Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Benzene DerivativesSorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.HydroquinonesXylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)HydrocarbonsCyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.ChlorobenzenesPhenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Environmental Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.Lip Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIP.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Pleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Sick Building Syndrome: A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC); allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL); ASTHMA; infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Copying Processes: Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Neon: Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Wireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
  • but while it is, benzene isn't the only chemical not being checked there: The AQMD won't be able to assess toluene and xylene - also potentially harmful to human health - near West High either. (dailybreeze.com)
  • Three different xylene molecules are possible depending on whether the methyl groups are adjacent to each other on the benzene ring (ortho-xylene), separated by one carbon atom (meta-xylene), or opposite each other on the ring (para-xylene). (encyclopedia.com)
  • As a result, hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene and xylene each leave a specific pattern if a beam of light is shone through them and the residual light is collected and analysed. (bp.com)
  • Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid, LABSA 96%, 90% 3. (opencroquet.org)
  • Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid are complex mixtures of homologues of different alkyl chain lengths (C10 to C13 or C14) and phenyl positional isomers of 2 to 5-phenyl in proportions dictated by the starting materials and reaction conditions, each containing an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to a linear alkyl chain at any position with the exception of terminal one (1-phenyl). (medgadget.com)
  • Benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells leading to anemia. (cdc.gov)
  • Animal studies have shown low birth weights, delayed bone formation, and bone marrow damage when pregnant animals breathed benzene. (cdc.gov)
  • People who inhale benzene for long periods of time (months or years) at high enough levels may experience harmful effects in the tissues that form blood cells, especially the bone marrow. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Benzene 2009--Health effects and mechanisms of bone marrow toxicity: implications for t-AML and the mode of action framework. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Benzene is known to attack blood cells and bone marrow, and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) determined that it can cause leukemia. (terrybryant.com)
  • Once in the bloodstream, benzene travels throughout your body and can be temporarily stored in the bone marrow and fat. (wa.gov)
  • Benzene is converted to products, called metabolites, in the liver and bone marrow. (wa.gov)
  • The global benzene market will see dynamic growth: According to the new report from the market research institute Ceresana Research, the global demand for benzene will rise to approximately 6 million tonnes by 2018. (pr.com)
  • The UK Food Standards Agency has stated that people would need to drink at least 20 litres (5.5 gal) per day of a drink containing benzene at 10 μg to equal the amount of benzene they would breathe from city air every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is the root of the word phenol , which is hydroxylated benzene, and phenyl , which is the radical formed by abstraction of a hydrogen atom from benzene. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Demand for several other benzene derivatives such as phenol and methyl di-p phenylene isocyanate (MDI) are experiencing seasonal slow periods for demand in the first quarter. (icis.com)
  • For example, the substitution of a single methyl, hydroxyl, or amino group in benzene results in the formation, respectively, of toluene (C 6 H 5 CH 3 ), phenol (C 6 H 5 OH), or aniline (C 6 H 5 NH 2 ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Industrial discharge, disposal of products containing benzene, and gasoline leaks from underground storage tanks release benzene into water and soil. (cdc.gov)
  • These industries include petrochemicals production, oil and gas refining, coke and coal chemical manufacturing, rubber tire manufacturing, and storage or transport of benzene and petroleum products containing benzene. (beasleyallen.com)
  • Benzene is an ingredient in many products typically used in households, and individuals using products containing benzene should take precautions to protect themselves from inhaling benzene fumes, getting benzene products on their skin, or accidentally swallowing benzene or splashing it into the eyes. (beasleyallen.com)
  • Some and not all the lots had more than the recommended level of benzene, reveals FDA. (medindia.net)
  • She further added that most of the products they studied had low or negligible amount of benzene and very few had higher levels. (medindia.net)
  • Everyone is exposed to a small amount of benzene every day. (cdc.gov)
  • Tobacco smoke is another source of benzene in air, particularly indoors. (cdc.gov)
  • Industrial processes are the main source of benzene in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of large amounts of benzene may result in vomiting, dizziness, and convulsions in humans. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Presence of benzene in the soft drinks is a sensitive subject these days. (medindia.net)
  • An NGO Environmental Working Group criticized FDA for not giving a serious thought to the presence of benzene. (medindia.net)
  • Further more, its senior vice president Richard Wiles added that the presence of benzene in soda/juices was serious as reported by FDA. (medindia.net)
