Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Calcium Citrate: A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)MalatesOxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.IsocitratesAluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.SulfonesAcetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Coenzyme ADicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Aconitic AcidRanitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.PyruvatesPurines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Carbon-Sulfur Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Dicarboxylic AcidsCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Pyruvate Carboxylase: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 6.4.1.1.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase ComplexAnticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Fumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.PiperazinesLigases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Phosphofructokinases: Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Burns, ChemicalGlutaratesHexosediphosphatesAcidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.GluconatesEye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Hemofiltration: Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.TartratesPhosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.FructosephosphatesCarbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.HexosephosphatesMalonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Senna Extract: Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.Proton-Motive Force: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Medullary Sponge Kidney: A non-hereditary KIDNEY disorder characterized by the abnormally dilated (ECTASIA) medullary and inner papillary portions of the collecting ducts. These collecting ducts usually contain CYSTS or DIVERTICULA filled with jelly-like material or small calculi (KIDNEY STONES) leading to infections or obstruction. It should be distinguished from congenital or hereditary POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)MalonatesBisacodyl: A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)ButanonesHemodiafiltration: The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Adenine NucleotidesEnergy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Bartonella: A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fructosediphosphates: Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Hyperoxaluria: Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Acetylcarnitine: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
"Viagra (sildenafil citrate) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information". Pfizer Labs. Division of Pfizer, Inc., NY, NY ... Webb, D.J.; Freestone, S.; Allen, M.J.; Muirhead, G.J. (March 4, 1999). "Sildenafil citrate and blood-pressure-lowering drugs: ... Manufacture and sale of sildenafil citrate drugs known as "generic Viagra" is common in India, where Pfizer's patent claim does ... "Sildenafil Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved Dec 1, 2014. "Patent US5250534 - ...
"Diethylcarbamazine Citrate". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 1 December 2016. "Diethylcarbamazine Advanced ... In vivo effect of diethylcarbamazine citrate on microfilariae in albino rats". Experimental Parasitology. 126 (4): 603-10. doi: ...
Other drugs are taken for similar purposes such as clomiphene citrate and the anti-aromatase drugs which are used in order to ... "Tamoxifen Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08. Retrieved 27 ... "Tamoxifen Citrate". NCI. August 26, 2015. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2015. " ... Ethamoxytriphetol Trioxifene Clomifene citrate Fulvestrant "NCI Drug Dictionary". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015 ...
... hydrate, piperazine adipate and piperazine citrate (used to treat ascariasis and enterobiasis) are the most common ... Two common salts in the form of which piperazine is usually prepared for pharmaceutical or veterinary purposes are the citrate ...
"Alverine Citrate Patient Information Leaflet" (PDF). Medicines.org.uk. 2014. "Alverine" (PDF). "Alverine citrate" (PDF). " ... At week 4, alverine citrate and simeticone group had lower VAS scores of abdominal pain⁄discomfort (median: 40 mm vs. 50 mm, P ... "ALVERINE CITRATE 60 MG HARD CAPSULES , Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-12-06. "Alverine capsules - Spasmonal, ... By relaxing the gut muscle, alverine citrate relieves the symptoms of this condition. Alverine also relaxes the smooth muscle ...
H.S. Yathirajan; B. Nagaraj; P. Nagaraja; M. Bolte (2005). "Sildenafil citrate monohydrate". Acta Crystallographica. 61 (2): ...
Toremifene (toremifene citrate; see figure 8), chemically designated as 2-(p-[(Z)-4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-1-butenyl]phenoxy)-N,N- ... dimethylethylamine citrate, is a chlorinated derivative of the nonsteroidal triphenylethylene antiestrogen tamoxifen with a ...
"Entrez Gene: SLC25A1 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; citrate transporter), member 1". Nota B, Struys EA, Pop A ... Goldmuntz E, Wang Z, Roe BA, Budarf ML (1997). "Cloning, genomic organization, and chromosomal localization of human citrate ... 2013). "Deficiency in SLC25A1, Encoding the Mitochondrial Citrate Carrier, Causes Combined D-2- and L-2-Hydroxyglutaric ... 2013). "Mechanisms of divergent effects of activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ on mitochondrial citrate ...
