A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.
Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A generic term for a variety of compounds that contain silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, and may contain hydrogen. Examples include TALC and some kinds of ASBESTOS.
Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from HYPOCALCEMIA or reduced serum levels of MAGNESIUM that may be associated with HYPERVENTILATION; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; RICKETS; UREMIA; or other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1490)
A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.
"Citrates, in a medical context, are compounds containing citric acid, often used in medical solutions for their chelating properties and as a part of certain types of nutritional support."
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.
Inborn errors of metal metabolism refer to genetic disorders resulting from mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in the transportation, storage, or utilization of essential metals, leading to imbalances that can cause toxicity or deficiency and subsequent impairment of normal physiological processes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.

A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. (1/12477)

The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase.  (+info)

The influence of junction conformation on RNA cleavage by the hairpin ribozyme in its natural junction form. (2/12477)

In the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme the two loop-carrying duplexes that comprise the majority of essential bases for activity form two adjacent helical arms of a four-way RNA junction. In the present work we have manipulated the sequence around the junction in a way known to perturb the global folding properties. We find that replacement of the junction by a different sequence that has the same conformational properties as the natural sequence gives closely similar reaction rate and Arrhenius activation energy for the substrate cleavage reaction. By comparison, rotation of the natural sequence in order to alter the three-dimensional folding of the ribozyme leads to a tenfold reduction in the kinetics of cleavage. Replacement with the U1 four-way junction that is resistant to rotation into the antiparallel structure required to allow interaction between the loops also gives a tenfold reduction in cleavage rate. The results indicate that the conformation of the junction has a major influence on the catalytic activity of the ribozyme. The results are all consistent with a role for the junction in the provision of a framework by which the loops are presented for interaction in order to create the active form of the ribozyme.  (+info)

The 3' end CCA of mature tRNA is an antideterminant for eukaryotic 3'-tRNase. (3/12477)

Cytoplasmic tRNAs undergo posttranscriptional 5' and 3' end processing in the eukaryotic nucleus, and CCA (which forms the mature 3' end of all tRNAs) must be added by tRNA nucleotidyl transferase before tRNA can be aminoacylated and utilized in translation. Eukaryotic 3'-tRNase can endonucleolytically remove a 3' end trailer by cleaving on the 3' side of the discriminator base (the unpaired nucleotide 3' of the last base pair of the acceptor stem). This reaction proceeds despite a wide range in length and sequence of the 3' end trailer, except that mature tRNA containing the 3' terminal CCA is not a substrate for mouse 3'-tRNase (Nashimoto, 1997, Nucleic Acids Res 25:1148-1154). Herein, we extend this result with Drosophila and pig 3'-tRNase, using Drosophila melanogaster tRNAHis as substrate. Mature tRNA is thus prevented from recycling through 3' end processing. We also tested a series of tRNAs ending at the discriminator base (-), with one C added (+C), two Cs added (+CC), and CCA added (+CCA) as 3'-tRNase inhibitors. Inhibition was competitive with both Drosophila and pig 3'-tRNase. The product of the 3'-tRNase reaction (-) is a good 3'-tRNase inhibitor, with a KI approximately two times KM for the normal 3'-tRNase substrate. KI increases with each nucleotide added beyond the discriminator base, until when tRNA+CCA is used as inhibitor, KI is approximately forty times the substrate KM. The 3'-tRNase can thus remain free to process precursors with 3' end trailers because it is barely inhibited by tRNA+CCA, ensuring that tRNA can progress to aminoacylation. The active site of 3'-tRNase may have evolved to make an especially poor fit with tRNA+CCA.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of yeast TBP by protein kinase CK2 reduces its specific binding to DNA. (4/12477)

Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr kinase which phosphorylates a large number of proteins including several transcription factors. Recombinant Xenopus laevis CK2 phosphorylates both recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe TATA binding protein (TBP). The phosphorylation of TBP by CK2 reduces its binding activity to the TATA box. CK2 copurifies with the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex from HeLa cell extracts and phosphorylates several of the TBP-associated factors within TFIID. Taken together these findings argue for a role of CK2 in the control of transcription by RNA polymerase II through the modulation of the binding activity of TBP to the TATA box.  (+info)

Individual subunits contribute independently to slow gating of bovine EAG potassium channels. (5/12477)

The bovine ether a go-go gene encodes a delayed rectifier potassium channel. In contrast to other delayed rectifiers, its activation kinetics is largely determined by the holding potential and the concentration of extracellular Mg2+, giving rise to slowly activating currents with a characteristic sigmoidal rising phase. Replacement of a single amino acid in the extracellular linker between transmembrane segments S3 and S4 (L322H) strongly reduced the prepulse dependence and accelerated activation by 1 order of magnitude. In addition, compared with the wild type, the half-activation voltage of this mutant was shifted by more than 30 mV to more negative potentials. We used dimeric and tetrameric constructs of the bovine eag1 gene to analyze channels with defined stoichiometry of mutated and wild-type subunits within the tetrameric channel complexes. With increasing numbers of mutated subunits, the channel activation was progressively accelerated, and the sigmoidicity of the current traces was reduced. Based on a quantitative analysis, we show that the slow gating, typical for EAG channels, is mediated by independent conformational transitions of individual subunits, which gain their voltage dependence from the S4 segment. At a given voltage, external Mg2+ increases the probability of a channel subunit to be in the slowly activating conformation, whereas mutation L322H strongly reduces this probability.  (+info)

Cross-linking of two beta subunits in the closed conformation in F1-ATPase. (6/12477)

In the crystal structure of mitochondrial F1-ATPase, two beta subunits with a bound Mg-nucleotide are in "closed" conformations, whereas the third beta subunit without bound nucleotide is in an "open" conformation. In this "CCO" (beta-closed beta-closed beta-open) conformational state, Ile-390s of the two closed beta subunits, even though they are separated by an intervening alpha subunit, have a direct contact. We replaced the equivalent Ile of the alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex of thermophilic F1-ATPase with Cys and observed the formation of the beta-beta cross-link through a disulfide bond. The analysis of conditions required for the cross-link formation indicates that: (i) F1-ATPase takes the CCO conformation when two catalytic sites are filled with Mg-nucleotide, (ii) intermediate(s) with the CCO conformation are generated during catalytic cycle, (iii) the Mg-ADP inhibited form is in the CCO conformation, and (iv) F1-ATPase dwells in conformational state(s) other than CCO when only one (or none) of catalytic sites is filled by Mg-nucleotide or when catalytic sites are filled by Mg2+-free nucleotide. The alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex containing the beta-beta cross-link retained the activity of uni-site catalysis but lost that of multiple catalytic turnover, suggesting that open-closed transition of beta subunits is required for the rotation of gamma subunit but not for hydrolysis of a single ATP.  (+info)

The Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in the vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (7/12477)

The vacuole is the major site of intracellular Ca2+ storage in yeast and functions to maintain cytosolic Ca2+ levels within a narrow physiological range. In this study, we examined how cellular Ca2+ homeostasis is maintained in a vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant. We found that growth of the vps33Delta strain was sensitive to high or low extracellular Ca2+. This strain could not properly regulate cytosolic Ca2+ levels and was able to retain only a small fraction of its total cellular Ca2+ in a nonexchangeable intracellular pool. Surprisingly, the vps33Delta strain contained more total cellular Ca2+ than the wild type strain. Because most cellular Ca2+ is normally found within the vacuole, this suggested that other intracellular compartments compensated for the reduced capacity to store Ca2+ within the vacuole of this strain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the contribution of the Golgi-localized Ca2+ ATPase Pmr1p in the maintenance of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. We found that a vps33Delta/pmr1Delta strain was hypersensitive to high extracellular Ca2+. In addition, certain combinations of mutations effecting both vacuolar and Golgi Ca2+ transport resulted in synthetic lethality. These results indicate that the Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis when vacuolar biogenesis is compromised.  (+info)

Regulation of chicken erythrocyte AMP deaminase by phytic acid. (8/12477)

AMP deaminase [EC] purified from chicken erythrocytes was inhibited by phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate), which is the principal organic phosphate in chicken red cells. Kinetic analysis has indicated that this inhibition is of an allosteric type. The estimated Ki value was within the normal range of phytic acid concentration, suggesting that this compound acts as a physiological effector. Divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ were shown to affect AMP deaminase by potentiating inhibition by lower concentrations of phytic acid, and by relieving the inhibition at higher concentrations of phytic acid. These results suggests that Ca2+ and Mg2+ can modify the inhibition of AMP deaminase by phytic acid in chicken red cells.  (+info)

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

Magnesium Sulfate is an inorganic salt with the chemical formula MgSO4. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom salts. Magnesium sulfate is used medically as a vasodilator, to treat constipation, and as an antidote for magnesium overdose or poisoning. It is also used in the preparation of skin for esthetic procedures and in the treatment of eclampsia, a serious complication of pregnancy characterized by seizures.

Magnesium deficiency, also known as hypomagnesemia, is a condition characterized by low levels of magnesium in the blood. Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in many bodily functions, including muscle and nerve function, heart rhythm, bone strength, and immune system regulation.

Hypomagnesemia can occur due to various factors, such as poor dietary intake, malabsorption syndromes, chronic alcoholism, diabetes, certain medications (such as diuretics), and excessive sweating or urination. Symptoms of magnesium deficiency may include muscle cramps, tremors, weakness, heart rhythm abnormalities, seizures, and mental status changes.

It is important to note that mild magnesium deficiency may not cause any symptoms, and the diagnosis typically requires blood tests to measure magnesium levels. Treatment for hypomagnesemia usually involves oral or intravenous magnesium supplementation, along with addressing the underlying causes of the deficiency.

Magnesium compounds refer to substances that contain magnesium (an essential mineral) combined with other elements. These compounds are formed when magnesium atoms chemically bond with atoms of other elements. Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal and it readily forms stable compounds with various elements due to its electron configuration.

