A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
(T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A generic term for a variety of compounds that contain silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, and may contain hydrogen. Examples include TALC and some kinds of ASBESTOS.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from HYPOCALCEMIA or reduced serum levels of MAGNESIUM that may be associated with HYPERVENTILATION; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; RICKETS; UREMIA; or other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1490)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
However, the magnesium ion is not directly involved in the photosynthetic function and can be replaced by other divalent ions ... Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 13. Springer. pp. 1-28. doi: ... The metal ion is usually located in a pocket whose shape fits the substrate. The metal ion catalyzes reactions that are ... The coordination sphere of the zinc ion is approximately tetrahedral. The positively-charged zinc ion polarizes the coordinated ...
... the structures are completely different from ions such as the dichromate ion. For example, in barium diuranate, BaU2O7, UO6 ... Another choice of alkali is magnesium oxide, making magnesium diuranate, known as MDU. Oxides and uranates of uranium(VI) have ... However, the U-O bond length varies from 167 pm, which is similar to the bond length of the uranyl ion, up to about 208 pm in ... Magnesium uranate, MgUO4, has a quite different structure. Distorted UO6 octahedra are linked into infinite chains; the "uranyl ...
"Effect of magnesium on calcium and oxalate ion binding". J Endourol. 27 (12): 1487-92. doi:10.1089/end.2013.0173. PMC 3883082 ... citrate reduces urinary supersaturation of calcium salts by forming soluble complexes with calcium ions and by inhibiting ... Kidney stones are more likely to develop, and to grow larger, if a person has low dietary magnesium. Magnesium inhibits stone ... magnesium and citrate operate synergistically to inhibit kidney stones. Magnesium's efficacy in subduing stone formation and ...
... magnesium or calcium ion pumps playing a role in some cellular processes, magnesium functioning as the active center in some ... Strontium ions precipitate with soluble sulphate salts. Sr2+ + Na2SO4 → SrSO4 + 2Na+. All ions of alkaline earth metals form ... Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese ... Magnesium[edit]. Magnesium was first produced by Humphry Davy in England in 1808 using electrolysis of a mixture of magnesia ...
Redox chemistry - the ferrocenium ion[edit]. Main article: Ferrocenium. Ferrocene undergoes a one-electron oxidation at around ... 6). To that end, they reacted the Grignard compound cyclopentadienyl magnesium bromide in diethyl ether with ferric chloride as ... ions. Dihydrofulvalene is produced by radical-radical recombination while the iron(II) reacts with the Grignard reagent to form ... Pauson and Kealy synthesised ferrocene using iron(III) chloride and a Grignard reagent, cyclopentadienyl magnesium bromide. ...
Magnesium ions are gray and the sulfopyruvate ligands are pink; both are from the closed structure (though the enzyme has also ... A magnesium ion is involved as a cofactor. The phosphoryl/phosphate group also appears to interact ionically with Arg159 and ... Three of these were of the wild type: the apoenzyme in 1S2T, the enzyme plus its magnesium ion cofactor in 1S2V, and the enzyme ... but since the reactive intermediate interacts strongly with the amino acids and magnesium ions of the active site, it is to be ...
To balance ion potential across the membrane, magnesium ions (Mg2+ ) move out of the thylakoids in response, increasing the ... Magnesium ions (Mg2+ ) are needed for enzymatic activity. Correct positioning of Mg2+ in the active site of the enzyme involves ... The role of changing pH and magnesium ion levels in the regulation of RuBisCO enzyme activity is discussed below. Once the ... The pH and the concentration of magnesium ions in the fluid compartment (in plants, the stroma of the chloroplast) increases in ...
Calcium ions (Ca2+) and magnesium ions (Mg2+) have the same charge (+2) and similar sizes, so they react similarly and are able ... The release of calcium ions from voltage gated ion channels signals for the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse. This ... The effect of magnesium, strontium and sulfate ions". Journal of Crystal Growth. 35 (1): 33-38. Bibcode:1976JCrGr..35...33R. ... There is a continuous supply of calcium ions into waterways from rocks, organisms, and soils. Calcium ions are consumed and ...
These residues interact with catalytically required magnesium ions. RNases H2 are larger than H1 and usually have additional ... Although two-metal-ion catalytic mechanisms are very common in enzymes involved in phosphate biochemistry, it has been a ... under physiological conditions these are magnesium ions, but manganese also usually supports enzymatic activity, while calcium ... December 2003). "Two-metal ion mechanism of RNA cleavage by HIV RNase H and mechanism-based design of selective HIV RNase H ...
The magnesium ion (yellow) is located at the enzyme active site.. The 17-bp transcriptional complex has an 8-bp DNA-RNA hybrid ... Aspartyl (asp) residues in the RNAP will hold on to Mg2+ ions, which will, in turn, coordinate the phosphates of the ... All RNAPs contain metal cofactors, in particular zinc and magnesium cations which aid in the transcription process.[8][9] ... However, x-ray crystallographic studies of both types of enzymes reveal that, other than containing a critical Mg2+ ion at the ...
Riley JM, Kim H, Averch TD, Kim HJ (December 2013). "Effect of magnesium on calcium and oxalate ion binding". Journal of ... citrate reduces urinary supersaturation of calcium salts by forming soluble complexes with calcium ions and by inhibiting ... Kidney stones are more likely to develop, and to grow larger, if a person has low dietary magnesium. Magnesium inhibits stone ... magnesium and citrate operate synergistically to inhibit kidney stones. Magnesium's efficacy in subduing stone formation and ...
Hundreds of enzymes thus require magnesium ions to function. Magnesium is also the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, ... Since magnesium is less dense than aluminium, these alloys are prized for their relative lightness and strength. Magnesium ions ... Magnesium is the eleventh most abundant element by mass in the human body; its ions are essential to all living cells, where ... In animals, sodium ions are used against potassium ions to build up charges on cell membranes, allowing transmission of nerve ...
In carnallite, the water molecules enclose the magnesium ions. This prevents the magnesium and the chloride from interacting ... They are composed of a halogen and a metal ion. The crystal chemistry of halides is characterized by the electronegativity of ... This means that the dominant large ions are the Cl−, Br−, F−, or I−. These are easily polarized. The ions combine with ... This means that each chloride anion receives 1/6 of a +1 charge from each of the two potassium ions. The chloride also obtains ...
Chloride ions, which make up about 50% of these ions, are particularly aggressive as a cause of corrosion of carbon steel ... The sulfate ion concentration increases much slower in the soil mass and is especially dependent upon the initial amount of ... These salts include sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and bicarbonates. In water these salts dissociate in ... The nitrite anion is a mild oxidizer that oxidizes the soluble and mobile ferrous ions (Fe2+) present at the surface of the ...
In terms of charge and size, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluoride ions occur on earth in several minerals, ... "Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: The National Academies ... where the Ca2+ ions are surrounded by eight F− centers. In CaCl2, each Ca2+ ion is surrounded by six Cl− centers. The ... Fluoride-ion Battery[edit]. A large team of researchers, including Simon C. Jones of California Institute of Technology and ...
The emission spectra of ions are different than of neutral atoms; the ions may emit in undesired spectral ranges. For example, ... the carbon monoxide reacts with the magnesium oxide particles to gaseous magnesium and gaseous carbon dioxide. B. J. Kosanke et ... Despite the wide numbers of metal ion donors, they serve to form only a few atomic and molecular species that are useful as ... Magnesium has less such effect and is therefore more suitable for colored flames; it is more volatile than aluminium and more ...
Potassium (K+) is a common monovalent ion that binds RNA. A common divalent ion that binds RNA is magnesium (Mg2+). Other ions ... Divalent metal ions, especially magnesium, have been found to be important for the structure of DNA junctions such as the ... The magnesium ion shields the negatively charged phosphate groups in the junction and allows them to be positioned closer ... A metal ion can interact with RNA in multiple ways. An ion can associate diffusely with the RNA backbone, shielding otherwise ...
Sodium or lithium ions are too small. The divalent cation can be magnesium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel ... Somasekharam, V.; Y.P. Reddy (1985). "Spectroscopic studies on vanadyl ion in rubidium magnesium sulphate hexahydrate". Solid ... Magnesium ammonium sulfate hexahydrate and nickel ammonium sulfate hexahydrate". Acta Crystallographica. International Union of ... Bernhard, Paul; Ludi, Andreas (March 1984). "Infrared and Raman spectra of the hexaaquaruthenium ions: normal-coordinate ...
The endonuclease binds 2 magnesium ions per subunit, which probably participate in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. May ... bind an additional third magnesium ion after substrate binding. O'Donovan A, Scherly D, Clarkson SG, Wood RD (1994). "Isolation ...
Depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane (i.e. backward propagating dendritic spike) causes the magnesium ion to be removed ... The NMDA receptor exhibits voltage-dependent block by magnesium ions. ... The ion solution can be varied and drugs can be delivered through the micropipette to study the effects of current under ... The influx of sodium ions causes an increase in voltage. If the voltage increases past a certain threshold, the sodium current ...
Together, they make up around 85 percent of all dissolved ions in the ocean. Magnesium and sulfate ions make up most of the ... Phosphorus occurs most abundantly in nature as part of the orthophosphate ion (PO4)3−, consisting of a P atom and 4 oxygen ... There is a continuous supply of calcium ions into waterways from rocks, organisms, and soils. Calcium ions are consumed and ... Calcium ions can also be utilized biologically, as calcium is essential to biological functions such as the production of bones ...
