Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Closterovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Striga: A plant genus of the family Orobanchaceae that is parasitic on the roots of other plants. Members contain the flavones, APIGENIN and LUTEOLIN.Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Paecilomyces: A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Hesperidin: A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.Citrus paradisi: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that produces the familiar grapefruit. There is evidence that grapefruit inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A4, resulting in delayed metabolism and higher blood levels of a variety of drugs.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Citrus aurantiifolia: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar lime fruit. Its common name of lime is similar to the limetree (TILIA).Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Poncirus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain ponfolin, a coumarin (COUMARINS).Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Limonins: A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Flavones: A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Xanthomonas axonopodis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus XANTHOMONAS, which causes citrus cankers and black rot in plants.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Xanthomonas: A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Viroids: A group of pathogens comprising the smallest known agents of infectious disease. They are unencapsulated and are capable of replicating autonomously in susceptible cells. Positively identified viroids composed of single-stranded RNA have been isolated from higher plants, but the existence of DNA viroids pathogenic to animals is suspected.Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
... or red scale is an armored scale insect and a major pest of citrus. It is thought to be a native of South ... "Red scale Aonidiella auranii (Maskell)". In: E. C. G. Bedford, M.A. Van den Berg and E. A. De Villiers (eds.), Citrus pests in ... "Olive". In: D. Rosen (ed.), Armoured scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 4B. World Crop Pests. ... "Methods of mass rearing four citrus scale insects". Chinese Journal of Biological Control 6: 68-70. Annecke, D. P., 1958. "Ants ...
C. bifasciata is a parasite of the red scale (Aonidiella aurantii), a major insect pest of citrus. This pest was accidentally ... ISBN 978-0-931876-87-5. "California red scale and yellow scale". UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Citrus. UC IPM. Retrieved ... Dreistadt, Steve H. (2012). Integrated Pest Management for Citrus, Third Edition. University of California Agriculture and ... The adult female seeks out third instar and fourth instar female scale insects, but is prepared to oviposit in any stage except ...
He was recognized as an expert on Aleyrodidae, a family of white flies that are major pests of citrus and greenhouse plants. ... responsible for research on insect pests of fruit trees, a function that he retained until his retirement in 1930. After his ... was an American entomologist who specialized in the study of insect pests of fruit trees. ... was hired at the US Bureau of Entomology and later became entomologist in charge of the new Division of Deciduous Fruit Insect ...
... a major pest of citrus in the country. "Technomyrmex albipes (insect)". Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species ... and scale insects. For this purpose it protects the insects and drives off predators, thereby encouraging the insects which may ... "Red scale Aonidiella auranii (Maskell)". In: E. C. G. Bedford, M.A. Van den Berg and E. A. De Villiers (eds.), Citrus pests in ... Invasive pest ants in Florida, previously identified as T. albipes, have now been separated as Technomyrmex difficilis, both ...
... where it is at present a major pest of citrus. It was first discovered in southern California in 2005, where it is a pest of ... Common names for the insect include diaprepes root weevil, citrus root weevil and sugarcane rootstock borer weevil. The adult ... 2009). Diaprepes root weevil, a new California pest, will raise costs for pest control and trigger quarantines. California ... It is an agricultural pest in several Caribbean countries. In 1964 this weevil was accidentally introduced in the US, state of ...
Citrus australasica), and Correas. It has become a major pest of cultivated citrus crops, where it sucks the fluid from new ... Insects that prey on the bronze orange bug include the common assassin bug (Pristhesancus plagipennis), the predatory Asopinae ... It is considered a pest, particularly to plants in the citrus group. They suck the sap from trees, which causes the flowers and ... Reuther, Walter (1989). The Citrus Industry: Crop protection, postharvest technology, and early history of citrus research in ...
D. citri is a major prey of B. mellifa and it would be beneficial to use these wasps to attack these pests. B. mellifica is one ... One species of particular interest to scientists is Diaphorina citri, a very destructive pest of Citrus trees, which carries ... These insects can be cooked and used in food items such as tacos and larvae, and are considered a luxury. James M. Carpenter. " ... This wasp species is of use to humans because they can be used to control pest species and pollinate avocados. The species that ...
Pests and diseases. See also: List of citrus diseases. Cottony cushion scale. The first major pest that attacked orange trees ... The disease is spread primarily by two species of psyllid insects. One of them is the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri ... Other citrus groups also known as oranges are: *Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) is an original species of citrus, and is a ... Main article: Citrus taxonomy. All citrus trees belong to the single genus Citrus and remain almost entirely interfertile. This ...
