The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DR antigens. They are also referred to as the HLA-DR heavy chains.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DR antigens. They are also referred to as the HLA-DR light chains.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.

Natural variation of the expression of HLA and endogenous antigen modulates CTL recognition in an in vitro melanoma model. (1/2910)

Increasing attention has been devoted to elucidating the mechanism of lost or decreased expression of MHC or melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs), which may lead to tumor escape from immune recognition. Loss of expression of HLA class I or MAA has, as an undisputed consequence, loss of recognition by HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). However, the relevance of down-regulation remains in question in terms of frequency of occurrence. Moreover the functional significance of epitope down-regulation, defining the relationship between MHC/epitope density and CTL interactions, is a matter of controversy, particularly with regard to whether the noted variability of expression of MHC/epitope occurs within a range likely to affect target recognition by CTLs. In this study, bulk metastatic melanoma cell lines originated from 25 HLA-A*0201 patients were analyzed for expression of HLA-A2 and MAAs. HLA-A2 expression was heterogeneous and correlated with lysis by CTLs. Sensitivity to lysis was also independently affected by the amount of ligand available for binding at concentrations of 0.001 to 1 mM. Natural expression of MAA was variable, independent from the expression of HLA-A*0201, and a significant co-factor determining recognition of melanoma targets. Thus, the naturally occurring variation in the expression of MAA and/or HLA documented by our in vitro results modulates recognition of melanoma targets and may (i) partially explain CTL-target interactions in vitro and (ii) elucidate potential mechanisms for progressive escape of tumor cells from immune recognition in vivo.  (+info)

Major histocompatibility complex differentiation in Sacramento River chinook salmon. (2/2910)

The chinook salmon of the Sacramento River, California, have been reduced to a fraction of their former abundance because of human impact and use of the river system. Here we examine the genetic variation at a major histocompatibility complex class II exon in the four Sacramento chinook salmon runs. Examination of the alleles found in these and other chinook salmon revealed nucleotide patterns consistent with selection for amino acid replacement at the putative antigen-binding sites. We found a significant amount of variation in each of the runs, including the federally endangered winter run. All of the samples were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. A significant amount of genetic differentiation between runs was revealed by several measures of differentiation. Winter run was the most genetically divergent, while the spring, late-fall, and fall runs were less differentiated.  (+info)

Maturation, activation, and protection of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA. (3/2910)

The initiation of an immune response is critically dependent on the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). This process is triggered by surface receptors specific for inflammatory cytokines or for conserved patterns characteristic of infectious agents. Here we show that human DCs are activated by influenza virus infection and by double-stranded (ds)RNA. This activation results not only in increased antigen presentation and T cell stimulatory capacity, but also in resistance to the cytopathic effect of the virus, mediated by the production of type I interferon, and upregulation of MxA. Because dsRNA stimulates both maturation and resistance, DCs can serve as altruistic antigen-presenting cells capable of sustaining viral antigen production while acquiring the capacity to trigger naive T cells and drive polarized T helper cell type 1 responses.  (+info)

CD45 can act as a negative regulator for the transition from early to late CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes. (4/2910)

The differentiation process from CD4-CD8- double-negative (DN) thymocytes to CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) stage is accompanied by vigorous proliferation. The resulting DP cells contain a sizable proportion of large cycling cells, but most DP cells are small resting cells. To explore the molecular mechanisms which regulate cell proliferation of DP thymocytes prior to further development, we used TCR-transgenic (Tg) mice with non-selecting MHC (Tg-Neut), which contain almost exclusively DP thymocytes that are not subject to either positive or negative selection. In Tg-Neut, the thymus contained DP cells of relatively large size, which showed higher extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity and enhanced responsiveness to mitogen compared to small DP cells. This indicates that all the large DP cells in the thymus are not positively selected and that they possess proliferative potential. When Tg-Neut mice were backcrossed with CD45 knockout mice (CD454-/- Tg-Neut), the thymus showed an increase of large DP cells and cycling cells, but a decrease of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Bcl-2 expression and Jun N-terminal kinase activity, which are associated with resistance to apoptosis, were enhanced. These observations suggest that thymocyte proliferation in the DP stage is suppressed by a CD45-related process with regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Bcl-2 unless DP cells receive TCR-mediated signals.  (+info)

Cellular distribution of a mixed MHC class II heterodimer between DRalpha and a chimeric DObeta chain. (5/2910)

Human MHC class II antigens include HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP molecules that present antigens to CD4+ T cells, as well as the non-classical molecules HLA-DM and -DO. HLA-DM promotes peptide binding to class II molecules in endocytic compartments and HLA-DO, which is physically associated with HLA-DM in B lymphocytes, regulates HLA-DM function. Antibodies specific for the DObeta chain were obtained by immunization of mice with a heterodimer consisting of a chimeric DObeta chain (DR/DObeta), containing 18 N-terminal residues of DRbeta, paired with the DRalpha chain and isolated from transfected murine fibroblasts. The specificity of this serum for the DObeta chain and the lysosomal expression of the HLA-DO protein was confirmed using mutant human B cell lines lacking DR or DO molecules. The lysosomal localization of HLA-DO in human B cells contrasts with the cell surface expression of the mixed pair in transfected murine fibroblasts and raises questions concerning the role of the putative targeting motifs in HLA-DO. Transfection of the chimeric DR/DObeta chain along with DRalpha into human epithelial HeLa cells resulted in high levels of expression of the mixed isotypic pair at the surface of transfectants as well as in lysosomes. The same pattern was observed in HeLa cells transfected with the DObeta chimera and a DRa chain lacking the cytoplasmic tail. Taken together, these results suggest that functional sorting motifs exist in the DObeta chain but that the tight compartmentalization of HLA-DO observed inside B lymphocytes is controlled by the HLA-DOalpha chain and HLA-DM.  (+info)

Localization of non-Mhc collagen-induced arthritis susceptibility loci in DBA/1j mice. (6/2910)

One approach to understanding common human diseases is to determine the genetic defects responsible for similar diseases in animal models and place those defective genes in their corresponding biochemical pathways. Our laboratory is working with an animal model for human rheumatoid arthritis called collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We are particularly interested in determining the location of disease-predisposing loci. To that end, we performed experiments to localize susceptibility loci for CIA in an F2 cross between the highly susceptible mouse strain DBA/1j and the highly resistant mouse strain SWR/j. Specifically, a quantitative trait locus analysis was performed to localize regions of the mouse genome responsible for susceptibility/severity to CIA. One susceptibility locus, Cia1 in the major histocompatibility locus, had been identified previously. Two additional loci were detected in our analysis that contribute to CIA severity (Cia2, Cia3) on chromosomes 2 and 6. A third locus was detected that contributes to the age of onset of the disease. This locus (Cia4) was located on chromosome 2 and was linked to the same region as Cia2. Determining the identity of these loci may provide insights into the etiology of human rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

Activation of target-tissue immune-recognition molecules by double-stranded polynucleotides. (7/2910)

Abnormal expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II in various tissues is associated with autoimmune disease. Autoimmune responses can be triggered by viral infections or tissue injuries. We show that the ability of a virus or a tissue injury to increase MHC gene expression is duplicated by any fragment of double-stranded (ds) DNA or dsRNA introduced into the cytoplasm of nonimmune cells. Activation is sequence-independent, is induced by ds polynucleotides as small as 25 bp in length, and is not duplicated by single-stranded polynucleotides. In addition to causing abnormal MHC expression, the ds nucleic acids increase the expression of genes necessary for antigen processing and presentation: proteasome proteins (e.g., LMP2), transporters of antigen peptides; invariant chain, HLA-DM, and the costimulatory molecule B7.1. The mechanism is different from and additive to that of gamma-interferon (gammaIFN), i.e., ds polynucleotides increase class I much more than class II, whereas gammaIFN increases class II more than class I. The ds nucleic acids also induce or activate Stat1, Stat3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, NF-kappaB, the class II transactivator, RFX5, and the IFN regulatory factor 1 differently from gammaIFN. CpG residues are not responsible for this effect, and the action of the ds polynucleotides could be shown in a variety of cell types in addition to thyrocytes. We suggest that this phenomenon is a plausible mechanism that might explain how viral infection of tissues or tissue injury triggers autoimmune disease; it is potentially relevant to host immune responses induced during gene therapy.  (+info)

Genetic control of cytolytic T-lymphocyte responses. I. Ir gene control of the specificity of cytolytic T-lymphocyte responses to trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic cells. (8/2910)

The ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) induced in vitro to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified syngeneic cells to cross-reactively lyse a TNP allogeneic spleen target varies among inbred mouse strains. The cross-reactive CTL phenotype was found to be histocompatibility 2 (H-2) linked and to be dominant in F1 hybrid mice. All strains investigated demonstrated cross-reactivity except for some strains bearing portions of the H-2k haplotype. The gene(s) controlling this response maps to the K and/or I-A region of the H-2 complex. We have termed the immune response (Ir) gene responsible for controlling the specificity of CTL induced to TNP-modified syngeneic cells Ir-X-TNP.  (+info)

