Maintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.Maintenance Chemotherapy: Treatment designed to help prevent a relapse of a disease following the successful primary treatments (INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY and CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY) with a long-term low-dose drug therapy.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL which may provide targeting of the protein complex and an extended N-terminus which is rich in SERINE residues.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Telomerase: An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Telomere Homeostasis: Maintenance of TELOMERE length. During DNA REPLICATION, chromosome ends loose some of their telomere sequence (TELOMERE SHORTENING.) Various cellular mechanism are involved in repairing, extending, and recapping the telomere ends.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6.Corpus Luteum Maintenance: Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 6: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 7.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Telomere-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to TELOMERES. Proteins in this class include those that perform functions such as telomere capping, telomere maintenance and telomere stabilization.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL, which provide targeting of the protein complex. In addition, acetylation of this protein may play a role in regulating of DNA replication and cell cycle progression.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Induction Chemotherapy: Initial drug treatment designed to bring about REMISSION INDUCTION. It is typically a short-term and high-dose drug treatment that is followed by CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY and then MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 4: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 7.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.RecQ Helicases: A family of structurally-related DNA helicases that play an essential role in the maintenance of genome integrity. RecQ helicases were originally discovered in E COLI and are highly conserved across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Genetic mutations that result in loss of RecQ helicase activity gives rise to disorders that are associated with CANCER predisposition and premature aging.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Polycomb Repressive Complex 1: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)United StatesMice, Inbred BALB CObesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.

Maintenance and sustained use of insecticide-treated bednets and curtains three years after a controlled trial in western Kenya. (1/58)

In large experimental trials throughout Africa, insecticide-treated bednets and curtains have reduced child mortality in malaria-endemic communities by 15%-30%. While few questions remain about the efficacy of this intervention, operational issues around how to implement and sustain insecticide-treated materials (ITM) projects need attention. We revisited the site of a small-scale ITM intervention trial, 3 years after the project ended, to assess how local attitudes and practices had changed. Qualitative and quantitative methods, including 16 focus group discussions and a household survey (n = 60), were employed to assess use, maintenance, retreatment and perceptions of ITM and the insecticide in former study communities. Families that had been issued bednets were more likely to have kept and maintained them and valued bednets more highly than those who had been issued curtains. While most households retained their original bednets, none had treated them with insecticide since the intervention trial was completed 3 years earlier. Most of those who had been issued bednets repaired them, but none acquired new or replacement nets. In contrast, households that had been issued insecticide-treated curtains often removed them. Three (15%) of the households issued curtains had purchased one or more bednets since the study ended. In households where bednets had been issued, children 10 years of age and younger were a third as likely to sleep under a net as were adults (relative risk (RR) = 0. 32; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 0.19, 0.53). Understanding how and why optimal ITM use declined following this small-scale intervention trial can suggest measures that may improve the sustainability of current and future ITM efforts.  (+info)

Planning factors for developing an enterprise-wide picture archiving and communication system maintenance program. (2/58)

Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) maintenance on an individual site basis has historically been a complex and costly challenge. With the advent of enterprise-wide PACS projects such as the Virtual Radiology Environment (VRE) project, the challenge of a maintenance program with even more complexities has presented itself. The approach of the project management team for the VRE project is not one of reactive maintenance, but one of highly proactive planning and negotiations, in hopes of capitalizing on the economies of scale of an enterprise-wide PACS maintenance program. A proactive maintenance program is one aspect of life-cycle management. As with any capital acquisition, life-cycle management may be used to manage the specific project aspects related to PACS. The purpose of an enterprise-wide warranty and maintenance life-cycle management approach is to maintain PACS at its maximum operational efficiency and utilization levels through a flexible, shared, yet symbiotic relationship between local, regional, and vendor resources. These goals include providing maximum operational performance levels on a local, regional, and enterprise basis, while maintaining acceptable costs and resource utilization levels. This goal must be achieved without negatively impacting point of care activities, regardless of changes to the clinical business environment.  (+info)

Specifications for equipment used for infant pulmonary function testing. ERS/ATS Task Force on Standards for Infant Respiratory Function Testing. European Respiratory Society/ American Thoracic Society. (3/58)

