forebrain, midbrain, ... The tumor develops over oligodendrocytes and is usually found in the cerebrum around the frontal or temporal lobes. The tumors ... Research on depression indicates that one of the major causal factors of depression, stress, also influences neurogenesis. This ... Brüstle, O. (1999). "Building brains: Neural chimeras in the study of nervous system development and repair". Brain pathology. ...
Deep dissection List of regions in the human brain List of thalamic nuclei Neothalamus Primate basal ganglia system Thalamic ... A major role of the thalamus is support of motor and language systems, and much of the circuitry implicated for these systems ... the posterior part of the forebrain situated between the midbrain and the cerebrum. After neurulation the anlage of the ... Deep dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Coronal section of brain immediately in front of pons. Coronal section of brain ...
... and handedness is associated with major reorganisation of the brain and the lateralisation of brain function between the left ... The brain anatomy of all Homo features an expanded cerebrum in comparison to australopithecines. The pattern of striations on ... The discovery of LD 350-1, the oldest Homo specimen, dating to 2.8 mya, in the Afar Region of Ethiopia may indicate that the ... Like contemporary Homo, H. habilis brain size generally varied from 500-900 cc (31-55 cu in). The body proportions of H. ...
The mitral cells leave the olfactory bulb in the lateral olfactory tract, which synapses on five major regions of the cerebrum ... "Human Brain Mapping. 30 (8): 2571-2580. doi:10.1002/hbm.20686. PMC 6870682. PMID 19067327.. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter ( ... Shepherd, GM (2013). Neurogastronomy: how the brain creates flavor and why it matters. ISBN 9780231159111. . OCLC 882238865.. ... or central problems affecting the brain. Some causes include upper respiratory infections, traumatic brain injury, and ...
It is a major brain component in many vertebrates, but is greatly reduced in humans and other primates (whose senses are ... In some primitive fishes, such as lampreys, this region is the largest part of the brain. The superior colliculus is part of ... In non-mammalian vertebrates, the surface of the cerebrum is lined with a comparatively simple three-layered structure called ... The brain can be useful to hunters: most animals have enough brain matter for use in the tanning of their own hides. Brain- ...
The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are ... "Numbers of threatened species by major groups of organisms (1996-2012)" (PDF). IUCN Red List, 2010. IUCN. Archived from the ... Lower food requirements and adaptive metabolisms allow reptiles to dominate the animal life in regions where net calorie ... Two major groups of reptile predators are birds and other reptiles, both of which have well developed color vision. Thus the ...
Cerebrum. The cerebrum is the most superior and anterior of the brains major regions. It is the seat of reason, planning, ... All conscious thought originates in the cerebrum and can influence the subconscious functions of the lower regions of the brain ... The cerebral cortex provides most of the functions of the cerebrum and is organized into three major regions: sensory, ... A few other regions of gray matter are found deep within the brain and are known as nuclei. These regions also perform ...
The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of the extensions ... Lateral and medial surfaces of cerebrum, showing major sulci and gyri. View Media Gallery ... The so-called Brodmann areas represent cytoarchitectural differences across different brain regions, and the numbering scheme ... Gross Anatomy: Cerebrum. The cerebrum is the largest component of the brain. It is divided into right and left hemispheres. The ...
The cerebrum is divided into two functionally different paired structures - the ri... ... Two major regions of the brain include the cerebrum and cerebellum. ... Two major regions of the brain include the cerebrum and cerebellum. The cerebrum is divided into two functionally different ... The vertebral arteries are two major arteries supplying the brain. They pass through small openings in the cervical vertebrae ...