article{418b5550-2321-4395-ab0c-946f90945ceb, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To characterize the arthritis-modulating effects of 3 non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in rat experimental arthritis in the disease-resistant E3 strain, and to investigate the disease-modulating effects of the MHC region (RT1) in various genetic backgrounds. METHODS: A congenic fragment containing Ncf1 along with congenic fragments containing the strongest remaining loci, Pia5/Cia3 and Pia7/Cia13 on chromosome 4, were transferred from the arthritis-susceptible DA strain into the background of the completely resistant E3 strain. The arthritis-regulatory potential of the transferred alleles was evaluated by comparing the susceptibility to experimental arthritis in congenic rats with that in E3 rats. The RT1(u) haplotype from the E3 strain was transferred into the susceptible DA strain (RT1(av1)), and various F(1) and F(2) hybrids were generated to assess the effects of RT1 on arthritis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The transmembrane sequence of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C as a determinant in inhibition of a subset of natural killer cells. AU - Davis, Daniel M.. AU - Mandelboim, Ofer. AU - Luque, Isabel. AU - Baba, Eishi. AU - Boyson, Jonathan. AU - Strominger, Jack L.. PY - 1999/4/19. Y1 - 1999/4/19. N2 - Molecular interactions with the extracellular domains of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins are major determinants of immune recognition that have been extensively studied both physically and biochemically. However, no immunological function has yet been placed on the transmembrane or cytoplasmic amino acid sequences of these proteins despite strict conservation of unique features within each class I major histocompatibility complex locus. Here we report that lysis by a subset of natural killer (NK) cells inhibited by target cell expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw6 or -Cw7 was not inhibited by expression of chimeric ...
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease that serves as an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Oral administration of myelin basic protein (MBP) suppresses EAE by inducing peripheral tolerance. T cell clones were isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of SJL mice that had been orally tolerized to MBP. These clones were CD4+ and were structurally identical to T helper cell type 1 (TH1) encephalitogenic CD4+ clones in T cell receptor usage, major histocompatibility complex restriction, and epitope recognition. However, they produced transforming growth factor-beta with various amounts of interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 and suppressed EAE induced with either MBP or proteolipid protein. Thus, mucosally derived TH2-like clones induced by oral antigen can actively regulate immune responses in vivo and may represent a different subset of T cells. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RhCMV serostatus and vaccine adjuvant impact immunogenicity of RhCMV/SIV vaccines. AU - Chang, W. L.William. AU - Deere, Jesse D.. AU - Kieu, Hung T.. AU - Castillo, Luis D.. AU - Machmach, Kawthar. AU - Shen, Xiaoying. AU - Tomaras, Georgia D.. AU - Shacklett, Barbara. AU - Barry, Peter A.. AU - Hartigan-OConnor, Dennis J.. AU - Sparger, Ellen Elizabeth. PY - 2020/12/1. Y1 - 2020/12/1. N2 - Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) strain 68-1-vectored simian immunodeficiency virus (RhCMV/SIV) vaccines are associated with complete clearance of pathogenic SIV challenge virus, non-canonical major histocompatibility complex restriction, and absent antibody responses in recipients previously infected with wild-type RhCMV. This report presents the first investigation of RhCMV/SIV vaccines in RhCMV-seronegative macaques lacking anti-vector immunity. Fifty percent of rhesus macaques (RM) vaccinated with a combined RhCMV-Gag, -Env, and -Retanef (RTN) vaccine controlled pathogenic SIV challenge ...
We have previously shown that Kb-restricted and peptide-specific CTLs can be detected among BALB/c splenocytes. Such cells were very rare and were obscured by many alloreactive cells recognizing the target cells in a peptide-independent manner. We had to deplete such cells in order to generate several peptide-specific CTL lines (27). Similar protocols have been successfully used to deplete graft-versus-host activity without compromising the graft-versus-leukemia effect of allogeneic PBLs in bone marrow transplantation (35)(36)(37). However, since we (data not shown) and others (38) had difficulty generating allorestricted CTLs against individual peptides when CTLs and target cells were completely allogeneic to each other, we wished to analyze the spectrum of CTL precursors specific for allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes in closely related versus unrelated MHC combinations. Our results show that an alloresponse against a related MHC molecule contains more peptide-specific T cells than a response ...
The major histocompatibility complex in sexual selection concerns how major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules allow for immune system surveillance of the population of protein molecules in a hosts cells. In 1976, Yamazaki et al. demonstrated a sexual selection mate choice by male mice for females of a different MHC. Major histocompatibility complex genes, which control the immune response and effective resistance against pathogens, have been able to maintain an extremely high level of allelic diversity throughout time and throughout different populations. Studies suggest that the MHC is involved in mate choice for many vertebrates through olfactory cues. There are several proposed hypotheses that address how MHC-associated mating preferences could be adaptive and how the MHC has maintained its enormous allelic diversity. The vast source of genetic variation affecting an organisms fitness stems from the co-evolutionary arms race between hosts and parasites. There are two nonmutually ...
Human atheromata, but not normal blood vessels, contain numerous smooth muscle cells (SMC) that bear class II major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens. These lesions also contain leukocytes that can secrete cytokines, which may modulate SMC functions. Because of morphologic evidence for immune-activated (class II+) SMC in vascular lesions, we studied the regulation by cytokines of MHC gene expression in SMC cultured from human vessels. Under basal conditions, these SMC contained mRNA for class I MHC (detected by Northern blotting with a cDNA probe for HLA-B7) and expressed surface class I MHC product determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay with monoclonal antibody (MAb) W6/32. Unstimulated SMC contained little or no class II MHC mRNA (probed with HLA-DR alpha cDNA) or surface antigen (examined using MAb I2). Secretory products of activated human leukocytes (the cell-free supernatant of a mixed leukocyte reaction) induced class II MHC antigen expression by SMC after 3 days. Treatment of SMC with ...
does MHC class III genes encode Interleukin Beta microglobulinc Tumor necro MHC class III genes encodes proteins of classic and alternate complement pathways (C2 and C4, properdin factor B), soluble proteins, tumor necrosis factors (TNF alpha, beta), HSP 70 and the 21 hydroxy
Molecular mapping of the human major histocompatibility complex. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Evans, G A.; Margulies, D H.; Camerini, otero R.; Ozato, K; and Seidman, J G., Structure and expression of a mouse major histocompatibility antigen gene, h-2ld. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3084 ...
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
The genes of the major histocompatibility complex are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates, with more than 1,000 alleles described in human populations. How this polymorphism is maintained, however, remains an evolutionary puzzle. Major histocompatibility complex genes have a crucial function in the adaptive immune system by presenting parasite-derived antigens to T lymphocytes. Because of this function, varying parasite-mediated selection has been proposed as a major evolutionary force for maintaining major histocompatibility complex polymorphism. A necessary prerequisite of such a balancing selection process is rapid major histocompatibility complex allele frequency shifts resulting from emerging selection by a specific parasite. Here we show in six experimental populations of sticklebacks, each exposed to one of two different parasites, that only those major histocompatibility complex alleles providing resistance to the respective specific parasite increased in frequency in the next host ...
The present study has evaluated the identity of the B cell subpopulations participating in T dependent antibody responses that differ in their requirements for major histocompatibility complex-restricted T cell recognition. In vitro responses of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-primed T cells and trinitrophenyl (TNP)-primed B cells were studied to both low and high concentrations of the antigen TNP-KLH. It was first demonstrated that for responses to low concentrations of TNP-KLH, (A × B)F(1) {arrow} parent(A) chimeric helper T cells were restricted in their ability to recognize parent(A) but not parent(B) H-2 determinants expressed by both B cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC). In contrast, at higher antigen concentrations, helper T cells were not restricted in their interaction with B cells. It was then determined whether these observed differences in T cell recognition resulted from the activation of distinct B cell subpopulations with different activation requirements. At low ...
Our data suggest that these are naive T cell responses, and that the identification of T cell epitopes involved in the generation of anti-Ro/La autoantibodies should focus on alternative candidate antigens.. Between 30% and 40% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 70-80% of patients with primary Sjögrens syndrome (primary SS) have anti-52-kd/60-kd Ro/SSA and or/anti-La/SSB antibodies (1). These antibodies are class switched and somatically hypermutated, implying a T cell-dependent process. Furthermore, 80-90% of patients with these antibodies possess the HLA-DR3/DQ2 major histocompatibility complex haplotype (1), suggesting that T cells responding to peptides presented by these HLA molecules are involved in the generation of these autoantibodies.. The most likely T cell antigens are those targeted by the autoantibodies or closely linked carrier proteins (2). Helsloot and Sturgess (3) previously identified a precursor frequency of La-specific T cells of 1:103,000 to ...
To extend the understanding of host genetic determinants of HIV-1 control, we performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 2,554 infected Caucasian subjects. The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point. We provide overwhelming confirmation of three associations previously reported in a genome-wide study and show further independent effects of both common and rare variants in the Major Histocompatibility Complex region (MHC). We also examined the polymorphisms reported in previous candidate gene studies and fail to support a role for any variant outside of the MHC or the chemokine receptor cluster on chromosome 3. In addition, we evaluated functional variants, copy-number polymorphisms, epistatic interactions, and biological pathways. This study thus represents a comprehensive assessment of common human genetic variation in HIV-1 control in Caucasians.
Balagunaseelan, Navisraj, 2012. Identification and studies of MHC class III genes in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. Second cycle, A1N, A1F or AXX ( AXX). Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression profiles for genes in the Turkey major histocompatibility complex B-locus. AU - Monson, M. S.. AU - Mendoza, K. M.. AU - Velleman, S. G.. AU - Strasburg, G. M.. AU - Reed, K. M.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors thank Sally Noll (UMN, St. Paul, MN) and the Willmar Poultry Co. (Willmar, MN) for providing access to domestic turkey tissue and blood samples. The authors thank Miranda Bauer (UMN, St. Paul, MN) for assistance with sample collection and RNA isolation from some OSU and Willmar samples and Kelly Sporer (MSU, East Lansing, MI) for RNA ex- traction and DNase treatment of MSU muscle samples. This research was funded by USDA-Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative Grants #2005-01326 and 2009-35205-05302.. PY - 2013/6. Y1 - 2013/6. N2 - The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly polymorphic region of the genome essential to immune responses and animal health. In galliforms, the MHC is divided into 2 ...
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that initiate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of foreign antigens to T cells. The high polymorphism found at these genes, thought to be promoted and maintained by pathogen-mediated selection, contrasts with the limited number of MHC loci found in most vertebrates. Although expressing many diverse MHC genes should broaden the range of detectable pathogens, it has been hypothesized to also cause deletion of larger fractions of self-reactive T cells, leading to a detrimental reduction of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. However, a key prediction of this TCR depletion hypothesis, that the TCR repertoire should be inversely related to the individual MHC diversity, has never been tested. Here, using high-throughput sequencing and advanced sequencing error correction, we provide evidence of such an association in a rodent species with high interindividual variation in the number of expressed MHC molecules, the bank ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 14517277. J. Exp. Med. 2003 Oct;198(7):1089-102. The exact role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the peripheral survival of naive T cells is controversial, as some studies have suggested that they are critically required whereas others have suggested that they are not. Here we controlled for some of the features that differed among the earlier studies, and analyzed both the survival and expansion of naive CD4+ T cells transferred into MHC syngeneic, allogeneic, or MHC negative environments. We found that naive T cells transferred into MHC negative or allogeneic environments often fail to survive because of rejection and/or competition by natural killer (NK) cells, rather than failure to recognize a particular MHC allele. In the absence of NK cells, naive CD4+ T cells survived equally well regardless of the MHC type of the host. There was, however, an MHC requirement for extensive space-induced homeostatic expansion. Although the first few divisions ...
We have analyzed peptides associated with six human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allomorphs expressed by the U937 cell line. Peptides were isolated by mild acid elution or by MHC class I immunoprecipitation by using W6/32 monoclonal antibody. Eighty-five peptides were sequenced by mass spectrometry, and their putative binding alleles were assigned using bioinformatic tools. Only three peptides isolated by the two approaches were identical, suggesting that the approaches may yield distinct partially overlapping peptide populations. Mild acid treatment-derived peptides manifested overall characteristics suggestive of relatively lower affinity of binding for MHC class I. Interestingly, a large proportion of putative HLA-B*5101-binding peptides was evident among the mild acid treatment-eluted peptides, and to a lesser degree in the affinity-purified peptide pool. These results suggest that HLA-B*5101 may bind a potentially large pool of peptides with relatively lower affinity. We suggest
TY - JOUR. T1 - The selection of lymphocytes in the thymus. AU - Fabbi, M.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The thymus is the main site of T cell maturation. Upon seeding, thymus T cell precursors undergo a complex series of maturational events that involve antigen receptor gene assembly by somatic recombination of gene segments. This process is largely stochastic, therefore a mechanism must exist to shape this antigen receptor repertoire in order to achieve both self restriction (defined as the capacity of a T cell to recognise a peptide antigen in the context of self major histocompatibility complex molecules and self tolerance. This outcome is ensured via selection processes that promote the expansion of those thymocytes that see antigen(s) only in the context of self major histocompatibility gene products. In contrast, those cells that do not fulfill these recognition requirements or that recognise auto antigens with high affinity are deleted. This review will focus on the development of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MHC-dependent cytolysis of autologous tumor cells by lymphocytes infiltrating urothelial carcinomas. AU - Housseau, Franck. AU - Zeliszewski, Dominique. AU - Roy, Maguy. AU - Paradis, Valerie. AU - Richon, Sophie. AU - Rigour, Alice. AU - Bougaran, Joelle. AU - Prapotnich, Dominique. AU - Vallancien, Guy. AU - Benoit, Gérard. AU - Desportes, Laurent. AU - Bedossa, Pierre. AU - Hercend, Thierry. AU - Bidart, Jean Michel. AU - Bellet, Dominique. PY - 1997/6/19. Y1 - 1997/6/19. N2 - Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were grown from 23 urothelial carcinomas. Phenotyping analysis showed that the TIL cultures were mainly CD3+. Although CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell sub-sets were grown in culture, CD4+ T-cell sub-sets predominated over CD8+ T cells. Immunohistochemical studies performed on 5 tumor specimens confirmed this observation, and indicated that CD4+ T cells surrounded the tumor islets, whereas CD8+ T lymphocytes were localized among the tumor cells. Five short-term carcinoma cell ...