The aim of this position paper is to define minimal performance criteria for the separate items comprising equipment used to measure respiratory function in infants together with overall performance criteria for the assembled pieces of such equipment. These guidelines cover numerous aspects including: 1) safety, 2) documentation and maintenance of equipment, 3) physical characteristics of mechanical parts and signal transducers, and 4) data acquisition. Further, validation procedures for individual components as well as for the integrated equipment are recommended. Adherence to these guidelines should ensure that infant lung function measurements can be performed with an acceptable degree of safety, precision and reproducibility. They will also facilitate multicentre collection of data and performance of clinical investigations. Manufacturers of infant respiratory function equipment should make every effort to comply with these guidelines, which represent the current standards of paediatric health professionals in this field.  (+info)

Asthma risk, cleaning activities and use of specific cleaning products among Spanish indoor cleaners. (4/58)

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown an excess risk of asthma for cleaners, but it is not clear which cleaning-related exposures induce or aggravate asthma. METHODS: Risk factors for asthma were studied among indoor cleaners participating in the Spanish part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in 1992. In 1998, 78 of the 91 subjects reporting cleaning-related jobs in 1992 were identified. Of these, 67 indoor cleaners were interviewed by telephone about their cleaning activities and their use of cleaning products in 1992. These data were related to asthma prevalence in 1992, and the cleaners were compared with a reference group of office workers. RESULTS: Asthma prevalence was 1.7 times higher [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-2.6] among the cleaners than among the referents, being highest among private home cleaners (3.3, 95% CI 1.9-5.8). The prevalence of housedust mite sensitization amounted to 28% for the home cleaners and was significantly (P<0.01) higher than for other indoor cleaners (3%), but similar to the corresponding prevalence of office workers (22%). More than half of the cleaners reported work-related respiratory symptoms. The asthma risk of the home cleaners was mainly associated with kitchen cleaning and furniture polishing, with the use of oven sprays and polishes. CONCLUSIONS: The asthma risk of Spanish cleaners is primarily related to the cleaning of private homes. This relationship may be explained by the use of sprays and other products in kitchen cleaning and furniture polishing.  (+info)

The use and maintenance of visible light activating units in general practice. (5/58)

AIM: The present study to investigate the use, care and maintenance of light units in everyday clinical practice was undertaken to complement light unit emission surveys, with a view to developing a protocol for light unit use and care in everyday clinical practice. METHOD: The investigative work comprised a survey of selected practices in the Blackburn area with follow-up practice visits to examine light units in situ, and to glean additional information in respect of light unit use and care in the practice environment. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were returned by 54 of 77 selected practices--a 70% response, including information in relation to 164 light units. Subsequently, 100 (61%) of these light units were examined in 42 practices according to a standardised protocol. The use and care of the light units included in the study was found to be very variable. In addition to finding that 28 (28%) had inadequate light output (<300 mW/cm2), many of the light units were found to be damaged or repaired (47, 47%). Thirty five (35%) of the light units inspected were found to have varying amounts of material adherent to the light guide exit portal. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that practitioners should address practical aspects of their increasing reliance on light units, and to this end, guidance is offered on visible light curing and the care and maintenance of light units.  (+info)

Quality assurance in health care: missions, goals, activities. (6/58)

The most challenging mission of medical personnel today is quality assurance in health care. To meet this challenge, the essential elements of a six-phase system for total quality control for the medical laboratory are outlined under the headings of design control, incoming material control, process control, output control, reliability control, and special verification studies. Review of existing goals and activities of programs related to this mission indicates both problems and rich opportunities for individual laboratory professionals and their organizations. For effective implementation of this mission, the laboratory professionals will have to create the atmosphere of a collegium where all interested scientists communicate across disciplines to eliminate the systematic biases and improve the accuracy, precision, and specificity of clinical laboratory measuring systems, to assure medically meaningful and useful assay results for the broad spectrum of health care that is necessary for the well, the near-well, and the sick.  (+info)