The first major pest that attacked orange trees in the United States was the cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi), imported ... The disease is spread primarily by two species of psyllid insects. One of them is the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri ... Media related to Citrus sinensis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Citrus sinensis at Wikispecies Citrus sinensis List of ... CIAU8 RFLP Analysis of the Origin of Citrus Bergamia, Citrus Jambhiri, and Citrus Limonia Gerald Klingaman. "Plant of the Week ...
Pests Some common pests attacking citrus plants are the Citrus Root Weevil, Rust Mite, Aphids, Mealy Bug, Pine Tree Wood Borer ... The Citrus industry in the Caribbean is a major one in the Caribbean. Citrus fruits consists of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines ... Red Spider Mite & various scale insects. Hurricanes Citrus groves exposed to strong winds or hurricanes are subject to ... Citrus production in Dominica is a major export, also with bananas and coconuts. The main producing areas are in the Layou ...
The citrus trunk borer (A. versteegi) is the most serious pest of citrus in northeastern India. The larvae kill trees. In a ... The genus also includes several notorious pest insects. Beetles of Anoplophora are 1 to 5 centimeters in length. They are ... Several Anoplophora species are major pests of urban, ornamental, and agricultural trees. The Asian long-horned beetle (A. ... It is a pest of citrus and other fruit and nut trees. It infests forest trees and ornamentals. It attacks over 100 species of ...
"Asian citrus psyllid", ACP, Diaphorina citri, such that the pathogen causes little or no harm to the insect, but causes a major ... Insect genomics provides important information on the genetic basis of the pests biology which may be altered to suppress ... though most herbivorous insects probably evolved long after the plants on which they feed. Citrus greening, also known as ... "Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening ...
"Asian citrus psyllid", ACP, Diaphorina citri, such that the pathogen causes little or no harm to the insect, but causes a major ... Status as pests[edit]. Citrus greening, also known as huanglongbing, associated with the presence of a bacterium Liberibacter ... Insect genomics provides important information on the genetic basis of the pests biology which may be altered to suppress ... "Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening ...
Given that many major crop pests are insects, many of the predators used in biological control are insectivorous species. Lady ... which describes mandarin oranges protected by large reddish-yellow citrus ants which attack and kill insect pests of the orange ... The first report of the use of an insect species to control an insect pest comes from "Nanfang Caomu Zhuang" (南方草木狀 Plants of ... These confer resistance to insect pests and thus reduce the necessity for pesticide use. If pests develop resistance to the ...
... groups of importance in biological control of pest insects. However, by the late 1920s and thereafter, he focused almost ... He obtained an A.B. degree in 1908 in Liberal Arts from Bowdoin College with a major in Greek and Latin. In 1910 he received an ... In 1924 he was appointed Associate Entomologist in the Department of Biological Control at the Citrus Experiment Station of the ... conducting research in biological control of pest insects. From 1914-1924 he was Associate Entomologist at the Hawaiian Sugar ...
Majors, the largest worker ants, act as soldiers, defending the nest from intruders, although recent evidence indicates majors ... For example, some Atta species are capable of defoliating an entire citrus tree in less than 24 hours. A promising approach to ... The ants actively cultivate their fungus, feeding it with freshly cut plant material and keeping it free from pests and molds. ... The only two other groups of insects to use fungus-based agriculture are ambrosia beetles and termites. The fungus cultivated ...
T. R. Fasulo and R. F. Brooks (June 2004) [October 1993]. "Scale Pests of Florida Citrus". Entomology and Nematology Department ... Nair, K. S. S. (2007). Tropical Forest Insect Pests: Ecology, Impact, and Management. Cambridge University Press. ISBN ... Icerya purchasi is important as one of the first major successes of biological control. Importations of the vedalia ladybird ( ... Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (December 2003). "Cottony Cushion Scale". How to Manage Pests: Pests in Gardens and Landscapes. ...
Not included are ectoparasites like insects, mites, vertebrate, or other pests that affect plant health by consumption of plant ... Plant diseases cause major economic losses for farmers worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates indeed that ... citrus canker). However, disease control is reasonably successful for most crops. Disease control is achieved by use of plants ... To solve this issue, new methods are needed to detect diseases and pests early, such as novel sensors that detect plant odours ...