It forms tetrachloroaluminate (AlCl4−) in the presence of chloride ions. Aluminium chloride reacts with calcium and magnesium ... The hydrated form of aluminium chloride has an octahedral molecular geometry, with the central aluminum ion surrounded by six ... ISBN 978-0-08-022057-4. Nenitzescu, Costin D.; Cantuniari, Ion P. (1933). "Durch Aluminiumchlorid Katalysierte Reaktion, VI. ... ions. Wells, A. F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. ISBN 0198553706. Andress, K.R ...
showed that magnesium ions can increase ACC stability as well. But only the discovery that aspartic acid, glycine, citrate, and ... where crystals form via the addition of particles ranging from multi-ion complexes to fully formed nanocrystals. Research of ... The best effective method to stabilize ACC lifetime is by forming it in the presence of magnesium and/or phosphorus. Also, ACC ... Loste, Eva; Wilson, Rory M.; Seshadri, Ram; Meldrum, Fiona C. (2003). "The role of magnesium in stabilising amorphous calcium ...
Lead-ions (Pb2+), like magnesium-ions (Mg2+), block NMDA receptors. Therefore, an increase in Pb2+ concentration will ... The lead ion has a lone pair in its electronic structure, which can result in a distortion in the coordination of ligands, and ... Lead is able to pass through the endothelial cells at the blood brain barrier because it can substitute for calcium ions and be ... A chelating agent is a molecule with at least two negatively charged groups that allow it to form complexes with metal ions ...
The counter ion can be sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) or ammonium (NH4+). ... The cooking liquor is prepared by adding the counter ions as hydroxides or carbonates. The relative amounts of each species ... Magnesium-based[edit]. The recovery process used in magnesium-based sulfite pulping the "Magnefite" process is well developed.[ ... It used magnesium as the counter ion and was based on work by Carl Daniel Ekman. ...
Another divalent ion, Mg2+, causes further precipitation of hyalin. When acting alone, magnesium cannot cause precipitation, ... When this happens, hyalin comes in contact with calcium ions and solubilizes. Binding with calcium also induces hyalin-protein ... Hyalin helps cells differentiate into the animal and the vegetal halves during oogenesis by utilizing zinc and lithium ions. ... Hyalin's structure is dependent upon calcium ions. It stabilizes against denaturation from the high concentrations of NaCl in ...
Metal ions are common cofactors. The study of these cofactors falls under the area of bioinorganic chemistry. In nutrition, the ... A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity as a catalyst (a ... In humans this list commonly includes iron, magnesium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, and molybdenum. Although chromium ... This often replaces the need for an external binding factor, such as a metal ion, for protein function. Potential modifications ...
The divalent magnesium ion (Mg++) is required for PCR polymerase activity. Lower concentrations Mg++ will increase replication ... Tth has reverse transcriptase activity in the presence of Mn2+ ions, allowing PCR amplification from RNA targets. The archean ...
The iron(II) ion has the same charge as magnesium ion and it has a very similar ionic radius to magnesium. Consequently, Fe2+ ... ions to iron(III) ions in the magma. As the iron(II) ions oxidize and become iron(III) ions, iron(III) ions cannot form olivine ... can replace the magnesium ion in the olivine structure. One of the important factors that can increase the portion of ... Because iron(II) ions were oxidized in the Stromboli magma, little iron(II) was available to form Fe-rich olivine (fayalite). ...
The smaller magnesium ion presents a higher ionic potential than the larger calcium ion. The ionic potential is the ratio of ... The [Mg(H 2O) 6]2+ species has a much larger hydrated ionic radius than the naked Mg2+ ions and sorbs onto the negatively ... Already studied by Bischoff (1968), magnesium ion is a long known inhibitor of calcite nucleation and crystal growth. The Mg2+ ... Dolomite has a stoichiometric ratio of nearly equal amounts of magnesium and calcium. Most dolomite rock formed as a magnesium ...
Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese ... In this variant, the number of f electrons in the most common (trivalent) ions of the f-block elements consistently matches ... In their most commonly encountered tripositive ion forms, these elements do not possess any partially filled f-orbitals, thus ... Pyykkö, Pekka (2011). "A suggested periodic table up to Z ≤ 172, based on Dirac-Fock calculations on atoms and ions". Physical ...
4 ions.[66] The chemistry of alkali metal germanides, involving the germanide ion Ge4− and other cluster (Zintl) ions such as ... Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese ... x ions.[66] Due to the basicity of the Se2− and Te2− ions, the alkali metal selenides and tellurides are alkaline in solution; ... 2 ion, where there is a single bond between the two oxygen atoms), superoxides (containing the O−. 2 ion), and many others. ...
... an interactive visualisation showing inorganic compounds for an array of common metal and non-metal ions ... Magnesium perchlorate - Mg(ClO4)2. *Magnesium phosphate - Mg3(PO4)2 ...
Other significant metallic alloys are those of aluminium, titanium, copper and magnesium. Copper alloys have been known for a ... ions and molecules are arranged and bonded to each other. This involves the study and use of quantum chemistry or quantum ... ion implantation, crystal growth, thin-film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc.), and analytic methods (characterization ... The alloys of aluminium, titanium and magnesium are also known and valued for their high strength-to-weight ratios and, in the ...
Solids commonly associated with scale formation are calcium and magnesium carbonate and sulfate. Corrosion rates initially ... Water can accelerate corrosion of machinery being cooled as both an electrical conductor and solvent for metal ions and oxygen ...
The ligands of the manganese ions are 3 histidine side-chains, an aspartate side-chain and a water molecule or hydroxy ligand, ... Hayyan M, Hashim MA, Al Nashef IM (2016). "Superoxide Ion: Generation and Chemical Implications". Chem. Rev. 116 (5): 3029-3085 ... each containing N-terminal hooks that chelate a Ni ion. The Ni-hook contains the motif His-Cys-X-X-Pro-Cys-Gly-X-Tyr; it ...
Main article: Ion. An ion is a charged species, an atom or a molecule, that has lost or gained one or more electrons. When an ... Ions and salts. The crystal lattice structure of potassium chloride (KCl), a salt which is formed due to the attraction of K+ ... Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys. ASM International. p. 59.. *^ "Official SI Unit definitions". Bipm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-12.. ... When this rule is broken, giving the "molecule" a charge, the result is sometimes named a molecular ion or a polyatomic ion. ...
Cosmic rays made up of charged nuclei heavier than helium are called HZE ions. Due to the high charge and heavy nature of HZE ... In 1909, Theodor Wulf developed an electrometer, a device to measure the rate of ion production inside a hermetically sealed ... Magnesium-28 (20.9 hours). *Silicon-31 (2.6 hours). *Silicon-32 (101 years) ... Spallation is also responsible for the abundances of scandium, titanium, vanadium, and manganese ions in cosmic rays produced ...
Both iron and magnesium are in octahedral by oxygen. Other mineral species having this structure exist, such as tephroite, Mn2 ... As a result, it is possible for one element to be substituted for another.[51] Chemical substitution will occur between ions of ... In all minerals, one aluminium ion is always in six-fold coordination with oxygen. Silicon, as a general rule, is in four-fold ... For example, a magma rich in iron and magnesium will form mafic minerals, such as olivine and the pyroxenes; in contrast, a ...
H. Guan, X. Wang, H. Li, C. Zhi, T. Zhai, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «CoO octahedral nanocages for high-performance lithium ion ... J. Zhan, Y. Bando, J. Hu and D. Golberg : «Bulk Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Magnesium Oxide Nanotubes» Inorg. Chem. 43[8] ( ... Structural changes of BN nanotubes irradiated by Al ions» J. Nanoelectron. Optoelectron 8[1] (2013) 87-90 DOI:10.1166/jno. ... E.A. Obraztsova, D.V. Shtansky, A.N. Sheveyko, M. Yamaguchi, A.M. Kovalskii and D. Golberg : «Metal ion implantation of ...
... and lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells. Li-ion has by far the highest share of the dry cell rechargeable market. NiMH has replaced NiCd ... Magnesium. Mg. MnO2. 2.0. 1.5. 40 Secondary (rechargeable) batteries and their characteristics. Chemistry. Cell. voltage. ... Almost any liquid or moist object that has enough ions to be electrically conductive can serve as the electrolyte for a cell. ... developed by a team led by Lithium-ion (Li-Ion) inventor John Goodenough, "that could lead to safer, faster-charging, longer- ...
NH4OH is used to increase the concentration of the sulfide ion, by the common ion effect - hydroxide ions from NH4OH combine ... and magnesium, colorless (although magnesium metal burns with a bright white flame). The 1st group of anions consist of CO2− 3 ... The test with the sulfide ion must be conducted in the presence of dilute HCl. Its purpose is to keep the sulphide ion ... A yellow-brown precipitate indicates Fe3+ ion. A white precipitate indicates Ca2+, Zn2+, or Pb2+ ion. The compounds formed are ...
The most important ions are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate and the organic ion bicarbonate. The ... Ions are also critical for nerve and muscle function, as action potentials in these tissues are produced by the exchange of ... For example, muscle contraction depends upon the movement of calcium, sodium and potassium through ion channels in the cell ... Electrolytes enter and leave cells through proteins in the cell membrane called ion channels. ...