May play a role in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. A cluster of genes, BAT1-BAT5, has been localized in the vicinity of the genes for TNF alpha and TNF beta. These genes are all within the human major histocompatibility complex class III region. This gene has microsatellite repeats which are associated with the age-at-onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and possibly thought to be involved with the inflammatory process of pancreatic beta-cell destruction during the development of IDDM. This gene is also a candidate gene for the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
The induction of T-cell responses involves the recognition of extrinsic antigen in association with antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), in mice and man, with different T cells recognizing antigen in association with either class I (H-2K/D, HLA-A, B, C) or class II (Ia, HLA-D/DR) MHC antigens. However, the requirement of MHC recognition in the induction of immunological tolerance remains ill defined. With human T helper clones recognizing synthetic peptides of influenza haemagglutinin (HA-1), we have investigated the nature of antigen-induced stimulation, and antigen-induced antigen-specific unresponsiveness, immunological tolerance. Tolerance is not due to cell death, as the cells remain responsive to interleukin-2 and is associated with the loss of T3 antigen from the cell surface. Using monoclonal antibodies to the non-polymorphic regions of human class II antigens to inhibit the induction of T-cell tolerance we report here that induction of tolerance requires the recognition of
Complement component 4B (Chido blood group) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C4B gene.[1] This gene encodes the basic form of complement factor 4, part of the classical activation pathway. The protein is expressed as a single chain precursor which is proteolytically cleaved into a trimer of alpha, beta, and gamma chains prior to secretion. The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha chain may be cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this gene cluster exist, such that individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 copies of this gene. In addition, this gene exists as a long form and a short form due to the presence or absence of a 6.4 kb endogenous HERV-K retrovirus in intron 9. [provided by ...
Gene Information This gene encodes the acidic form of complement factor 4 part of the classical activation pathway. The protein is expressed as a single chain precursor which is proteolytically cleaved into a trimer of alpha beta and gamma chains prior to secretion. The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha chain may be cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and type I diabetes mellitus. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this gene cluster exist such that individuals may have 1 2 or 3 copies of this gene. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq Nov 2011]. ...
LY6G6C belongs to a cluster of leukocyte antigen-6 (LY6) genes located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Members of the LY6 superfamily typically contain 70 to 80 amino acids, including 8 to 10 cysteines. Most LY6 proteins are attached to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that is directly involved in signal transduction (Mallya et al., 2002 [PubMed 12079290]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
Tong, J.C., Tan, T.W., Ranganathan, S. (2004). Modeling the structure of bound peptide ligands to major histocompatibility complex. Protein Science 13 (9) : 2523-2532. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1110/ps. ...
Background: Doherty and Zinkernagel, who discovered that antigen presentation is restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, called HLA in humans), hypothesized that individuals heterozygous at particular MHC ...
HLA-L (major histocompatibility complex, class I, L (pseudogene)), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Detailed description of cellular interactions including MHC classes, HLA, MHC class I gene complex, MHC class II gene complex and MHC Class III gene complex.
histocompatibility genes The genes for antigens that are responsible for the acceptance or rejection of foreign bodies in the form of transplanted tissues (grafts). Source for information on histocompatibility genes: A Dictionary of Plant Sciences dictionary.
begingroup$ yeah... Problem is that trad. analysis looks only at diffs. in exp. between groups. I have done this (anova problem) for the tissues, but I would in addition like an estimate of which genes are expressed above background in which tissues. Thought of doing this by comparing each gene to my background distribution on the same array, asking is this true gene expression value drawn from a distribution with same mean as false background genes?. I could do this, and get a p-value, but the tickle is that I have 3 arrays to ask this question for for each tissue, i.e. I will get 3 pvals for each gene $\endgroup$ - Nightwriter Jan 17 12 at 14:54 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primary structural studies of the Qa-2 alloantigen. T2 - implications for the evolution of the MHC. AU - Soloski, Mark J.. AU - Uhr, Jonathan W.. AU - Vitetta, Ellen S.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - The murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a number of loci encoding cell-surface glycoproteins of molecular weight (MW) 40,000-45,000 which are non-covalently associated with β2-microglobulin. The products of this large multigene family, collectively referred to as class I gene products, include H-2K,-D,-L and -R, which are encoded by the H-2 complex, and Qa-1, -2 and TL, encoded by the Tla region telomeric to H-2 (refs 1-5). Functional studies have shown that the H-2K, -D and -L gene products serve as important self-recognition structures in immune responses6,7; a functional role for the other class I gene products has not been established. Tryptic peptide map comparisons and primary sequence analyses have indicated that H-2K, -D and -L are 70-85% homologous with ...
Lehner B، Semple JI، Brown SE، وآخرون. (2004). Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins encoded within the human MHC class III region. Genomics. 83 (1): 153-67. PMID 14667819. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(03)00235-0. ...
These are gene clusters which are present on the surface of a cell, and which identify that cell as being either native or foreign. They help the organism distinguish invading cells from its own body cells. MHC differences can cause a host organism to reject and attack an organ graft. MHC molecules also bind foreign antigens and present them to the immune system. In humans, MHCs are also known as HLA (human leukocyte antigen) molecules. See also: histocompatibility ...
Aimé C, Laval G, Patin E, Verdu P, Ségurel L, Chaix R, Hegay T, Quintana-Murci L, Heyer E, Austerlitz F. Human genetic data reveal contrasting demographic patterns between sedentary and nomadic populations that predate the emergence of farming. Mol Biol Evol 2013 Dec ;30(12):2629-44. Heyer E, Chaix R, Pavard S., Austerlitz F (2012) Sex-specific behaviors that shape human genomic variation Molecular Ecology Feb ;21(3):597-612. Laurent R, Chaix R (2012) HapMap European American genotypes are compatible with the hypothesis of MHC-dependent mate choice : response to Derti and Roth Bioessays 34 : 871-872. Laurent R, Chaix R (2012). MHC-dependent mate choice in humans : why genomic patterns from the HapMap data support the hypothesis. Bioessays 34 : 267-271. Laurent R, Toupance B, Chaix R (2012) Non-random mate choice in humans : insights from a genome scan Molecular Ecology 21(3) : 587-596. Heyer E, Balaresque P, Jobling MA, Quintana-Murci L, Chaix R, Segurel L, Aldashev A, Hegay T (2009) Genetic ...
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes located within the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 are probably the most polymorphic functional genetic loci studied to date. The...
Immunotherapy is expected to be promising as a next generation cancer therapy. Immunoreceptors are often activated constitutively in cancer cells, however, such levels of ligand expression are not effectively recognized by the native immune system due to tumor microenvironmental adaptation. Studies …
Many of the genes found in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC:HLA region) are subject to extreme polymorphism. HLA polymorphism has been used extensively in solid organ and bone marrow tr
Recombinant protein of human major histocompatibility complex, class I, G (HLA-G), 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
D region B genes. A necessity of any segregation study is the verification of pedigree data. An investigation of ovine DNA fingerprints generated using minisatellite probes 33.6 (Jeffreys et al., 1985b) and pV47-2 (Longmire et al., 1990) revealed the latter to detect the more polymorphic minisatellite population within the ovine genome, with a lower bandsharing probability between unrelated individuals (x = 0.46), and consequently a higher exclusion probability (5.1 x 10⁻³) that any two unrelated individuals will share the same fingerprint. This made pV47-2 a more suitable multilocus probe for ovine pedigree verification than 33.6. A putative Coopworth familys relatedness was investigated. Analysis based on DNA fingerprints generated using 33.6 and pV47-2, indicated that both offspring appeared to be siblings, although non-identical, with initial assignment of these offspring 641/0 and 642/0 to the parents 722/8 and 696/7 appearing correct. However there exists a possibility (between 2.2 - ...
Risk, Association, Gene, Associations, Arthritis, Alleles, Hla-drb1, Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Genes, Histocompatibility, Histocompatibility Complex, Major Histocompatibility Complex, Snps, Patients, Antigen, Linkage Disequilibrium, Population, Risk Factors, Diseases
RefSeq Summary (NM_025262): LY6G5C belongs to a cluster of leukocyte antigen-6 (LY6) genes located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Members of the LY6 superfamily typically contain 70 to 80 amino acids, including 8 to 10 cysteines. Most LY6 proteins are attached to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that is directly involved in signal transduction (Mallya et al., 2002 [PubMed 12079290]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: AJ315542.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: mixed/partial sample support ERS025082, ERS025083 [ECO:0000350] ##Evidence-Data-END# ...
RefSeq Summary (NR_024541): LY6G6E belongs to a cluster of leukocyte antigen-6 (LY6) genes located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Members of the LY6 superfamily typically contain 70 to 80 amino acids, including 8 to 10 cysteines. Most LY6 proteins are attached to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that is directly involved in signal transduction (Mallya et al., 2002 [PubMed 12079290]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
Cells, Horse, Genes, Pregnancy, Gene, Cell, Horses, Chorionic Gonadotropin, Gonadotropin, mRNA, PCR, Role, Tissues, Trophoblast, Antibodies, Monoclonal Antibodies, Histocompatibility, Histocompatibility Complex, Major Histocompatibility Complex, Placenta
Activation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. Engagement of these receptors through the interaction with a foreign antigen associated with major histocompatibility complex molecules and CD28 counter-receptors B7.1/B7.2, respectively, results in a series of signaling cascades. These cascades comprise an array of protein-tyrosine kinases, phosphatases, GTP-binding proteins and adaptor proteins that regulate generic and specialised functions, leading to T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and differentiation into effector cells ...
Activation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. Engagement of these receptors through the interaction with a foreign antigen associated with major histocompatibility complex molecules and CD28 counter-receptors B7.1/B7.2, respectively, results in a series of signaling cascades. These cascades comprise an array of protein-tyrosine kinases, phosphatases, GTP-binding proteins and adaptor proteins that regulate generic and specialised functions, leading to T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and differentiation into effector cells ...
Paired lines of C3H mouse fibroblasts transformed with murine sarcoma virus (Kirsten strain) were prepared that express high or low levels ofclass II major histocompatibility complex antigen after treatment with interferon y (IFN-y) . Here, we described a comparison of the tumorigenicity of these lines in euthymic syngeneic and thymus-deficient nu/nu mice and in mice depleted of IFN-y . The class II-inducible cells are clearly less tumorigenic than the noninducible cells in syngeneic mice, but of similar tumorigenicity in nu/nu mice and in mice treated with antibodies to deplete IFN-y . We propose that in this system, IFN-y induction of class II antigens on the tumor cell surface operates to limit tumor growth ; ras expression, which inhibits induction of class II antigens, prevents this and so allows tumor growth .
We generated MHC-independent chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) directed to the GD2 antigen expressed by neuroblastoma tumor cells and treated patients with this disease. extended, low-level persistence in patients, and such persistence was associated with longer survival. This study is registered at www.clinialtrials.gov as #type:clinical-trial,attrs:text:NCT00085930″,term_id:NCT00085930″NCT00085930. Introduction Adoptively transferred T cells Rabbit Polyclonal to ZADH2 can recognize tumor-associated antigens presented in association with MHC molecules on the cell surface. However, many cancer cells and solid tumors have defects in antigen processing and presentation,1,2 including down-regulation of and/or failure to express MHC molecules.3,4 Introducing tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) into adoptively transferred T cells allows them to recognize tumor-associated antigens in an Resminostat hydrochloride manufacture MHC-independent manner while retaining their ...
Lapatinib is associated with a low incidence of serious liver injury. Previous investigations have identified and confirmed the Class II allele HLA-DRB1*07:01 to be strongly associated with lapatinib-induced liver injury; however, the moderate positive predictive value limits its clinical utility. To assess whether additional genetic variants located within the major histocompatibility complex locus or elsewhere in the genome may influence lapatinib-induced liver injury risk, and potentially lead to a genetic association with improved predictive qualities, we have taken two approaches: a genome-wide association study and a whole-genome sequencing study. This evaluation did not reveal additional associations other than the previously identified association for HLA-DRB1*07:01. The present study represents the most comprehensive genetic evaluation of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) or hypersensitivity, and suggests that investigation of possible human leukocyte antigen associations with DILI and other
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacterial and Host Factors Involved in the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Ib-Restricted Presentation of Salmonella Hsp 60. T2 - Novel Pathway. AU - Lo, Wei Feng. AU - Dunn, Cory D.. AU - Ong, Helena. AU - Metcalf, Eleanor S.. AU - Soloski, Mark J.. PY - 2004/5/1. Y1 - 2004/5/1. N2 - Previously, a peptide epitope derived from the Hsp 60 molecule of Salmonella that is presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib molecule Qa-1 to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) was described. In the present study we investigated the Salmonella-induced processing and presentation pathway for generating this Qa-1-restricted epitope. Live bacteria and, to a lesser extent, opsonized heat-killed bacteria are able to sensitize target cells for lysis by Salmonella-specific CTL. In contrast, heat-killed bacteria cannot sensitize target cells. Presentation of the Hsp 60 epitope appears independent of bacterial internalization, because cytochalasin D does not affect presentation. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of LMP2 and LMP7 genes within the major histocompatibility complex with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. T2 - Population and family studies. AU - Deng, G. Y.. AU - Muir, A.. AU - Maclaren, N. K.. AU - She, J. X.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - LMP2 and LMP7, two subunits of the proteasomes encoded in the major histocompatibility complex, are speculated to play a role in the generation of endogenous peptides for presentation by class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells. Their possible role in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has not been documented. In this study of Caucasian subjects, we have analyzed the polymorphisms of four genes within the HLA class II region (LMP2, LMP7, and HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1) in 198 unrelated IDDM patients and 192 normal controls ascertained from the southeastern United States. A genomic polymorphism of LMP7 was found strongly associated with IDDM, and the Arg/His-60 polymorphism in LMP2 was found associated ...
Understanding the structure and variability of adaptive loci such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is a primary research goal for evolutionary and conservation genetics. Typically, classical MHC genes show high polymorphism and are under strong balancing selection, as their products trigger the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. Here, we assess the allelic diversity and patterns of selection for MHC class I and class II loci in a threatened shorebird with highly flexible mating and parental care behaviour, the Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus) across its broad geographic range. We determined the allelic and nucleotide diversity for MHC class I and class II genes using samples of 250 individuals from eight breeding population of Snowy Plovers. We found 40 alleles at MHC class I and six alleles at MHC class II, with individuals carrying two to seven different alleles (mean 3.70) at MHC class I and up to two alleles (mean 1.45) at MHC class II. Diversity was higher in the peptide