... citrate and tartrate. Iron(III) chloride is a mild oxidising agent, for example, it is capable of oxidising copper(I) chloride ...
Cafcit (caffeine citrate) package insert. Evansville, IN: Mead Johnson & Company; 2003 May. Zyflo Filmtab (zileuton) package ...
Citric Acid-Ammonium Citrate Solutions". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 72 (6): 2354-2361. doi:10.1021/ja01162a004. ...
Rat liver citrate cleavage enzyme". J. Biol. Chem. 242: 3239-3241. PMID 6027798. Berg, Jeremy; John Tymoczko; Lubert Stryer ( ...
Sodium Citrate is the anticoagulant used in specimens collected for coagulation tests. The majority of chemistry and immunology ... Sodium citrate (light blue) 3. No additive/ Silica clot activator (red and black stripped or gold SST), (red) 4. Lithium ...
They include cream of tartar, calcium phosphate, and citrates. High-temperature acid salts produce a leavening effect during ...
Use of clomiphene citrate in women. Fertil Steril 2003; 80:1302. Wallace WHB and Kelsey TW (2004)Ovarian reserve and ...
ACC is also activated by citrate. When there is abundant acetyl-CoA in the cell cytoplasm for fat synthesis, it proceeds at an ...
... dihydrogen citrate, the salt that is commonly used for oral preparations, is a white to off-white, crystalline ... "Carbetapentane Citrate CAS#: 23142-01-0". Chemicalbook. Dootz, H.; Kuhlmann, A.; Hoffmann, K. (eds.). Rote Liste (in German) ( ...
Greenblatt, R., Mahesh, V., & Jungck, E., Roy S. (1963). Clomiphene Citrate: Further Observations on Its Use in Induction of ... His group's discovery in 1961 that clomiphene citrate could induce ovulation was a breakthrough in reproductive biology, and ... Greenblatt, R., & Mahesh, V. (1965). Induction of Ovulation with Clomiphene Citrate. In T. Schwartz, Yearbook of Endocrinology ... clomiphene citrate is today the first choice in treating ovulatory disorders. He also showed that the drug Danazol was useful ...
Purvin, VA (Apr 1995). "Visual disturbance secondary to clomiphene citrate". Archives of ophthalmology. 113 (4): 482-4. doi: ...
Mollison (January 2000). "The Introduction of Citrate as an Anticoagulant for Transfusion and of Glucose as a Red Cell ... Luis Agote had also used a citrate method at Buenos Aires on 14 November 1914. Working independently, Lewisohn's contribution, ... Lewisohn, Richard (1924). "The Citrate Method of Blood Transfusion after Ten Years; A Retrospect". The Boston Medical and ... Lewisohn, Richard (1952). "Blood transfusion by the citrate method". The American Journal of Medicine. 13 (5): 550-555. doi: ...
Tofacitinib citrate may also have benefits. In June 2014, it was reported that a 25 year old man with almost no hair on his ...
"Fentanyl Citrate - Drug Summary - PDR.net". pdr.net. Retrieved 23 October 2015. Buprenorphine "Sufenta (Sufentanil Citrate ...
... has been available as a citrate salt and a hydrochloride salt; in the US as of February 2016 the citrate form was ... Page 281 Orphenadrine Citrate Extended release label Revised October 1998 Syvälahti EK, Kunelius R, Laurén L (February 1988). " ... 54-. ISBN 978-3-527-60402-9. FDA listing of Orphenadrine citrate registrations. Page accessed Feb 6, 2016 Rote Liste Service ...
It is citrate, catalase, and oxidase positive. It is found in soil, water, skin flora, and most man-made environments ...
Calcium citrate can be taken without food and is the supplement of choice for individuals with achlorhydria or who are taking ... Calcium citrate is about 21% elemental calcium. 1000 mg will provide 210 mg of calcium. It is more expensive than calcium ... The forms that are taken by mouth include calcium acetate, calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium ... Calcium phosphate costs more than calcium carbonate, but less than calcium citrate. Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite (MH) is one ...