... and is considered a major pest of agricultural and ornamental plants, as it can defoliate a citrus tree in less than 24 hours. ... ISBN 978-0-521-81253-5. "Texas Leaf Cutting Ant". Insects in the City. Texas AgriLife Extension. 2006-08-30. Archived from the ... Evans, Arthur V (2007). "Ants, Bees, and Wasps: Order Hymenoptera". National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and ... Robinson, William H. (2005). Handbook of Urban Insects and Arachnids. Cambridge University Press. pp. 238-239. ...
Bugs for Bugs, an integrated pest management business, raises insects that act as a biological control for common fruit pests, ... Henry Zipf planted the first citrus orchards in 1933 and established Mundubbera as a major producer of export citrus. The ... drought and the after effects of the 2004 Citrus canker outbreak in Emerald has had a dampening effect of the citrus industry ... The major agricultural activities in Mundubbera are cattle grazing and, in the irrigated areas, fruit growing. Fruit grown in ...
While sapsuckers will bore holes in tree trunks to feed upon insects, they also make parallel rings of holes in order to eat ... Painting the cut can protect against fungus and pests. Both herbivores and birds can effectively girdle trees in the process of ... The feeding activity of beavers are a major source of girdled trees near water sources. Many kinds of deer inadvertently girdle ... Girdling is commonly used on grape, avocado, apple, litchi, mango, citrus and other trees. Girdling is normally only done to ...
The most serious pests are mealybugs that feed on citrus; other species damage sugarcane, grapes, pineapple (Jahn et al. 2003 ... Mealybugs are insects in the family Pseudococcidae, unarmored scale insects found in moist, warm climates. Many species are ... In Asia, mango mealybug is considered a major menace for the mango crop. The males on the other hand are short-lived as they do ... Male citrus mealy bugs fly to the females and resemble fluffy gnats. Some species of mealybug lay their eggs in the same waxy ...
Hill Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and Their Control Dennis S. Hil Pests of Crops in Warmer Climates and Their ... This species is considered a major agricultural pest for several crops in tropical and subtropical areas (apples, coffee plants ... oil palms, Citrus species, etc.). This species is widespread in China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Philippines and Vietnam ... These insects feed on sap that they suck from the leaves of the host plants. Ricania speculum has a single generation per year ...
It is a major pest of sorghum, where it attacks the grains during the milky stage. It is also a pest on pearl millet and maize ... Bijlmakers, Hein (October 1989). "Pachnoda interrupta (Olivier)". Insect Pests of Cereals in Ethiopia. FAO/UNDP Project. ... and at times they consume the flowers of cotton and citrus species. Fertile humus and moist light soil in the shade of forest ... International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 27 (2): 53. doi:10.1017/S1742758407780852. Retrieved 3 July 2015. ...
... a major pest, to Northeastern Indian tea plantations: Change of weather and anti-predatory behaviour of the pest as possible ... "Hyposidra talaca Walker". ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources. Retrieved 8 September 2016. Hampson G. F. ( ... Citrus, Euodia, Schleichera, Theobroma, Perilla frutescens, Camellia and Tectona species. Eggs and caterpillar are largely ... a major pest, to Northeastern Indian tea plantations: change of weather and anti-predatory behaviour of the pest as possible ...
The major veins reach to the margin of the leaf.. Camptodromous. Major veins extend close to the margin, but bend before they ... Reptiles such as some chameleons, and insects such as some katydids, also mimic the oscillating movements of leaves in the wind ... and their retention or disposition are the subject of elaborate strategies for dealing with pest pressures, seasonal conditions ... Citrus leaves with translucent glands[17]. A structurally complete leaf of an angiosperm consists of a petiole (leaf stalk), a ...
The tropical root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), is a major pest of many plants of economic importance, including citrus ... implications for the reproductive biology of a pest species. J. Insect Physiol. 52:300-308. Google Scholar ... the weevil is a major economic pest due to the larval feeding damage it causes to roots of plants of agricultural (e.g., citrus ... and young citrus leaves (Citrus macrophylla Wester). The females were maintained in their individual containers for 2 d and ...
... is the most costly horticultural pest in Australia and has invaded several countries in the surrounding region... ... Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document ... The botany of citrus and its wild relatives of the orange subfamily. In: The citrus industry, revised 2nd ed., vol. 1: History ... Pest stages. Borne internally. Borne externally. Visibility of pest or symptoms. Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae. Yes Pest or ...