Examples of magnesium compounds include:

1. Magnesium oxide (MgO): Also known as magnesia, it is formed by combining magnesium with oxygen. It has a high melting point and is used in various applications such as refractory materials, chemical production, and agricultural purposes.
2. Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2): Often called milk of magnesia, it is a common antacid and laxative. It is formed by combining magnesium with hydroxide ions.
3. Magnesium chloride (MgCl2): This compound is formed when magnesium reacts with chlorine gas. It has various uses, including as a de-icing agent, a component in fertilizers, and a mineral supplement.
4. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4): Also known as Epsom salts, it is formed by combining magnesium with sulfur and oxygen. It is used as a bath salt, a laxative, and a fertilizer.
5. Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3): This compound is formed when magnesium reacts with carbon dioxide. It has various uses, including as a fire retardant, a food additive, and a dietary supplement.

These are just a few examples of the many different magnesium compounds that exist. Each compound has its unique properties and applications based on the elements it is combined with.

Magnesium oxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula MgO. It is a white, odorless solid that is highly basic and stable. Medically, magnesium oxide is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat low amounts of magnesium in the blood. It is also used as a antacid to neutralize stomach acid and as a laxative to relieve constipation.

Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2. It is a white solid that is amphoteric, meaning it can react as both an acid and a base. Magnesium hydroxide is commonly used as an over-the-counter antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. It works by increasing the pH of the stomach, which can help to reduce the production of stomach acid.

Magnesium hydroxide is also used as a laxative to relieve constipation, as it has a softening effect on stools and stimulates bowel movements. In addition, magnesium hydroxide is sometimes used in medical procedures to neutralize or wash away stomach acid, for example during endoscopies or the treatment of poisoning.

It's important to note that while magnesium hydroxide is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal cramps. In addition, people with kidney disease or severe heart or lung conditions should use magnesium hydroxide with caution, as it can worsen these conditions in some cases.

Magnesium Chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula MgCl2. It is a white, deliquescent solid that is highly soluble in water. Medically, magnesium chloride is used as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many biochemical reactions in the human body.

It can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically to treat or prevent magnesium deficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and preterm labor. Topical application is also used as a mineral supplement and for skin care purposes due to its moisturizing properties. However, high doses of magnesium chloride can have side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness, and should be used under medical supervision.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

In the context of nutrition and health, minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for various bodily functions, such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and bone structure. They are required in small amounts compared to macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and are obtained from food and water.

Some of the major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride, while trace minerals or microminerals are required in even smaller amounts and include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, and fluoride.

It's worth noting that the term "minerals" can also refer to geological substances found in the earth, but in medical terminology, it specifically refers to the essential inorganic elements required for human health.

Magnesium silicates are a type of compound that consists of magnesium, silicon, and oxygen. They are often found in nature as minerals such as talc and serpentine. These compounds have a variety of uses, including as fillers in paper, paint, and rubber products, and as absorbents in cat litter.

In a medical context, magnesium silicates may be used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. They are also sometimes used as bulk-forming laxatives to treat constipation by absorbing water and swelling in the intestines, which helps to stimulate bowel movements.

It is important to note that some magnesium silicate compounds, such as talc, have been linked to health concerns when inhaled or ingested in large quantities. Therefore, they should be used as directed and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Eclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication characterized by the onset of seizures or convulsions in a woman who has already developed preeclampsia, which is a condition marked by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. Eclampsia can occur before, during, or after delivery and is considered a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. It can pose significant risks to both the mother and the baby, including premature birth, fetal growth restriction, and even maternal and fetal death.

The exact causes of eclampsia are not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to problems with the placenta and abnormal blood vessel development in the uterus. Risk factors for developing eclampsia include preexisting medical conditions such as chronic hypertension or diabetes, a history of preeclampsia or eclampsia in previous pregnancies, multiple gestation (carrying more than one baby), and certain genetic factors.

Treatment for eclampsia typically involves delivering the baby as soon as possible to prevent further complications. In some cases, medication may be given to manage seizures and prevent their recurrence. Close monitoring of both the mother and the baby is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes.

Tocolytic agents are a type of medication used in obstetrics to suppress premature labor. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle of the uterus, thereby reducing contractions and delaying delivery. Commonly used tocolytic agents include beta-adrenergic agonists (such as terbutaline), calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine), and prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (such as indomethacin). It's important to note that the use of tocolytic agents is typically reserved for specific clinical situations, and their benefits must be weighed against potential risks to both the mother and fetus.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Mineral waters are naturally occurring waters that contain various minerals, including salts and gases. These waters can be still or sparkling, and they can vary in mineral content depending on the source. Some common minerals found in mineral waters include calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfates.

Mineral waters are often used for therapeutic purposes, as drinking or bathing in them is believed to have various health benefits. For example, some studies suggest that drinking mineral water can help improve digestion, boost the immune system, and reduce inflammation. Bathing in mineral waters, on the other hand, has been shown to help relieve muscle pain, improve circulation, and promote relaxation.

It's important to note that while mineral waters can have potential health benefits, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional. Additionally, some mineral waters may contain high levels of minerals like sodium, which may not be suitable for everyone, particularly those with certain medical conditions such as hypertension.

Divalent cations are ions that carry a positive charge of +2. They are called divalent because they have two positive charges. Common examples of divalent cations include calcium (Ca²+), magnesium (Mg²+), and iron (Fe²+). These ions play important roles in various biological processes, such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and bone metabolism. They can also interact with certain drugs and affect their absorption, distribution, and elimination in the body.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

Hypocalcemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood. Calcium is a vital mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and bone formation. Normal calcium levels in the blood usually range from 8.5 to 10.2 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Hypocalcemia is typically defined as a serum calcium level below 8.5 mg/dL or, when adjusted for albumin (a protein that binds to calcium), below 8.4 mg/dL (ionized calcium).

Hypocalcemia can result from several factors, such as vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism (underactive parathyroid glands), kidney dysfunction, certain medications, and severe magnesium deficiency. Symptoms of hypocalcemia may include numbness or tingling in the fingers, toes, or lips; muscle cramps or spasms; seizures; and, in severe cases, cognitive impairment or cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment typically involves correcting the underlying cause and administering calcium and vitamin D supplements to restore normal calcium levels in the blood.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

Dietary calcium is a type of calcium that is obtained through food sources. Calcium is an essential mineral that is necessary for many bodily functions, including bone formation and maintenance, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

The recommended daily intake of dietary calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, the recommended daily intake for adults aged 19-50 is 1000 mg, while women over 50 and men over 70 require 1200 mg per day.

Good dietary sources of calcium include dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt; leafy green vegetables like broccoli and kale; fortified cereals and juices; and certain types of fish, such as salmon and sardines. It is important to note that some foods can inhibit the absorption of calcium, including oxalates found in spinach and rhubarb, and phytates found in whole grains and legumes.

If a person is unable to get enough calcium through their diet, they may need to take calcium supplements. However, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, as excessive intake of calcium can lead to negative health effects.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

Trace elements are essential minerals that the body needs in very small or tiny amounts, usually less than 100 milligrams per day, for various biological processes. These include elements like iron, zinc, copper, manganese, fluoride, selenium, and iodine. They are vital for maintaining good health and proper functioning of the human body, but they are required in such minute quantities that even a slight excess or deficiency can lead to significant health issues.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Edetic acid, also known as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), is not a medical term per se, but a chemical compound with various applications in medicine. EDTA is a synthetic amino acid that acts as a chelating agent, which means it can bind to metallic ions and form stable complexes.

In medicine, EDTA is primarily used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury toxicity. It works by binding to the toxic metal ions in the body, forming a stable compound that can be excreted through urine. This helps reduce the levels of harmful metals in the body and alleviate their toxic effects.

EDTA is also used in some diagnostic tests, such as the determination of calcium levels in blood. Additionally, it has been explored as a potential therapy for conditions like atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, although its efficacy in these areas remains controversial and unproven.

It is important to note that EDTA should only be administered under medical supervision due to its potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring of its use.

Electrolytes are substances that, when dissolved in water, break down into ions that can conduct electricity. In the body, electrolytes are responsible for regulating various important physiological functions, including nerve and muscle function, maintaining proper hydration and acid-base balance, and helping to repair tissue damage.

The major electrolytes found in the human body include sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. These electrolytes are tightly regulated by various mechanisms, including the kidneys, which help to maintain their proper balance in the body.

When there is an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, it can lead to a range of symptoms and health problems. For example, low levels of sodium (hyponatremia) can cause confusion, seizures, and even coma, while high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) can lead to heart arrhythmias and muscle weakness.

Electrolytes are also lost through sweat during exercise or illness, so it's important to replace them through a healthy diet or by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes, such as sports drinks or coconut water. In some cases, electrolyte imbalances may require medical treatment, such as intravenous (IV) fluids or medication.

Manganese is not a medical condition, but it's an essential trace element that is vital for human health. Here is the medical definition of Manganese:

Manganese (Mn) is a trace mineral that is present in tiny amounts in the body. It is found mainly in bones, the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Manganese helps the body form connective tissue, bones, blood clotting factors, and sex hormones. It also plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation. Manganese is also necessary for normal brain and nerve function.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for manganese is 2.3 mg per day for adult men and 1.8 mg per day for adult women. Good food sources of manganese include nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, and tea.

In some cases, exposure to high levels of manganese can cause neurological symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease, a condition known as manganism. However, this is rare and usually occurs in people who are occupationally exposed to manganese dust or fumes, such as welders.

A lyase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds in a molecule, often resulting in the formation of two new molecules. Lyases differ from other types of enzymes, such as hydrolases and oxidoreductases, because they create double bonds or rings as part of their reaction mechanism.

In the context of medical terminology, lyases are not typically discussed on their own, but rather as a type of enzyme that can be involved in various biochemical reactions within the body. For example, certain lyases play a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, among other molecules.

One specific medical application of lyase enzymes is in the diagnosis of certain genetic disorders. For instance, individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) lack the enzyme aldolase B, which is a type of lyase that helps break down fructose in the liver. By measuring the activity of aldolase B in a patient's blood or tissue sample, doctors can diagnose HFI and recommend appropriate dietary restrictions to manage the condition.

Overall, while lyases are not a medical diagnosis or condition themselves, they play important roles in various biochemical processes within the body and can be useful in the diagnosis of certain genetic disorders.