The efficacy of citrate and nadroparin anticoagulation for CVVH was similar, however, citrate was safer. Unexpectedly, citrate ... And the winner is: regional citrate anticoagulation. [Crit Care Med. 2009]. *[Is citrate anticoagulation a safe and effective ... for citrate, 0.36 (interquartile range, 0-0.83) for nadroparin (p = 0.31). Citrate conferred less metabolic alkalosis (p = ... Citrate anticoagulation for continuous venovenous hemofiltration.. Oudemans-van Straaten HM1, Bosman RJ, Koopmans M, van der ...
Potassium citrate is used to treat a kidney stone condition called renal tubular acidosis. Potassium Citrate is indicated also ... also known as tripotassium citrate) is a potassium salt of citric acid. It is a white, hygroscopic crystalline powder. It is ... Potassium Citrate-Sodium Citrate-Citric Acid. Potassium Citrate (550 mg/5mL) + Citric acid monohydrate (334 mg/5mL) + Trisodium ... Potassium Citrate therapy appears to increase urinary citrate mainly by modifying the renal handling of citrate, rather than by ...
Potassium citrate is used as an aid in the prevention of urinary stone formation by increasing urinary pH. Potassium citrate is ... VetDepot offers Potassium Citrate 10 mEq, 100 Tablets at the most competitive prices. Get the best deals on all your pet meds ... Use Potassium Citrate 10 mEq, 100 Tablets to help prevent kidney stones in dogs and cats. This product increases urinary pH to ... ", "prodUrl":"/potassium-citrate-5-meq-100-tablets.html" }, { "prodNum":"1016214", "prodUrl":"/potassium-citrate-10-meq-100- ...
Natural Potassium Citrate) and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database. ... Natural Potassium Citrate). Find nutrition facts for Twinlab Potassium Caps ( ... Calories in Twinlab Potassium Caps (Natural Potassium Citrate). Nutrition Facts. Twinlab - Potassium Caps (Natural Potassium ...
Global Potassium Citrate market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Potassium Citrate sales volume, price, revenue ( ... Industry key players analysis of Potassium Citrate Sales Market. • Price and Gross Margin Analysis of Potassium Citrate Sales ... Development Trend of Potassium Citrate Sales Market. • Feasibility analysis of new project investments for Potassium Citrate ... Potassium Citrate Sales Market report presents an all-inclusive study of the market by analysing the key development trends, ...
Ranitidine bismuth citrate was compared with an equipotent dose of ranitidine, to determine whether the former, by an anti- ... Twenty four men with duodenal ulcers were studied before and on the 8th day of dosing with either ranitidine bismuth citrate ... whereas only two of 12 patients treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate remained positive. The expected rise in meal stimulated ... despite suppression of H pylori urease activity in 10 of 12 patients taking ranitidine bismuth citrate, there was no ...
Nutricost Potassium Citrate Powder. Fast-acting powder. Support bone health and optimal blood pressure. Best price on Nutricost ... Potassium Citrate Powder - Potassium Citrate is an important mineral that your body needs in order to strengthen your bones and ... Nutricost Potassium Citrate Powder is the fast-acting potassium citrate supplement you need in order to guard your blood ... Q. What are the benefits to taking a potassium citrate supplement?. A. Potassium citrate supplements are consumed by people in ...
You can buy Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg / 1.25 mcg / 50 iu or Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg ... Learn more about Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg / 1.25 mcg / 50 iu. Including prices, strength, indication, ... warnings, side effects, and directions of Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg / 1.25 mcg / 50 iu ... Order Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg / 1.25 mcg / 50 iu online safely and securely from your trusted certified ...
Clomiphene citrate 50 mg side effects. Clomiphene 100 Mg Side Effects. Does clomiphene citrate 50 mg work when still bleeding ... Baumann on clomid citrate 50mg: Now this is a pet peeve of mine. Doctor insights on: Clomid Citrate 50mg Share.. Clomiphene ... Clomiphene Citrate).Cost of clomiphene uk buy 5 tab 50mg without prescription levitra substitute maintenance clomiphene citrate ... clomiphene citrate). but it may have unwanted side effects in a few.. Clomiphene Citrate 50 Mg Side Effects for Men. ...