... most importantly sulfates and the ions of magnesium and calcium. The removal of these is beneficial, as it reduces the level of ... Modern alternatives to bone char include activated carbon and ion-exchange resins. Bone char is also used as a black pigment ... The tricalcium phosphate in bone char can be used to remove fluoride and metal ions from water, making it useful for the ... Other highly toxic metal ions, such as those of arsenic and lead may also be removed. The practical example of the use of bone ...
Much of the ion transport taking place in the distal convoluted tubule is regulated by the endocrine system. In the presence of ... Aquaporins are membrane proteins that selectively conduct water molecules while preventing the passage of ions and other ... Substances reabsorbed include: water, sodium chloride, glucose, amino acids, lactate, magnesium, calcium phosphate, uric acid, ...
... the Ubp6+ and Ubh7+ ions are expected to bear a 5g1 configuration, similar to the 5f1 configuration of the Np6+ ion. Similar ... The 9s electrons should have ionization energies comparable to those of the 3s electrons of sodium and magnesium, due to ... The Usu− ion is expected to be a soft base, comparable to iodide (I−). Element 172 (unseptbium) is expected to be a noble gas ... The fission of the compound nucleus 312124 was also studied in 2006 at the tandem ALPI heavy-ion accelerator at the Laboratori ...
The oxide ion has the formula O2−. It is the conjugate base of the hydroxide ion, OH− and is encountered in ionic solids such ... Only a few representatives are given, as the number of polyatomic ions encountered in practice is very large. Other oxygen ions ... Though solid magnesium and aluminum react slowly with oxygen at STP-they, like most metals, burn in air, generating very high ... "Oxide" itself is the dianion of oxygen, an O2- (molecular) ion. Metal oxides thus typically contain an anion of oxygen in the ...
It is a protic substance and is capable of formation of amides (which contain the NH2− ion). For example, lithium dissolves in ... Smith, D.; Adams, N. G. (1977). "Reactions of CH+n IONS with ammonia at 300 K". Chemical Physics Letters. 47 (1): 145. Bibcode: ... Magnesium Oxide). It was isolated again by Peter Woulfe in 1767, by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1770 and by Joseph Priestley in ... An ammine ligand bound to a metal ion is markedly more acidic than a free ammonia molecule, although deprotonation in aqueous ...
The purpose of the divided cell is to permit the diffusion of ions while restricting the flow of the products and reactants. ... The intermediate oxonium ion is trapped by a nucleophile, usually solvent. Anodic electrosynthesis oxidize primary aliphatic ... Other examples include platinum, magnesium, mercury (as a liquid pool in the reactor), stainless steel or reticulated vitreous ... Amides can be oxidized to N-acyliminium ions, which can be captured by various nucleophiles, for example: This reaction type is ...
... chemical precipitation and ion exchange). Lithium ions replace magnesium or iron in certain octahedral locations in clays, and ...
... is used as this type of ligand binds more strongly to copper ions than to calcium and magnesium ions. Treatment of poisoning by ... The target ion in this case is divalent, Cu2+. This ion is classified as borderline in the scheme of Ahrland, Chatt and Davies ... A potentiometric selectivity coefficient defines the ability of an ion-selective electrode to distinguish one particular ion ... the target metal ion is in the +3 oxidation state and so forms stronger complexes than the divalent ions. It also forms ...
At high sodium ion concentration and in the absence of magnesium ions, a compact, folded cruciform structure is formed. Here, ... At lower sodium ion concentration and in the absence of magnesium ions, the cruciform adopts a symmetrical, square planar ... In the presence of magnesium ions and no sodium ions, a compact, folded conformation is adopted, similar to that formed at high ... Additionally, the presence or absence of sodium and magnesium ions can affect the conformation of cruciform adopted. ...
This causes the magnesium and calcium ions to be repelled from luminal side to interstitial side, promoting their absorption. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) can compete with loop diuretics for organic ion transporters, thus preventing the ... Loop diuretics also inhibits magnesium and calcium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb. Absorption of magnesium and ... The loss of magnesium as a result of loop diuretics has also been suggested as a possible cause of pseudogout ( ...
... contains four Zn ions and two Mg ions, with Zn occupying active sites A and B, and Mg occupying site C, so ... Two-metal ion catalysis". Journal of Molecular Biology. 218 (2): 449-64. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(91)90724-K. PMID 2010919. Tamás ... Each monomer contains five cysteine residues, two zinc atoms and one magnesium atom crucial to its catalytic function, and it ... Three metal ions, two Zn and one Mg, are contained in the catalytic sites, and both types are crucial for enzymatic activity to ...
Gapeev, A.; Dunbar, R.C., Binding of Alkaline Earth Halide Ions MX+ to Benzene and Mesitylene, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 2000 ... Other names: Magnesium cation * Permanent link for this species. Use this link for bookmarking this species for future ... Rodgers, M.T.; Stanley, J.R.; Amunugama, R., Periodic Trends in the Binding of Metal Ions to Pyridine Studied by Threshold ... Gapeev, A.; Yang, C.-N., Binding Energies of Gas-Phase Ions with Pyrrole. Experimental and Quantum Chemical Results, J. Phys. ...
A new study from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) shows that using magnesium ions in place of lithium ions could ... "Because magnesium is an ion that carries two positive charges, every time we introduce a magnesium ion in the structure of the ... Can a new class of batteries powered by magnesium-ion outperform and eventually replace the current lithium-ion (Li-ion) ... "In our case, we want to maximize the number of electrons moved per ion, because ions distort the structure of the electrode ...
Crystal structure of lipopolysaccharide transport protein LptB in complex with ATP and Magnesium ions. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4QC2/ ...
MAGNESIUM ION. Mg JLVVSXFLKOJNIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N ×. Poseview Image of MG in 4S2X. ... Structure of E. coli RppH bound to RNA and two magnesium ions. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4s2x/pdb ... Ions and some metal complexes are excluded, as well as cases where no interaction profile could be generated. Poseview diagrams ... Ions and some metal complexes are excluded, as well as cases where no interaction profile could be generated. Poseview diagrams ...
In an open-access paper in the journal Nature Communications, they report a battery chemistry that utilizes magnesium mono- ... Researchers have achieved a significant boost in the storage capacity of magnesium-ion batteries through a new design for the ... First of all, it is very difficult to break magnesium-chloride bonds. More than that, magnesium ions produced in that way move ... New cathode design and understanding of electrolyte delivers greater efficiency in magnesium-ion batteries 25 August 2017 ...
The results provided in this dissertation highlight that the divalency of Mg2+ ions result in very different electrochemical ... ion batteries due to the following factors. Magnesium possesses a higher volumetric capacity than commercialized Li-ion battery ... Magnesium (Mg) battery is considered as a promising candidate for the next generation battery technology that could potentially ... aforementioned strong ionic interaction between the Mg2+ ions and MnO2 lattice resulting in a limited diffusion of Mg2+ ions in ...
The magnesium ions could flow in a reverse direction through a highly corrosive liquid electrolyte, but that barred the ... Magnesium (Mg) batteries theoretically contain almost twice as much energy per volume as lithium-ion batteries. But previous ... Breakthrough for rechargeable non-aqueous magnesium-metal battery that would be twice as good lithium ion batteries. brian wang ... Breakthrough for rechargeable non-aqueous magnesium-metal battery that would be twice as good lithium ion batteries ...
Because of the strong affinity existing between the alkaline phosphatase and Mg2+, it is necessary to adjust the metal-ion ... Mechanism of activation by magnesium ions. Jan Ahlers. Biochemical Journal Jul 01, 1974, 141 (1) 257-263; DOI: 10.1042/ ... Mg2+ ions are essential for enzyme activity. The following model (Scheme 1 of the text) for the reaction of enzyme, substrate ... The mechanism of activation of alkaline phosphatase (EC from pig kidney by Mg2+ ions was investigated with the aid of ...
Ultrafast electron-ion dynamics in proton-irradiated magnesium oxide on Materials Today - the gateway for amorphous materials ... especially with swift heavy ions, gives rise to interesting non-equilibrium electron-ion dynamics, since these deposit ... Novel diffusion mechanism in the presence of excited electrons? Ultrafast electron-ion dynamics in proton-irradiated magnesium ... Ultrafast electron-ion dynamics in proton-irradiated magnesium oxide ...
Magnesium Ionophores for Ion Selective Electrodes Magnesium (Mg) is a metallic element and one of the most abundant minerals ... species of chemicals that have the unique function of reversing the binding of ions. ... Magnesium Ionophores for Ion Selective Electrodes. Magnesium (Mg) is a metallic element and one of the most abundant minerals ... Tags: ionophore, ion selective electrode, magnesium ionophore, water quality, ISE, water treatment & nuclear ...
Magnesium ion permeation at varying times and concentrations. A) Representative images indicating penetration of magnesium ions ... Unplugged skin sections allow penetration of magnesium ions. C) Increased penetration of magnesium ions in unplugged skin, (* p ... Accueil , Revues , Magnesium Research , Permeation of topically applied Magnesium ions through human skin is facilitated by ... Magnesium ions penetrate through skin but the extent depends on stratum corneum thickness. A) Images from three donors showed ...
The experiment results showed that in the presence of both BSA Langmuir monolayers at interface and magnesium ions in solutions ... It is indicated that BSA Langmuir monolayers and magnesium ions have a cooperative effect on controlling the polymorph and ... The experiments suggested that BSA Langmuir monolayer acts in combination with magnesium ions to inhibit calcite crystal growth ... BSA Langmuir monolayers controlled calcium carbonate to magnesium ions in solution. ...