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is widely found in nature, particularly in citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges. Its chemical formula is C6H8O7, and it exists in a form known as a tribasic acid, which means it can donate three protons in chemical reactions.

In the context of medical definitions, citric acid may be mentioned in relation to various physiological processes, such as its role in the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle), which is a key metabolic pathway involved in energy production within cells. Additionally, citric acid may be used in certain medical treatments or therapies, such as in the form of citrate salts to help prevent the formation of kidney stones. It may also be used as a flavoring agent or preservative in various pharmaceutical preparations.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Tetany is a medical condition characterized by involuntary muscle spasms and cramps, often starting in the hands and feet and can spread to other parts of the body. It is typically caused by an imbalance of minerals such as calcium and magnesium in the blood, which can be due to various underlying medical conditions such as hypoparathyroidism, hypocalcemia, or alkalosis. Tetany can also occur after surgical removal of the parathyroid glands (a procedure called parathyroidectomy). In some cases, tetany can be a symptom of other neuromuscular disorders.

The muscle spasms associated with tetany can be painful and can interfere with normal functioning. They are often triggered by sensory stimuli such as touch, sound, or temperature changes. Tetany can also cause numbness, tingling, or a crawling sensation in the skin (paresthesia). In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, difficulty breathing, and cardiac arrhythmias.

Treatment of tetany typically involves addressing the underlying medical condition causing the imbalance of minerals in the blood. This may involve supplementation with calcium or magnesium, medication to regulate parathyroid hormone levels, or other treatments depending on the specific cause.

Nephrocalcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium salts in the renal parenchyma, specifically within the tubular epithelial cells and interstitium of the kidneys. This process can lead to chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and ultimately impaired renal function if left untreated.

The condition is often associated with metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism, distal renal tubular acidosis, or hyperoxaluria; medications like loop diuretics, corticosteroids, or calcineurin inhibitors; and chronic kidney diseases. The diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis is typically made through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or X-ray. Treatment usually involves addressing the underlying cause, modifying dietary habits, and administering medications to control calcium levels in the body.

Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique used in materials science and geology to analyze the chemical composition of materials at very small scales, typically on the order of microns or less. In this technique, a focused beam of electrons is directed at a sample, causing the emission of X-rays that are characteristic of the elements present in the sample. By analyzing the energy and intensity of these X-rays, researchers can determine the concentration of different elements in the sample with high precision and accuracy.

EPMA is typically performed using a specialized instrument called an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), which consists of an electron column for generating and focusing the electron beam, an X-ray spectrometer for analyzing the emitted X-rays, and a stage for positioning and manipulating the sample. The technique is widely used in fields such as mineralogy, geochemistry, metallurgy, and materials science to study the composition and structure of minerals, alloys, semiconductors, and other materials.

One of the key advantages of EPMA is its ability to analyze the chemical composition of small regions within a sample, even in cases where there are spatial variations in composition or where the sample is heterogeneous. This makes it an ideal technique for studying the distribution and behavior of trace elements in minerals, the microstructure of alloys and other materials, and the composition of individual grains or phases within a polyphase material. Additionally, EPMA can be used to analyze both conductive and non-conductive samples, making it a versatile tool for a wide range of applications.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin (TRPM) cation channels are a subfamily of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily, which are non-selective cation channels that play important roles in various cellular processes such as sensory perception, cell proliferation, and migration.

The TRPM subfamily consists of eight members (TRPM1-8), each with distinct functional properties and expression patterns. These channels are permeable to both monovalent and divalent cations, including calcium (Ca^2+^) and magnesium (Mg^2+^).

TRPM channels can be activated by a variety of stimuli, such as changes in temperature, voltage, osmolarity, and chemical ligands. For example, TRPM8 is known to be activated by cold temperatures and menthol, while TRPV1 is activated by heat and capsaicin.

Dysregulation of TRPM channels has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of these channels may provide insights into potential therapeutic targets for these conditions.

Cathartics are a type of medication that stimulates bowel movements and evacuates the intestinal tract. They are often used to treat constipation or to prepare the bowel for certain medical procedures, such as colonoscopies. Common cathartic medications include laxatives, enemas, and suppositories.

Cathartics work by increasing the muscle contractions of the intestines, which helps to move stool through the digestive tract more quickly. They may also increase the amount of water in the stool, making it softer and easier to pass. Some cathartics, such as bulk-forming laxatives, work by absorbing water and swelling in the intestines, which helps to bulk up the stool and stimulate a bowel movement.

While cathartics can be effective at relieving constipation, they should be used with caution. Overuse of cathartics can lead to dependence on them for bowel movements, as well as electrolyte imbalances and other complications. It is important to follow the instructions carefully when using cathartic medications and to speak with a healthcare provider if constipation persists or worsens.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Dietary Potassium is a mineral and an essential electrolyte that is required in the human body for various physiological processes. It is primarily obtained through dietary sources. The recommended daily intake of potassium for adults is 4700 milligrams (mg).

Potassium plays a crucial role in maintaining normal blood pressure, heart function, and muscle and nerve activity. It also helps to balance the body's fluids and prevent kidney stones. Foods that are rich in dietary potassium include fruits such as bananas, oranges, and melons; vegetables such as leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes; legumes such as beans and lentils; dairy products such as milk and yogurt; and nuts and seeds.

It is important to maintain a balanced intake of dietary potassium, as both deficiency and excess can have negative health consequences. A deficiency in potassium can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, and heart arrhythmias, while an excess can cause hyperkalemia, which can result in serious cardiac complications.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are the average daily levels of nutrients that are sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a specific life stage and gender group. They are considered as the gold standard for establishing nutrient intake recommendations and are used as a benchmark for planning and assessing the nutrient intakes of individuals and populations. The RDAs are established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in the United States. They represent the minimum daily amounts of various nutrients that are necessary to prevent deficiencies and maintain good health.

Citrates are the salts or esters of citric acid, a weak organic acid that is naturally found in many fruits and vegetables. In a medical context, citrates are often used as a buffering agent in intravenous fluids to help maintain the pH balance of blood and other bodily fluids. They are also used in various medical tests and treatments, such as in urine alkalinization and as an anticoagulant in kidney dialysis solutions. Additionally, citrate is a component of some dietary supplements and medications.

Nutritional requirements refer to the necessary amount of nutrients, including macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), that an individual requires to maintain good health, support normal growth and development, and promote optimal bodily functions. These requirements vary based on factors such as age, sex, body size, pregnancy status, and physical activity level. Meeting one's nutritional requirements typically involves consuming a balanced and varied diet, with additional consideration given to any specific dietary restrictions or medical conditions that may influence nutrient needs.

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks and in the shells of many marine animals. As a mineral, it is known as calcite or aragonite.

In the medical field, calcium carbonate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is also commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion.

Calcium carbonate works by reacting with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form water, carbon dioxide, and calcium chloride. This reaction helps to raise the pH level in the stomach and neutralize excess acid.

It is important to note that excessive use of calcium carbonate can lead to hypercalcemia, a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, confusion, and muscle weakness. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Radioisotopes, also known as radioactive isotopes or radionuclides, are variants of chemical elements that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or conversion electrons. These isotopes are formed when an element's nucleus undergoes natural or artificial radioactive decay.

Radioisotopes can be produced through various processes, including nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and particle bombardment in a cyclotron or other types of particle accelerators. They have a wide range of applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, research, and energy production. In the medical field, radioisotopes are used for diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and in the labeling of molecules for research purposes.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires proper training, safety measures, and regulatory compliance due to their ionizing radiation properties, which can pose potential health risks if not handled correctly.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

Stearic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. It is a saturated fatty acid with the chemical formula C18H36O2. Stearic acid is commonly found in various foods such as animal fats and vegetable oils, including cocoa butter and palm oil.

In a medical context, stearic acid might be mentioned in relation to nutrition or cosmetics. For example, it may be listed as an ingredient in some skincare products or medications where it is used as an emollient or thickening agent. It's also worth noting that while stearic acid is a saturated fat, some studies suggest that it may have a more neutral effect on blood cholesterol levels compared to other saturated fats. However, this is still a topic of ongoing research and debate in the medical community.

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is a hard, silver-white, lustrous, and brittle metal that is found naturally only in chemically combined form, except for small amounts found in meteorites. Cobalt is used primarily in the production of magnetic, wear-resistant, and high-strength alloys, as well as in the manufacture of batteries, magnets, and pigments.

In a medical context, cobalt is sometimes used in the form of cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope, for cancer treatment through radiation therapy. Cobalt-60 emits gamma rays that can be directed at tumors to destroy cancer cells. Additionally, small amounts of cobalt are present in some vitamin B12 supplements and fortified foods, as cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12. However, exposure to high levels of cobalt can be harmful and may cause health effects such as allergic reactions, lung damage, heart problems, and neurological issues.

Gitelman Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the electrolyte and fluid balance in the body. It is characterized by low levels of potassium, magnesium, and chloride in the blood due to defects in the function of the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney. This results in increased urinary excretion of these ions.

The condition is caused by mutations in the SLC12A3 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC). The NCC protein is responsible for reabsorbing sodium and chloride ions from the urine back into the bloodstream. In Gitelman Syndrome, the mutations in the SLC12A3 gene lead to reduced function of the NCC protein, resulting in increased excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium, and magnesium in the urine.

Symptoms of Gitelman Syndrome may include muscle weakness, cramps, spasms, fatigue, salt cravings, thirst, and decreased appetite. The condition is usually diagnosed in childhood or adolescence but can also present in adulthood. Treatment typically involves supplementation with potassium and magnesium to correct the electrolyte imbalances. In some cases, a medication called indapamide may be used to increase sodium reabsorption in the kidney and reduce potassium excretion.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Laxatives are substances or medications that are used to promote bowel movements or loosen the stools, thereby helping in the treatment of constipation. They work by increasing the amount of water in the stool or stimulating the muscles in the intestines to contract and push the stool through. Laxatives can be categorized into several types based on their mechanism of action, including bulk-forming laxatives, lubricant laxatives, osmotic laxatives, saline laxatives, stimulant laxatives, and stool softeners. It is important to use laxatives only as directed by a healthcare professional, as overuse or misuse can lead to serious health complications.