In: Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Ed. by Tan K-H, Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 377- ... are the two major pests of fruits in Mexico (Aluja and Liedo 1986; Aluja et al. 1987). The National Fruit Fly Campaign has ... Populations in the Citrus Region of Santa Engracia, Tamaulipas, Mexico, Journal of Economic Entomology, 2015, 108, 4, 1655. ... In: Pest control: operations and systems analysis in fruit fly management. Ed. by Mangel M, Carey JR, Plant R, Springer Verlag ...
... port of entry have intercepted citrus fruit infected with serious plant diseases and insect pests. ... is a major pest of citrus. The arrowhead scale does not currently exist in the United States. The introduction of this pest ... It has been reported to be the most destructive citrus pest in Japan since its discovery in 1907. Scale insects have sucking ... port of entry have intercepted citrus fruit infected with serious plant diseases and insect pests. ...
Aonidiella aurantii or red scale is an armored scale insect and a major pest of citrus. It is thought to be a native of South ... "Red scale Aonidiella auranii (Maskell)". In: E. C. G. Bedford, M.A. Van den Berg and E. A. De Villiers (eds.), Citrus pests in ... "Olive". In: D. Rosen (ed.), Armoured scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 4B. World Crop Pests. ... "Methods of mass rearing four citrus scale insects". Chinese Journal of Biological Control 6: 68-70. Annecke, D. P., 1958. "Ants ...
C. bifasciata is a parasite of the red scale (Aonidiella aurantii), a major insect pest of citrus. This pest was accidentally ... ISBN 978-0-931876-87-5. "California red scale and yellow scale". UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Citrus. UC IPM. Retrieved ... Dreistadt, Steve H. (2012). Integrated Pest Management for Citrus, Third Edition. University of California Agriculture and ... The adult female seeks out third instar and fourth instar female scale insects, but is prepared to oviposit in any stage except ...
Past successes with control of major insect pests may come into play. Some may recall the Mediterranean fruit fly scare from 30 ... Ants fight off the beneficial, predatory insects mentioned above and so ant prevention is a key component of insect pest ... are two non-toxic means available to the homeowner for discomfiting Asian citrus psyllids and other sap-sucking insect pests. ... International air travel is a wonderful thing, especially if you happen to be an insect. Just ask the Asian citrus psyllid. ...
Pests and diseases. See also: List of citrus diseases. Cottony cushion scale. The first major pest that attacked orange trees ... The disease is spread primarily by two species of psyllid insects. One of them is the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri ... Other citrus groups also known as oranges are: *Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) is an original species of citrus, and is a ... Main article: Citrus taxonomy. All citrus trees belong to the single genus Citrus and remain almost entirely interfertile. This ...
An apparatus for killing insects in produce, which comprises an outer container; means for dividing a space enclosed by the ... Treatment of tropical fruits is preferred, as these represent a major source of pest insects that could infest other parts of ... Typical fruits include citrus of all types (especially oranges), apples, papayas, mangoes, pitaya (a type of cactus fruit), and ... Killing Insect Pests Inside Wood By Vacuum Dehydration. US20100024244 *. Jul 22, 2009. Feb 4, 2010. Potter Gary J. Heater and ...
The Asian citrus psyllid is an aphid-like invasive species that can carry a bacterial infection called Huanglongbing, which is ... San Mateo County officials are expanding mitigation efforts after again detecting an insect that carries a disease lethal to ... harmless to humans, but kills any citrus tree that becomes infected. The second confirmation ofRead more... ... The insect and bacteria have also been a major problem for citrus growers in Florida, costing the state thousands of jobs and ...
... a major cause of disease in Floridas citrus groves.. "These ants seem to be very problematic with the pest insects they might ... Among the insects with which ants have this relationship is the insect that transmits citrus greening bacteria, ... So prized are these agricultural pests by the ants, that ants have been known to bring the sap-sucking insects larvae to their ... They guard aphids, scale insects and mealy bugs, pests that suck the sweet sap from a variety of plants. In return for ...
... , tropical trees, sub tropical trees, the best site on the Internet with thousands of ... This exotic insect is not now regarded as a major pest in and of itself; however, it is the vector of a serious bacterial ... Unlike Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening kills trees Citrus Greening is probably the most serious of all afflictions of the citrus ... Proposed names include Liberibacter, also seen as Candidatus Liberibacter. Citrus Greening Disease is spread by insects; Citrus ...