Celiac disease, also known as celiac sprue, is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine, produced by the ingestion of dietary gluten products in susceptible people. It is a multifactorial disease, including genetic and environmental factors. Environmental trigger is represented by gluten while the genetic predisposition has been identified in the major histocompatibility complex region. Celiac disease is not a rare disorder like previously thought, with a global prevalence around 1%. The reason of its under-recognition is mainly referable to the fact that about half of affected people do not have the classic gastrointestinal symptoms, but they present nonspecific manifestations of nutritional deficiency or have no symptoms at all. Here we review the most recent data concerning epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, available diagnostic tests and therapeutic management of celiac ...
The results presented here add a critical lineage to the emerging picture of MHC evolution in amniotes, with a genome-level characterization of MHC organization in an evolutionarily divergent reptile, the tuatara. The tuatara MHC region appears to be large with a high repeat content. We found a total of seven class I sequences and 11 class II β sequences, but some appeared to represent pseudogenes. Chromosome 13q appears to contain the core MHC, as clones containing classical class I, class II beta, and class II alpha chain genes map to here, but additional class I genes were located chromosome 4p.. The MHC in tuatara has low gene density compared with other species. We found at most five genes on individual BAC clones, and many clones contained only one or two genes and a high number of repetitive elements. The low density of tuatara MHC genes is a likely reason for challenges in identifying other MHC-associated genes like TAP1, TAP2, TAPBP, or C4 or framework genes like DAXX, BRD2, or TNXB on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - T cell homeostasis in tolerance and immunity. AU - Marleau, Annette M.. AU - Sarvetnick, Nora. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - The size of the peripheral T cell pool is remarkably stable throughout life, reflecting precise regulation of cellular survival, proliferation, and apoptosis. Homeostatic proliferation refers to the process by which T cells spontaneously proliferate in a lymphopenic host. The critical signals driving this expansion are space, contact with self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/peptide complexes, and cytokine stimulation. A number of studies have delineated an association between T cell lymphopenia, compensatory homeostatic expansion, and the development of diverse autoimmune syndromes. In the nonobese diabetic mouse model of type 1 diabetes, lymphopenia-induced homeostatic expansion fuels the generation of islet-specific T cells. Excess interleukin-21 facilitates T cell cycling but limited survival, resulting in recurrent stimulation of T cells ...
In several species, including rodents and fish, it has been shown that the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) influences mating preferences and, in some cases, that this may be mediated by preferences based on body odour. In humans, the picture has been less clear. Several studies have reported a tendency for humans to prefer MHC-dissimilar mates, a sexual selection that would favour the production of MHC-heterozygous offspring, who would be more resistant to pathogens, but these results are unsupported by other studies. Here, we report analyses of genome-wide genotype data (from the HapMap II dataset) and HLA types in African and European American couples to test whether humans tend to choose MHC-dissimilar mates. In order to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genome-wide effects, the pattern of similarity in the MHC region is compared to the pattern in the rest of the genome. African spouses show no significant pattern of similarity/dissimilarity across the MHC region (relatedness ...
Viruses encounter changing selective pressures during transmission between hosts, including host-specific immune responses and potentially varying functional demands on specific proteins. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein performs several functions potentially important for successful infection, including immune escape via down-regulation of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) and direct enhancement of viral infectivity and replication. Nef is also a major target of the host cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. To examine the impact of changing selective pressures on Nef functions following sexual transmission, we analyzed genetic and functional changes in nef clones from six transmission events. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the diversity of nef was similar in both sources and acutely infected recipients, the patterns of selection across transmission were variable, and regions of Nef associated with distinct functions evolved similarly in sources and ...
Background: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is responsible for presenting antigens (epitopes) on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). When pathogen-derived epitopes are presented by MHC class II on an APC surface, T cells may be able to trigger an specific immune response. Prediction of MHC-II epitopes is particularly challenging because the open binding cleft of the MHC-II molecule allows epitopes to bind beyond the peptide binding groove; therefore, the molecule is capable of accommodating peptides of variable length. Among the methods proposed to predict MHC-II epitopes, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs) are the most effective methods. We propose a novel classification algorithm to predict MHC-II called sparse representation via 1-minimization. Results: We obtained a collection of experimentally confirmed MHC-II epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) and applied our 1-minimization algorithm. To benchmark the
Spliceosome RNA helicase BAT1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BAT1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the DEAD box family of RNA-dependent ATPases that mediate ATP hydrolysis during pre-mRNA splicing. The encoded protein is an essential splicing factor required for association of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein with pre-mRNA, and also plays an important role in mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. A cluster of genes, BAT1-BAT5, is localized in the vicinity of the genes for TNF alpha and TNF beta. These genes are all within the human major histocompatibility complex class III region. Mutations in this gene may be associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. ENSG00000225073, ENSG00000237889, ENSG00000229496, ENSG00000215425, ENSG00000235439, ENSG00000225859, ENSG00000230624 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000198563, ENSG00000225073, ENSG00000237889, ENSG00000229496, ENSG00000215425, ...
Peptide analogues of disease-associated epitopes were studied for inhibition of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and adjuvant arthritis (AA) in Lewis rats. EAE- and AA-associated analogues were selected as competitors because of their in vitro inhibitory activity on proliferation of encephalitogenic and arthritogenic T cells. Although the EAE-associated competitor had a superior major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding affinity, the AA-associated competitor was a better inhibitor of the in vitro proliferation of arthritogenic T cells. Furthermore, although in vivo EAE was inhibited by both competitors, AA was only inhibited by the AA-associated competitor. Remarkably, in contrast to what was expected of a regular MHC competitor peptide, the AA-associated peptide analogue also prevented AA upon immunization before disease induction and appeared to induce T cell responses that crossreacted with the original disease-associated epitope. Therefore, it is concluded that ...
Scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have developed a new method for analyzing the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of the human genome. This large region, found on chromosome 6, encodes more than 400 known genes. The best known of these genes are the HLA genes that govern tissue type and participate in the immune system by protecting people from infection or by governing susceptibility to autoimmune diseases or cancer. The method may have the potential of being an efficient way to map genes in the MHC that are responsible for many human diseases, and might also be useful in studying other gene complexes that have a lot of variability ...
Enhanced MHC class I expression is a prominent early feature of pancreatic islets in autoimmune diabetes and islet transplantation. However, the nature of class I MHC loci potentially critical to the onset and progression of insulitis in humans remains poorly defined. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized complexity of islet immunogenicity, to include MHC determinants such as HLA-G with specialized immunoregulatory functions. Indeed, the long-lasting, self-contained, peri-islet and periductal lymphoid infiltrates, hallmark of the early stages of autoimmune diabetes and the evidence for T- and NK cell-dependent regulatory networks in those lymphoid infiltrates (24,25), indicate that destructive processes are counterbalanced by immunoregulatory mechanisms at sites of islet immunity. Our observation that pancreatic islets and ducts express HLA-G constitutively and upregulate this MHC determinant in response to proinflammatory cytokines raises the possibility that mechanisms of immune ...
Genetic compatibility refers to how well the genes of two parents function together in their offspring. Choosing genetically compatible mates could result in optimally fit offspring and notably affect reproductive fitness. However, the genetic compatibility model is limited to specific traits due to complex genetic interactions (e.g. major histocompatibility complex in humans and mice). The choosy sex must know their own genotype as well as the genotypes of potential mates in order to select the appropriate partner.[35] This makes testing components of genetic compatibility difficult and controversial. A controversial but well-known experiment suggests that human females use body odor as an indicator of genetic compatibility. In this study, males were given a plain T-shirt to sleep in for two nights in order to provide a scent sample. College women were then asked to rate odors from several men, some with similar MHC (major histocompatibility complex) genes to their own and others with ...
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Gentaurs MHCE/HLA-E CLIA kit utilizes the Sandwich- CLIA principle. The micro CLIA plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Human MHCE/HLA-E . Standards or samples are added to the micro CLIA plate wells and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prolonged survival of mice with glioma injected intracerebrally with double cytokine-secreting cells. AU - Lichtor, T.. AU - Glick, R. P.. AU - Kim, Tae Sung. AU - Hand, R.. AU - Cohen, E. P.. PY - 1995/12/1. Y1 - 1995/12/1. N2 - A novel approach toward the treatment of glioma was developed in a murine model. The genes for both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were first transfected into a mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses defined major histocompatibility complex (MHC) determinants (H-2(k)). The double cytokine-secreting cells were then cotransplanted intracerebrally with the G1261 murine glioma cell line into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice (H-2b) whose cells differed at the MHC from the cellular immunogen. The results indicate that the survival of mice with glioma injected with the cytokine-secreting allogeneic cells was significantly prolonged, relative to the survival of mice receiving equivalent numbers of glioma cells alone. Using a standard 51Cr-release ...
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1OSZ: Differential thymic selection outcomes stimulated by focal structural alteration in peptide/major histocompatibility complex ligands.
2P5E: Crystal structures of high affinity human T-cell receptors bound to peptide major histocompatibility complex reveal native diagonal binding geometry
The dbMHC database provides an open, publicly accessible platform for DNA and clinical data related to the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). The dbMHC provides access to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sequences, HLA allele and haplotype frequencies, and clinical datasets ...
Purified recombinant protein of Human major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 5 (HLA-DRB5), full length, with N-terminal GST and C-terminal His tag, expressed in E. coli, 50ug
The major histocompatibility complex class III tumor necrosis factor-lymphotoxin (TNF-LT) region (6p21.3) was investigated as a possible susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inheritance of five TNF microsatellite markers was determined in 50 multiplex families. Overall, 47 different h …
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pCMV-SPORT6-CDKN1B-G326T plasmid,pCMV-SPORT6-CDKN1B-G326T,pCMV-SPORT6-CDKN1B-G326T plasmid,pCMV-SPORT6-CDKN1B-G326T sequence,pCMV-SPORT6-CDKN1B-G326T map
2oje: Zinc induces dimerization of the class II major histocompatibility complex molecule that leads to cooperative binding to a superantigen.
Classical alphabeta T cells protect the host by monitoring intracellular and extracellular proteins in a two-step process. The first step is protein degradation and combination with a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, leading to surface expression of this amalgam (antigen processing). The second step is the interaction of the T cell receptor with the MHC-peptide complex, leading to signaling in the T cells (antigen recognition). The context for this interaction is a T cell-antigen presenting cell junction, known as an immunological synapse if symmetric and stable and as a kinapse if asymmetric and mobile. The physiological recognition of a ligand takes place most efficiently in the F-actin-rich lamellipodium and is F-actin dependent in stages of formation and triggering and myosin II dependent for signal amplification. This review discusses how these concepts emerged from early studies on adhesion, signaling, and cell biology of T cells.
To pursue our first goal, we have focused on developing advanced imaging techniques to understand the molecular interactions that underlie the process by which a particular T cell recognizes fragments of an antigen (peptide) that are bound to molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and displayed on the surfaces of cells. These peptide-MHC complexes are then recognized by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR), an antibody-like molecule present on most T cells. The TCR is closely associated with the CD3 polypeptides, which mediate intracellular signaling through a kinase cascade. Our previous work and that of others characterized the biochemistry and genetics of TCRs, but in recent years we have focused on how these molecules operate in the larger context of T cell recognition, a context that includes other molecules on the T cell surface that work with the TCR, and on how ligand binding triggers T cell activation. Video microscopy and other advanced imaging techniques, such as ...
Yin L, Huseby E, Scott-Browne J, Rubtsova K, Pinilla C, Crawford F, Marrack P, Dai S, Kappler JW. A single T cell receptor bound to major histocompatibility complex class I and class II glycoproteins reveals switchable TCR conformers. Immunity. 2011 Jul 22; 35(1):23-33 ...
CD4, 0.1 ml. This gene encodes a membrane glycoprotein of T lymphocytes that interacts with major histocompatibility complex class II antigenes and is also a receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus.
Description: The butyrophilin (BTN) genes are a group of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated genes that encode type I membrane proteins with 2 extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) domains and an intracellular B30.2 (PRYSPRY) domain. Three subfamilies of human BTN genes are located in the MHC class I region: the single-copy BTN1A1 gene (MIM 601610) and the BTN2 (e.g., BTN2A1; MIM 613590) and BTN3 (e.g., BNT3A1) genes, which have undergone tandem duplication, resulting in 3 copies of each (summary by Smith et al., 2010 [PubMed 20208008]). NCBI Entrez Gene , GeneCards , Harmonizome ...
The discovery of CD25 as a marker of Tregs raised a concern that Tregs may not represent a distinct T-cell lineage, but a particular state of activation, because CD25 is upregulated by all activated T cells. Other highly expressed markers on CD25+ Tregs, including CTLA-4 and GITR, are also upregulated upon activation of T cells. However, adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells into lymphopenic mice showed that they proliferate in an MHC-dependent manner and, despite a decline in CD25 expression, their suppressive capacity increases (7). This finding and others spurred an intense exploration of potential genetic mechanisms underlying the differentiation and function of Tregs and a search for a more specific marker of these cells.. These efforts resulted in identification of Foxp3, an X chromosome-encoded member of the forkhead transcription factor family, as a specific marker of Tregs (8-10). Foxp3 was identified as the gene whose loss-of-function mutation is responsible for a disease in mutant ...