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Phenolphthalein is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in medical contexts. It's primarily known for its use as an acid-base indicator in chemistry and medical laboratory tests. Here's the general definition:

Phenolphthalein is a crystalline compound, commonly available as a colorless powder or clear liquid. It is used as a pH indicator, turning pink to purple in basic solutions (pH above 8.2) and colorless in acidic solutions (pH below 8.2). This property makes it useful in various applications, such as titrations and monitoring the pH of chemical reactions or solutions.

In a medical context, phenolphthalein has historically been used as an active ingredient in certain over-the-counter laxatives. However, due to concerns about potential carcinogenicity and other side effects, its use in pharmaceuticals has been largely discontinued or restricted in many countries, including the United States.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

Strontium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Sr and atomic number 38. It is a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. In the medical field, strontium ranelate is a medication used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It works by increasing the formation of new bone and decreasing bone resorption (breakdown).

It is important to note that strontium ranelate has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, such as heart attack and stroke, so it is not recommended for people with a history of these conditions. Additionally, the use of strontium supplements in high doses can be toxic and should be avoided.

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is highly soluble in water. Calcium chloride is commonly used as a de-icing agent, a desiccant (drying agent), and a food additive to enhance texture and flavor.

In medical terms, calcium chloride can be used as a medication to treat hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood) or hyperkalemia (high levels of potassium in the blood). It is administered intravenously and works by increasing the concentration of calcium ions in the blood, which helps to regulate various physiological processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

However, it is important to note that calcium chloride can have adverse effects if not used properly or in excessive amounts. It can cause tissue irritation, cardiac arrhythmias, and other serious complications. Therefore, its use should be monitored carefully by healthcare professionals.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

Medical definitions of "lubricants" refer to substances that are used to reduce friction between two surfaces in medical procedures or devices. They can be used during various medical examinations, surgeries, or when inserting medical equipment, such as catheters, to make the process smoother and more comfortable for the patient.

Lubricants used in medical settings may include water-based gels, oil-based jellies, or silicone-based lubricants. It's important to choose a lubricant that is safe and suitable for the specific medical procedure or device being used. For example, some lubricants may not be compatible with certain medical materials or may need to be sterile.

It's worth noting that while lubricants are commonly used in medical settings, they should not be used as a substitute for proper medical care or treatment. If you have any concerns about your health or medical condition, it's important to consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

Inborn errors of metal metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the way the body processes and handles certain metallic elements. These disorders can result in an accumulation or deficiency of specific metals, leading to various clinical manifestations. Examples of such conditions include:

1. Wilson's disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the ATP7B gene, which results in abnormal copper metabolism and accumulation in various organs, particularly the liver and brain.
2. Menkes disease: An X-linked recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the ATP7A gene, leading to impaired copper transport and deficiency, affecting the brain, bones, and connective tissue.
3. Hemochromatosis: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by excessive iron absorption and deposition in various organs, causing damage to the liver, heart, and pancreas.
4. Acrodermatitis enteropathica: A rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the SLC39A4 gene, resulting in zinc deficiency and affecting the skin, gastrointestinal system, and immune function.
5. Disturbances in manganese metabolism: Rare genetic disorders that can lead to either manganese accumulation or deficiency, causing neurological symptoms.

These conditions often require specialized medical management, including dietary modifications, chelation therapy, and/or supplementation to maintain appropriate metal homeostasis and prevent organ damage.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