120-Count Calcium Citrate with D3 200 Cplts GNC Calcium Citrate 1000 Mg180 Vegetarian Caplets Healthboost Plus Calcium Citrate ... 180 Count 21st Century Calcium Citrate +D Caplets, 240-Count 21st Century Calcium Citrate Caplets, ... 21st Century Calcium Citrate +D Caplets, 120-Count. $9.62 * Nature Made Calcium Citrate with Magnesium, 180 Count. $17.99. $ ... 21st Century Calcium Citrate +D Caplets, 240-Count. $10.99 * Citracal Citracal Calcium Citrate with Vitamin D Maximum, Coated ...
Formulary Potassium Citrate - 100 10-0980 100G, Photographers, Formulary, Potassium, Citrate, 100, 10-0980, 100G ... Formulary Potassium Citrate - 100 10-0980 100G User manual, User manual Photographers ... Additional parameters of the Photographers Formulary Potassium Citrate - 100 10-0980 100G:. Synonyms Tribasic citrate of ... Formulary Potassium Citrate - 100 10-0980 100G, Photographers, Formulary, Potassium, Citrate, 100 ...
... or more on citrate, potassium and potassium citrate. Use your citrate, potassium and potassium citrate coupon at over 60,000 ... potassium and potassium citrate coupon and drug savings card and save up to 80% ... complete the short form on the right to instantly receive all citrate, potassium and potassium citrate coupons). 1. citrate, ... Use it as a citrate, potassium and potassium citrate coupon or as a way to save on ALL medication purchases* *The Medication ...
P5675 Medscape on hypocitraturia Potassium Citrate for Kidney Stones Potassium Citrate "Potassium citrate for cystitis". ... Potassium citrate (also known as tripotassium citrate) is a potassium salt of citric acid with the molecular formula K3C6H5O7. ... Potassium citrate is rapidly absorbed when given by mouth and is excreted in the urine. Since it is an alkaline salt it is ... Potassium citrate is an effective way to treat/manage gout and arrhythmia[medical citation needed], if the patient is ...
Calcium citrate is also found in some dietary calcium supplements (e.g. Citracal). Calcium makes up 24.1% of calcium citrate ( ... Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is commonly used as a food additive (E333), usually as a preservative, ... 3 Ca(OH)2(s) + 2 C6H8O7(l) → Ca3(C6H5O7)2(s) + 6 H2O(l) The calcium citrate thus produced may be sold as-is, or it may be ... Calcium citrate is an intermediate in the isolation of citric acid from the fermentation process by which citric acid is ...
Citrate inhibits the reaction and is an example of product inhibition. The inhibition of citrate synthase by acetyl-CoA ... citrate (Si)-synthase activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • mitochondrial matrix. • extracellular exosome. • ... citrate metabolic process. • tricarboxylic acid cycle. • carbohydrate metabolic process. • metabolism. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO ... Finally, the hydroxyl added to the carbonyl in the previous step is deprotonated and citrate [−O2CCH2C(OH)(CO2−)CH2CO2−] is ...
Triethyl citrate at Sigma-Aldrich *^ a b Record of Triethyl citrate in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... Triethyl citrate is an ester of citric acid. It is a colorless, odorless liquid used as a food additive (E number E1505) to ... Triethyl citrate has been used as a pseudo-emulsifier in e-cigarette juices. It functions essentially like lecithin used in ... Triethyl citrate is also used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastics.[5] ...