Clone REA642 recognizes the mouse V beta 2 T cell receptor (TCR Vβ2). The T cell receptor is responsible for recognizing antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. It is a disulfide-linked membrane-anchored heterodimeric glycoprotein normally consisting of the highly variable alpha and beta chains expressed as part of a complex with the invariant CD3 chain molecules. The α and β TCR chains are composed of constant and variable regions, each encoded by distinct gene segments. Additional information: Clone REA642 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Great Britain
Clone REA559 recognizes the human Vβ11 T cell receptor (TCR Vβ11). The TCR is responsible for recognizing antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. It is a disulfide-linked membrane-anchored heterodimeric glycoprotein normally consisting of the highly variable α and β chains expressed as part of a complex with the invariant CD3 chain molecules. TCR Vβ11 is expressed on a subset of α/β T cells. Additional information: Clone REA559 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Lëtzebuerg
HLA-DQ DQ1 binding pocket with ligand major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ Structure Type Cell surface receptor Quartenary αβ-heterodimer, ligand
The invention concerns a molecule of pharmaceutical interest, preferably a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ligand, comprising a glutamic acid or a glutamine at its N-terminal, in the form of a physiologically acceptable addition salt, and a vaccine comprising such a ligand.
HLA-A2 antibody [BB7.2] (major histocompatibility complex, class I, A) for FACS, IHC-Fr, IP. Anti-HLA-A2 mAb (GTX75803) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
HLA-A antibody (major histocompatibility complex, class I, A) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-HLA-A pAb (GTX54099) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Major histocompatibility complex in animals[edit]. One example of where particular genes may be important in vertebrate animals ... for heterosis is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Vertebrates inherit several copies of both MHC class I and MHC ... Although we still fail to understand the molecular bases of most complex traits, including many common diseases, we now have a ... "The current view ... is that the dominance hypothesis is the major explanation of inbreeding decline and [of] the high yield of ...
Role of major histocompatibility complex[edit]. Main article: Major histocompatibility complex and sexual selection ... Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or, in humans, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) produces proteins that are essential for ... College women were then asked to rate odors from several men, some with similar MHC (major histocompatibility complex) genes to ... major histocompatibility complex in humans and mice). The choosy sex must know their own genotype as well as the genotypes of ...
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and body odor preferences[edit]. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a genotype ... In 2001, a study found that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (a polymorphic set of genes which is important for ... Penn, D. J.; Potts, W. K. (1999). "The evolution of mating preferences and major histocompatibility complex genes". The ... Women prefer men with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotypes and odor different from themselves especially during ...
The tetramers used in the assay are made up of four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, which are found on the ... "Major Histocompatibility Complex". InterPro. European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI). Retrieved 2018-12-02. "The Adaptive ... The antigen presenting complex that NKT cells bind to involves CD1 proteins, so tetramers made of CD1 can be used to stain for ... MHC tetramer molecules developed in a lab can mimic the antigen presenting complex on cells and bind to T-cells that recognize ...
Matheux, Franck; Villard, Jean (June 2004). "Cellular and gene therapy for major histocompatibility complex class II deficiency ... Reith, Walter; Picard, Capucine (2016). "Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Deficiency". Academic Press. 5: 378-390. ... is a rare recessive genetic condition in which a group of genes called major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II ... Major histocompatibility complex class II proteins are important because under normal function they have important ...
Serrano-Martín MM, Moreno-Pérez D, García-Martín FJ, Jurado-Ortiz A (March 2007). "[Major histocompatibility complex class II ... MHC Class II molecules are a class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules normally found only on professional ... In humans, the MHC class II protein complex is encoded by the human leukocyte antigen gene complex (HLA). HLAs corresponding to ... Histocompatibility+Antigens+Class+II at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MHC+Class+II+Genes ...
His major research focus was on the major histocompatibility complex, (MHC or Mhc), which comprises series of genes, which play ... Jan Klein is a Czech-American immunologist, best known for his work on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). He was born ... Klein, J. Natural History of the Major Histocompatibility Complex. Wiley, New York 1986. Klein, J. Immunology. Blackwell, ... Klein, J. and Klein, D. (eds.) Molecular Biology of the Major Histocompatibility Complex. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg 1991 ...
The major histocompatibility complex genes are important for the immune system, and appear to play a role in sexual attraction ... The MHC (major histocompatibility complex) is a group of genes essential for the immune system, playing an important role in ... The major histocompatibility complex and its functions. ISBN 978-0-8153-3642-6. Penn, Dustin; Potts, Wayne (1999). "The ... This includes the role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and their different ...
"Manipulation of Glycans on Antigens of the Major Histocompatibility Complex". In Pernis, Benvenuto (ed.). Cell Biology of the ... Major Histocompatibility Complex. Academic Press. pp. 133-151. ISBN 978-0124316904. Dougan, Stephanie K.; Ashour, Joseph; ...
Additionally, Hood was among the first to study, at the gene level, the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) gene family and ... Hood, L; Steinmetz, M; Malissen, B (April 1983). "Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex of the Mouse". Annual Review of ... Hood, Leroy; Steinmetz, Michael; Goodenow, Robert (April 1982). "Genes of the major histocompatibility complex" (PDF). Cell. 28 ... These new instruments had a major impact on the emerging fields of proteomics and genomics. The gas-liquid phase protein ...
I. Association with the major histocompatibility complex. The Journal of experimental medicine, 1981. 154(4): p. 1237-42. ...
All nucleated cells in the body (along with platelets) display class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I molecules). ... Janeway Jr CA, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik MJ (2001-01-01). "The major histocompatibility complex and its functions". ... now bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is transported to the surface of the cell, a process known as ... Large complexes of intact antigen are presented in lymph nodes to B cells by follicular dendritic cells in the form of immune ...
HLA is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen specific to humans. HLA-A is one of three major types of human MHC ... "HLA-A major histocompatibility complex, class I, A [Homo sapiens (human)]". National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S ... "Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class I, A". Gene Cards. Weizmann Institute of Science. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 16 ... "The selective downregulation of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins by HIV-1 protects HIV-infected cells from NK ...
Marsh, Michael N. (1992). "Gluten, major histocompatibility complex, and the small intestine". Gastroenterology. 102 (1): 330- ...
Marsh MN (1992). "Gluten, major histocompatibility complex, and the small intestine. A molecular and immunobiologic approach to ... Major theories include surgery, pregnancy, infection and emotional stress. The eating of gluten early in a baby's life does not ... Because of the major implications of a diagnosis of coeliac disease, professional guidelines recommend that a positive blood ... The issue is more complex for priests. As a celebrant, a priest is, for the fullness of the sacrifice of the Mass, absolutely ...
Marsh M (1992). "Gluten, major histocompatibility complex, and the small intestine. A molecular and immunobiologic approach to ...
"Major-Histocompatibility-Complex Extended Haplotypes in Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis". New England Journal of ... She was a lieutenant colonel in the Indian Armed Forces, president of the American Society of Histocompatibility and ... She established India's first histocompatibility laboratory, in New Delhi. She was awarded the Shakuntala Devi Amir Chand Award ... In the United States, Balakrishnan was president of the American Society of Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics from 1996 to ...
MHC class I Major histocompatibility complex MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B ENSG00000235233, ENSG00000204520, ... Bahram S, Bresnahan M, Geraghty DE, Spies T (July 1994). "A second lineage of mammalian major histocompatibility complex class ... Klein J, O'hUigin C (July 1994). "The conundrum of nonclassical major histocompatibility complex genes". Proceedings of the ... "Cell stress-regulated human major histocompatibility complex class I gene expressed in gastrointestinal epithelium". ...
"Entrez Gene: HLA-DRB5 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 5".. ... HLA-DRB5, HLA-DRB, major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 5, HLA-DRB5* ... 1aqd: HLA-DR1 (DRA, DRB1 0101) HUMAN CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY PROTEIN (EXTRACELLULAR DOMAIN) COMPLEXED WITH ENDOGENOUS ... in interaction with human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120 and class II major histocompatibility complex ...
... component of their major histocompatibility complex (i.e. MHC); and presents the MHC-associated peptides to the T-cell receptor ...
... component of their major histocompatibility complex (i.e. MHC); and presents the MHC-associated peptides to T-cell receptors on ...
In: The Major Histocompatibility Complex: Evolution, Structure and Function. M Kasahara (Ed.), Springer, New York, NY, pp. 412- ... His team had found that human androgen receptor gene is the major factor associated with baldness in men. They also identified ... He argues that cultural differences are a major signal of selection in genomes, which have been accumulating recently and ... tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) as a major determinant of blond hair among the Melanesian of Solomon Islands. Culture as a ...
Servenius B, Rask L, Peterson PA (1987). "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. The DO beta gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DOB major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO beta". Beck S, Kelly A, Radley E, et al. (1992). "DNA ... 1993). "The major histocompatibility complex-encoded proteasome component LMP7: alternative first exons and post-translational ... in interaction with human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120 and class II major histocompatibility complex ...
Major histocompatibility complex, class I, Y (pseudogene) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-Y gene. "Entrez ... Major histocompatibility complex, class I, Y (pseudogene)". Retrieved 2014-01-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ...
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of cell surface proteins that in humans is also called the Human ... Geraghty DE, Koller BH, Orr HT (December 1987). "A human major histocompatibility complex class I gene that encodes a protein ... Schwartz O, Maréchal V, Le Gall S, Lemonnier F, Heard JM (Mar 1996). "Endocytosis of major histocompatibility complex class I ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-F major histocompatibility complex, class I, F". Krebs J, Goldstein E, Kilpatrick S (2014). "Chapter 18: ...
... system or complex is a group of related proteins that are encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene complex in ... Apanius V, Penn D, Slev PR, Ruff LR, Potts WK (1997). "The nature of selection on the major histocompatibility complex". ... NCBI's database of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Rare Alleles Project at the AlleleFrequencies Net Database (AFND) ... There are 3 major and 3 minor MHC class I genes in HLA. Major MHC class I HLA-A HLA-B HLA-C Minor genes are HLA-E, HLA-F and ...
... component of their major histocompatibility complex (i.e. MHC) (APC); and presents the MHC-associated peptides to the T-cell ...
The major histocompatibility complexes (MHC).. The first two, which are involved in the recognition of antigens, are inherently ... While major depression is not necessarily an autoimmune disease, some of its physiological symptoms are inflammatory and ... Cigarette smoking is now established as a major risk factor for both incidence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis. This may ... The contributions of genes outside the MHC complex remain the subject of research, in animal models of disease (Linda Wicker's ...
She continued her studies on the immunogenetics of the major histocompatibility complex in childhood arthritis at the Arthritis ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Zeggini, Eleftheria (2002). Genetic dissection of the major histocompatibility complex ... As of 2015[update] her work investigates the genetics of complex phenotypic traits in humans using genetic association studies ... Zeggini, Eleftheria (2011). "Next-generation association studies for complex traits". Nature Genetics. 43 (4): 287-288. doi: ...
Cameron PU, Mallal SA, French MA, Dawkins RL (December 1990). "Major histocompatibility complex genes influence the outcome of ... is a multigene haplotype that covers the MHC Class I region of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6. A ... The haplotype can be written in an extended form covering the major histocompatibility loci as follows: HLA A*01:01 : Cw*07:01 ... Goldberg MA, Arnett FC, Bias WB, Shulman LE (1976). "Histocompatibility antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus". Arthritis ...
... is a multigene haplotype that covers a majority of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 (not to be ... "Major histocompatibility complex susceptibility genes for dermatitis herpetiformis compared with those for gluten-sensitive ... "Two major histocompatibility complex haplotypes influence susceptibility to sporadic inclusion body myositis: critical ... The haplotype can be written in an extended form covering the major histocompatibility loci as follows: HLA A*0101 : Cw*0701 : ...
Thus, similar immune systems may be more vulnerable to infectious diseases (see Major histocompatibility complex and sexual ... "Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Consanguinity, human evolution, and complex diseases". Proceedings of the ...
... major histocompatibility complex). Be CD3, T limfocitai gali turėti ir baltymus CD4 arba CD8. Pagal jų buvimą/nebuvimą T ...
... major histocompatibility complex (MHC) - malabsorption syndrome - malaise - malignant - mast cell - MedlinePlus - mega-HAART - ... idiopathic - idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura - IHS - immune complex - immune deficiency/immunodeficiency - immune response ... histocompatibility testing - histoplasmosis - HIV disease - HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) - HIV set point - HIV vaccine ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC) - AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) - AIDS education and training centers (AETC) - AIDS orphan ...
... bind antigenic peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. ... Major surgery. *Miscellaneous - ECMO, kidney or bone marrow transplant, hemodialysis, kidney failure, severe burn, celiac ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... There are four major causes: increase of production in bone marrow, increased release from storage in bone marrow, decreased ...
... major histocompatibility complex). This can occur in viral infections of host cells.[8] They were named "natural killer" ... rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ...
T cells from autologous natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity despite the reduction of major histocompatibility complex ... Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and ... cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its interaction with clathrin-associated adaptor complex ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex.[63] ... for the generation of peptides that bind to the major histocompatibility complex.[16] ... The assembled complex of hslV (blue) and hslU (red) from E. coli. This complex of heat shock proteins is thought to resemble ...
... major histocompatibility complex) - a situation that can arise in viral infections of host cells.[8] They were named "natural ... The major functions of the vertebrate innate immune system include: *Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection through the ... Toll-like receptors are a major class of pattern recognition receptor, that exists in all coelomates (animals with a body- ... Bacteria and fungi may form complex biofilms, protecting from immune cells and proteins; biofilms are present in the chronic ...