... including magnesium carbonate, magnesium chloride, magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), magnesium oxide, ... Magnesium borate, magnesium salicylate, and magnesium sulfate are used as antiseptics. Magnesium bromide is used as a mild ... Unabsorbed dietary magnesium is excreted in feces; absorbed magnesium is excreted in urine and sweat. Magnesium status may be ... Magnesium in organic chemistry also appears as low valent magnesium compounds, primarily with the magnesium forming diatomic ...
Hydrogen induces release of anthracene, yielding magnesium hydride (MgH2). Borislav Bogdanovic (1988). "Magnesium Anthracene ... Magnesium anthracene is an organomagnesium compound that is almost invariably isolated as its adduct with three tetrahydrofuran ... and water-sensitive orange solid is obtained by heating a suspension of magnesium in a thf solution of anthracene. According to ...
... forming magnesium nitride), carbon dioxide (forming magnesium oxide and carbon), and water (forming magnesium oxide and ... A magnesium torch is a bright light source made from magnesium, which can burn underwater and in all weather conditions. They ... A magnesium torch does not necessarily give warning of an atmosphere that cannot support life or consciousness, as it continues ... Magnesium is highly flammable, burning at a temperature of approximately 3,100 °C (3,370 K; 5,610 °F), and the autoignition ...
... some magnesium nitride is formed in addition to the principal product, magnesium oxide. Thermal decomposition of magnesium ... Magnesium nitride, which possesses the chemical formula Mg3N2, is an inorganic compound of magnesium and nitrogen. At room ... Magnesium nitride reacts with water to produce magnesium hydroxide and ammonia gas, as do many metal nitrides. Mg3N2(s) + 6 H2O ... forming magnesium nitride. Magnesium nitride was the catalyst in the first practical synthesis of borazon (cubic boron nitride ...
... for example.Other names for this class are magnesium chloride hydroxide, magnesium oxychloride, and basic magnesium chloride. ... With enough magnesium chloride, the dissolution of the oxide is relatively fast, and a clear solution of magnesium aquohydroxo ... Phases 3 and 5 can be prepared by mixing powdered magnesium oxide MgO with a solution of magnesium chloride MgCl 2 in water H ... Magnesium hydroxychloride is the traditional term for several chemical compounds of magnesium, chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen ...
Commercially, magnesium peroxide often exists as a compound of magnesium peroxide and magnesium hydroxide. O2, similarly to N2 ... Magnesium peroxide (MgO2) is an odorless fine powder peroxide with a white to off-white color. It is similar to calcium ... Magnesium exists in the upper atmosphere in a variety of different molecular forms. Due to its ability to react with common ... Magnesium peroxide is used in the bioremediation of contaminated soil and can improve the soil quality for plant growth and ...
... is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(MnO4)2. It can be used as an oxidant. Magnesium ... Magnesium permanganate hexahydrate is a blue-black solid. It decomposes at 130 °C with the evolution of oxygen in an ... Magnesium permanganate is used in various branches of industry and technology, such as: a wood impregnation agent. an additive ... BaSO4 It can be obtained by the reaction of magnesium chloride and silver permanganate: MgCl2 + 2AgMnO4 → Mg(MnO4)2 + 2AgCl The ...
... is made by the fusion of stoichiometric amounts of magnesium and silicon oxides at 1,900 °C (3,450 °F ... Magnesium orthosilicate is a chemical compound with the formula Mg2SiO4. It is the orthosilicate salt of magnesium. It exists ... Magnesium orthosilicate at Chemister "Magnesium orthosilicate at ChemSpider". Retrieved 15 August 2014. v t e (Chemical pages ... Magnesium compounds, Silicates, All stub articles, Silicate mineral stubs). ...
... can be viewed as consisting of Si4− ions. As such it is reactive toward acids. Thus, when magnesium silicide ... Magnesium silicide, Mg2Si, is an inorganic compound consisting of magnesium and silicon. As-grown Mg2Si usually forms black ... Magnesium silicide is a narrow-gap semiconductor. Its as-grown crystal exhibit n-type conductivity, but it can changed to p- ... Magnesium silicide is used to create aluminium alloys of the 6000 series, containing up to approximately 1.5% Mg2Si. An alloy ...
... including magnesium carbonate, magnesium chloride, magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), magnesium oxide, ... can be obtained by reacting the corresponding magnesium halide with magnesium hydride. Magnesium hypochlorite and magnesium ... Magnesium sulfide can be produced by the reaction of magnesium and hydrogen sulfide, or by the reaction of magnesium sulfate ... Magnesium polysulfides have been studied in magnesium-sulfur batteries. Magnesium selenide is more reactive than zinc selenide ...
... (MgU2O7) is a compound of uranium. It is known in the uranium refining industry as "MDU" and forms the ... strip solution from SX goes to the next stage where magnesia slurry is added to precipitate magnesium diuranate. The yellow ... "Impurity characterization of magnesium diuranate using simultaneous TG-DTA-FTIR measurements". Journal of Nuclear Materials. ... Quantification of measurement uncertainty in determination of uranium in magnesium diuranate by titrimetry. India: Bhabha ...
... Ltd (MEL or the Mag) is a British materials manufacturer which produces magnesium and zirconium metals and ... The company was founded in 1934, as the British Magnesium (Elektronmetal) Ltd. In 1935 it became Magnesium Elektron Ltd, formed ... In 1961, Magnesium Elektron became a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Aluminium Company. In 1996, the company was sold to ... Ball, C J P (February 1957). "The History of Magnesium". Journal of the American Society for Naval Engineers. 69 (1): 81-94. ...
... magnesium-protoporphyrin IX chelatase, magnesium-protoporphyrin chelatase, magnesium-chelatase, Mg-chelatase, and Mg- ... Magnesium-chelatase is a three-component enzyme (EC that catalyses the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX. This ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is Mg-protoporphyrin IX magnesium-lyase. Other names in common use include ... "Interplay between an AAA module and an integrin I domain may regulate the function of magnesium chelatase". J. Mol. Biol. 311 ( ...
... is a compound with formula MgC12H22O14. It is the magnesium salt of gluconic acid. According to one study, ... This study did not include magnesium glycinate, which is one of the most bioavailable forms of magnesium.[citation needed] It ... magnesium gluconate showed the highest level of bioavailability of any magnesium salt which implies its viability as a ... Whether these effects are from the influence of gluconic acid on the metabolism of the heart or from the influence of magnesium ...
... is the magnesium salt of sulfurous acid with the formula MgSO 3. Its most common hydrated form has 6 water ... Calcium sulfite Magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) Nývlt, J., "Solubilities of Magnesium Sulfite," Journal of Thermal Analysis and ... When heated above 40 °C (104 °F), it is dehydrated to magnesium sulfite trihydrate, or MgSO 3·3H 2O. The anhydrous form is ...
Magnesium toxicity from magnesium salts is rare in healthy individuals with a normal diet, because excess magnesium is readily ... Because magnesium is a mobile nutrient, magnesium chloride can be effectively used as a substitute for magnesium sulfate (Epsom ... Magnesium chloride is also a Lewis acid catalyst in aldol reactions. Magnesium chloride is used for low-temperature de-icing of ... Hydrated magnesium chloride is the form most readily available. Magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water. In ...
Samples of magnesium chlorate were first claimed in 1920 as the result of treating magnesium oxide with chlorine. A more modern ... Magnesium(II) chlorate is used as a powerful desiccant and a defoliant for cotton, potato, and rice. It is also found as a ... "Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Magnesium Chlorate Dihydrate and Magnesium Chlorate Hexahydrate". Bulgarian Chemical ... Magnesium chlorate refers to inorganic compounds with the chemical formula Mg(ClO3)2(H2O)x. The anhydrous (x = 0), dihydrate (x ...
... is discussed as being a more bioavailable form of magnesium, along with other forms such as citrate and ... Magnesium malate, the magnesium salt of malic acid, is a mineral supplement often used for nutritional concerns. It is ... "Magnesium Malate". Isotrope, Inc. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2017. v t e (Articles needing additional references from ... Magnesium compounds, Malates, Dietary supplements, All stub articles, Gastrointestinal system drug stubs). ...
... is formed, which then floats on the molten iron and is removed. MgS is a wide band-gap direct semiconductor ... Magnesium sulfide is an inorganic compound with the formula MgS. It is a white crystalline material but often is encountered in ... MgS is formed by the reaction of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide with magnesium. It crystallizes in the rock salt structure as its ... Sulfur is removed from the impure blast furnace iron by the addition of several hundred kilograms of magnesium powder by a ...
... hexahydrate has properties as a flame retardant. It was found that if 0.125 mol/L of magnesium bromide ... Magnesium bromide is a chemical compound of magnesium and bromine, with the chemical formula MgBr2. It is white and ... Magnesium bromide can be synthesized by treating with magnesium oxide (and related basic salts) with hydrobromic acid. It can ... Magnesium bromide also has been used as a tranquilizer. Magnesium bromide modifies the catalytic properties of palladium on ...
... is produced by the reaction of magnesium hydroxide and perchloric acid. "Magnesium Perchlorate, Anhydrous ... Magnesium perchlorate and other perchlorates have been found on Mars. Being a drying agent, magnesium perchlorate retains water ... He sold the magnesium perchlorate to A. H. Thomas Co., now Thomas Scientific, under the trade name Dehydrite. It is used as ... Magnesium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizing agent, with the formula Mg(ClO4)2. The salt is also a superior drying agent for ...
Unabsorbed magnesium is excreted in feces; absorbed magnesium is rapidly excreted in urine. As an antacid, magnesium hydroxide ... Magnesium hydroxide is also a component of antiperspirant. Magnesium hydroxide is useful against canker sores (aphthous ulcer) ... Only a small amount of the magnesium from magnesium hydroxide is usually absorbed by the intestine (unless one is deficient in ... Most industrially used magnesium hydroxide is produced synthetically. Like aluminum hydroxide, solid magnesium hydroxide has ...
... is used in the food industry as a binder, emulsifier, and anticaking agent. "CAS 4040-48-6 Magnesium laurate ... "magnesium laurate, 4040-48-6". thegoodscentscompany.com. Retrieved 2 February 2023. "NCATS Inxight Drugs - MAGNESIUM LAURATE". ... Magnesium laurate is a metal-organic compound with the chemical formula C 24H 46MgO 4. The compound is classified as a metallic ... Magnesium compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
... can be made by passing a dilute mixture of ozone in liquid nitrogen and over magnesium at -259 °C. O 3 + Mg ... Magnesium ozonide is a compound with the formula MgO3. Much like other ozonides, it is only stable at low temperatures. Unlike ... Andrews, Lester; Prochaska, Eleanor S.; Ault, Bruce S. (1978-07-15). "Matrix reactions of magnesium atoms with ozone. Infrared ... MgO 3 {\displaystyle {\ce {O3 + Mg -> MgO3}}} Magnesium is also known to form bisozonide complexes, containing Mg(O3)2 ...
Synonyms for magnesium taurate are: magnesium taurinate, magnesium 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid and magnesium ditaurate. • Due ... Magnesium taurate, also known as magnesium ditaurate, is the magnesium salt of taurine, and a mineral supplement. It contains ... Accordingly, 100 mg of magnesium is contained in 1121 mg of magnesium taurate. Magnesium taurate has been studied in rats for ... Magnesium (pharmaceutical preparation) Magnesium deficiency (medicine) Magnesium in biology "Scientific Opinion of the Panel on ...
... in this case magnesium oxalate, with a gelating agent, nano sized particles of magnesium oxide can be produced. Magnesium ... Magnesium oxalate is an organic compound comprising a magnesium cation with a 2+ charge bonded to an oxalate anion. It has the ... Magnesium oxalate can by synthesized by combining a magnesium salt or ion with an oxalate. Mg2+ + C2O42− → MgC2O4 A specific ... Magnesium oxalate has no known chronic effects nor any carcinogenic effects. Magnesium oxalate is non-flammable and stable, but ...
... s are important constituents of 5XXX aluminium alloys (aluminium-magnesium) and magnesium-aluminium alloys, ... Magnesium aluminide is an intermetallic compound of magnesium and aluminium. Common phases (molecular structures) include the ... Due to the advantage of low density and being strong, magnesium aluminide is important for aircraft engines. MgAl has also been ... Magnesium compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
... , the magnesium salt of lactic acid, is a mineral supplement to prevent and treat low amounts of magnesium in ... "Magnesium Lactate Tablet, Extended Release - Uses, Side Effects, and More". WebMD. "E329 - Magnesium lactate". openfoodfacts. ... Magnesium compounds, Lactates, All stub articles, Gastrointestinal system drug stubs). ...
... are wheels manufactured from alloys which contain mostly magnesium. Magnesium wheels are produced either by ... Forged magnesium started to displace sand and gravity die-cast magnesium wheels in the mid-1990s. Up to the end of the 90s ... The popularity of magnesium wheels peaked in 1950 -1960. Magnesium wheels from the middle of 20th century are now considered ... Magnesium is the lightest metallic structural material available. It is 1.5 times less dense than aluminium, so magnesium ...