Sphygmomanometers in use in general practice: an overlooked aspect of quality in patient care. (7/58)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the condition, accuracy and safety of mercury and anaeroid sphygmomanometers in use in general practice and to pilot a scheme for sphygmomanometer maintenance within the district. DESIGN: Instruments were checked on site according to set protocols which related to established guidelines and standards and data were entered into a specially designed database. Mercury sphygmomanometers were removed to the laboratory for servicing. Practices received written feedback on the condition of each instrument checked, repairs undertaken and advice, where necessary, for further work required. Participant views on the scheme were sought. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 472 instruments (75.4% mercury) located in 86 general practices (87.8% of practices participated) in a health district in the West Midlands. Instruments were checked against 28 (mercury) and 25 (anaeroid) quality standards and (for mercury instruments) against British Hypertension Society guidelines. RESULTS: 69.1% of mercury and 95.7% of anaeroid instruments checked, had no service records. Of the remainder, only 29 mercury (8.1%) and one anaeroid (0.9%) had a record of a check or service within the previous 12 months. None of the instruments met all of the relevant quality standards and 14 (3.9%) mercury and seven (6.1%) anaeroid instruments met less than half. A large proportion of mercury sphygmomanometers tested had defects likely to affect recommended measurement technique. Only two-thirds were accurate at all pressure levels tested. Only 38.8% of anaeroid instruments were accurate at all test pressure levels. CONCLUSIONS: The level of defects noted could have an impact on diagnosis and monitoring of hypertension.  (+info)

Is home renovation or repair a risk factor for exposure to lead among children residing in New York City? (8/58)

Children can be lead poisoned when leaded paint is disturbed during home renovation or repair. We conducted a case-control study to assess the association between elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in children younger than 5 years of age and renovation or repair of homes built before 1950 in New York City. In 1998, we interviewed parents of 106 case children (BLLs >/= 10 micro g/dL) and 159 control children (BLLs +info)