... the peptide must be processed into small fragments inside the cell and presented by a major histocompatibility complex (MHC).[9 ... APCs then present the fragments to T helper cells (CD4+) by the use of class II histocompatibility molecules on their surface. ... In order to induce an immune response, it needs to be attached to a large carrier molecule such as a protein (a complex of ... The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex with MHC class I molecules. If activated cytotoxic CD8+ T ...
... that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules ... The TCR complex[edit]. The TCR receptor complex is an octomeric complex of variable TCR receptor α and β chains with three ... Associated molecules of the TCR complex involved in T-cell activation[edit]. The essential function of the TCR complex is to ... The T-cell receptor complex with TCR-α and TCR-β chains, CD3 and ζ-chain accessory molecules. ...
Seperti reseptor sel T, CD8 mengikat pada molekul major histocompatibility complex (MHC), tetapi CD8 spesifik pada MHC kelas I. ...
CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ...
... clippings as antigen on their cell surface by coupling them to a special receptor known as a major histocompatibility complex ( ...
... that can recognize a tumor cell antigen in a manner that is independent of the major histocompatibility complex and which can ...
"A divalent major histocompatibility complex/IgG1 fusion protein induces antigen-specific T cell activation in vitro and in vivo ... Djeraba A, Quere P (2000). "In vivo macrophage activation in chickens with Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from ...
Proteins of the major histocompatibility complex class I are endogenous negative regulators of NMDAR-mediated currents in the ... Common agents in which NMDA receptor antagonism is the primary or a major mechanism of action: *4-Chlorokynurenine (AV-101) - ... Santos E, Olivares-Rivera A, Major S, Sánchez-Porras R, Uhlmann L, Kunzmann K, et al. (December 2019). "Lasting s-ketamine ... Two specific proteins have been identified as a major pathway responsible for these different cellular responses ERK1/2, and ...
SBA binds to intestinal epithelial cells, causing inflammation and intestinal permeability, and is a major factor in acute ... Studies on rats fed SBA had complex changes: With increasing doses of soybean agglutinin, the activities of aspartate ... by SBA do not produce graft vs host disease and can be used in bone marrow transplantation across histocompatibility barriers.[ ...
Superantigens simultaneously bind major histocompatibility complex and T-cell receptors in the absence of antigen presentation ... Young or old age, cancer, diabetes, major trauma, burns[2]. Diagnostic method. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),[ ... major trauma, or burns.[2] Previously, a sepsis diagnosis required the presence of at least two systemic inflammatory response ... "Recognition of lipopolysaccharide pattern by TLR4 complexes". Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 45 (12): e66. doi:10.1038/emm ...
Marsh MN (1992). "Gluten, major histocompatibility complex, and the small intestine. A molecular and immunobiologic approach to ... Major theories include surgery, pregnancy, infection and emotional stress.[56]. The eating of gluten early in a baby's life ... Because of the major implications of a diagnosis of coeliac disease, professional guidelines recommend that a positive blood ... The issue is more complex for priests. As a celebrant, a priest is, for the fullness of the sacrifice of the Mass, absolutely ...
Mizuki N, Meguro A, Tohnai I, Gül A, Ohno S, Mizuki N (2007). "Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Chain- ...
... (major histocompatibility complex, class I, B) is a human gene that provides instructions for making a protein that plays ... HLA-B, AS, SPDA1, Bw-47, Bw-50, major histocompatibility complex, class I, B, B-4901, B-5001, HEL-S-83, HLA-B*45ZJ, HLA-B-3506 ... HLA is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. Genes in ... HLA-B is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. The HLA complex helps the immune system ...
... all cells are capable of presenting antigen through the function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.[5] Some ... cell displays these non-self antigens on its surface by coupling them to a receptor called the major histocompatibility complex ... All the major features of the AIS arose early and quickly. Jawless fishes have a different AIS that relies on gene ... The major functions of the acquired immune system include: *Recognition of specific "non-self" antigens in the presence of " ...
"Expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on human hepatocytes". Hepatology. 8 (3): 449-54. ...
... such as porcine major histocompatibility complex molecules and human natural killer cells), this may not occur.[24] ... In addition, a major problem with the use of nonhuman primates is the increased risk of disease transmission, since they are so ... Just as the α1,3G epitope is a major problem in xenotransplantation, so too is dysregulated coagulation a cause of concern. ... This is the reason the organs would have to be altered to fit the patients' DNA (histocompatibility). ...
Huard B, Tournier M, Hercend T, Triebel F, and Faure F. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3/major histocompatibility complex class II ... Huard B, Prigent P, Tournier M, Bruniquel D, Triebel F (Sep 1995). "CD4/major histocompatibility complex class II interaction ... "Characterization of the major histocompatibility complex class II binding site on LAG-3 protein". Proceedings of the National ... "Characterization of the major histocompatibility complex class II binding site on LAG-3 protein". Proceedings of the National ...
... encoding cell surface molecules called major histocompatibility complex (MHC), classes I and II, correlate with the rapidity ... T cells coordinate specific immunity directed at the donor's self peptides or at the donor's Major histocompatibility complex ... Despite treatment, rejection remains a major cause of transplant failure.[26] Immunosuppressive therapy[edit]. A short course ... Main article: Histocompatibility. The first successful organ transplant, performed in 1954 by Joseph Murray, involved identical ...
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ... Apanius V, Penn D, Slev PR, Ruff LR, Potts WK (1997). "The nature of selection on the major histocompatibility complex". ... dbMHC Home, NCBI's database of the Major Histocompatibility Complex. *Rare Alleles Project at the AlleleFrequencies Net ... There are 3 major and 2 minor MHC class II proteins encoded by the HLA. The genes of the class II combine to form heterodimeric ...
In human beings the complex is also called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ... Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), group of genes that code for proteins found on the surfaces of cells that help the ... Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), group of genes that code for proteins found on the surfaces of cells that help the ... major histocompatibility complex. Protein images comparing the MHC I (left) and MHC II (right) molecules. The orange segments ...
Major Histocompatibility Complex dbMHC Home, NCBIs database of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Biology portal Medicine ... The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large locus on vertebrate DNA containing a set of closely linked polymorphic ... Zhu L, Ruan XD, Ge YF, Wan QH, Fang SG (June 2007). "Low major histocompatibility complex class II DQA diversity in the Giant ... 2001). "The Major Histocompatibility Complex and Its Functions". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease (5th ed ...
... , Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigen, Human Leukocyte Antigen, HLA Complex, MHC-Antigen ... Antigen Complex, Major Histocompatibility Complex Class 1 Protein, Histocompatibility Antigen Class II Molecule, HLA Class 2, ... MHC Class 2, MHC Class II, MHC-2, MHC Class 2 - Antigen Complex, Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Protein. ... complex, Histocompatibility Antigen Class I Molecule, HLA Class 1, MHC Class I, MHC-1, MHC Class 1, MHC Class 1 - ...
The major histocompatibility complex in sexual selection concerns how major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules allow ... Major histocompatibility complex genes, which control the immune response and effective resistance against pathogens, have been ... Olsson M, Madsen T, Nordby J, Wapstra E, Ujvari B, Wittsell H (November 2003). "Major histocompatibility complex and mate ... January 2004). "Major histocompatibility complex diversity influences parasite resistance and innate immunity in sticklebacks ...
"The caprine major histocompatibility complex," in The Major Histocompatibility Complex Region of Domestic Animal Species, L. B ... and function of the bovine major histocompatibility complex," in The Major Histocompatibility Complex Region of Domestic Animal ... "The ovine major histocompatibility complex," in The Major Histocompatibilty Complex Region of Domestic Animal Species, L. B. ... The Major Histocompatibility Complex in Bovines: A Review. Jyotsna Dhingra Behl, N. K. Verma, Neha Tyagi, Priyanka Mishra, ...
Modulation of major histocompatibility complex antigen expression by viral infection.. Rinaldo CR Jr1. ... Cytomegalovirus inhibits major histocompatibility class II expression on infected endothelial cells. [Am J Pathol. 1994] ...
... any of numerous antigens involved in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans. The HLA genes, of which more than ... major histocompatibility antigen, major histocompatibility complex antigen ... involved in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans. The HLA genes encode the cell-surface proteins that are part ... The major histocompatibility antigens were first discovered on the leukocytes (white blood cells) and are therefore usually ...
Mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules.. M J Grusby, H Auchincloss, R Lee, R S Johnson, J ... Mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules.. M J Grusby, H Auchincloss, R Lee, R S Johnson, J ... Mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules.. M J Grusby, H Auchincloss Jr, R Lee, R S Johnson ... Mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules. Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Polymorphism and balancing selection at major histocompatibility complex loci.. N Takahata, Y Satta and J Klein ... Polymorphism and balancing selection at major histocompatibility complex loci. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Polymorphism and balancing selection at major histocompatibility complex loci.. N Takahata, Y Satta and J Klein ... Polymorphism and balancing selection at major histocompatibility complex loci.. N Takahata, Y Satta and J Klein ...
Female choice and variation in the major histocompatibility complex. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... The cause of the high genetic variability in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is not entirely clear. Recently, two ... Female choice and variation in the major histocompatibility complex.. P W Hedrick ... Female choice and variation in the major histocompatibility complex.. P W Hedrick ...
The major histocompatibility complex is part of a genome that codes for proteins on cells. Its important for immunity, since ... The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is an area of the genome which codes for a series of proteins expressed on the cells ... There are a number of different tests which can be used to identify key areas of a persons major histocompatibility complex. ... The T cells of the immune system interface with the proteins produced by the major histocompatibility complex, using this ...
The major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is one of the few identified gene systems in domestic animals that is associated ... Major Histocompatibility Complex Evolution, L. Andersson. The Major Histocompatibility Complex of Fish: Genetic Structure and ... and Function of the Bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex, H.A. Lewin. The Caprine Major Histocompatibility Complex, G. ... The Major Histocompatibility Complex Region of Domestic Animal Species. By Lawrence B. Schook, Susan J. Lamont. Series Editor: ...
Major histocompatibility complex class I diversity limits the repertoire of T cell receptors. Magdalena Migalska, Alvaro ... The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central for self-/non-self-recognition and acquired immunity. The extreme ... Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that initiate adaptive immune responses through the presentation ... Major histocompatibility complex class I diversity limits the repertoire of T cell receptors ...
Major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent antigen presentation by human intestinal endothelial cells.. Haraldsen G1, ... In the normal gut, human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMECs) express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ... These data suggest that microvascular endothelial cells can present complex protein antigens in the human gut. ... in HIMECs and investigated whether such cells can process and present a complex protein antigen to T cells. ...
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large genomic region or gene family found in most vertebrates. It is the most ... MHC Sequencing Consortium (1999). "Complete sequence and gene map of a human major histocompatibility complex". Nature 401: 921 ... Reconstructing an Ancestral Mammalian Immune Supercomplex from a Marsupial Major Histocompatibility Complex - PLoS Biology : A ... "Reconstructing an Ancestral Mammalian Immune Supercomplex from a Marsupial Major Histocompatibility Complex". PLoS Biol 4(3) ( ...
The IMGT/HLA Database is a specialist database for sequences of the human major histocompatibility (MHC) system. It includes ... IMGT/HLA database--a sequence database for the human major histocompatibility complex Tissue Antigens. 2000 Mar;55(3):280-7. ... The database currently focuses on the human major histocompatibility complex but will be used as a model system to provide ... The IMGT/HLA Database is a specialist database for sequences of the human major histocompatibility (MHC) system. It includes ...
Major Histocompatibility Complex: Biology, Functions and Roles in Disease. Natalya Semiletova (Editor). UCLA Medical School, ... Home / Shop / Books / Medicine and Health / Major Histocompatibility Complex: Biology, Functions and Roles in Disease. ... 7. Non Classical Major Histocompatibility Class I in Health and Disease. (Ayman Antoun) ...
Allelic Diversity of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II DRB Gene in Indian Cattle and Buffalo. Sachinandan De,1 Raj ... S. Sharif, B. A. Mallard, B. N. Wilkie et al., "Associations of the bovine major histocompatibility complex DRB3 (BoLA-DRB3) ... W. E. Winter, R. H. Buck, and D. A. Verga-House, "Class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules," in Methods ... R. Harf and S. Sommer, "Association between major histocompatibility complex class II DRB alleles and parasite load in the ...
I]n transplantation, Histocompatibility Leads to Acceptance; in anthropology, Human populations are Located by Allelic ... HLA/Major Histocompatibility Complex HLA/Major Histocompatibility Complex. Chapter:. (p. 529) Nomenclature. Author(s):. Harriet ... I]n transplantation, Histocompatibility Leads to Acceptance; in anthropology, Human populations are Located by Allelic ...
The major histocompatibility complex in man. Science 1981; 213: 1469-1474.. 12. Snell GD. Studies in histocompatibility. ... Major histocompatibility complex, t-complex, and leukaemia [Review]. Cancer Causes & Control 1992; 3: 273-282. ... Evolution and function of the major histocompatibility complex: facts and speculations. In: Gotze D, ed. The Major ... Extended major histocompatibility complex haplotypes in type I diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1984; 74: ...
Paper II Næss S, Björnsson E, Anmarkrud JA, Al Mamari S, Juran BD, Lazaridis KN, Chapman R, Bergquist A, Melum E, Marsh SGE, Schrumpf E, Lie BA, Boberg KM, Karlsen TH, Hov JR. Small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis without inflammatory bowel disease is genetically different from large duct disease. Liver International, 2014 Nov; 34(10):1488-95. The paper is not available in DUO due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.12492 ...
Ancestral polymorphism at the major histocompatibility complex (MHCIIß) in the Nesospiza bunting species complex and its sister ... Natural selection of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). Authors. *. SUSAN I. ... Characterization of class II β chain major histocompatibility complex genes in a family of Hawaiian honeycreepers: amakihi ( ... and population dynamics shape historic patterns of selection and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex in ...
HLA CLASS I HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGEN, ALPHA CHAIN protein, length: 274 (BLAST) Sequence Similarity Cutoff. Rank. Chains in ...
The major histocompatability complex (. MHC. ) includes a variety of genes in vertebrates, which are responsible for the ... This complex is bound to calnexin. and leaves the ER.. Proteases cleave the invariant chains in multiple locations, leaving ... protein complexes are expressed, and act as antigens, on the surface of every cell that is involved in immunological functions ... There are two major classes of MHC. with distinct pathways and functions. ...
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind ... Ohta T (1998) On the pattern of polymorphisms at major histocompatibility complex loci. J Mol Evol 46(6):633-638PubMedCrossRef ... Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind ... Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). ...