... s are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane. All forms of life require magnesium, yet ... "The magnesium transporter A is activated by cardiolipin and is highly sensitive to free magnesium in vitro". eLife. 5. doi: ... The ATPase function of MgtA is highly cardiolipin dependent and has been shown to detect free magnesium in the μM range In ... The first magnesium transporter isolated in any multicellular organism, AtMHX shows no similarity to any previously isolated ...
... including magnesium carbonate, magnesium chloride, magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), magnesium oxide, ... Magnesium borate, magnesium salicylate, and magnesium sulfate are used as antiseptics. Magnesium bromide is used as a mild ... Unabsorbed dietary magnesium is excreted in feces; absorbed magnesium is excreted in urine and sweat. Magnesium status may be ... Magnesium in organic chemistry also appears as low valent magnesium compounds, primarily with the magnesium forming diatomic ...
Hydrogen induces release of anthracene, yielding magnesium hydride (MgH2). Borislav Bogdanovic (1988). "Magnesium Anthracene ... Magnesium anthracene is an organomagnesium compound that is almost invariably isolated as its adduct with three tetrahydrofuran ... and water-sensitive orange solid is obtained by heating a suspension of magnesium in a thf solution of anthracene. According to ...
Magnesium deficiency is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical name of ... Magnesium deficiency is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical name of ... When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, symptoms may develop due to low magnesium. ... When your bodys magnesium level drops too much, it can be a life-threatening emergency. Call your provider right away if you ...
... Medicine (Baltimore). 1969 Jan;48(1):61-85. doi: 10.1097/00005792-196901000-00003. ...
Do not take magnesium citrate for more than 1 week, unless your doctor tells you to do so. Magnesium citrate usually causes a ... Before taking magnesium citrate, *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to magnesium citrate, any other ... Magnesium citrate is used to treat occasional constipation on a short-term basis. Magnesium citrate is in a class of ... Magnesium Citrate pronounced as (mag nee zee um si trate). Brand Name(s): Citroma®. , EZ2G0 Stimulax®. , Gadavyt®. , PenPrep® ...
We discover whether this idea is just hype or if magnesium can help you get the vital rest and recovery you need ... Does magnesium help you sleep? We discover whether this idea is just hype or if magnesium can help you get the vital rest and ... How effective is magnesium for sleep?. Magnesium is a mineral believed to be used for more than 300 functions of the body and ... He also notes that most people dont have to turn to magnesium "unless you really have a diagnosed deficiency because magnesium ...
WebMD shows you how potassium and magnesium supplements are used to treat heart failure. ... How Do I Take Potassium and Magnesium Supplements?. Take potassium and magnesium supplements right after meals or with food. ... Should I Avoid Certain Foods or Drugs While Taking Potassium and Magnesium?. If you are taking magnesium or potassium ... What Are the Side Effects of Potassium and Magnesium Supplements?. Possible side effects of potassium and magnesium supplements ...
This SAE Standard covers the most common magnesium alloys used in wrought forms, and lists chemical composition and minimum ... Magnesium Wrought Alloys(STABILIZED Jan 2018) J466_201801 This SAE Standard covers the most common magnesium alloys used in ...
Magnesium chloride is a water-soluble mineral salt that is thought to ease tired muscles and promote relaxation when applied to ... Lush UK purchases magnesium chloride from a manufacturer in the Czech Republic. It is made in a lab from natural magnesium. It ... think that magnesium oil is an interesting ingredient to use in cosmetics. People have been bathing in magnesium-rich water for ... Magnesium chloride is a water-soluble mineral salt that is thought to ease tired muscles and promote relaxation when applied to ...
The diets of the majority of Americans provide less than the recommended amounts of magnesium, with older people more at risk ... Symptoms of magnesium deficiency include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and weakness. Extreme magnesium deficiency ... There are not many obvious symptoms of low magnesium. For healthy people, the kidneys help retain magnesium by limiting the ... Older adults have an increased risk for magnesium deficiency because they tend to consume fewer magnesium-rich foods than ...
... the introduction of magnesium either by a high magnesium diet, with green drinks, or magnesium supplements, can help alleviate ... Magnesium deficiency triggers or causes the following 22 conditions; ... Magnesium deficiency triggers or causes the following 22 conditions; the introduction of magnesium either by a high magnesium ... "Role of magnesium in patho-physiological processes and the clinical utility of magnesium ion selective electrodes." Scand J ...
Research has yet to determine whether taking magnesium will reduce tinnitus symptoms, but some people report that it does: ... Can magnesium worsen tinnitus?. Since research is limited on the effects of magnesium on tinnitus symptoms, its hard to say ... Magnesium and prescription interactions. However, consuming too much magnesium from supplements can lead to side effects if ... Even if you do eat too many magnesium-rich foods in a single sitting, the kidneys are capable of removing excess magnesium ...
This article describes the use of magnesium-based cements for construction. ... Magnesium Based Cement. by Kelly Hart. There is a whole class of cement that was very popular in the days before the invention ... Magnesium cement has great potential for creating thin-shelled roofs over other kinds of materials. An example of this can be ... Generally classified as magnesium-based cement, this material was used in historic times, dating back to ancient times in ...
Magnesium citrate is used as a laxative to treat occasional constipation. Magnesium citrate may also be used for purposes not ... Magnesium citrate also increases water in the intestines. ... Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral that is important ... What is magnesium citrate? What is magnesium citrate?. Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral that is important for many ... How should I take magnesium citrate? How should I take magnesium citrate?. Use exactly as directed on the label, or as ...
People who consume more than 550 milligrams of magnesium each day may have younger brain ages by the time they reach age 55, a ... Ten foods high in magnesium. Magnesium is found in many different foods. Although magnesium deficiency is rare, many people in ... How magnesium lowers dementia risk "Its known that magnesium is a neuroprotector as well as it having positive effects on ... Researchers investigated how magnesium intake influences dementia risk factors. *They found that a higher magnesium intake is ...
A new meta-analysis in the journal Hypertension finds that taking magnesium can prevent high blood pressure. ... In other words, magnesium helps to prevent high blood pressure.. Indeed, the mechanisms for how magnesium lowers blood pressure ... And although the participants in the studies took magnesium supplements, it is possible to get enough magnesium from foods ... our evidence suggests that the anti-hypertensive effect of magnesium might be only effective among people with magnesium ...
Our high-performance CNC machining centers are suitable for the safe production of accurate magnesium components. ... Challenge of magnesium chips. Only a few suppliers offer magnesium machining because it is associated with a high risk ... Milling of magnesium Extremely lightweight and stable components Weight is of increasing significance in many assemblies and ... CNC machining with magnesium fire safety kit. - HSC machining for individual parts with a spindle rotation speed of up to ...
This WebElements periodic table page contains historical information for the element magnesium ... Eventually they were recognised to be magnesium sulphate, MgSO4. Black recognized magnesium as an element in 1755. It was ... Magnesium - 12Mg Your user agent does not support the HTML5 Audio element. 🔊 ... The symbol used by Dalton for magnesium is shown below. [See History of Chemistry, Sir Edward Thorpe, volume 1, Watts & Co, ...
MAGNESIUM SULFATE HEPTAHYDRATE (UNII: SK47B8698T) (MAGNESIUM CATION - UNII:T6V3LHY838) MAGNESIUM SULFATE HEPTAHYDRATE. 1 g in 1 ... Magnesium (Mg) ..........................9.8%. 9.8% Soluble Magnesium. Sulfur (S) .............................12.9%. 12.9% ... EPSOM SALT- magnesium sulfate granule. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ... EPSOM SALT- magnesium sulfate granule. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, ...
Magnesium (elemental) (from 928 mg complex of Magnesium Oxide, Magnesium Citrate, Magnesium Ascorbate). 500 mg. 119%. ... NOW® Calcium & Magnesium combines two essential minerals that work together to maintain several critical physiological ... Calcium and magnesium also support the formation and maintenance of a healthy skeleton. ...
... those that are magnesium based and those of the thermite/thermate type. Incendiary metals are usually encountered in the ... military or industrial setting but can also be encountered in other applications due to common usage of magnesium shavings as a ... Magnesium, a silvery white metal of atomic weight 24.32, ignites at 632°C and burns at 1982°C, with magnesium oxide (MgO) as ... The magnesium particles can react with tissue fluid to create magnesium hydroxide, which is a strong base. This strong base can ...
Quick Absorption Magnesium. Also, browse our large selection of articles and products available at VitaNet®, LLC ... Quick Absorption Magnesium. Source Naturals - Mag Active Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in the body, but an ... Magnesium assists in 300 enzyme functions, supporting the conversion of sugars and fats into energy, and the synthesis of DNA ... Magnesium (naturally occurring) 246 mg. Sulfate (naturally occurring) 36 mg. Also contains trace amounts of the following: ...
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... landmark study has shown that pregnant women with preeclampsia treated with magnesium sulphate can halve the risk of eclampsia ... Magnesium may halve the risk of eclampsia. What Doctors Dont Tell You1 min read ... When it became clear that magnesium overwhelmingly reduced the risk of eclampsia by 58 per cent and maternal death by 45 per ... Adverse effects, though tolerable, were reported in 24 per cent of women given magnesium vs 5 per cent of those given placebo, ...
Magnesium benefits for the heart. Magnesium is a crucial mineral in your body since it facilitates the following functions:. 1. ... What lowers your level of magnesium?. Magnesium doesnt have it too easy nowadays because when you eat a diet high in processed ... The following foods leash out magnesium from your body:. 1.Foods high in salt favor the elimination of magnesium.. 2.Too much ... As important as it is to include foods high in magnesium in your diet, so it is to make sure you avoid foods that can deprive ...
Esomeprazole Magnesium) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... Aciphex Alka-Seltzer Axid Cantil Dartisla ODT Dexilant Esomeprazole Magnesium Kapidex Konvomep Omeclamox-Pak Pepcid Pepcid ... Nexium (esomeprazole magnesium) is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that blocks acid production in the stomach and is used to ... Consider monitoring magnesium and calcium levels prior to initiation of NEXIUM I.V. and periodically while on treatment in ...
Find out about interactions between magnesium supplements and over-the-counter antacids and laxatives such as Maalox, ... What is the benefit of magnesium orotate compared to other forms of magnesium?. Find out if magnesium orotate is the best form ... Find out if the Magnesium Bisglycinate from BioSchwartz is better than other forms of magnesium and how much magnesium this ... as magnesium citrate -- but how much of that is magnesium and how much is citrate?. Understand the actual amount of magnesium ...
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE (UNII: NBZ3QY004S) (MAGNESIUM CATION - UNII:T6V3LHY838, HYDROXIDE ION - UNII:9159UV381P) MAGNESIUM ... MILK OF MAGNESIA- magnesium hydroxide liquid. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS ... MILK OF MAGNESIA- magnesium hydroxide liquid. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance ... each teaspoon (5 mL) contains: magnesium 166 mg. •. each teaspoon (5 mL) contains: sodium 1 mg. ...
The product you receive may contain additional details or differ from what is shown on this page, or the product may have additional information revealed by partially peeling back the label. We recommend you reference the complete information included with your product before consumption and do not rely solely on the details shown on this page. For more information, please see our full disclaimer ...
Turn your beverage into a relaxing experience with our doctor-formulated Relax + Calm† Magnesium Powder.† ... Turn your beverage into a relaxing experience with our doctor-formulated Relax + Calm† Magnesium Powder.† ... Relax + Calm† Magnesium Powder - Raspberry Lemonade Flavor. .yotpo .text-m {padding-left:5px;}. A highly absorbable magnesium ... MegaFood Relax + Calm† Magnesium Powder is Proudly Certified. Non-GMO Project Verified ...
  • Magnesium deficiency is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This study underscores the importance of consuming a healthy diet that provides the recommended amount of magnesium as a strategy for helping to control blood pressure," Kris-Etherton said. (livescience.com)
  • Recent studies have also confirmed that adequate amount of magnesium decreases by 30% deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Among the many studies showing the value of magnesium, a recent one, published in the journal Nutrients , found that getting the daily recommended amount of magnesium reduced the odds of insulin resistance-a precursor to diabetes and heart disease-by a whopping 71 percent. (betternutrition.com)