Divalent metal ions like Mg2+ are required for the nuclease and helicase activity of RecBCD. Previous work done by Dixon et al ... MAPPING OF METAL ION BINDING SITES IN THE RECBCD ENZYME AND THE ROLE OF MAGNESIUM IN THE SUBUNIT INTERACTIONS OF RECBCD. ... Also, the role of magnesium in the binding of the RecC and 100kDa helicase domain of RecC were studied using ssDNA agarose ... We studied the role of magnesium on the binding interactions using surface plasmon resonance (Biacore) and found that Mg2+ ...
Effect of amino acid (glycine) on the distribution of transition metal (Co-Ni-Zn-Cu) and magnesium divalent ions between ... and magnesium divalent ions between silicate gels and aqueous solutions; an experimental study. Clay Minerals ; 23 (1): 45-54. ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Williams, Nicholas H. (2000). "Magnesium Ion Catalyzed ATP Hydrolysis". Journal of the ... Examination of cells with limited magnesium supply has shown that a lack of magnesium can cause a decrease in ATP. Magnesium in ... Major (iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc) and minor (copper, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten) metal ions have become ... Evolution of metal ions in biological systems refers to the incorporation of metallic ions into living organisms and how it has ...
The most important ions are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate and the organic ion bicarbonate. The ... Ions are also critical for nerve and muscle function, as action potentials in these tissues are produced by the exchange of ... For example, muscle contraction depends upon the movement of calcium, sodium and potassium through ion channels in the cell ... Electrolytes enter and leave cells through proteins in the cell membrane called ion channels. ...
A neutral atom of magnesium has the same number of protons as electrons. The remaining ... What is the formula of the ion formed when sodium achieves noble-gas electrons configuration? 12 O b. ... Forming Ions: To determine if an atom will gain or lose electrons when forming an ion, we simply need to count the number of ... ion? (iii) Magnesium ion (Mg2+) Mg2+ ion is formed by loss of two electrons by Mg atom. to form a stable ion with a noble gas ...
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry SIMS IV von - Englische Bücher zum Genre günstig & portofrei bestellen im Online Shop von Ex ... Quantitative Analysis of Metallic Ions Associated with Fluid Inclusion.- SIMS Measurement of Magnesium Isotopic Ratios in ... Ion Gun Systems for Submicron SIMS..- Submicron Ion Probes..- Optimization of High Brightness Cs Ion Source and Ion Optics for ... Hydrogen Ion Bombardment in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry.- Electron Tunneling and the Emission of Secondary Ions from ...
Magnesium batteries would accordingly be much cheaper than lithium-ion batteries. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for ... has developed a new procedure called the Grimmer-Saravia process for filtering lithium ions out of local thermal water. Its ... One of the scientists at KIT has estimated that the worldwide reserves of magnesium are sufficient to last for 450,000 years. ... This type of battery will probably be cheaper than lithium-ion systems with the same capacity, but also considerably larger due ...
The Magnetoelastic Ion: Friend and Foe to Microwaves journal, February 2011 * Dionne, Gerald F. ... Ultrathin interfacial layer with suppressed room temperature magnetization in magnesium aluminum ferrite thin films journal, ... in which magnetization arises from Fe3+ ions with zero orbital angular momentum. Here, these epitaxial MAFO thin films exhibit ... 2020 Author(s). We have investigated magnesium aluminum ferrite thin films with a range of iron concentrations and identified ...
Widely varied techniques are available to remove contaminants, one of them being the ion-exchange resin principle. ... Catching ions occurs along with the accompanying release of other ions: this is the reason why the process is called ion ... This is the process of removing calcium, magnesium and other metal cations from hard water. Hard water with a high mineral ... What are ion-exchange resins?. Ion exchange resins are usually designed as granules, beads, or sheets. They appear solid, even ...
When the water enters the tank the calcium and magnesium ions which are dissolved get attracted to the resin. In the process ... The Culligan water softeners work on the ion exchange system to remove dissolved minerals like calcium, magnesium, iron, etc. ...
RWO provides water softener and demineralisation units to combat calcium and magnesium ion build-up in hard-water areas. The ... Our demineralisation plants go one step further than softeners, by removing basically all dissolved ions from the water. This ...
I think will possible work,... with Al-GIC/AlCl4-ion l. (aluminium ion electrode in aluminium salt/ionic, DES,...) but this is ... AlCl3 electrolyte at the aluminiumfoil to put the Aluminium ions back onto the foil.... Did you have a graphite plate ontop of ... Also in this project I use a zinc and magnesium. MnO2 - Mg: 2.42V and MnO2 - Zn: 2.40V ... Aluminium ions back onto the foil.... Unfortunately aluminum anodes in aquaeous chemistry is total irreversible.no aluminum ...
Despite their ubiquity, lithium-ion batteries have disadvantages. Metals used in the batteries are becoming expensive, and one ... Lithium ion is probably the most advanced technology available for the packs of rechargeable batteries you purchased this ... this technology would use materials with ions that carry more charge, like magnesium, calcium, or possibly aluminum. These so- ... Sodium-Ion Batteries. These batteries would replace the lithium in lithium-ion batteries with sodium. A sodium-ion battery ...
Ion Exchange India Limited. • Shanghai Canature Environmental Products Co., Ltd.. • Kent RO Systems Ltd.. • General Electric ( ... A water softener reduces calcium and magnesium by washing the water with resin or zeolite, a perishable material containing ... sodium ions which are positively charged. The growth of the global softener industry is driven by the increase in water ... Ion Exchange India Limited, Shanghai Canature Environmental Products Co., Ltd., Kent RO Systems Ltd., General Electric (GE), ...
When water enters the resin tank the sodium ions present in the salt beads attracts the calcium and magnesium particles and ... In the automatic water softeners there is a timer that controls the ion regeneration process and this is usually done at nights ... Home water softeners are appliances that attract the calcium and magnesium in water and make the water soft for our use. This ... The brine tank drains out the calcium and magnesium and replaces the salts. ...
This article will give details of polyatomic ions and their examples. Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide (INACTIVE) Magnesium ... Polyatomic ions with a positive 1 charge do occur, but the main one youll encounter and need to know is the ammonium ion. ... A clear liquid with a leavening acid finally, combine the two ions form! It gives a basic solution, even though a Hydrogen ion ... The Lewis dot structure of NaCl consists of a chloride ion surrounded by eight electron dots (four pairs) and a sodium ion ...
List the 4 major positive ions include name and symbol *Sodium - Na+*Potassium - K +*Calcium - Ca+*Magnesium - Mg + ... Phosphate ions - H2PO4*Sulfate ions - SO2 4*Organic acids *protein * what is the major extracellular positive ion? ... List the 6 major negative ions (anions) include name and symbol *Chloride - Cl-*Bicarbonate - HCO- 3* ...
Mineral ions encased in diatomaceous earth add calcium, magnesium and other trace minerals to fortify the water and increase ... This stage inhibits bacteria and neutralizes heavy metals including lead, nickel, cadmium and mercury through an ion exchange ... Mineral ions encased in diatomaceous earth add calcium, magnesium and other trace minerals to fortify the water and increase ... This stage inhibits bacteria and neutralizes heavy metals including lead, nickel, cadmium and mercury through an ion exchange ...
The purpose of chelates is to incorporate metal ions like magnesium, boron, and zinc into a soluble but bound form that is ... As the chelate breaks down, the metal ion micronutrients are slowly released into the soil in a bioavailable form that may then ... organic molecules that are used to envelop highly-reactive trace metal ions). ...
Evaluation of Pretreatments for Removing Metal Ions from Industrial Grade Magnesium and Its Application during the Alkaline ... Fe2(MoO4)3 microspheres as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries. Cheng, Dongxiang. Survey of emission reduction ...
Our revolutionary technology utilises a process called ion exchange to remove the calcium and magnesium minerals from your ... water: the special resin beads in our tanks contain sodium ions which attract those unwanted minerals, removing them from the ...
A 5 ml subsample for major ions (sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sulfate, and chloride) was preserved with concentrated ... Ion Chromatograph. Ion chromatography is a form of liquid chromatography that measures concentrations of ionic species by ... Mg (magnesium) concentration. May be reported in parts per million, nanomoles/Liter, or other units. Refer to dataset metadata ... Ion chromatographs are able to measure concentrations of major anions, such as fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, and ...
Critical Role of Magnesium Ions in DNA Polymerase s Closing and …. underscores the importance of the metal ions in assisting ... 11-2 EDTA • 11-3 EDTA titration curves • 11-5 Auxiliary Complexing Agents • 11-6 Metal-Ion Indiors • 11-7 EDTA titration ... Inhibition of b-Amylase Activity by Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc Ions Determined by Spectrophotometry and Isothermal Titration ... Magnesium: appliions and uses-Metalpedia. Magnesium is the lightest of all light metal alloys and therefore is an excellent ...
An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, making it positively or negatively charged. A ... Radical ions: radical ions are ions that contain an odd number of electrons and are mostly very reactive and unstable. ... Magnesium. Mg2+. Manganese(II). Mn2+. Manganous Manganese(III). Mn3+. Manganic ... An ion consisting of a single atom is called a monatomic ion, but if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a polyatomic ion. ...