  • International lifting and offshore services specialist Huisman has developed a new crane series for maintenance work on offshore wind turbines. (
  • This work develops an integrated model to help highway agencies in developing traffic control plans for maintenance activities and in efficiently managing traffic around highway work zones. (
  • This includes corresponding efforts at regular, systematic maintenance work. (
  • This solution helps you move beyond your preventive maintenance program to predict when your equipment needs to be serviced. (
  • Connecting products, monitoring performance, and predicting the deterioration of tools enables you to advance from traditional maintenance practices-like unplanned and preventive maintenance-to more modern, cost-effective practices. (
  • Transitioning from preventive maintenance to new digital capabilities offers you an opportunity to leverage condition monitoring tools for your equipment-at the lowest operational cost. (
  • Mechanical or electronic failures may occur from time to time in a complex system like a feed mill, but proper attention to preventive maintenance will minimize down time and the prospect of the customer receiving feed which is out of specification. (
  • A good preventive maintenance programme should provide adequate maintenance at reasonable cost (Appendix III). (
  • In Appendix IV a checklist is provided to highlight generalised preventive maintenance functions, which are to be checked periodically. (
  • This maturity matrix focused on Preventive Maintenance is the most updated one anywhere. (
  • Common Cycle's Fall 2018 Maintenance Course will begin Tuesday, October 9th and run on 6 consecutive Tuesdays from 6:30-8:30 in Ann Arbor, concluding on November 13th. (
  • The district had 23,870 maintenance requests during the 2017-2018 school year. (
  • It allows maintenance managers to easily access information to determine which assets are being over-, under- or well-maintained and uses this prescriptive analysis to optimize maintenance practices and resources. (
  • Without careful analysis of asset operational data and factors affecting asset performance it is difficult to determine the how to best allocate maintenance resources and schedules so as to optimize asset availability and reduce maintenance costs. (
  • The overall goal of Aviation Maintenance human factors research is to identify and optimize the factors that affect human performance in maintenance and inspection. (
  • Business France vient de dévoiler les startup qui viendront remplir les rangs de cette délégation française au CES 2017 qui aura lieu en janvier prochain. (
  • Unlike fee-for-service medicine, HMOs (a 1970s term) are group practices, providing relatively comprehensive (primary and hospital) services for a standard prepayment, so helping to reduce costs and increasing medical incentives to health maintenance. (
  • Additionally, there are a handful of car maintenance services you shouldn't skip, Bank Rate said. (
  • The Xtralifts are covered by Stannah's comprehensive 24/7 lift service plan, with 12 service visits in the first year, and continued lift maintenance by the London and South East Dartford branch of Stannah Lift Services, part of a nationwide network providing comprehensive lift servicing and support. (
  • Due to system maintenance, the following services will be temporarily suspended. (
  • Property management services have been taken to the next level with the launch of CMS Ltd professional and expert commercial property maintenance and management services in Newcastle and throughout the North East UK. (
  • MicroMain , an industry leader in maintenance and facility management software and services, announces the release of an all-new version of MicroMain Mobile. (
  • MicroMain Corporation provides award-winning facility management and preventative maintenance software and services to organizations worldwide. (
  • Check your vehicle's owner's manual and find out when your recommended car maintenance services should be scheduled. (
  • Scheduling maintenance services through your dealer may be best. (
  • Salesforce ajoute IoT Insights en tant que composant de son produit Field Service Lightning, combinant des données IoT avec d'autres informations pour les opérateurs de services sur le terrain. (
  • These competencies include the ability to integrate accessibility into the planning, development, and implementation of the total scope of maintenance projects and services. (
  • By submitting a residence maintenance request you are giving residence services the right to enter you unit during maintenance business hours, 9 a.m. - 9 p.m. 7 days a week, to fix the problem. (
  • Bouygues Telecom rapproche ses activités de M2M et de LoRaWAN pour la gestion des objets connectés sous la marque Objenious, sa filiale lancée en 2016. (
  • High Maintenance originally premiered as a web series on Vimeo on November 11, 2012 and began airing as a television series on HBO on September 16, 2016. (
  • Determine which assets are being over-, under- or well-maintained by analyzing maintenance records, timing, performance metrics, and event data to prescribe optimum asset maintenance schedules, allocate resources, and reduce maintenance costs. (
  • Certification Maintenance strengthens the value of certification, demonstrating your ongoing commitment to excellence to elected officials, community leaders, and employers. (
  • The Certification Maintenance (CM) program links certified planners to training opportunities that keep them up to date on the latest trends, technologies, and best practices. (
  • Committee members can find more information about Maintenance Agencies in Annex G of the ISO/IEC Directives Part 1 . (
  • Deze site maakt gebruik van cookies om analyses te kunnen uitvoeren en persoonlijke inhoud en reclame te kunnen weergeven. (
  • Boeing provides on-site maintenance and support ensuring F/A-18 fleets (both Classic Hornets and Super Hornets) are mission ready. (
  • Tonight at 7:00pm US Eastern Time, that's midnight UK time, the TripAdvisor site will undergo some scheduled maintenance for approximately three hours. (
  • Just a reminder of the Site Maintenance tonight. (
  • A final reminder that the site will go to read only for maintenance work to be carried out in a few minutes time. (
  • Training of maintenance staff should be a high priority with high-level management oversight. (
  • MicroMain Mobile is an add-on application for use with MicroMain's award-winning maintenance management (CMMS) software, MicroMain Maintenance. (
  • The solution developed by Fujitsu provides a powerful platform for supporting mobile applications across their lifecycle - from deployment and customisation through management, maintenance and updates. (
  • Maintenance Logistics offers our service partners competent support for the entire IT spare part supply: procurement - planning - inventory management - warehousing - transport management - returns management - repair management - warranty handling. (
  • The Maintenance Staff handles most routine problems within 24-36 hours. (