Magnesium citrate (1:1) (1 magnesium atom percitrate molecule), called belowby the common but ambiguous name magnesiumcitrate ( ... Magnesium citrate (1:1) (1 magnesium atom per citrate molecule), called below by the common but ambiguous name magnesium ... Compared to magnesium citrate (3:2), it is much more water soluble, less alkaline, and contains 29.9% less magnesium by weight ... citrate (which can also mean magnesium citrate (3:2)), is a magnesium preparation in salt form with citric acid. It is a ...
citrate(1−) (CHEBI:35804) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). citrate(2−) (CHEBI:35808) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). ... citrate(3−) (CHEBI:16947) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). citrate(4−) (CHEBI:132362) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). ... citrate anion (CHEBI:133748) is a tricarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35753) citrate anion (CHEBI:133748) is conjugate base of ... CHEBI:133748 - citrate anion. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
... has part citrate(3−) (CHEBI:16947) potassium citrate (anhydrous) (CHEBI:64733) has ... potassium citrate Note: (2012-05-31) Note that name potassium citrate has been used for both anhydrous potassium citrate and ... potassium citrate monohydrate (CHEBI:64746) has part potassium citrate (anhydrous) (CHEBI:64733). ... CHEBI:64733 - potassium citrate (anhydrous). Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Magnesium Citrate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Magnesium citrate is used to treat occasional constipation on a short-term basis. Magnesium citrate is in a class of ... Before taking magnesium citrate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to magnesium citrate, any other ... Do not take magnesium citrate for more than 1 week, unless your doctor tells you to do so. Magnesium citrate usually causes a ...
... sensitized with a mixture of ferric ammonium citrate and potassium ferricyanide, which is then exposed to light. In the areas ... Other articles where Ferric ammonium citrate is discussed: blueprint: … ... sensitized with a mixture of ferric ammonium citrate and potassium ferricyanide, which is then exposed to light. In the areas ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Butamirate Citrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Butamirate Citrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Butamirate Citrate may be available in the countries listed below.. Ingredient matches for Butamirate Citrate. Butamirate. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Potassium Citrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Potassium Citrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Potassium Citrate. In the US, Potassium Citrate (potassium citrate systemic) is a member of the drug class urinary pH modifiers ... Citrolith (Potassium Citrate and Sodium Citrate). Beach Products, United States. *Crashtone (Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid) ...
... (59 Fe) FERRIC CITRATE 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate; iron(+3) cation 54063-42-2 CITRATE
About SODIUM CITRATE: Cosmetic manufacturers use sodium citrate to adjust the acidity of a product. Citrate, in the form of ... Synonym(s): MONOSODIUM CITRATE, 1,2,3-PROPANETRICARBOXYLIC ACID, 2-HYDROXY-, MONOSODIUM SALT; 1,2,3-PROPANETRICARBOXYLIC ACID, ...
  • This article focuses on providing all of the important patient information on tamoxifen citrate. (brighthub.com)
  • Tamoxifen citrate is a medication used to treat certain types of breast cancer. (brighthub.com)
  • Patients taking tamoxifen citrate are at risk for experiencing side effects. (brighthub.com)
  • Tamoxifen Citrate. (brighthub.com)
  • The clinical trials on this list are studying Tamoxifen Citrate. (cancer.gov)
  • Antihormone therapies, such as tamoxifen citrate and letrozole, may lessen the amount of estrogen made by the body. (cancer.gov)
  • It is not yet known whether giving tamoxifen citrate or letrozole with or without palbociclib may work better in treating patients with stage I-III invasive breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • This phase II trial studies how well tamoxifen citrate, anastrozole, or fulvestrant work in treating patients with stage I-III invasive lobular breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Tamoxifen citrate and anastrozole may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. (cancer.gov)
  • It is not yet known whether giving tamoxifen citrate, anastrozole, or fulvestrant will work better in treating patients with invasive lobular breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • This randomized phase II trial studies how well fulvestrant or tamoxifen citrate work in treating patients with cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • This randomized phase II trial studies how well fulvestrant and tamoxifen citrate work in treating patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. (cancer.gov)
  • Hormone therapy using fulvestrant and tamoxifen citrate may fight estrogen receptor positive metastatic breast cancer by blocking the use of estrogen by the tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • This phase II trial studies how well tamoxifen citrate or aromatase inhibitor works in treating elderly patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer that can be removed by surgery. (cancer.gov)