Water is conditioned or softened by removing the calcium and magnesium ions from hard water and replacing them with "soft" ... The chloride ion is also very important in the body. It helps to regulate blood pH and it is also a necessary part of ... Water is considered hard when it contains calcium and magnesium (hardness ions). Hard water requires more soap and detergent ... sodium ions. Water softeners use cation exchange resin to exchange sodium for calcium and magnesium. As supply water flows ...
2012911- Dual-Color Imaging of Magnesium/Calcium Ion Activities with Two-Photon Two-Photon Fluorescent Probes for Metal Ions in ... US Patent for Lithium and magnesium ion free color developing. A photographic color developing composition includes a color ... Dual-Color Imaging of Magnesium/Calcium Ion Activities with ... ions are used to solubilize the sequestering agent-calcium ion ...
Package and measures thermal ions to moderate energy escaping ions. Suprathermal And Thermal Ion Composition Instrument for ... Comet Meteor Shower Put Magnesium and Iron into Martian Atmosphere When you navigate with a compass you can orient yourself ... The Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) is a part of the Particles and Fields (P & F) Package and measures the solar wind and ... The Suprathermal and Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument is part of the Particles and Fields (P & F) ...
It maintains movement of potassium, magnesium and sodium across the cell membranes and regulates ion balance between cells. Due ... ions.. * Cell Volumizer. Similar to creatine, TAURINE draws water in muscle cells and acts as a cell volumizer; this in turn ...
Through the process of ion exchange, these systems remove minerals, such as calcium and magnesium, from the water. This can ... they realign calcium and magnesium ions to help lessen the effects of hard water. ... conditioners focus on removing sediments and chemicals while leaving behind beneficial minerals like calcium and magnesium. ...
A water softener uses an ion exchange process to replace minerals in household water with sodium ions. ... Hard water forms when water picks up soluble minerals like calcium and magnesium carbonates while passing through limestone and ...
ultra -soni ion with .. China Magnesium Oxide MgO Suppliers, Producer ,Were professional magnesium oxide MgO manufacturers, ... Specifi ions. Mine Magnesium Suppliers, Manufacturer, Distributor ,Alibaba offers 260 Mine Magnesium Suppliers, and Mine ... Magnesium Oxide and Other Magnesium Chemicals - IHS Markit , Receive supply/demand analysis of current markets for Magnesium ... Magnesium Oxide and Other Magnesium Chemicals - Chemical , IHS Markits Chemical Economics Handbook - Magnesium Oxide and Other ...
... material produced by ion implantation, followed by annealing, was actually more efficient per dopant ion, by up to 400 times at ... Mg-doped GaN samples implanted with Eu ions and annealed. The HPS shows itself in the temperature dependence of the ... Photoluminescence spectra from GaN(Mg, Eu) showing transitions from the 5D1 level of the Eu3+ ion. Singh, A. (Creator), ... Hysteretic photochromic switching (HPS) of europium-magnesium defects in gallium nitride: a potential route to a new solid- ...
... namun air mengandung ion dan anion seperti ion logam, magnesium, kalsium bahkan halida. This page was last edited on 5 ... Chloride ions react with silver I ions to give the insoluble silver chloride:. Typically, it is used to determine the amount of ... Prinsip dari titrasi argentometri secara tidak langsung ini berdasarkan pada reaksi antara ion halida perak nitrat yang ... Prior to the end-point of the titration, chloride ions remain in excess. ...
  • In an open-access paper in the journal Nature Communications , they report a battery chemistry that utilizes magnesium mono-chloride cations in expanded titanium disulfide. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The battery demonstrates the reversible intercalation of 1 and 1.7 magnesium monochloride cations per titanium at 25 and 60 °C, respectively, corresponding to up to 400 mAh g −1 capacity based on the mass of titanium disulfide. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Magnesium ionophore I is a neutral synthetic ionophore used for Mg2+-selective electrodes while Magnesium ionophore III is an effective receptor for Eu3+ and Am3+ cations. (agscientific.com)
  • Traditionally, researchers have found it a challenge to differentiate selectivity between calcium ( Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) cations. (agscientific.com)
  • Calcium and magnesium are the two main cations that contribute to water hardness. (agscientific.com)
  • Theoretical simulations indicate that ion-carboxyl interactions substantially reduce the energy barrier for monovalent cations to pass through the MOFSNC, and thus lead to ultrahigh ion selectivity. (nature.com)
  • Positive ions are called cations . (wikipedia.org)
  • All simple metal ions are cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cet article discute les propriétés des racines au point de vue de l'échange de cations en termes d'intéractions ioniques à l'interieur de l'apoplasme racinaire et les conséquences de telles intéractions sur l'accumulation d'ions par la plante. (springer.com)
  • First of all, it is very difficult to break magnesium-chloride bonds. (greencarcongress.com)
  • By retaining the magnesium-chloride bond, Yao said, the cathode demonstrated much faster diffusion than traditional magnesium versions. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The key, Yoo said, is to expand the titanium disulfide to allow magnesium chloride to be inserted-a four-step process called intercalation-rather than breaking the magnesium-chloride bonds and inserting the magnesium alone. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Retaining the magnesium-chloride bond doubled the charge the cathode could store. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The increased opening-from 0.57 nanometers to 1.8 nanometers-allowed for the magnesium chloride to be inserted. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The metal is usually prepared either through the electrolysis of magnesium chloride or by chemically reducing magnesium oxides with the use of silicone. (agscientific.com)
  • The researchers from the University of Houston discovered a new design for the battery cathode - the electrode from which the current flows - that drastically increased the storage capacity and upending conventional wisdom that the magnesium-chloride bond must be broken before inserting magnesium into the host. (newstarget.com)
  • Yoo suggested that the solution is to expand the titanium disulfide to allow magnesium chloride to be inserted and retaining the magnesium-chloride bond would double the charge the cathode could store. (newstarget.com)
  • Even though the opening was still small, increased from 0.57 nanometers to 1.8 nanometers, Yoo said that that allowed for the magnesium chloride to be inserted. (newstarget.com)
  • Yoo explained that the cathode showed much faster diffusion than traditional magnesium versions when the magnesium-chloride bond was retained. (newstarget.com)
  • [9] Such preparations are usually in the form of magnesium sulfate or chloride when given parenterally . (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium is absorbed with reasonable efficiency (30% to 40%) by the body from any soluble magnesium salt, such as the chloride or citrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific ions-ions such as chloride, sodium, and boron that may be toxic to plants. (ufl.edu)
  • Magnesium rechargeable batteries (MRBs) are emerging as an attractive candidate for energy storage in terms of safety, energy density, and scalability because magnesium metal has ideal properties as a battery anode: high capacity, low redox potential, dendrite-free deposition, and earth-abundant resources. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Magnesium possesses a higher volumetric capacity than commercialized Li-ion battery anode materials. (umd.edu)
  • In seeking to overcome these roadblocks, the researchers developed an artificial solid-electrolyte interphase from polyacrylonitrile and magnesium-ion salt that protected the surface of the magnesium anode. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Furthermore, the group has demonstrated the rechargeability of the magnesium-metal battery, which provides an unprecedented avenue for simultaneously addressing the anode/electrolyte incompatibility and the limitations on ions leaving the cathode. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • The Saitec developers used vanadium oxide in the cathode, making it easier for ions to move between it and the magnesium-based anode, and allowing for more charges without deterioration. (chargedevs.com)
  • On the anode side of the battery, magnesium has advantages: You don t need graphite (as in lithium-ion batteries), instead you can use a magnesium foil as anode. (nanowerk.com)
  • Similar to the magnesium battery, the anode is easy to build: An alumnium foil is all you need. (nanowerk.com)
  • A magnesium-ion battery includes a solid, mechanically flexible polymer-based anode, a solid, mechanically flexible polymer-based cathode, and a polymer gel electrolyte in contact with the anode and the cathode. (justia.com)
  • 6. The energy-storage apparatus of claim 1, wherein said anode configured to accept and release said multi-valent positive ion comprises insertion materials including Anatase TiO 2 , rutile TiO 2 , Mo 6 S 8 , FeS 2 , TiS 2 , and MoS 2 and combinations thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. The energy-storage apparatus of claim 1, wherein said anode configured to accept and release said multi-valent positive ion comprises an electronically conductive additive. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The energy-storage apparatus of claim 1, wherein said anode configured to accept said multi-valent positive ion comprises a polymer binder. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Researchers have achieved a significant boost in the storage capacity of magnesium-ion batteries through a new design for the cathode and a new understanding of the electrolyte. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Since a sodium ion is about 50 percent larger than a lithium ion, the sodium cathode materials show poorer electrochemical cycling performance. (nanowerk.com)
  • For instance, sodium cobalt oxide, which is the sodium ion analog of lithium cobalt oxide (i.e., the conventional cathode material of the lithium-ion battery) can sustain much fewer charging cycles. (nanowerk.com)
  • However, the small, double-charged magnesium ion brings drawbacks on the cathode side. (nanowerk.com)
  • We are combining a nanostructured cathode and a new understanding of the magnesium electrolyte," Yan Yao, lead author of the study and associate professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Houston, said in the Science Daily article. (newstarget.com)
  • Traditional lithium ion batteries have a cathode capacity of about 200 mAh/g. (newstarget.com)
  • Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • A multi-institution team of scientists led by Texas A&M University chemist Sarbajit Banerjee has discovered an exceptional metal-oxide magnesium battery cathode material, moving researchers one step closer to delivering batteries that promise higher density of energy storage on top of transformative advances in safety, cost and performance in comparison to their ubiquitous lithium-ion (Li-ion) counterparts. (lightsources.org)
  • By contrast, magnesium is much more abundant than lithium, has a higher melting point, forms smooth surfaces when recharging, and has the potential to deliver more than a five-fold increase in energy density if an appropriate cathode can be identified. (lightsources.org)