In humans, the cerebrum is the largest and best-developed of the five major divisions of the brain. The cerebrum is made up of ... Cerebrum. Lateral face. Deep dissection. Cerebrum. Medial face. Deep dissection. List of regions in the human brain The word ... In the human brain, the cerebrum is the uppermost region of the central nervous system. The prosencephalon is the embryonic ... The cerebrum is a major part of the brain, controlling emotions, hearing, vision, personality and much more. It controls all ...
major regions of the brain Cerebrum. ❖ Diencephalon. ❖ Brain stem. ❖ Cerebellum 68 Coordination of. voluntary muscles. ❖ ... The basilar artery and the internal carotid arteries "communicate" with each other at the base of the brain called the ... In general, the --- hemisphere of the brain is responsible for language and speech and is called the "dominant" hemisphere ... disturbance of language affecting production, comprehension, reading or writing, due to brain injury - most commonly from ...
Another major difference from amphibians is the increased brain size, more specifically, the enlarged cerebrum and cerebellum. ... The increased size of these two regions of the brain allowed for improved motor skills and an increase in sensory development. ... Although their brain size is small when compared to birds and mammals, these enhancements prove vital in hunting strategies of ... Lepidosauromorpha contained at least one major group of the Mesozoic sea reptiles: the mosasaurs, which emerged during the ...
deep grooves that divide the cerebrum into different regions of the brain ... nerve pathways to & from the brain. extends from medulla oblongata to the region of T12. ... four chambers within the brain. filled with CSF. continous with each other and with the central canal of the spinal cord ... most inferior part of the brain stem. merges into the spinal cord. includes important ascending and descending nerve tracts. ...
Cerebrum. *Medulla and brain stem. *Hypothalamic limbic regions. *Work to increase excitability by blocking activity of ... Naturally occurring vasoconstrictor found in platelets and cells of the brain. *Not administered as a drug but as a major ... Act directly on the medullary center of the brain to increase the rate and depth of respiration ... psychiatric diseases 1. major depressive disorder (mdd) monopolar depression/ unipolar affective disord ...
Pyramids=motor tracts decussate-brain hemispheres have contralateral control • Connects Reflex center for regulation of ... Major RegionsCerebrum • Diencephalon • Mesencephalon (Midbrain) • Pons • Medulla Oblongata • cerebellum #t1_3{left:211px;top ... Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves PART 1 Anatomy of the Brain Gyri = series of ... Chapter 14.- The Brain and Cranial Nerves An Introduction to the Brain and Cranial Ne ...
For the large region of the brain, see Cerebrum.. The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain ... The name cerebellum is a diminutive of cerebrum (brain);[86] it can be translated literally as little brain. The Latin name is ... These changes may differ from those of other parts of the brain. The cerebellum is the youngest brain region (and body part) in ... Marshall LH, Magoun HW (1998). Discoveries in the human brain. Neuroscience prehistory, brain structure, and function. Totowa: ...
Cerebrum. Regions of the brain that interact for consciousness and control of behavior. ... Stroke, which results from blockage or rupturing of blood vessels in the brain, is another major cause of death from brain ... the cerebrum is by far the largest part of the brain, and it plays major roles in sensory perception, learning, memory, and ... The CSF allows the brain to float, easing the physical stress caused by the brains mass (an adult human brain weighs ...
Brain - cerebellum, cerebrum and midbrain. Femur with joint - longitudinal section including articular surface, epiphysial ... Kidneys - included cortex, medulla and papilla regions. Liver - section from all main lobes. Lungs - section from two major ... The cranial roof was removed to allow observation of the brain, pituitary gland and cranial nerves. After ventral mid-line ... Organ weights: Adrenals, Brain, Epididymides, Heart, Kidneys, Liver, Ovaries, Spleen, Testes, Thymus, Uterus with cervix. ...
The cerebellum connects to the cerebrum by approximately 40 million nerve fibers. A major function of the cerebellum is ... cerebellum is explained by scientists as Newhorizons.org as a brain structure that helps the bodys motor and nonmotor regions ... Brain Stem. The brain stem sits at the base of the brain and connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord. Bryn Mawr ... Cerebrum. Bryn Mawr College describes the cerebrum as the largest part of the human brain; it is covered by gray deep folds and ...