  • Hormone therapy using tamoxifen citrate or aromatase inhibitor may fight estrogen receptor positive breast cancer by lowering the amount of estrogen the body makes and by blocking the use of estrogen by the tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Adults and older children, ages 12 years and older, can usually take up to 10 ounces (oz.) of magnesium citrate oral solution with 8 oz. of water. (healthline.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is available as an oral solution or tablet, which is sometimes combined with calcium. (healthline.com)
  • If you're taking magnesium citrate for constipation, choose the oral solution. (healthline.com)
  • Le Fildena ou citrate de sildénafil est un traitement oral pour les troubles d'érection ou pour l'impuissance chez les hommes. (folkd.com)
  • ST. LOUIS, Mar 03, 2010 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Covidien (NYSE: COV), a leading global provider of healthcare products, today announced that Mallinckrodt Inc., a Covidien company, has launched its Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate (CII) to distributors serving retail pharmacies across the country. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate (CII) on October 30, 2009. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate, a Class II controlled substance, is an opioid analgesic indicated only for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in patients 16 years of age and older with malignancies. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Covidien's launch of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate in the U.S. includes 200 mcg, 400 mcg, 600 mcg, 800 mcg, 1,200 mcg and 1,600 mcg strengths. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Reports of serious adverse events, including deaths, in patients treated with oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate have been reported. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate is indicated only for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in patients with malignancies who are already receiving and who are tolerant to around-the-clock opioid therapy for their underlying persistent cancer pain. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate is not indicated for use in opioid non-tolerant patients including those with only as needed (PRN) prior exposure. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate is contraindicated in the management of acute or postoperative pain including headache/migraine. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • When prescribing, do not convert patients on a mcg per mcg basis to oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate from other fentanyl products. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • When dispensing, do not substitute an oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate prescription for other fentanyl products. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Substantial differences exist in the pharmacokinetic profile of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate compared to other fentanyl products that result in clinically important differences in the extent of absorption of fentanyl. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The crystal structure comprises a three-dimensional network in which eightfold coordinated Ca2+ cations are linked by citrate anions and hydrogen bonds between two non-coordinating crystal water molecules and two coordinating water molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the 215 randomized patients, 200 received CVVH per protocol (97 citrate and 103 nadroparin). (nih.gov)
  • Citrate reduced mortality in surgical patients (p = 0.007), sepsis (p = 0.01), higher Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment score (p = 0.006), and lower age (p = 0.009). (nih.gov)
  • No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of potassium citrate in geriatric patients. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A study by the University of East Anglia (UEA) with the Smell & Taste clinic at the James Paget University Hospital showed sodium citrate nasal spray could offer temporary improvement in the ability to smell for patients suffering from anosmia or hyposmia -- the loss of smell -- in cases caused by a virus or other non-obstructive causes. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the randomised trial, patients were treated either with sodium citrate spray or sterile water. (eurekalert.org)
  • Of the patients randomised to be treated with sodium citrate spray, one third showed an improvement with the peak effect seen between 15 and 30 minutes after treatment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Philpott said: "This study offers proof of concept that sodium citrate spray may enhance a damaged sense of smell in patients with partial loss of smell not caused by obstructions. (eurekalert.org)
  • This 1-year monocentric retrospective study included all patients exposed to citrate in OL-POST-HDF with nadroparin decrease for more than one month. (hindawi.com)
  • Citrate dialysate can also induce hypocalcemia in chronic hemodialysed patients either in conventional low-flux hemodialysis [ 19 ] or in OL-POST-HDF [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In our center, since the 1st of May 2013, simultaneously delivering citrate dialysate, in replacement of acetate, and conducting nadroparin withdrawal for all the patients on Gambro® machines and treated with OL-POST HDF have been decided. (hindawi.com)
  • This is a retrospective and monocentric study conducted on chronic and stable dialyzed patients who were exposed to citrate-containing dialysate from the 1st of May 2013 to the 30th of April 2014 in our center. (hindawi.com)