  • Ironically, the team's futuristic solution hinges on a redesigned form of an old Li-ion cathode material, vanadium pentoxide, which they proved is capable of reversibly inserting magnesium ions. (lightsources.org)
  • We've essentially reconfigured the atoms to provide a different pathway for magnesium ions to travel along, thereby obtaining a viable cathode material in which they can readily be inserted and extracted during discharging and charging of the battery," Banerjee says. (lightsources.org)
  • Recently, many groups have studied the role of magnesium in calcium carbonate precipitation. (scirp.org)
  • We studied the role of magnesium on the binding interactions using surface plasmon resonance (Biacore) and found that Mg2+ enhances the binding interactions between the RecB and RecC subunits. (umd.edu)
  • MacKinnon, R. Potassium channels and the atomic basis of selective ion conduction (Nobel lecture). (nature.com)
  • Nitrate, potassium, calcium, and magnesium are also nutrient sources for plants, while all ions contribute to salt load in the reclaimed water. (ufl.edu)
  • Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Magnesium is required for the active transport of ions like potassium and calcium across cell membranes . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Magnesium sulfite is an ionic compound composed of one positively charged magnesium ion and one negatively charged sulfite ion. (reference.com)
  • Heating the atom breaks it into two parts: (1) a positively charged hydrogen ion, H+ (2) a negatively charged electron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mg 2+ ions close certain types of calcium channels , which conduct positively charged calcium ions into neurons . (wikipedia.org)
  • a positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a cation (pronounced cat-eye-on ), for it is attracted to cathodes . (citizendium.org)
  • The ionization energy of metals is generally much lower than the ionization energy of nonmetals , which is why metals will generally lose electrons to form positively-charged ions while nonmetals will generally gain electrons to form negatively-charged ions. (citizendium.org)
  • Any ionic compound in which the force of attraction between the oppositely charged ions is weaker than the force of attraction that water molecules exert o. (reference.com)
  • This means that the transfer of electrons from metal to non-metal atoms results in the formation of oppositely charged ions. (scribd.com)
  • There is a strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely-charged ions - this is the origin of the ionic bond which holds the ions together. (scribd.com)
  • Because magnesium is an ion that carries two positive charges, every time we introduce a magnesium ion in the structure of the battery material, we can move twice as many electrons," said Jordi Cabana, UIC assistant professor of chemistry and principal investigator on the study. (sme.org)
  • The electrodes exchange electrons and ions, which are usually of positive charge. (sme.org)
  • Only ions flow through the electrolyte, which is an electric insulator so as to force the electrons to flow through the external circuit to power the vehicle or device. (sme.org)
  • In our case, we want to maximize the number of electrons moved per ion, because ions distort the structure of the electrode material when they go in or leave. (sme.org)
  • First, magnesium releases two electrons to lithium's one, thus giving it the potential to deliver nearly twice as much energy as lithium. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Magnesium only takes about half as much VOLUME to store the same number of electrons as lithium. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • To understand non-equilibrium electron-ion dynamics in solids and to explain whether energetic particle radiation anneals or creates defects, a full quantum-mechanical treatment of nuclei and electrons is ideal. (materialstoday.com)
  • An ion has unequal numbers of protons and electrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in a wire, the metal ions do not move, but the electrons move as electricity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recombining of ions and electrons to form neutral atoms is called recombination . (citizendium.org)
  • Ions are denoted by a superscript with the sign of the net electric charge and the number of electrons lost or gained, if more than one. (citizendium.org)
  • Contrary to all other atomic electrons, the extraneous electron in negative ions is initially not bound by the Coulomb interaction, but by polarization of the neutral atom. (citizendium.org)
  • Metal atoms give their outer-shell electrons to non-metal atoms, and each becomes an ion. (scribd.com)
  • An ion is defined as an atom which has lost or gained electrons. (scribd.com)
  • The number of electrons an atom gains or loses to become an ion is shown by its valency, An ion has a charge. (scribd.com)
  • The charge on an ion reflects the number of electrons it has gained or lost (see table below). (scribd.com)
  • Drawing non-metal ions Start by drawing the atom with its filled inner shells, and its outer shell electrons (crosses). (scribd.com)
  • A new study from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) shows that using magnesium ions in place of lithium ions could result in batteries that significantly outperform the lithium-based batteries commonly used in today's EVs. (sme.org)
  • An atom that is ionized makes two ions, one positive, and one negatively charged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists at the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have discovered a new approach for developing a rechargeable non-aqueous magnesium-metal battery. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Magnesium-selective ISEs enable clinics to effectively analyze blood, serum, plasma and other aqueous samples for ionized magnesium concentrations through chemometric procedures. (agscientific.com)
  • In an aqueous (liquid) solution sulfide ions can be neutralized. (reference.com)
  • A collection of non- aqueous gas-like ions, or even a gas containing a proportion of charged particles, is called a plasma , often called the fourth state of matter because its properties are quite different from solids , liquids , and gases . (citizendium.org)
  • Masashi Inamoto and colleagues describe the new battery in " Electrode Performance of Sulfur-Doped Vanadium Pentoxide Gel Prepared by Microwave Irradiation for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries ," published in Current Physical Chemistry. (chargedevs.com)
  • Irradiation with 200 MeV 107Ag ions gives tracks of about 65 AA in the bulk of the sample. (nul.ls)
  • It is therefore investigated, if and how an Ar{sup +} ion irradiation of the MgO seed layer prior to the deposition of the magnetic material influences the MgO surface properties and hereby the FePt [001] texture. (osti.gov)
  • Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs), provide an effective means of detecting accurate levels of metal found within a substance. (agscientific.com)
  • By contrast, in an aluminium graphite battery, there is no one- directional motion of Al 3 + ions from the positive to the negative electrodes. (nanowerk.com)
  • This invention relates to mechanically flexible magnesium-ion battery electrodes in a polymer gel perchlorate electrolyte. (justia.com)
  • FIG. 3B shows a cyclic voltammetry (CV) plot of a PGE containing no magnesium perchlorate sandwiched between two stainless steel electrodes at 25° C. and a voltage sweep rate of ±0.01V/s. (justia.com)
  • METTLER TOLEDO offers a wide range of ion-selective electrodes (ISE) to meet the various range of measureable ions. (mt.com)
  • PerfectION™ ion-selective combined electrodes guarantee precision and easy handling. (mt.com)
  • Combined ion-selective electrodes have an integrated reference system. (mt.com)
  • The high voltage, coupled with their high energy density, has made lithium ion batteries the standard. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The technology possesses potential advantages over lithium-ion batteries-notably, higher energy density, greater stability, and lower cost. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Magnesium (Mg) batteries theoretically contain almost twice as much energy per volume as lithium-ion batteries. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • And second, magnesium-metal batteries do not experience the growth of dendrites, which are crystals that can cause short circuits and consequently dangerous overheating and even fire, making potential magnesium batteries much safer than lithium-ion batteries. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Nanowerk News ) The global economy s demand for lithium-ion batteries will be rising sharply in future. (nanowerk.com)
  • They should be made of environmentally friendly materials wherever possible in order not to strain further the world s resources of lithium, cobalt or other pricey metals, which are present in lithium-ion batteries. (nanowerk.com)
  • Empa and ETH Zurich researchers Kostiantyn Kravchyk and Maksym Kovalenko have taken a closer look at possible alternatives to lithium-ion batteries. (nanowerk.com)
  • Their assessments have been published in the New Journal of Chemistry ( 'Challenges and benefits of post-lithium-ion batteries' ), among others. (nanowerk.com)
  • Graphite (as in lithium-ion batteries) is not suitable for sodium batteries, because it does not store enough sodium ions. (nanowerk.com)
  • But the rest of the aluminium battery operates fundamentally different from lithium-ion batteries: Lithium-ion batteries employ the rocking chair principle. (nanowerk.com)
  • Worried about the lithium-ion batteries found in your laptops and cell phones? (newstarget.com)
  • Unlike the traditional lithium ion batteries, which had been making headlines because of explosion , magnesium batteries are not flammable or subject to exploding. (newstarget.com)
  • Apparently, the new battery stays a low voltage at about one volt, compared to the lithium ion batteries that have three to four volts. (newstarget.com)
  • At a neutral pH and in the presence of a high magnesium ion concentration (10 mM), the phosphoramidate oligomer forms the most stable triple helix, whereas in the absence of magnesium ion but at a physiological monovalent cation concentration (0.14 M) only morpholino oligonucleotides form a stable triplex. (pasteur.fr)
  • Overlying the Mg+2 maxima, the Bransfield Strait and Gulf of California pore waters show minima in the dissolved magnesium concentration, concurrent with a measured increase in the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the sediments. (geomar.de)
  • The grouping up of the charged particles(cation & anion) to form a neutral atom is called recombination of ions. (citizendium.org)
  • Manganese oxide (MnO2) is one of the most well studied electrode materials due to its excellent electrochemical properties, including high Li+ ion capacity and relatively high operating voltage (i.e., ~ 4 V vs. Li/Li+ for LiMn2O4 and ~ 3.2 V vs. Mg/Mg2+). (umd.edu)
  • The results provided in this dissertation highlight that the divalency of Mg2+ ions result in very different electrochemical behaviors than those of the well-studied monovalent Li+ ions towards MnO2. (umd.edu)
  • An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Sodicity-the buildup of sodium ions in the soil. (ufl.edu)
  • Negative ions are called anions . (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the short range of this interaction, negative ions have no Rydberg series, but only a few, if any, bound excited states. (citizendium.org)
  • Metals form positive ions, and non-metals form negative ions. (scribd.com)