... so lets take a look at the brain. Theres 4 major regions of the brain; the brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon and cerebrum ... Up here, is the cerebrum this is the perhaps most recently developed of the parts of the brain and this is what people think of ... the brain stem its called the cerebellum which means little brain because it actually looks a lot like the bigger cerebrum ... stop that cerebrum and it overrides.. Alright sitting on top of the brain stem this weirdly yellow thing here is the ...
Normal brain tissue is represented by four different regions: Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Hippocampus and Caudate. The nervous ... Astrocytes represent the major glial cell type in the brain and are characterized by their cellular cytoplasmic processes ... The intracranial cerebrum and cerebellum together with the spinal cord constitutes the CNS. The brain is covered by layers of ... The brain can grossly be divided into different neuroanatomical functional regions such as the frontal, parietal, temporal, ...
The three primary regions of the brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. The cerebrum is currently the ... Major insight into the physiological workings of the brain, however, did not evolve until 1791 when Luigi Galvani demonstrated ... The cerebrum is generally believed to be the area of the brain in which all conscious mental activities transpire. Divided into ... The cerebrum of early man, however, was not as developed as it is today, encompassing only about a third of its current weight ...
Examination of other brain regions revealed a pattern of dispersed gray matter cells as well as cells at the pial surface, ... complementary patterns of expression of the endogenous aldolase A and C genes among the two major cell types of the brain is ... a distinct 120-kDa antigen defined by the Zebrin I antibody also has been reported in glial cells of cerebrum and cerebellum ( ... untranslated region, the complete coding region, plus 500 bp of 3′-untranslated region including the poly(A) signal was ...
The brain directs our bodys internal functions. It also integrates sensory impulses and information to form perceptions, ... Brain. Rotate this 3D model to see the four major regions of the brain: the cerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum, and brainstem. ... The brain gives us self-awareness and the ability to speak and move in the world. Its four major regions make this possible: ... The diencephalon is a region of the forebrain, connected to both the midbrain (part of the brain stem) and the cerebrum. The ...
CNS The Brain*3 major regions *Cerebrum *Cerebellum *Brainstem. 6. CNS The Cerebrum*Largest part of the brain ... Disease of the brain*Brain tumors - A brain tumor is an abnormal tissue growth in the brain. ... The spinal cord connects the brain to the body. The spinal cord extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. ... Epilepsy Seizures that disrupt brain activity. *Encephalitis and Meningitis -These are infections of the brain and spinal cord ...
The brain gives us self-awareness and the ability to speak and move in the world. Its four major regions make this possible: ... The cerebrum, with its cerebral cortex, gives us conscious control of our actions. The diencephalon mediates sensations, ... The Human Brain: Anatomy and Function. The brain directs our bodys internal functions. It also integrates sensory impulses and ... Brain and Nerves: Five Keys to Unlock the Nervous System. The nervous system is the most complex and highly organized body ...
Name the major regions of the brain, and describe their function. Central: brain and spinal cord (CNS) Peripheral: cranial and ... 3 primary vesicles: Forebrain (prosencephalon) o Telencephalon Olfactory lobes: smell Hippocampus: memory storage Cerebrum: ... Name the major regions of the brain, and describe their functions. ... Central: brain and spinal cord (CNS) Peripheral: cranial and spinal nerves (PNS) Autonomic: involuntary/ visceral, components ...
... an area in the anterior region of the primate brain. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a subcortical region in the brain, ... The hindbrain was the major component of early brains, as seen via casts of fossil agnathans, and remains the major part of ... Memory in general appears to be dispersed through different brain regions rather than isolated to a particular region. ... "end brain," which in mammals is called the cerebrum (Raven et al. 2008). The same number of brain divisions are found in most ...