  • It was only in the 1990s that FDA highlighted the presence of benzene in soft drinks. (medindia.net)
  • Letting the consumer know the presence of benzene will naturally force manufacturers to reformulate the soft drinks/juices as some have done already and this is what FDA wanted in 1990. (medindia.net)
  • OPSIS continuously monitors for the presence of benzene, toluene and xylenes in the air. (bp.com)
  • Gas station attendants, automobile mechanics, firefighters, printers and lab techs also may come into regular contact with benzene. (lawyernc.com)
  • Even just have skin contact with benzene can be bad for you. (study.com)
  • Workers employed in industries that use benzene including chemical plants, rubber tire manufacturing plants, shoe manufacturers, steel production plants, gasoline transportation and refineries typically experience the highest exposures to benzene. (lawyernc.com)
  • Short-term exposures to benzene at high levels can also have toxic effects on human health. (beasleyallen.com)
  • Citric acid is not thought to induce significant benzene production in combination with benzoic acid, but some evidence suggests that in the presence of ascorbic or erythorbic acid and benzoic acid, citric acid may accelerate the production of benzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four years later, Mansfield began the first industrial-scale production of benzene, based on the coal-tar method. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Many study subjects would have been exposed to carcinogens other than benzene (for example, asbestos, rubber industry fumes, foundry fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and the excesses of lung cancer and mesothelioma are likely to reflect exposures to these other carcinogens. (bmj.com)
  • The BevAlert System is designed to exceed the analytical requirements of the ISBT guidelines for the detection of impurities in beverage grade carbon dioxide such as Acetaldehyde, Methanol, Benzene, Total Sulfur, Total Hydrocarbons and more. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Vitamin C/ Ascorbic acid reacts with sodium/potassium benzoate from the soft drinks or beverages to form benzene. (medindia.net)
  • In its pure form, benzene is a colorless or pale-yellow liquid that is highly flammable and evaporates into the air very quickly. (beasleyallen.com)
  • For instance, beverages that contain ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as well as one of two preservatives, sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate, may form benzene if exposed to specific quantities of heat and/or light. (study.com)
  • Benzene, GR ACS is an organic compound that is naturally found in crude oil and when refined is a colorless and highly flammable hydrocarbon. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • 218 Pages Report] Benzene is an organic compound with molecular formula C6H6, which is among the most consumed petrochemicals used in the industry. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The aim of the course is to provide to the students the knowledge of the functional groups of the organic molecules, studying their properties, formation and reactivity, through the study of the main mechanisms. (uniurb.it)
  • Lipids are usually defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic biological molecules but will dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene or chloroform. (wikipedia.org)
  • As water passes through the affected pipes, benzene, a toxic hydrocarbon commonly found in fossil fuels and plastics, leeches into the water. (beasleyallen.com)
  • By 1993, FDA determined that most drinks had little benzene contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1993, research showed how benzene can form from benzoic acid in the presence of vitamin C. In the summer of 1998, a number of well known soft drinks manufacturers had to withdraw large quantities of their products from sale after benzene contamination in some production plants was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent NPR story about the benzene contamination in Paradise highlights one resident who, like others, returned to town because her insurance company said the "additional living expenses" that helped them to get by in another town had run out. (beasleyallen.com)
  • In the Fountainhead neighborhood in northern Santa Rosa, benzene contamination from burnt infrastructure continues to be a problem for residents. (beasleyallen.com)
  • Konstanz, Germany, August 13, 2012 --( PR.com )-- Production capacities of benzene and its downstream products will be expanded above all in the Middle East. (pr.com)
  • Europe benzene derivative consumption is expected to pick up in Q1 2019 as players downstream undertake traditional re-stocking activity after the de-stocking at 2018 year-end. (icis.com)
  • The last chapter lists all major Korean consumers of benzene and its derivatives, as well as provides downstream markets characteristics. (marketpublishers.com)
  • 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 We have examined mortality from different causes and also the incidence of different malignancies in an historical cohort of workers exposed occupationally to benzene in England and Wales. (bmj.com)
  • Many railroad workers exposed to benzene diesel exhaust fumes during their careers may wind up being diagnosed with MDS. (hsinjurylaw.com)
  • Further applications of benzene are in cyclohexane, which is used to produce nylon fibers, and in nitrobenzene, used for producing aniline. (pr.com)
  • International crude oil prices declined on Wednesday, which also resulted in a quiet sentiment in China's domestic benzene markets. (fibre2fashion.com)
  • Factors and market trends which influenced the market include, Crude oil prices have fallen sharply, though it had a limited impact on domestic Benzene market and combined with slight rise in overseas offers, some companies made small gains in prices. (fibre2fashion.com)