  • But sometimes the polyatomic ion can have a metallic atom too. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ion with a single atom is called a monatomic ion , and an ion with more than one is called a polyatomic ion . (citizendium.org)
  • Creation of damage is associated with collision cascades-a series of binary collisions induced by the incoming ion-in which lattice atoms are displaced, forming point defects . (materialstoday.com)
  • An ion is an electrically charged atom or group of atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyatomic ions are formed from a number of atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyatomic ions usually consist of all non-metal atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ion is an atom or group of atoms that normally are electrically neutral and achieve their status as an ion by loss (or addition) of an electron. (citizendium.org)
  • Larger ions containing many atoms are called molecular ions . (citizendium.org)
  • Many traditional ion trapping research groups have made the transition to quantum computing research, while, more recently, many other new research groups have joined the effort. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, transition metal ions only marginally reduced the amount of 2′,3′-cGMP, blocking binase recognition sites of guanine at N7 of nucleophilic purine bases. (hindawi.com)
  • The transition metals usually form coloured ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some metal ions, e.g. transition metals, do not show an obvious pattern between what group they are in and their valency/charge. (scribd.com)
  • Transition metal ions, due to their multiple oxidation states, were the only elements capable of controlling the oxidation states of such molecules, and thus were selected for. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium (Mg) is a metallic element and one of the most abundant minerals found on Earth. (agscientific.com)
  • Evolution of metal ions in biological systems refers to the incorporation of metallic ions into living organisms and how it has changed over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological ion channels have remarkable ion selectivity, permeability and rectification properties, but it is challenging to develop artificial analogues. (nature.com)
  • The asymmetrically structured MOFSNC can rapidly conduct K + , Na + and Li + in the subnanometre-to-nanometre channel direction, with conductivities up to three orders of magnitude higher than those of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , equivalent to a mono/divalent ion selectivity of 10 3 . (nature.com)
  • Moreover, by varying the pH from 3 to 8 the ion selectivity can be tuned further by a factor of 10 2 to 10 4 . (nature.com)
  • Fig. 3: pH-dependent mono/divalent ion conductance and selectivity in the Asy-UiO-66-(COOH) 2 -SNC. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 4: Concentration-dependent ion conductance and selectivity, and binary ion selectivity of the Asy-UiO-66-(COOH) 2 -SNC. (nature.com)
  • Through its role in ion transport systems, magnesium affects the conduction of nerve impulses , muscle contraction, and normal heart rhythm (3) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • High doses of zinc in supplemental form apparently interfere with the absorption of magnesium. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Another consequence of the decomposition of organic matter in hemipelagic sediments is the accumulation of high levels of ammonium ions which also displace Mg+2 from sediment-particle surfaces by ion exchange. (geomar.de)
  • In sediments from Bransfield Strait, the Gulf of California, and the Peru margin, both release mechanisms for Mg+2-ligand competition and ion exchange with ammonium-were evaluated as part of the complex reaction system in order to explain the observed maxima in the dissolved magnesium profiles. (geomar.de)
  • IC is the preferred method for determining active ingredients, excipients, active ingredients, trace impurities, as well as metabolites in the form of polar substances or inorganic and organic ions, in several pharma-ceutical solutions, pharmaceuticals, and even body fluids. (news-medical.net)
  • Magnesium is an important micronutrient essential for various biological processes and its deficiency has been linked to several inflammatory disorders in humans. (jle.com)
  • Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements, and Radionuclides focuses on the transport of metal ions across biological membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • The selection is a recommendable source of data for readers interested in the transport of metal ions across biological membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the unusual nature of ionic magnesium has also led to a major challenge in the use of the ion in biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological membranes are impermeable to magnesium (and other ions), so transport proteins must facilitate the flow of magnesium, both into and out of cells and intracellular compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metal ions have been associated with biological systems for billions of years, but only in the last century have scientists began to truly appreciate the scale of their influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metal ion binding to such O-donors was required to build the biological polymers, since the bond is generally weak, it can catalyze the required reaction and dissociate after (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mineral dolomite contains magnesium carbon-ate. (bartleby.com)
  • Having established that magnesium can be reversibly inserted into electrode material's structure brings us one step closer to a prototype, he said. (sme.org)
  • However, the aforementioned advantages of Mg batteries have not been fully utilized due to the serious kinetic limitation of Mg2+ diffusion process in many hosting compounds which is believed to be due to a strong electrostatic interaction between divalent Mg2+ ions and hosting matrix. (umd.edu)
  • magnesium nitrate Answers at the end of the topic. (scribd.com)
  • Scientists have pioneered a method to enable the reversible chemistry of magnesium metal in the noncorrosive carbonate-based electrolytes and tested the concept in a prototype cell. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • But previous research encountered an obstacle: chemical reactions of the conventional carbonate electrolyte created a barrier on the surface of magnesium that prevented the battery from recharging. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • The crystallization of calcium carbonate at interface of Langmuir monolayers of bovine serum albumin and subphase containing magnesium ions was studied in this paper. (scirp.org)
  • BSA Langmuir monolayers controlled calcium carbonate to magnesium ions in solution. (scirp.org)
  • It is indicated that BSA Langmuir monolayers and magnesium ions have a cooperative effect on controlling the polymorph and orientation of calcium carbonate crystal. (scirp.org)
  • This paper mainly discusses the cooperative influence of BSA Langmuir monolayer and magnesium ions on calcium carbonate precipitation. (scirp.org)
  • The aim of these experiments is to find the effect on the polymorph, morphology and orientation of calcium carbonate by combined BSA Langmuir monolayer and magnesium ions. (scirp.org)
  • Carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles were formulated, characterized, loaded with a series of siRNAs, and delivered into MCF-7 and 4T1 breast cancer cells to selectively knockdown the respective calcium and magnesium ion channels and transporters. (mdpi.com)
  • Magnesium can affect muscle relaxation through direct action on cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium plays a structural role in bone, cell membranes , and chromosomes (3) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • 3 eV) is necessary before intercalation and (2) the polarization strength ofthe ion, and hence the ion diffusion energy barrier, is low. (greencarcongress.com)
  • While the origin of the observed poor performances is believed to be due to the aforementioned strong ionic interaction between the Mg2+ ions and MnO2 lattice resulting in a limited diffusion of Mg2+ ions in MnO2, very little has been explored regarding the charge storage mechanism of MnO2 with divalent Mg2+ ions. (umd.edu)
  • Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Diffusion and absorption of ions in plant tissue. (springer.com)
  • Diffusion and exchangeable rubidium ions in pea roots. (springer.com)
  • Inadequate dietary intakes and/or low serum concentrations of magnesium have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease , osteoporosis , and metabolic disorders, including metabolic syndrome , hypertension , and type 2 diabetes mellitus . (oregonstate.edu)
  • The electronegativity (0.98 vs 1.38) of lithium and magnesium is important: it determines the voltage of the half-cells in a rechargeable battery. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • All in all one can expect magnesium cells to be somewhat lower output voltage than lithium's 3.3 V. Maybe 2.9 V. If however somehow magnesium can be fabricated into tough, non-toxic, safe "18650" type cells, and if the cells deliver similar or superior volumetric storage capacity to lithium, then we ought to see a period of significant price-per-kilowatt-hour improvement as they come online. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Specific gene knockdown facilitated by short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a potential approach for suppressing the expression of ion channels and transporter proteins to kill breast cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Magnesium ion batteries present a potential alterative to lithium-ion cells in emerging market sectors, such as wearable electronics, grid-scale energy storage, and electric vehicles due to a combination of high volumetric capacity, material cost, and possibly lower environmental impact compared to lithium. (justia.com)
  • For example, ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main source of energy in cells, must bind to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] As such, magnesium plays a role in the stability of all polyphosphate compounds in the cells, including those associated with the synthesis of DNA and RNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • With an excess of magnesium, more channels will be blocked and nerve cells activity will decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ion-selective half-cells consist of a universal shaft and ion-specific module that can be exchanged to measure different kinds of ions. (mt.com)
  • Organized into three sections encompassing 32 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the important role that ions in animal cells play in a variety of fundamental processes associated with essential cell functions. (elsevier.com)
  • This book discusses as well the two widely applicable methods for measuring free concentrations of ions inside cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The final chapter deals with magnesium ion as the most abundant divalent action in living cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The role of the root cortex cells in ion absorption. (springer.com)
  • Summer school on ferroelectrics to be held December 10-14, BMW contracts with Chinese lithium-ion battery manufacturer to provide lithium-ion battery cells for use in its hybrid vehicles and EVs, and more ceramic and glass business news of the week for July 6, 2018. (ceramics.org)