  • Legumes such as black-eyed peas, black beans, and chickpeas are not only excellent sources of plant-based protein but also provide a good amount of magnesium. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • When it comes to the right amount of magnesium, it's important to hit the bull's-eye. (life-enhancement.com)
  • The right amount of magnesium in your dog's body guarantees that he would lead a happy healthy life with a lot of excitement. (jigsawhealth.com)
  • This, therefore, poses quite a problem since it is essential that he gets the amount of magnesium he needs. (jigsawhealth.com)
  • And deficiency isn't to be taken lightly, as magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body, reports MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine's website for consumer health information. (aarp.org)
  • As we age, we are likely to develop chronic medical conditions, such as kidney disease and vitamin D deficiency, that cause magnesium deficiency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because magnesium deficiency may lead to decreased cellular messaging and enhanced inflammation within the brain, some studies have suggested that magnesium may be involved in the development of dementia and other neurologic conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Consistent with previous studies, our evidence suggests that the anti-hypertensive effect of magnesium might be only effective among people with magnesium deficiency or insufficiency," Song said. (livescience.com)
  • Magnesium doesn't have it too easy nowadays because when you eat a diet high in processed foods and low in fruits and vegetables you create a magnesium deficiency. (selfgrowth.com)
  • This is summarized in research, which finds that a magnesium deficiency or low magnesium diet leads to health problems. (harvard.edu)
  • For disease prevention, a good rule of thumb is to eat a daily diet that includes some magnesium-rich foods and take a supplement if directed by a physician to correct a deficiency if blood levels are low. (harvard.edu)
  • Older adults often fail to get enough dietary magnesium, placing them at risk for a magnesium deficiency as well. (livestrong.com)
  • Nutritional - Prolonged total parenteral nutrition without magnesium, acute and chronic alcoholism, alcoholic cirrhosis, and starvation with metabolic acidosis, kwashiorkor, protein calorie malnutrition (Dietary magnesium deficiency is less likely except in the setting of alcohol abuse. (medscape.com)
  • Magnesium (Mg) deficiency correlates with a higher mortality and worse clinical outcome, particularly in critical care patients. (medscape.com)
  • So, it may be tempting to search out the best magnesium supplements. (livescience.com)
  • They have recommendations specifically for dietary supplements, and magnesium is a dietary supplement. (livescience.com)
  • How Do I Take Potassium and Magnesium Supplements? (webmd.com)
  • Take potassium and magnesium supplements right after meals or with food. (webmd.com)
  • What Are the Side Effects of Potassium and Magnesium Supplements? (webmd.com)
  • the introduction of magnesium either by a high magnesium diet, with green drinks, or magnesium supplements, can help alleviate these conditions. (healthy.net)
  • Many people rely on medications or supplements like magnesium to control symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Do magnesium supplements work for tinnitus? (healthline.com)
  • While there are several confirmed treatments to manage tinnitus symptoms, the evidence for magnesium supplements is still early. (healthline.com)
  • A 2017 study wanted to determine if receiving magnesium supplements could restore auditory function after exposure to loud noises - a common cause of tinnitus. (healthline.com)
  • Formally, the medical community doesn't endorse magnesium supplements to manage tinnitus symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Even the American Tinnitus Association (ATA) doesn't recommend taking dietary supplements - including magnesium - as a cure-all solution for tinnitus symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • People in studies who took magnesium supplements had lower blood pressure after three months compared with people who did not take magnesium supplements, according to the analysis, published today (July 11) in the journal Hypertension. (livescience.com)
  • With its relative safety and low cost, magnesium supplements could be considered as an option for lowering blood pressure in high-risk persons or hypertension patients," lead author Dr. Yiqing Song, an associate professor of epidemiology at Indiana University, said in a statement. (livescience.com)
  • The researchers found that taking 368 mg of magnesium supplements daily for three months reduced people's systolic blood pressure by an average of 2 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), and reduced their diastolic blood pressure by an average of 1.8 mm Hg. (livescience.com)
  • After further analyzing the data, the researchers concluded that taking 300 mg of magnesium supplements daily for one month could result in lower blood pressure and higher levels of magnesium in the blood. (livescience.com)
  • And although the participants in the studies took magnesium supplements, it is possible to get enough magnesium from foods alone, Penny Kris-Etherton, an American Heart Association spokeswoman and a professor of nutrition at the University of Pennsylvania, said in a statement. (livescience.com)
  • But people who take too much magnesium from supplements can have diarrhea, nausea and abdominal cramping. (livescience.com)
  • Are there drug interactions with magnesium supplements? (consumerlab.com)
  • Be aware that these interactions apply not only to magnesium in supplements but also in over-the-counter antacids and laxatives. (consumerlab.com)
  • For details, see the Cautions and Concerns section of the Magnesium Supplements Review . (consumerlab.com)
  • It is important to note that consuming excessive amounts of magnesium can lead to negative side effects, so it is best to consult with a doctor before taking magnesium supplements. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • The UL for magnesium is 350 milligrams from supplements only. (harvard.edu)
  • 3] Clinical trials have shown mixed results with the use of magnesium supplements to increase bone mineral density. (harvard.edu)
  • 4] Randomized double-blind controlled trials have found that magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide supplements (about 500 mg/day) taken for up to 3 months were protective against migraines. (harvard.edu)
  • They recommend discussing the use of high-dosage magnesium supplements with a physician. (harvard.edu)
  • 7] The control groups in these trials, either given a placebo or an antidepressant medication, showed similar effects as the treatment group receiving magnesium supplements. (harvard.edu)
  • Magnesium supplements come in a variety of forms, and magnesium citrate, magnesium aspartate and magnesium chloride are all well absorbed. (livestrong.com)
  • Now the next step is how to give your dog magnesium supplements. (jigsawhealth.com)
  • One of the more common forms of orally consumed magnesium supplements is magnesium glycinate. (jigsawhealth.com)
  • According to SPINS, US sales of magnesium supplements in natural (excluding Whole Foods) and conventional outlet (including Walmart) grew by almost 20% from 2011 to 2012, to be worth $67,875,702. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Flame temperatures of magnesium and magnesium alloys can reach 3,100 °C (5,610 °F), although flame height above the burning metal is usually less than 300 mm (12 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • This SAE Standard covers the most common magnesium alloys used in wrought forms, and lists chemical composition and minimum mechanical properties for the various forms. (sae.org)
  • [ 2 , 3 ] Various alloys of magnesium (eg, aluminum/zinc/magnesium alloy found in US M126 round) are mechanically sturdier but also can be ignited easily. (medscape.com)
  • Commercially, magnesium is primarily used in the creation of strong and lightweight aluminum -magnesium alloys, which have numerous advantages in industrial applications. (americanelements.com)
  • Magnesium alloys-based products are used in various applications due to their versatile properties. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Products made from magnesium alloys are also aesthetically pleasing. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • In the past few years, the use of magnesium alloys-based products has increased in body structure and computer as well as cellphone chassis applications in the automotive & transportation and electronics end-use industries. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The magnesium alloys market is projected to reach USD 2.37 Billion by 2023, at a CAGR of 12.7% between 2018 and 2023. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Key players offering magnesium alloys adopted new product launches and partnerships & agreements as the key strategies to strengthen their position in the market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Partnerships & agreements accounted for 37.5% of all the growth strategies adopted by major players in the magnesium alloys market between 2015 and 2017. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Key players also adopted the strategy of investments & expansions to strengthen their position in the magnesium alloys market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • New product launches accounted for 20.0% of all the developments in the magnesium alloys market between 2015 and 2017. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • With these strategies, leading players in the magnesium alloys market were able to expand their product reach globally and take advantage of competencies of other companies to compete in the market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Major magnesium alloys manufacturers profiled in this report include Magnesium Elektron (UK), Ka Shui International Holdings Ltd. (China), Magontec (Australia), US Magnesium LLC (US), Nanjing Yunhai Special Metals Co. Ltd., and Meridian Lightweight Technologies (US). (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Magnesium Elektron is a leading company in the global magnesium alloys market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • As a part of its growth strategy, Magnesium Elektron focuses on new product developments, partnerships, and joint ventures & agreements to cater to the increasing demand for magnesium alloys and gain a competitive edge in the market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Ka Shui International Holdings Ltd. is one of the world s largest manufacturers of magnesium alloys and magnesium alloy products. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The company offers magnesium alloy products through its magnesium alloys and die-casting business segment. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Coating treatment plays an irreplaceable role in propelling the clinical application of magnesium alloys. (hindawi.com)
  • As a biomaterial, magnesium (Mg) and magnesium alloys are promising for medical applications. (hindawi.com)
  • Magnesium and magnesium alloys provide with high specific strength and desirable biocompatibility as implantable materials. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, the density of magnesium and magnesium alloys is similar to that of the human bone [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The composition modification and alloy surface treatment can be used to slow down the corrosion progress of magnesium alloys. (hindawi.com)
  • At this stage of research, electrochemical corrosion analysis has demonstrated that the magnesium fluoride (MgF 2 ) layer can increase the polarization resistance of magnesium alloys [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Magnesium and its alloys have been the subject of interest and appear promising as biodegradable implant materials, though their fast corrosion rate in biologic environments has limited their clinical application. (medscape.com)
  • Are You Getting Enough Magnesium in Your Diet? (aarp.org)
  • 1-4 One of the main reasons that heart drug, digoxin, becomes toxic is because there is not enough magnesium in the body. (healthy.net)
  • Getting enough magnesium may help keep blood pressure under control, a new meta-analysis of previous research finds. (livescience.com)
  • Without enough magnesium, these areas malfunction. (harvard.edu)
  • So the only way to ensure your canine friend gets enough magnesium is through supplementation. (jigsawhealth.com)
  • 5] In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, 70 patients who were admitted to the emergency room with acute migraine headache were given either the usual IV treatment for migraine (dexamethasone/metoclopramide) or IV magnesium sulfate. (harvard.edu)
  • What dosage forms for magnesium sulfate are being sought for prequalification? (who.int)
  • Magnesium sulfate injection 500 mg/ml in 2ml and 10ml ampoules are currently invited for prevention and treatment of eclampsia. (who.int)
  • Since magnesium sulfate is an atypical API, the manufacturing process and controls are not typically designed to meet API GMPs. (who.int)
  • Are there any API specification requirements for magnesium sulfate? (who.int)
  • magnesium sulfate will decrease the level or effect of baloxavir marboxil by cation binding in GI tract. (medscape.com)
  • magnesium sulfate decreases levels of demeclocycline by inhibition of GI absorption. (medscape.com)
  • magnesium sulfate increases effects of atracurium by pharmacodynamic synergism. (medscape.com)
  • magnesium sulfate increases effects of cisatracurium by pharmacodynamic synergism. (medscape.com)
  • magnesium sulfate will decrease the level or effect of delafloxacin by cation binding in GI tract. (medscape.com)