Insects serve as vectors for disease. The Asian Citrus Psyllid, for example, has proven to be a detrimental pest to the citrus ... Many wonder why pest control is important - two major reasons are:. * Insects damage crop quality and profitability ... So, what makes beneficial insects different from pests? Beneficial Insects. Beneficial insects are bugs that aid in pollination ... Pests. Less than three percent of bugs are labeled as "pests", but this small figure still accounts for major concerns for ...
"Asian citrus psyllid", ACP, Diaphorina citri, such that the pathogen causes little or no harm to the insect, but causes a major ... Status as pests[edit]. Citrus greening, also known as huanglongbing, associated with the presence of a bacterium Liberibacter ... Insect genomics provides important information on the genetic basis of the pests biology which may be altered to suppress ... "Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening ...
Pest poses major threat to Valley. Dillard, Gabriel // Business Journal Serving Fresno & the Central San Joaquin Valley;1/30/ ... The article provides information on the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, the insect carrier of the deadly citrus ... The article reports that the citrus industry in California is facing a major threat in form of the Asian citrus psyllid, an ... citri (Xac) causes citrus canker disease, a major threat to citrus production worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that ...
... protecting plants from damage caused by insect pests, weeds or disease.. Phytelligence Steps In To Solve Florida Citrus ... Major milestone achieved towards agri-tourism project emphasizing educational, recreational and economic benefits to community. ... Phytelligence Expands Capabilities to Include Citrus, Sets Sights on Florida Operation. Global Aquafeed Market to Proliferate ... Agriculture Chemical Markets in China Growing at Rapid Pace and Continued to be Major Market for Fe ...
Asian citrus psyllid, ACP, Diaphorina citri, such that the pathogen causes little or no harm to the insect, but causes a major ... Insect genomics provides important information on the genetic basis of the pests biology which may be altered to suppress ... Creatures » … » Animals » … » Arthropods » … » Hexapods » Insects » Winged Insects » … » Hemipterans » Plant Lice » …. ... Insects » Winged Insects » Neoptera » Paraneoptera » Hemipterans » Plant Lice » Jumping Plant Louse « ...
... the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), whiteflies and other pest insects [45,46,47,48]. Like most fungal pathogens, I. ... Fungal pathogens of insects are found within every ecosystem and all major fungal lineages with the principal exception of the ... Broad spectrum potential of Isaria fumosorosea against insect pests of citrus. Sci. Notes 2011, 94, 1051-1054. [Google Scholar] ... Ortiz-Urquiza, A.; Keyhani, N. Action on the surface: Entomopathogenic fungi versus the insect cuticle. Insects 2013, 4, 357- ...
Bactrocera dorsalis) and the native Ceratitis species constitute serious pests and major impediment to Citrus production in ... This was despite the use of a variety of insecticides locally available to manage other vegetable insect pests. In this study, ... When an insect vectors a persistently transmitted plant virus, this virus should pass through the insect gut into the ... Future research on the management of this pest should focus on developing a biocontrol based integrated pest management system. ...
The worlds most abundant creatures are the insects, whose known species outnumber all the other animals and the plants ... Many insects are invaluable as predators on insects that are pests to humans. In the same way, plant-eating insects are often ... Scientists have succeeded in controlling harmful insects by first determining the major predators or parasites of that insect ... A classic example is the cottony cushion scale, which threatened the survival of the California citrus industry in 1886. The ...
There are no major disease or insect pests known (although Im sure the corpus of Shepherdia research is hardly exhaustive). ... Citrus. Citrus: A History. (Lazslo). Grapes. Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture. (McGovern). P9-15: The ... APPLES - BRAMBLES - CITRUS - GRAPES - NUTS - PAWPAWS - PEARS - PERSIMMONS - STONE FRUITS - STRAWBERRIES - FORUM. ... Sure, its spiny, but that didnt stop blackberries or citrus or gooseberries from catching on (okay, so gooseberries havent ...
Many moths and their caterpillars are major agricultural pests in large parts of the world. Moths in the family Tineidae are ... Citrus, (Orange, Grapefruits, Lemons, Limes, etc). *Ulmus americana, (American Elm). Order Lepidoptera: Moths. Unlike the ... Insects & Spiders , Moths Index , Moths , Butterflies Main , Butterflies Index , Skippers Live adult moths and caterpillars ... What a thrill to see & hold such a gigantic insect ! The polyphemus moth caterpillar (larval form) was also photographed at ...