  • Calcium and magnesium concentrations in the fluid surrounding cells affect the migration of a number of different cell types. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Magnesium deficiency within the human body has been linked to medical conditions such as osteoporosis, high blood pressure, fatigue and arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). (agscientific.com)
  • This enables healthcare professionals to quickly and reliably identify and treat underlying conditions related to magnesium deficiency (hypomagnesium), such as nausea, vomiting, digestive problems and bone density abnormalities. (agscientific.com)
  • Pharmaceutical preparations with magnesium are used to treat conditions including magnesium deficiency and hypomagnesemia , as well as eclampsia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe magnesium deficiency can impede vitamin D and calcium homeostasis . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Certain individuals are more susceptible to magnesium deficiency, especially those with gastrointestinal or renal disorders, those suffering from chronic alcoholism, and older people. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Ions and some metal complexes are excluded, as well as cases where no interaction profile could be generated. (rcsb.org)
  • Because of the strong affinity existing between the alkaline phosphatase and Mg 2+ , it is necessary to adjust the metal-ion concentration with the aid of a metal buffer. (biochemj.org)
  • In the Appendix the necessary equations are derived for calculating the concentration of free metal ions in a system with several different metal ions. (biochemj.org)
  • It is sometimes necessary to accurately measure magnesium levels within the manufacturing and pharmaceutical fields as an excess of the metal may lead to adverse health reactions or disastrous results. (agscientific.com)
  • Divalent metal ions like Mg2+ are required for the nuclease and helicase activity of RecBCD. (umd.edu)
  • Fig. 2: Rectifying, ultraselective monovalent metal ion transport in Asy-UiO-66-(COOH) 2 -SNC. (nature.com)
  • and complexing of alkali metal ions. (elsevier.com)
  • Without involving metal ions as cofactors, binase depolymerizes RNA by cleaving the 3′,5′-phosphodiester bond and generates 2′,3′-cyclic guanosine phosphates in the first stage of a catalytic reaction. (hindawi.com)
  • Although binase is treated as an enzyme which does not require metal ions for RNA catalysis [ 14 ], the objective of this study was to investigate whether divalent metal ions can affect the ability of binase to form 2′,3′-cGMP cyclic intermediate. (hindawi.com)
  • Drawing metal ions Start by drawing the atom with its filled inner shells, but don't draw the outer shell (it is empty). (scribd.com)
  • The lightest structural metal, magnesium has many potential industrial applications but is limited by poor corrosion resistance. (ceramics.org)
  • Major (iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc) and minor (copper, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten) metal ions have become aligned with living organisms through the interplay of biogeochemical weathering and metabolic pathways involving the products of that weathering. (wikipedia.org)
  • The magnesium monochloride molecules are too large to be inserted into the titanium disulfide using conventional methods. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Polyatomic and molecular ions are often formed by the combination of elemental ions such as H + with neutral molecules or by the loss of such elemental ions from neutral molecules. (citizendium.org)
  • Zhou, Y., Morais-Cabral, J. H., Kaufman, A. & MacKinnon, R. Chemistry of ion coordination and hydration revealed by a K + channel-Fab complex at 2.0 Å resolution. (nature.com)
  • This availability, in combination with a useful and very unusual chemistry, may have led to its utilization in evolution as an ion for signaling, enzyme activation, and catalysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since ion exchange resin selection is partly driven by the water analysis, I would be remiss without a quick review of the relevant chemistry. (wcponline.com)
  • In the chemical periodic table magnesium resides next to sodium. (nanowerk.com)
  • Elements in the main groups in the Periodic Table form colourless ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For safety, the team added an organic substance that lowers the risk of the magnesium catching fire. (chargedevs.com)
  • As an element, magnesium is more abundant than lithium, more stable, and far cheaper. (chargedevs.com)
  • An abstract of the paper, "Direct Observation of Reversible Magnesium Ion Intercalation into a Spinel Oxide Host," is available online at http://tinyurl.com/npa3n5l . (sme.org)
  • For example, the ion slips into a lattice of cobalt oxide only with great force, and if it is stuck there, it is difficult to extract it again. (nanowerk.com)
  • Magnesium absorption from the insoluble oxide and hydroxide salts ( milk of magnesia ) is erratic and of poorer efficiency, since it depends on the neutralization and solution of the salt by the acid of the stomach, which may not be (and usually is not) complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working out the formula of an ionic compound: 1) Use the name to identify the ions present 2) Write the ions, with the correct valency underneath 3) Swap the valencies 4) Simplify if they will both divide by same number e.g. sodium sulphide Na+ S21 2 so the formula is: Na2S zinc oxide Zn2+ O22 2 simplify! (scribd.com)
  • Magnesium is similarly absorbed from Epsom salts , although the sulfate in these salts adds to their laxative effect at higher doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, significant changes in free Mg+2 concentration and thus in the magnesium desorption from solid surfaces by ligand competition for Mg+2 are more pronounced in sulfate-depleted systems undergoing methanogenesis. (geomar.de)
  • Magnesium sulfate is used in obstetric care for the prevention of seizures in pregnant women with preeclampsia or eclampsia . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Upon topical application of magnesium solution, we found that magnesium penetrates through human stratum corneum and it depends on concentration and time of exposure. (jle.com)
  • Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II) ions. (mdpi.com)
  • The activity of DPN linked isocitrate dehydrogenase is dependent on the concentration of magnesium D isocitrate (MgI-) under conditions where the concentrations of free Mg 2+ and isocitrate approach zero and saturation, repectively. (elsevier.com)
  • In anoxic pore water environments with high levels of dissolved total carbon dioxide the formation of Mg+2·CO3−2 complexes significantly reduces the concentration of the free Mg+2 ion. (geomar.de)
  • METTLER TOLEDO offers a comprehensive range of top quality buffers, standards, electrolytes, cleaning and verification solutions for determination of pH, conductivity, ion concentration, ORP and dissolved oxygen.All solutions are available in small volume bottles either in packs or single and single use sachets. (mt.com)
  • Positive electrode materials for Li-ion and Li-batteries. (nature.com)
  • Because magnesium is divalent, it can displace double the charge per ion (i.e. (chargedevs.com)
  • Optimization of insertion compounds such as LiMn2O4 for Li-ion batteries. (nature.com)
  • Correct any mistakes in the naming of the following compounds or ions. (bartleby.com)
  • Fig. 6: Energy barriers, dehydration effects and ion‒framework interactions of K + and Mg 2+ in the UiO-66-(COOH) 2 -SNC. (nature.com)
  • [7] Coulomb interactions of increasing complexity will create a more intricate ion configuration if many ions are initialized in the same trap. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this publication is to inform UF/IFAS Extension agents, state agency personnel, landscape managers, and citizens of ways to manage salts and other ions in irrigated landscapes where reclaimed water is used. (ufl.edu)
  • Industrially, magnesium alloys are used in the manufacture of lightweight products such as camera and laptop parts. (agscientific.com)
  • [13] For other than pregnancy-related hypertension, a meta-analysis of 22 clinical trials with dose ranges of 120 to 973 mg/day and a mean dose of 410 mg, concluded that magnesium supplementation had a small but statistically significant effect, lowering systolic blood pressure by 3-4 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 2-3 mm Hg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Randomized controlled trials have also investigated the role of magnesium supplementation in the prevention of complications following stroke or heart surgery. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The use of magnesium supplementation is currently being explored in the management of various conditions, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, asthma and pain. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Mg 2+ ions are essential for enzyme activity. (biochemj.org)
  • The following model (Scheme 1 of the text) for the reaction of enzyme, substrate and Mg 2+ ions was derived: [Formula: see text] The binding of the substrate to the enzyme is independent of the binding of the activator, and vice versa. (biochemj.org)
  • In contrast to the results which are consistent with magnesium isocitrate as the substrate, free ADP 3- is the modifier of the enzyme and MgADP - is inactive. (elsevier.com)
  • A reaction model has been proposed in which initial binding of substrate to the enzyme at one site leads to a conformational change and subsequent binding of magnesium isocitrate at an additional site which is catalytically active. (elsevier.com)
  • This dissertation investigates the charge storage mechanism of MnO2, focusing on the insertion behaviors of divalent Mg2+ ions and exploring the origins of the limited Mg2+ insertion behavior in MnO2. (umd.edu)
  • The mechanism of activation of alkaline phosphatase (EC from pig kidney by Mg 2+ ions was investigated with the aid of kinetic measurements. (biochemj.org)
  • Fig. 5: Ion sieving mechanism in the UiO-66-(COOH) 2 -SNC. (nature.com)
  • These results can be interpreted in terms of magnesium isocitrate as the active substrate, however the present data cannot rule out the possibility of free Mg 2+ and isocitrate as the substrates if the reaction mechanism is rapid equilibrium ordered with free Mg 2+ being the first reactant. (elsevier.com)
  • It is not possible to determine whether the Mg 2+ ions are involved directly in the catalytic process, or whether they act as regulatory effectors. (biochemj.org)
  • Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or synthesizing ATP, or those that use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA and RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, magnesium is necessary for synthesis of chlorophyll and photosynthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium is involved in many physiologic pathways, including energy production, nucleic acid and protein synthesis , ion transport, cell signaling , and also has structural functions. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Magnesium is required for a number of steps during synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ), ribonucleic acid ( RNA ), and proteins . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Several enzymes participating in the synthesis of carbohydrates and lipids require magnesium for their activity. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Glutathione , an important antioxidant , requires magnesium for its synthesis (3) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Qubits are stored in stable electronic states of each ion, and quantum information can be transferred through the collective quantized motion of the ions in a shared trap (interacting through the Coulomb force ). (wikipedia.org)