  • The contract you make with your tenant should allow you access for any maintenance or safety check work that needs to be done. (
  • You may report housekeeping and maintenance concerns via a work order. (
  • Between work, family events, and the dozens of other obligations people have, basic car maintenance can fall by the wayside. (
  • DeKalb County School District outsources some of its maintenance work to outside vendors, and officials said previously that was done to get more of the requests tackled. (
  • For a design to comply with an integral maintenance-aware solution, technical, financial, logistics and organisational specifications need to be set and fulfilled. (
  • Fujitsu Technology Solutions Maintenance Logistics is responsible for controlling the entire spare part cycle - all done on a worldwide, environmentally friendly basis. (
  • When major maintenance such as patching is performed, a backup is recommended as the first step in case the update fails and reversion is required. (
  • With Mobile, users can update their maintenance database in real-time from anywhere using any Internet-enabled devise, including laptops, tablets, and smartphones. (
  • This latest release of MicroMain Mobile coincides with an update to MicroMain's flagship CMMS solution, MicroMain Maintenance. (
  • Since Channel Maintenance is currently not working on your machine, what I'm suggesting is that you send me your .CHANNEL files, I'll fix them up for you, then when you copy them back, the next time Awasu starts, your channels will have new update intervals. (
  • Excludes "Maintenance and Repair Workers, General" (49-9071). (
  • The agency's data showed that skipped maintenance caused literally millions of breakdowns each year and that consumers who don't keep up with maintenance ultimately pay higher repair costs. (
  • The city's library presidents will make their case to the City Council this morning for increased funding and a boost in capital dollar spending to repair what they call a "maintenance crisis" across the city's 207 libraries. (
  • Common Cycle's bi-annual maintenance courses are intended to help train future volunteers and community members by providing hands on experience and general knowledge about fixing bicycles and assisting people who come to our mobile repair stand. (
  • We cover a range of repair and maintenance from basic (e.g. tube change, brake adjustment) to advanced (e.g. hub overhaul, wheel truing). (
  • Apply machine learning, using principles of math, science, and engineering to identify correlations between maintenance data and operating data along with any other data that may contain clues about equipment usage and degradation. (
  • Careful attention should be paid to the equipment manufacturer s suggested maintenance schedule(s). (
  • The Street Maintenance Section provides equipment and staffing for year-round preservation and maintenance of Municipal streets. (
  • At the most granular level, maintenance personnel gain an understanding of individual drivers and factors that affect asset performance, as well as detailed attributes of the asset, predicted time to failure, and maintenance logs. (
  • This level of detail can help a manager visually correlate factors that are positively and negatively influencing asset performance in context of historical failure data and maintenance and replacement activities. (
  • Adequate space, ventilation and lighting shall be maintained for the proper performance of all manufacturing, storing, labelling, quality assurance and maintenance aspects of aquaculture feed manufacturing. (
  • also, that maintenance improvement and cost reduction may be difficult, but certainly is not unattainable. (
  • The plant maintenance program is vital to consistent production of high quality feeds and no less important to cost control and assurance to the customer that their feed will arrive on time and to formula specification (Parr, 1988). (
  • When adding additional licensed copies to your multi-user license, the maintenance cost for these additional copies will be prorated to match the maintenance expiration date of the original purchase. (
  • This is reflected in the economic importance that maintenance has: € 400 billion of invested capital, annual cost of € 18 billion and more than 150,000 workplaces (in the Netherlands). (
  • Hello, Today, Monday September 23rd from 9:00 PM (UTC) until 11:00 PM (UTC) we will be performing some maintenance on the infrastructure that powers and several subdomains of (
  • Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Department of Defense's (DOD) program to compete depot maintenance workloads between the public and private sectors. (
  • Follow a regular maintenance program. (
  • Visit to download the eBook. (
  • Disk cleanup may be performed as regular maintenance to remove these. (
  • However, performing regular maintenance on your vehicle matters more than you think. (
  • Included in the report are examples of branch's maintenance needs along with a description of the community's profile outlining the local levels of education and the average household income. (
  • The Street Maintenance Section is dedicated to preserving the community's investment in Municipal roadways and providing its citizens with safe, clean streets. (
  • Maintenance from the meter to the service pipework (external to the property) is not the responsibility of the landlord but the pipeline operator (usually TRANSCO). (
  • But does keeping up with maintenance mean paying for every service under the sun? (
  • comprehensive property surveys, mould removal treatment and a full installation service for both responsive and planned maintenance. (
  • Dealers often put a sticker on your vehicle that includes a reminder of the date of your next maintenance service. (
  • Going to the same Toyota dealer for maintenance means you'll have a complete service history for the vehicle. (
  • Set a service procedure in motion with Project, which makes it easy to track progress and balance resource needs for maintenance requests across the company. (
  • CTS Engines has signed multi-year engine maintenance service agreements with Finnish cargo carrier Nordic Global Airlines (NGA), and Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.-based Spirit Airlines (NK). (
  • 1. How to identify needs and how lawn maintenance software can eliminate the biggest business issues. (
  • health-maintenance organization (HMO) A type of health-care organization developed in the USA, initially on co-operative principles, now increasingly run by profit-making corporations. (
  • Trouble with health maintenance organisations. (
  • Selected Readings in General Surgery (SRGS ® ) is an economical way to stay current with the surgical literature, improve patient care, and earn Maintenance of Certification self-assessment credit. (
  • The requirement for landlords to provide domestic gas maintenance is distinct from the requirement for keeping gas safety records . (
  • Industrial maintenance is divided into two distinct pathways, electrical and instrumentation and mechanical. (