Historically, pest management of both armored- and soft-scale insects in Florida citrus has been based on highly successful ... Scale Insects. There are two major groups of scale insects, soft scales and armored scales. Soft scales generally attain a ... This section is focused on sucking insects that affect foliage, twigs, and fruit of citrus in Florida. Insects covered here ... Information on the Asian citrus psyllid and Citrus Leafminer can be found in separate chapters of the Citrus Production Guide. ...
Citrus Red Mites. Like most mites, the citrus red mite is an extremely tiny pest, only 1/50th of an inch long and red or purple ... For major outbreaks spray the tree with either Bug Buster or Trounce. The spray should be directed at the undersides of the ... Citrus Insects & Diseases Citrus Insects & Diseases. Citrus Diseases. Citrus Canker. Citrus canker is a highly contagious ... Citrus Whitefly. The citrus whitefly is a tiny white winged insect that is about 1/12 of an inch in length. It is most commonly ...
Chlorpyrifos is critical for controlling pests on citrus fruits, corn, cotton, soybeans, sugar beets, and wheat, Dow says. ... "This is a major shift in pesticide regulation, and there are major potential impacts-the cost to our food supply, to our ... "The sustained importance of chlorpyrifos for global insect pest management is due to its outstanding efficacy and favorable ... "Products containing chlorpyrifos protect more than 50 food crops from damage and destruction due to a variety of insect pests ...
  • Our results suggest that the sterile insect technique would not be effective but support previous conclusions that pheromones may be effective attractants in this species because both females and males mate multiple times in the field. (bioone.org)
  • B. tryoni is a very serious pest of a wide variety of fruits throughout its range. (cabi.org)
  • B. tryoni , the Queensland fruit fly, is the most costly horticultural pest in Australia and has invaded several countries in the surrounding region ( White and Elson-Harris, 1994 ). (cabi.org)
  • The Citrus Industry: Crop protection, postharvest technology, and early history of citrus research in California. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many citrus growers rely heavily on crop protection to help control and prevent pest damage to valuable fruit. (dowagro.com)
  • Application of alternative methods of chemical control of pests in frames of Integrated Crop Production. (nagref-cha.gr)
  • Tests of new products which have been carried out for the control of crop pests of the area resulted in the reduction of chemicals used for this purpose. (nagref-cha.gr)
  • This could lead to uncharted waters for a food crop like citrus. (westernfarmpress.com)
  • An inadequate supply of Ca and/or S can be a major constraint to crop production and quality. (ufl.edu)
  • Strong advances in crop rotation and polyculture have been employed to improve soil coverage and quality, control harmful pests and diseases and increase production. (radiohc.cu)
  • If this insect becomes widely distributed in the United States it could cause annual crop losses in excess of $3 billion (Holt 2006). (ufl.edu)
  • 2000). This proposal aims to continue the important work of the past seven Southern Region biological control research projects (S-192, S-238, S-267, SDC-319, SDC-351, S-1034, and S-1058) and expand the effort to develop novel pest management technologies for both crop and environmental protection. (nimss.org)
  • We also need to take claims that genes are not available to crop breeders against pests like citrus greening with a grain of salt. (ucsusa.org)
  • Pesticides are substances or a mixture of substances, of chemical or biological origin, used by human society to mitigate or repel pests such as bacteria, nematodes, insects, mites, mollusks, birds, rodents, and other organisms that affect food production or human health. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to ionizing radiation [ 1 ] to destroy microorganisms , bacteria , viruses , or insects that might be present in the food. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Biological control is a key component of a 'systems approach' to integrated pest management, to counteract insecticide-resistant pests, withdrawal of chemicals and minimize the usage of pesticides. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It synthesizes the information on the effects of various factors affecting soil pest occurrence and damage, suggesting that the resultant undesirable effects of soil pests in this region are largely as a result of indiscriminate tree cutting, slash‐and‐burn agriculture and indiscriminate use of pesticides. (deepdyve.com)
  • Citrus scale control can be accomplished with the use of pesticides, biological control via the introduction of indigenous parasitic wasps ( Metaphycus luteolus, M. stanleyi, M. nietneri, M. helvolus , and Coccophagus ) and an organically approved petroleum spray, such as 440 oil Pure Spray Green. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • However, major economic and environmental losses occur through the indiscriminate use of pesticides to control pest insects, including scale insects. (unesp.br)
  • The key to man's health lies largely in his environment & often man is responsible for the pollution of his environment through urbanization, industrialization and other human activities for example commercial agriculture and garden pest control etc. by using pesticides. (omicsonline.org)