... the research team also determined the size of each brains major anatomical regions, including the olfactory bulbs, cerebrum, ... The brain cast of Archaeopteryx lithographica, one of the earliest known birds, partitioned into neuroanatomical regions: brain ... Researchers Find Bird Brains Predate Birds Themselves Researchers Find Bird Brains Predate Birds Themselves. ... Which Came First: The Bird or the Bird Brain? main content.. Which Came First: The Bird or the Bird Brain? by AMNH on Jul 31, ...
doi: 10.1093/brain/awv114. Epub 2015 May 16. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... and white matter of cerebrum, cerebellum, and corpus callosum). The major finding was the identification of widespread neuronal ... were determined across a wide spectrum of brain regions. A correlation matrix of pathologic severity also was calculated ... Brain. 2015 Aug;138(Pt 8):2293-309. doi: 10.1093/brain/awv114. Epub 2015 May 16. ...
... the research team also determined the size of each brains major anatomical regions, including the olfactory bulbs, cerebrum, ... The brain cast of Archaeopteryx lithographica, one of the earliest known birds, partitioned into neuroanatomical regions: brain ... The endocast is partitioned into the following neuroanatomical regions: brain stem (yellow), cerebellum (blue), optic lobes ( ... The endocast is partitioned into the following neuroanatomical regions: brain stem (yellow), cerebellum (blue), optic lobes ( ...
  • Association areas make up a large portion of the cerebrum and are involved in the integration, interpretation, and complex thought about information obtained from the senses. (innerbody.com)
  • Brain Anatomy Weight: 1.3-kg (3-lb) mass Color: Pinkish-gray jellylike tissue made up of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons Neuroglia (supporting tissue) cells Vascular (blood-carrying) and other tissues Between the brain and the cranium-the part of the skull that directly covers the brain-is three protective membranes, or meninges. (scribd.com)
  • With the advent of neuroimaging, scientists now have the unprecedented ability to use sophisticated techniques to examine the anatomy and functions of living brains. (dana.org)
  • 3 Section 1: Functional Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves Learning Outcomes 13.1 Describe the origins of the different regions of the brain from the embryonic neural tube Name the four major regions of the brain, and describe their functions Explain how the brain is protected and supported and how cerebrospinal fluid forms and circulates List the main components of the medulla oblongata, and specify their functions. (healthdocbox.com)
  • 5 Section 1: Functional Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves Learning Outcomes (continued) 13.9 Identify the main components of the limbic system, and specify the locations and functions of each Describe the structure and function of the basal nuclei of the cerebrum Identify the major superficial landmarks of the cerebrum, and cite the location of each. (healthdocbox.com)
  • But since the anatomy and geography of the cerebra have diverged, green cells are found in layer 4 of the modern mammal cerebral neocortex whereas they are packed within a nucleus of the cerebral entopallium in birds. (blogspot.com)
  • We begin with a thumbnail sketch of brain anatomy, followed by a closer look at neurons and synapses, the brain's communication specialists. (urbanchildinstitute.org)
  • The anterior commissure is a compact fiber bundle that crosses the midline in front of the columns of the fornix and connects the olfactory bulbs and regions of the temporal gyri. (mussenhealth.us)
  • The neuron is the functional unit of the brain. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Secondary receptors induce a response in an adjoining neuron, thus sending the signal down the line toward the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Voorbereiding van de Rat Brain Aggregate Cultures for Neuron en Glia Development Studies Hisami Koito 1 , Jianrong Li 1 1 Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Een protocollen voor een embryonale hersenen van de rat totale cultuur-systeem is beschreven. (jove.com)
  • A neuron consists of three major parts a cell body that contains nucleus, dendrites which receive signals, and a long axon that carries the signal to the next cell. (docplayer.net)
  • Diagram depicting the main subdivisions of the embryonic vertebrate brain. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Studies of the embryonic development of the vertebrate brain suggest that the progression parallels the evolution of the organ. (fsu.edu)
  • The lateral sulcus widens at the bottom like an upside down letter T to form a region of cerebrum known as the insula. (innerbody.com)
  • Brain, lateral view. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Transactive DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the major abnormal aggregate present in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Slcerosis (ALS). (usp.br)
  • The M1 segment perforates the brain with numerous anterolateral central (lateral lenticulostriate) arteries, which irrigate the basal ganglia . (wikipedia.org)