... and this shows a striking resemblance with the requirements for peptide binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class ... and this shows a striking resemblance with the requirements for peptide binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class ... Left: scheme of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (MHC-I) presentation of membrane-buried epitopes derived from ... The major histocompatibility complex class I binding preference of transmembrane helix (TMH)-derived peptides is mainly ...
... Tissue ... Type 1 diabetes in humans is strongly associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II polymorphisms. We have ... With the completion of the Dog Genome Assembly, comparative genomic studies of complex diseases in dogs, including diabetes, ...
... * class II major histocompatibility complex ... Major Histocompatibility Complex, Transactivator Antikörper * 49 anti-Class II, Major Histocompatibility Complex, ... Major Histocompatibility Complex, Transactivator Antikörper. Show all anti-Class II, Major Histocompatibility Complex, ... Major Histocompatibility Complex, Transactivator Interaktionspartner. Mouse (Murine) Class II, Major Histocompatibility Complex ...
The human major histocompatibility complex class II HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1 genes are separated by a CTCF-binding enhancer- ... The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region was studied more intensively using 5 microsatellites lying within the HLA ... A special report: histocompatibility testing guidelines for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using volunteer donors. ... CONCLUSIONS: HLA-DRB1 gene is the major genetic determinant in HLA class II region for children with type 1 AIH [24]. ...
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) can best be described as the "factory floor" of the immune system. The MHC is an ... Major Histocompatibility Complex. and Autoimmune Disease in Dogs. By Steve Goodman. Download a printable version of this ... However, just as it is in humans, the most significant aspect of the Major Histocompatibility Complex to your dogs health is ... that are produced by the Major Histocompatibility Complex. The study concluded that "the volatile organic compounds produced by ...
  • There are two major types of MHC protein molecules -class I and class II. (britannica.com)
  • The term histocompatibility , derived from the Greek word histo (meaning "tissue") and the English word compatibility , was applied to the MHC molecules to describe their function in transplantation reactions and does not reveal their true physiological function. (britannica.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex in sexual selection concerns how major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules allow for immune system surveillance of the population of protein molecules in a host's cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules. (pnas.org)
  • W. E. Winter, R. H. Buck, and D. A. Verga-House, "Class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules," in Methods in Neurosciences , M. Ian Phillips and D. Evans, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • This implies that a major role of the MHC class II molecules in diabetes is the development of an autoreactive T-cell repertoire. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Tissue cells are normally protected from attack by self-reactive CD8 T-cells by a low expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and the absence of costimulatory molecules, which prevents activation of naive T-cells ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, although the MHC is a major genetic factor, the expression of predisposing MHC molecules on an otherwise nonsusceptible genetic background is not sufficient for diabetes to occur. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) binds to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules at two sites on either side of the peptide groove. (rupress.org)
  • A study was undertaken to determine whether the expression of tumor-associated antigens, expression of major histocompatibility complex molecules, or the cellular composition of the vaccine cells correlates with vaccine efficacy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Evidence suggests that the key role of IPs may hinge on their impact on the repertoire of peptides associated to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I molecules. (mcponline.org)
  • Using flow cytometry analysis, we confirmed that HCV core protein accumulated in aa70Q clone transfected cells, and it caused a reduction in cell-surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules induced by IFN treatment through enhanced protein kinase R phosphorylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Multivalent MHC molecules bind with their different arms independently to the same cell, resulting in a stable binding even if individual TCR-peptide-MHC complex interactions are unstable (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the avidity of these complexes is increased, inducing a stable binding of multimeric molecules to the TCR. (asm.org)
  • These transport molecules are called the Major Histocompatibility Complex ( MHC ) proteins. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • These TCRs are able to recognize peptides when they are expressed in complexes with MHC Class I molecules. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • Major Histocompatibility Complex proteins and their associated molecules are fundamental in the process of antigen presentation. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • This might be accomplished through the use of a panel of tetrameric MHC class I/peptide/β2m complexes that define a variety of CTL epitopes restricted by either a single or multiple MHC class I molecules. (asm.org)
  • Binding ability prediction of peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I & II molecules is important in vaccine development from fatty-acid-binding protein of the human blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum. (omicsonline.org)
  • Determinant capture as a possible mechanism of protection afforded by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules in autoimmune disease. (harvard.edu)
  • Describe and define major histocompatibility complex molecules C ell surface glycoproteins -Found on cells of all higher vertebrae. (coursehero.com)
  • Here we describe two general types of cytotoxic effector lymphocytes that can eliminate autologous tumor cells and discuss the role that major histocompatibility complex encoded molecules play in governing their specificities. (curehunter.com)
  • Using the cross-hybridization with plasmid pDC beta-1, containing the cDNA coding for the DC beta chain of the human major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, we have cloned and subjected to sequence analysis both the cDNA and genomic gene for the E beta chain of the BALB/c (d haplotype) mouse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cytogenetic and comparative analyses of whole genome sequences showed that the order of the three major sub-regions is "Centromere - Class II - Class III - Class I". DRA, DRB, DQA and DQB exon 2 sequences encoding the antigen binding site of the corresponding class II antigen presenting molecules showed high degree of sequence similarity and extensive allele sharing across the three species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded heterodimeric TAP1/TAP2 transporter (TAP) translocates cytosolic peptides into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where peptides of 8 to 11 amino acids long associate with MHC class I molecules. (rupress.org)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes encode cell surface molecules that bind and present immunogenic peptides to cytolytic T lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • The ovine major histocompatibility complex," in The Major Histocompatibilty Complex Region of Domestic Animal Species , L. B. Schook and S. J. Lamont, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • Background: The ovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) harbors genes involved in overall resistance/ susceptibility of the host to infectious diseases. (ebscohost.com)
  • An investigation of the ovine major histocompatibility complex (MhcOvar) was conducted using human-derived MHC class II D-region gene sequences. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Polymorphism and balancing selection at major histocompatibility complex loci. (genetics.org)
  • Holland OJ, Cowan PE, Gleeson DM, Chamley LW (2008) Novel alleles in classical major histocompatibility complex class II loci of the brushtail possum ( Trichosurus vulpecula ). (springer.com)
  • In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, and other teleosts, the class I and class II loci of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) reside on different chromosomes. (ebscohost.com)
  • A major quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines HR45 and HR67 was derived from XAN159, a resistant line obtained from an interspecific cross between common bean lines and the tepary bean ( P. acutifolius. (ebscohost.com)
  • Detection of arthritis-susceptibility loci, including Ncf1, and variable effects of the major histocompatibility complex region depending on genetic background in rats. (lu.se)
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize the arthritis-modulating effects of 3 non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in rat experimental arthritis in the disease-resistant E3 strain, and to investigate the disease-modulating effects of the MHC region (RT1) in various genetic backgrounds. (lu.se)
  • We argue that the major allelic lineages at the DRB1 locus began to diverge shortly after the rounds of duplication that generated the different DRB loci now found in the hominoids and that this event occurred more than 30 my ago. (elsevier.com)
  • Klein, Jan. / Shared polymorphism between gorilla and human major histocompatibility complex DRB loci . (elsevier.com)
  • Homologues of the human being major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci are present in all the Catarrhini (Old World primates, apes, and humans), and some of their allelic lineages have survived several speciation events. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • Among the hallmarks of the main histocompatibility complicated (MHC) may be the high polymorphism and intralocus variability of its loci (1). (columbiagypsy.net)
  • The failure to present antigenic peptides was explained by a general retention of nascent assembled trimolecular MHC class I complexes. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship of Peptides Binding to the Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecule A(q) Associated with Autoimmune Arthritis. (lu.se)
  • Presentation of (glyco)peptides by the class II major histocompatibility complex molecule Aq to T cells plays a central role in collagen-induced arthritis, an animal model for the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. (lu.se)
  • Major histocompatibility complex class I-presented antigenic peptides are degraded in cytosolic extracts primarily by thimet oligopeptidase. (umassmed.edu)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins are cell-surface glycoproteins that bind short peptides antigens and present them at the cell surface for recognition by CD4+ T-cell receptors. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Cytotoxic T cells monitor MHC class I complexes on antigen presenting cells for the potential presence of any non-self peptides that could derive from viral infection or cancerous cells. (escholarship.org)
  • HLA antigens are programmed by a highly variable gene complex consisting of more than 200 genes, all of which occur on chromosome 6. (britannica.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is one of the few identified gene systems in domestic animals that is associated with quantitative traits such as disease resistance, immune response, growth, and reproduction. (routledge.com)
  • Our results thus provide partial support for the TCR depletion model, while also highlighting the complex, potentially MHC class-specific mechanisms by which autoreactivity may trade off against evolutionary expansion of the MHC gene family. (pnas.org)
  • The parents and their litters were analyzed for variation at the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene DRB 1. (bioone.org)
  • The major histocompatibility complex ( MHC ) is a large genomic region or gene family found in most vertebrates . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Sequence variation at a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene was examined in Hypogeomys antimena , a monogamous endemic rodent of Madagascar. (wiley.com)
  • Immune responsiveness is affected, even controlled, by gene products of the major histocompatibility system (1) . (cdc.gov)
  • 1 Interestingly, according to the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS Catalog, 2.5% of GWAS SNPs, some with potential pleiotropic properties and 13.5% of phenotypes can be mapped to a 4 Mb region on chromosome 6p, encompassing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene cluster. (bmj.com)
  • Chromatin structure of the HLA-DR alpha gene in different functional states of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Complete primary structures of the E beta chain and gene of the mouse major histocompatibility complex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chromosomal organization of the human major histocompatibility complex class I gene family. (rupress.org)
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies add further complexity to the role of the MHC in MS. Reported MHC associations are complex, involving haplotypes rather than single alleles and may involve epigenetic mechanisms and other modulators of gene expression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • R. Harf and S. Sommer, "Association between major histocompatibility complex class II DRB alleles and parasite load in the hairy-footed gerbil, Gerbillurus paeba , in the southern Kalahari," Molecular Ecology , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 85-91, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Our study indicates that depending on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, IAAs can be rapidly induced, even in normal mouse strains, after the administration of the specific insulin peptide B9-23. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The three-dimensional structure of a Staphylococcus aureus superantigen, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), complexed with a human class II major histocompatibility molecule (DR1), was determined by x-ray crystallography. (sciencemag.org)
  • A significant increase in the percentage of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule-expressing tumor cells was the only marker with a positive correlation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amino Acid Polymorphisms in Hepatitis C Virus Core Affect Infectious Virus Production and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecule Expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recently the presence of a soluble form of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecule A (sMICA) has been detected in the sera of patients with tumors. (ovid.com)
  • Selective expression of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) immediate-early (IE) genes leads to the presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule L a of a peptide derived from MCMV IE protein pp89 (Reddehase, M. J., J. B. Rothbard, and U. H. Koszinowski. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This represents the 1st extensive, continuous sequence information for a histocompatibility antigen encoded by the H-2D locus and allows comparison with the recently determined amino acid sequence of the H-2Kb molecule. (eurekamag.com)
  • On the other side, the team placed a molecule called major histocompatability complex (MHC) that allows T cells to recognize if the cells are 'self' or 'foreign. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) , group of genes that code for proteins found on the surfaces of cells that help the immune system recognize foreign substances. (britannica.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large locus on vertebrate DNA containing a set of closely linked polymorphic genes that code for cell surface proteins essential for the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Found on virtually every cell, MHC (Major Histocompatibility, HLA) Class-I (Antigens) Proteins consist of noncovalently bound polymorphic 44-kDa MHC membrane glycoprotein and nonpolymorphic 12-kDa b2-microglobulin. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is an area of the genome which codes for a series of proteins expressed on the cells in the body. (wisegeek.com)
  • The T cells of the immune system interface with the proteins produced by the major histocompatibility complex, using this information to determine whether or not material encountered in the body belongs there. (wisegeek.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that initiate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of foreign antigens to T cells. (pnas.org)
  • HLA-A and HLA-B code for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, which mainly presents peptide fragments derived by proteasomal degradation of "self" proteins on the cell surface of the antigen presenting cell to cytolytic T cells ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Structure and Function of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • Molecular association between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and cellular proteins are thought to be involved in various immunological and nonimmunological functions of MHC antigens, including hormone signaling. (mysciencework.com)