  • In the same zones, three orchards were used to evaluate the efficacy of selected pesticides on the homopteran pests. (ac.ke)
  • It can move about a metre but may also be dispersed to other plants by wind, flying insects and birds as well as human activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The explosive diversification of the flowering plants in the Cretaceous was paralleled by a massive diversification of associated insects, and many of the morphological and metabolic characters that the flowering plants exhibit may have evolved as defenses against herbivorous insects . (wikipedia.org)
  • Insect-plant interactions have been important in defining models of coevolution and cospeciation, referring to whether plant speciation drives insect speciation and vice versa, though most herbivorous insects probably evolved long after the plants on which they feed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome of Citrus Plants in Response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’-Infection and Antibiotic Treatments. (ebscohost.com)
  • The bacterial microbiomes of citrus plants were characterized in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm) by Phylochip-based metagenomics. (ebscohost.com)
  • These insects differ from each other in their biology, generation times, and injury to plants, but approaches to monitoring and management are similar. (ufl.edu)
  • Sulfur is a major component of soil organic matter and becomes available to plants as organic matter decomposes. (ufl.edu)
  • What are the Types of Scale on Citrus Plants? (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • There are two major types of scale on citrus plants: armored scales and soft scales. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • Types of scale on citrus plants in the soft scale group are Caribbean Black Scale and Cottony Cushion Scale. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • The aroma and flavor compound S-Linalool, a naturally occurring chemical in scented plants, is also a major component of the oils found in coriander. (news-medical.net)
  • It could have been transmitted by an insect to citrus in a European settlement on the east coast of Africa and then taken to the Indian subcontinent in infected plants or budwood 300 to 500 years ago, and then into China later. (apsnet.org)
  • Plants, where there are aphids farmed by ants, may appear to be overrun by insects. (drkrishi.com)
  • Insect-resistant transgenic P. nigra plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using the CryIA(c) gene (Tian et al. (kelmacmedical.us)
  • The warm, mild weather of March prompts rapid growth of plants as well as visits from insect pests. (cvwd.org)
  • The insects are native to Asia and most likely came to the United States as unintentional international travelers on plants brought into the country. (iastate.edu)
  • Eggs are deposited as white, cottony masses, called ovisacs, on the trunk and stems of citrus plants, giving the appearance of cotton spread on the plant ( Figure 1 ). (ufl.edu)
  • Citrus mealybug feeding results in wilted, distorted, and yellowed chlorotic leaves, premature leaf drop, stunted growth, and occasional death of infested plants or plant parts. (ufl.edu)
  • Hemipterans feeding on resistant plants also show changes in insect sRNA profiles, possibly influencing insect development and reproduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, this insect could cause indirect damages due to the transfection of virus between plants, which produces a decreased sugar content and diminished pigmentation, reducing the productivity and altering the quality of the grape [ 11 , 12 ]. (rroij.com)
  • 2011). Additionally, biological control is needed to manage an abundance of pests and weeds in natural areas without harming non-target and beneficial organisms (Landis et al. (nimss.org)
  • A high level of biological control of new and established arthropod pests and weeds has been achieved in the region. (nimss.org)
  • Homer referred to the use of sulfur to fumigate homes and by 900 c.e. the Chinese were using arsenic to control garden pests. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chillies have been used to repel garden pests, to stop barnacles on boats, as an aphrodisiac and as a cure for sore throats and varicose ulcers. (hotsauceblog.com)
  • Entomology - Study of insects. (wikibooks.org)
  • A unique exhibition, It's Bugged: Insects' Role in Design , set Jan. 8-April 22 at the UC Davis Design Museum, explores the connections between people and insects, and includes work by Department of Design faculty and graduate students, as well as displays from the Bohart Museum of Entomology . (ucdavis.edu)
  • The formula that makes the incognito mosquito repellent can not only repel mosquitos but also a wide arrange of insects that are common to bite you. (discount-age.co.uk)
  • however, it is the vector of a serious bacterial diseasecalled citrus greening (CGD) ( Liberobacter spp. (mgonline.com)
  • Data from greenhouse and field studies, electron microscopy, and insect vector studies ultimately led to the isolation and characterization of maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) in 1971. (nap.edu)
  • This study further critiques existing soil pest management practices, showing that majority of soil pest management practices are ineffective. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus, management strategies like "attract and kill" approach based on entomopathogenic fungi need to be studied, developed and emphasized for the management of soil insect pests in sub‐Saharan Africa. (deepdyve.com)
  • A conclusion section attempts to offer suggestions for ways in which future work on soil pests in sub‐Saharan Africa could proceed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Imidacloprid is used to control sucking insects, some chewing insects including termites, soil insects, and fleas on pets. (yi256.cn)
  • Owned by U.S. Sugar, Southern Gardens owns and/or manages 16,500 net acres of citrus groves in Southern Hendry County. (westernfarmpress.com)
  • 1999). However, C. ingenuus appears to be rare in citrus groves outside the Homestead area (Hoy and Nguyen, unpublished). (ufl.edu)
  • The citrus whitefly lays yellow eggs with a surface which is nearly smooth, distinguishing them from eggs of the cloudywinged whitefly which are yellow when freshly laid, but soon turn black and have a surface that is netted with a system of ridges. (ufl.edu)
  • After mating, the female Lime butterfly lays here eggs singly on the topside of the host leaves, especially of the Citrus plant. (jaycjayc.com)
  • In the Western Cape province of South Africa, codling moth ( Cydia pomonella ) is the most important lepidopteran pest of apples and pears. (bioone.org)
  • Generally one application of Liquid Copper is adequate for sooty mold control, but a second application about 14 days later may be required in major outbreaks. (treehelp.com)
  • Similarly, in South Africa, the ant has encouraged outbreaks of the red scale insect ( Aonidiella aurantii ), a major pest of citrus in the country. (drkrishi.com)
  • In the years since, aphids have caused soybean farmers major headaches by reducing yields by 40 percent during outbreaks and leading to a 130 percent increase in insecticide use in affected fields. (iastate.edu)
  • To control the insects and prevent the secretion of their honeydew discharge, spray the tree with Bug Buster Insecticide . (treehelp.com)
  • CDC biologists have found nootkatone to be an effective repellent and insecticide for use against ticks (i.e., the blacklegged tick) and other insects, including Aedes mosquitoes that spread Zika and other viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Insecticide - Chemical substance used for killing insects. (wikibooks.org)
  • Carbaryl, the first carbamate insecticide, acts on nervous transmissions in insects also through effects on cholinesterase by blocking acetylcholine receptors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once the scale are sedentary and feeding, a mix of systemic insecticide and pest oil seem to be most effective. (gardensonline.com.au)
  • Eco friendly Insecticide Prallethrin to mosquito repellent has high vapor pressure and powerful swift knockdown action to mosquitoes flies etc It is used for making coil mat etc It can also be formulated into spray insect killer aerosol insect killer It is a yellow or yellow brown liquid V P 4 67 10 3Pa 20 density d4. (sentonpharm.com)
  • Hot Agrochemical Etofenprox is a white powder insecticide which disturbs insect nervous systems following direct contact or ingestion and which is active against a broad spectrum of pests It is used in agriculture horticulture viticulture forestry animal health and public health against many insect pests for instance. (sentonpharm.com)
  • Imidacloprid 25% WP is a neonicotinoid insecticide that controls insects by attacking their nervous system. (yi256.cn)
  • It acts as an insecticide by affecting the nervous system of and paralyzing insects. (orst.edu)
  • Aonidiella aurantii or red scale is an armored scale insect and a major pest of citrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The female scale insect has a circular, brownish-red cover about 1.8 millimetres in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The male scale insect develops similarly until after the second moult when it becomes oval and darker than the female, measuring about one millimetre in diameter with an eccentric cover. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mummified corpse of the scale insect, with black meconium deposits inside, usually remains stuck to the host plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The insect itself is visible through the cover and has an oval body which becomes kidney-shaped at the last instar stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nymphs, after the first instar, are flattened, oval, and are similar in appearance to the early instars of the unarmored scale insects. (ufl.edu)
  • In the 18th centuryOverview, and Distribution, a severe problem in citrus in the central provinces of India called "dieback" was described (17). (apsnet.org)
  • Bactrocera minax is a major citrus pest distributed in China, Bhutan and India. (ijbs.com)
  • Amorentia Estate bied tans drie kultivars: een met wit vlees (Amorentia Sweet White), een met pienk vlees (Amorentia Sweet Ballet) en 'n derde met dieppienk of cerise vlees (Amorentia Sweet India). (issuu.com)
  • Functional trait and community phylogenetic analyses reveal environmental filtering as the major determinant of assembly of tropical forest tree communities in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot in India. (concordia.ca)
  • This insect was recovered from a dying Canary Islands palm in a residential property and has been declared by FAO to be the world's most destructive palm pest. (ucr.edu)