  • Complex Hh-1 haplotypes have been suggested previously ( 50 ). (asm.org)
  • H. A. Lewin, "Genetic organization, polymorphism, and function of the bovine major histocompatibility complex," in The Major Histocompatibility Complex Region of Domestic Animal Species , L. B. Schook and S. J. Lamont, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • Associations of the bovine major histocompatibility complex DRB3 ( BoLA-DRB3 ) with production traits in Canadian dairy cattle," Animal Genetics , vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 157-160, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • We review here some of the recent findings of MS genetics with a particular focus on genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) , any of the numerous antigens (substances capable of stimulating an immune response) involved in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans. (britannica.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes in humans is strongly associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II polymorphisms. (nih.gov)
  • However, just as it is in humans, the most significant aspect of the Major Histocompatibility Complex to your dog's health is the role the MHC plays in so-called autoimmune diseases. (oldenglishsheepdogclubofamerica.org)
  • In humans, the entire histocompatibility complex is termed the HLA complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Mice lacking major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens were generated by mating beta 2-microglobulin-deficient, and therefore class I-deficient, animals with MHC class II-deficient animals. (pnas.org)
  • It was discovered during transplantation studies in mice (as the H-2 complex) by Peter A Issac Gorer in the Lister Institute in London in 1937 who later collaborated with George Snell of the Jackson Laboratories in Ben Harbor 3;4 . (dorak.info)
  • The hemopoietic histocompatibility system in mice has been shown to determine F1 hybrid resistance to a bone marrow graft from either parent with graft rejection mediated by radio-resistant NK cells ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Odor types determined by the major histocompatibility complex in germfree mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The frequency of CD8 + CTLs specific for the p11C,C-M, p68A, and p41A epitopes was quantitated in the same animals with a panel of tetrameric Mamu-A*01/peptide/β2m complexes. (asm.org)
  • George Snell selectively bred two mouse strains, attained a new strain nearly identical to one of the progenitor strains, but differing crucially in histocompatibility-that is, tissue compatibility upon transplantation-and thereupon identified an MHC locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role of nonclassical class I genes of the chicken major histocompatibility complex Rfp-Y locus in transplantation immunity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It has been suggested that the major hematopoietic histocompatibility locus (Hh-1) maps within the H-2 complex between H2-S and H2-D and can be dissociated from class I genes ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Preliminary analysis of the contributions of major histocompatibility complex-H2 to autoantibody production in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Background We previously found in a murine hematopoietic system that hematopoietic stem cells show high differentiation and proliferation capacity on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells/stromal cells (microenvironment) with "self" major histocompatibility complex (MHC). (haematologica.org)
  • The NH2-terminal 98 amino acid residues of the murine histocompatibility antigen H-2Db were assigned using radiochemical methodology. (eurekamag.com)
  • Recent findings have shown that the interplay between the immune and the nervous systems extends beyond the classical immune-mediated neuronal pathologies, such as multiple sclerosis , indicating immune dysregulation as a major factor in the etiopathogenesis of several psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders [ 4 - 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region is strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility. (harvard.edu)
  • Multiple sclerosis and the major histocompatibility complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A high degree of polymorphism and high nucleotide diversity mark the functional genes of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc). (elsevier.com)
  • 2 ) first described the use of HLA-peptide tetrameric complexes. (asm.org)
  • Recently it has become possible to define with quantitative precision distinct subpopulations of epitope-specific CD8 + CTL by soluble major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I/peptide/beta-2-microglobulin (β2m) tetrameric complexes and flow cytometric analysis ( 2-4 , 6 , 8 , 11 , 17 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The use of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide tetrameric complexes (tetramers) to study antiviral CTL responses has revolutionized our approach tc, the study of human infection. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Differences in the strength and specificity for major histocompatibility complex class I of KIR3DL1 and its common chimpanzee homologue Pt-KIR3DL1/2 were exploited to address these questions. (rupress.org)
  • Recent advances have enabled the use soluble multivalent analogs of MHC complexes to study T-cell specificity. (asm.org)
  • The chicken major histocompatibility complex ( MHC) genes are organized into two genetically independent clusters which both possess class I and class IIbeta genes: the classical B complex and the Restriction fragment pattern- Y ( Rfp-Y) complex. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There is also evidence that the major histocompatibility genes play an intimate role in autoimmune processes. (usu.edu)
  • Macrophages are the major source of many cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), which is currently being tested as a therapeutic agent in several autoimmune diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most important genetic susceptibility factor for type 1 diabetes is encoded in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Surprisingly, when the MIRP and CIA models in rats are compared, major genetic differences are found regarding susceptibility to induction of disease symptoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over several decades, various forms of genomic analysis of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been extremely successful in picking up many disease associations. (nih.gov)
  • The database currently focuses on the human major histocompatibility complex but will be used as a model system to provide specialist databases for the MHC sequences of other species. (nih.gov)
  • In human beings the complex is also called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. (britannica.com)
  • The human MHC is also called the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex (often just the HLA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Identified genetic risk factors within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), such as butyrophilin-like ( BTNL)2 , human leukocyte antigen ( HLA)-DRB1*03 and HLA-DRB1*15 , and protective factors, such as HLA-DRB1*01 , are found in many populations [ 1 , 2 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are an inherent system of alloantigens, which are the products of genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, in knowing that the C4 genes are closely linked to the major histocompatibility genes, this study determined and analyzed the human leukocyte antigen profile of autistic patients, their siblings, and parents. (usu.edu)
  • Herpesviruses encode a seemingly redundant repertoire of genes that interfere with the major histocompatibility (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway. (asm.org)
  • Determining the genomic organization of the Ovis aries ( Ovar) major histocompatibility complex class IIa region is essential for future functional studies related to antigen presentation. (ebscohost.com)
  • The class I genes of the major histocompatibility complex of the mouse can be divided into two categories: those encoding the transplantation antigens and those encoding the Qa and Tla antigens. (caltech.edu)
  • Philip W. Hedrick , Rhonda N. Lee , and Colleen Buchanan "Canine Parvovirus Enteritis, Canine Distemper, and Major Histocompatibility Complex Genetic Variation in Mexican Wolves," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(4), 909-913, (1 October 2003). (bioone.org)
  • Female choice and variation in the major histocompatibility complex. (genetics.org)
  • Modulation of major histocompatibility complex antigen expression by viral infection. (nih.gov)
  • Cytomegalovirus inhibits major histocompatibility class II expression on infected endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) enhances Fc receptor (FcR) expression on isolated rat brain microglia and peritoneal macrophages but has little effect on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen expression. (open.ac.uk)
  • Induction of class II major histocompatibility complex expression in human multiple myeloma cells by retinoid. (harvard.edu)
  • Major histocompatibility complex genes, which control the immune response and effective resistance against pathogens, have been able to maintain an extremely high level of allelic diversity throughout time and throughout different populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are required for the initiation and regulation of a specific immune response and represent a major host factor accounting for the differential outcome of infection. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are central to the vertebrate immune response. (g3journal.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes are central to vertebrate immune response and are believed to be under balancing selection by pathogens. (up.ac.za)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a genomic region containing immune response (IR) genes, which play a crucial role in host and pathogen interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein complexes are expressed, and act as antigens, on the surface of every cell that is involved in immunological functions. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Class II, Major Histocompatibility Complex, Transactivator Proteine (3) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein performs several functions potentially important for successful infection, including immune escape via down-regulation of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) and direct enhancement of viral infectivity and replication. (actgnetwork.org)
  • Whereas SEB binds primarily off one edge of the peptide binding site of DR1, TSST-1 extends over almost one-half of the binding site and contacts both the flanking alpha helices of the histocompatibility antigen and the bound peptide. (sciencemag.org)
  • Due to genetic recombination events each CTL expresses a unique TCR which only binds a specific MHC-peptide complex. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • Although US8 does not have discernible effects on the processing and cell surface distribution of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I products, we have demonstrated that US8 binds to MHC class I heavy chains in the endoplasmic reticulum. (asm.org)
  • Soluble antigens (Ags) in the extracellular fluids are excluded from the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted pathway of Ag presentation in most cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • TCR have a low binding affinity ( K d ) for peptide MHC complexes that is much lower than that of antibodies for their antigen ( 39 ) and also a very short dwell time ( 11 , 51 ), making it difficult to analyze the interaction of soluble monovalent MHC with cognate TCR by standard flow cytometry-based assays. (asm.org)
  • Characterization of the peptide-receptive form of the human class II major histocompatibility complex HLA-DR1. (jbsdonline.com)
  • A distinct difference in conformation exists between empty and peptide-loaded forms of the human class II major histocompatibility complex HLA-DR1. (jbsdonline.com)
  • X-ray crystallographic analysis of complexes has given high-resolution images of KIR2DL2 bound to HLA-Cw3 and of KIR2DL1 bound to HLA-Cw4 ( 17 , 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • Maintenance of Nef-mediated modulation of major histocompatibility complex class I and CD4 after sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (actgnetwork.org)
  • With the completion of the Dog Genome Assembly, comparative genomic studies of complex diseases in dogs, including diabetes, could provide an important investigative approach into such disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are a central component of the vertebrate immune system and usually exist in a single genomic region. (g3journal.org)
  • The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a genomic region containing genes with crucial roles in immune responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • G. Obexer-Ruff, I. Joosten, and F. W. Schwaiger, "The caprine major histocompatibility complex," in The Major Histocompatibility Complex Region of Domestic Animal Species , L. B. Schook and S. J. Lamont, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acid replacements in the peptide-binding region (PBR) of the functional major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes appear to be driven by balancing selection. (genetics.org)
  • The Major Histocompatibility Complex Region of Domestic Animal Species begins with a discussion of the evolution of Mhc. (routledge.com)
  • Background Over 160 disease phenotypes have been mapped to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6 by genome-wide association study (GWAS), suggesting that the MHC region as a whole may be involved in the aetiology of many phenotypes, including unstudied diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Genes in the MHC region have been shown to influence disease severity, display parent-of-origin effects and interact with a major environmental candidate for MS, vitamin D. SUMMARY: The MHC class II association with MS is not as straightforward as previously thought. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The matching of intron 1- and intron 2-based phylogenies with each other suggests that reciprocal recombination has not played a major role in exon 2 evolution. (springer.com)
  • Difficulty in analyzing T cells was partially due to the fact that T lymphocytes recognize cell surface peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes and also due to the intrinsic low affinity of T-cell receptors (TCR) for cognate ligand. (asm.org)
  • All NK cells potentially lytic for autologous cells but not expressing self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-reactive receptors could be eliminated by a negative selection mechanism during ontogeny. (asm.org)
  • Molecular association between major histocompatibility complex class I antigens and insulin receptors in mouse liver membranes. (mysciencework.com)
  • Construction of a rabbit bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library: application to the mapping of the major histocompatibility complex to position 12q1.1. (ebscohost.com)
  • HLA-DR (major histocompatibility complex [MHC] class II) is often expressed by epithelial cells in gingival tissues with periodontal disease but not by cells in healthy gingival tissues. (researchmap.jp)
  • Cellular and molecular analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restricted and non-MHC-restricted effector cells recognizing renal cell carcinomas: problems and perspectives for immunotherapy. (curehunter.com)
  • All the major human DRB allelic lineages are now known to be shared with apes, and all must have originated before the human-gorilla-chimpanzee divergence more than six million years (my) ago. (elsevier.com)
  • The IPD-MHC Database was created which provides a centralised repository for sequences of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) from a number of different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IMGT/HLA Database is a specialist database for sequences of the human major histocompatibility (MHC) system. (nih.gov)
  • These results also indicate that the formation of the trimolecular complex of MHC dass I heavy chain, ~2-microglobulin, and the finally trimmed peptide is completed before entering the medial-Golgi compartment. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Induction of autoantibodies mapped to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) rather than to the background genes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Induction of differentiation-regulated transcription factor Oct-6 specifically accompanies major histocompatibility complex class I down-regulation by E1A of oncogenic adenovirus type 12 -- Peeper et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, MHC genes, as well as non-MHC genes, are important for MIRP induction, and IL-10 plays a major suppressive role in cartilage inflammation of the respiratory tract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central for self-/non-self-recognition and acquired immunity. (pnas.org)
  • The diversity of the major histocompatibility complex is both a blessing and a curse. (wisegeek.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex genomics and human disease. (nih.gov)
  • For the TCR to bind a peptide-MHC complex two conditions must be met. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • Firstly, the TCR must have a structure which allows it to bind the peptide-MHC complex. (bbk.ac.uk)