  • Magnesium sulfate is not recommended as an antihypertensive agent, but magnesium sulfate remains the drug of choice for seizure prophylaxis in severe preeclampsia and for controlling seizures in eclampsia. (medscape.com)
  • It reacts readily with air to form a thin passivation coating of magnesium oxide that inhibits further corrosion of the metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • It tarnishes slightly when exposed to air, although, unlike the heavier alkaline earth metals, an oxygen-free environment is unnecessary for storage because magnesium is protected by a thin layer of oxide that is fairly impermeable and difficult to remove. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct reaction of magnesium with air or oxygen at ambient pressure forms only the "normal" oxide MgO. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this oxide may be combined with hydrogen peroxide to form magnesium peroxide, MgO2, and at low temperature the peroxide may be further reacted with ozone to form magnesium superoxide Mg(O2)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • combustion continues in nitrogen (forming magnesium nitride), in carbon dioxide (forming magnesium oxide and carbon), and in water (forming magnesium oxide and hydrogen, which also combusts due to heat in the presence of additional oxygen). (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium may also be used as an igniter for thermite, a mixture of aluminium and iron oxide powder that ignites only at a very high temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was isolated by Davy in 1808 who electrolysed a mixture of magnesia (magnesium oxide, MgO) and mercuric oxide (HgO). (webelements.com)
  • Grancrete is made from a mix of locally available chemicals: sand or sandy soil, ash, magnesium oxide and potassium phosphate, which is a biodegradable element in fertilizer. (greenhomebuilding.com)
  • The Bindan Company in Chicago makes a variety of products with magnesium oxide. (greenhomebuilding.com)
  • Magnesium oxide is a form of magnesium that is known for its role in supporting bone health. (healco.com)
  • Adequate intake of magnesium oxide can help reduce the risk of osteoporosis and improve overall bone strength. (healco.com)
  • Magnesium oxide supports muscle function and relaxation. (healco.com)
  • In addition, magnesium oxide also helps to promote relaxation and a sense of calm. (healco.com)
  • Magnesium, a silvery white metal of atomic weight 24.32, ignites at 632°C and burns at 1982°C, with magnesium oxide (MgO) as its combustion product. (medscape.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about magnesium oxide? (uofmhealth.org)
  • Before you take magnesium oxide, tell your doctor about all your medical conditions or allergies, and all the medicines you are using. (uofmhealth.org)
  • In some cases, you may not be able to take magnesium oxide, or you may need a dose adjustment or special precautions. (uofmhealth.org)
  • What is magnesium oxide? (uofmhealth.org)
  • Magnesium oxide is used as a supplement to maintain adequate magnesium in the body. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Magnesium oxide is also used as an antacid to treat indigestion, or as a laxative to relieve occasional constipation. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Magnesium oxide may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (uofmhealth.org)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking magnesium oxide? (uofmhealth.org)
  • You should not use magnesium oxide if you are allergic to it. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Magnesium oxide should not be given to a child younger than 6 years old. (uofmhealth.org)
  • How should I take magnesium oxide? (uofmhealth.org)
  • Magnesium oxide may be taken with food if it upsets your stomach. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Since magnesium oxide is sometimes used when needed, you may not be on a dosing schedule. (uofmhealth.org)
  • What should I avoid while taking magnesium oxide? (uofmhealth.org)
  • Magnesium oxide can make it harder for your body to absorb other medicines you take by mouth. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Avoid taking other medicines within 2 hours before or 2 hours after you take magnesium oxide. (uofmhealth.org)
  • You may need to wait 4 hours to take your other medicines after taking magnesium oxide. (uofmhealth.org)
  • What are the possible side effects of magnesium oxide? (uofmhealth.org)
  • no bowel movement after using magnesium oxide as a laxative. (uofmhealth.org)
  • What other drugs will affect magnesium oxide? (uofmhealth.org)
  • Other drugs may interact with magnesium oxide, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Diarrhea is one of the possibles, when you consider that milk of magnesia, used as a laxative, has lots of magnesium," he says. (livescience.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is used as a laxative to treat occasional constipation. (cigna.com)
  • High doses of magnesium citrate can have a laxative effect. (vitacost.com)
  • Magnesium is a mineral believed to be used for more than 300 functions of the body and plays an important role in bone structure. (livescience.com)
  • Magnesium chloride is a water-soluble mineral salt that is thought to ease tired muscles and promote relaxation when applied to the skin. (lush.com)
  • Magnesium is considered a beneficial mineral that the body needs, but the direct link to improving tinnitus is still limited , and in many ways, inconclusive. (healthline.com)
  • Since research is limited on the effects of magnesium on tinnitus symptoms, it's hard to say definitively that the mineral can make the condition worse. (healthline.com)
  • Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral that is important for many systems in the body, especially the muscles and nerves. (cigna.com)
  • The researchers pointed out that magnesium may only have an effect if a person doesn't normally get enough of the mineral in his or her diet. (livescience.com)
  • Although not complete by any means, since most natural foods have some content of magnesium, the table below shows those foods that have a higher content of this mineral. (selfgrowth.com)
  • As important as it is to include foods high in magnesium in your diet , so it is to make sure you avoid foods that can deprive you of this mineral. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Magnesium doesn't get as much attention as calcium, which is added to many foods, but according to the National Institutes of Health, most Americans lack sufficient amounts of this key mineral. (betternutrition.com)
  • Magnesium, an abundant mineral in the body, is naturally present in many foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids and laxatives). (nih.gov)
  • Magnesium is an essential mineral involved in the formation and maintenance of strong and healthy bones. (healco.com)
  • Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • To ensure an adequate intake of magnesium, it is important to consume foods that are high in this mineral. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • Population studies have found an association of greater bone mineral density in men and women with higher magnesium diets. (harvard.edu)
  • 1] A cohort study of 73,684 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative found that a lower magnesium intake was associated with lower bone mineral density of the hip and total body, although the authors cautioned that their finding did not translate into an increased risk of fractures. (harvard.edu)
  • Magnesium is an important mineral for heart, nerve and muscle health. (natrol.com)
  • Magnesium is just about the only mineral that your dog literally needs for all of his bodily or physical activities as well as his emotions or moods. (jigsawhealth.com)
  • Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Moreover, magnesium is one of the most abundant elements in the world and can be obtained from various mineral sources so also from sea-water or brines. (openpr.com)
  • Market Study Report recently introduced new title on "2018-2023 Global Magnesium Metal Market Report" from its database. (openpr.com)
  • Magnesium also reacts exothermically with most acids such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), producing the metal chloride and hydrogen gas, similar to the HCl reaction with aluminium, zinc, and many other metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lush UK purchases magnesium chloride from a manufacturer in the Czech Republic. (lush.com)
  • What are the supposed benefits of magnesium chloride oil? (lush.com)
  • Over the past decades, a few studies and trials have suggested that magnesium chloride oil can penetrate the skin barrier and enter the bloodstream through topical (applied directly to an area of the skin) or transdermal (soaking in a magnesium-rich bath) applications. (lush.com)
  • When your body's magnesium level drops too much, it can be a life-threatening emergency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • in fact 60% of the body's magnesium is stored in bone. (harvard.edu)
  • A tasty and convenient way to replenish the body's magnesium levels. (natrol.com)
  • You want to avoid taking your magnesium supplement with a high-dose zinc supplement as it may interfere with your body's absorption of magnesium and create an imbalance. (livestrong.com)
  • Factors such as the severity of a person's condition, as well as how much magnesium is prescribed can all influence supplementation efficacy. (healthline.com)
  • Our findings support a causal anti-hypertensive effect of [magnesium] supplementation in adults," the researchers wrote. (livescience.com)
  • Although epidemiological studies show that higher magnesium diets are associated with lower rates of disease, results are mixed from clinical trials showing that magnesium supplementation can correct these conditions. (harvard.edu)
  • 6,7] However, a small number of randomized clinical trials have not shown consistent results that magnesium supplementation is an effective treatment for depression. (harvard.edu)
  • Magnesium reacts with water at room temperature, though it reacts much more slowly than calcium, a similar group 2 metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disorders of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate balance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2.Magnesium is necessary for the calcium pump to work properly, which helps regulate blood pressure. (selfgrowth.com)
  • NOW® Calcium & Magnesium combines two essential minerals that work together to maintain several critical physiological processes. (iherb.com)
  • Calcium and magnesium also support the formation and maintenance of a healthy skeleton. (iherb.com)
  • Magnesium also plays a role in the active transport of calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes, a process that is important to nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction, and normal heart rhythm [ 3 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Lifestyle, disease and aging can prevent you from getting enough essential minerals like potassium, magnesium and calcium. (livestrong.com)
  • Also, magnesium helps to strengthen your dog's teeth and bones when it combines with some other minerals like calcium. (jigsawhealth.com)
  • For normal neuromuscular activity, humans need normal concentration of extracellular calcium and magnesium. (medscape.com)
  • Magnesium is also related to calcium and potassium metabolism in an intimate but poorly understood way. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The most commonly used and readily available method for assessing magnesium status is measurement of serum magnesium concentration, even though serum levels have little correlation with total body magnesium levels or concentrations in specific tissues [ 6 ]. (nih.gov)
  • [ 1 ] Fifty percent of the 25 g (1000 mmol) of total body magnesium resides in bone, whereas almost all of extraskeletal magnesium is located inside the cells. (medscape.com)
  • Serum magnesium levels may not accurately reflect the level of total body magnesium because only 1% of body magnesium is found in the extracellular fluid. (medscape.com)
  • The ECF contains only about 1% of total body magnesium. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Serum magnesium concentration is not closely related to either total body magnesium or intracellular magnesium content. (msdmanuals.com)
  • may reflect diminished total body magnesium. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Potassium and magnesium are often prescribed to heart patients taking diuretics , or '' water pills . (webmd.com)
  • Should I Avoid Certain Foods or Drugs While Taking Potassium and Magnesium? (webmd.com)
  • While taking potassium or magnesium, have your blood pressure checked regularly as advised by your doctor. (webmd.com)
  • In spite of the fact that heart drugs, mainly diuretics, have the bad habit of depleting magnesium-along with potassium and even though magnesium is absolutely required for stabilizing heart muscle activity - magnesium is not utilized properly by conventional medicine. (healthy.net)
  • if you are on a low-magnesium or low-potassium diet. (cigna.com)
  • For healthy people, the kidneys help retain magnesium by limiting the amount lost in urine. (aarp.org)
  • Side effects from taking too much magnesium are not common, because the body excretes any excess in the urine. (livescience.com)
  • Magnesium homeostasis is largely controlled by the kidney, which typically excretes about 120 mg magnesium into the urine each day [ 2 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Extra magnesium from food is safe because the kidneys will eliminate excess amounts in urine. (harvard.edu)
  • Magnesium excretion in urine usually matches net intestinal absorption (100 mg/d). (medscape.com)
  • This ionic, low sodium form of magnesium and trace minerals is highly absorbable , enabling the minerals to transfer easily across the intestinal wall. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Food such as dark chocolate, spinach, and nuts are rich in magnesium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 40% lower risk of stroke in patients that consumed water rich in magnesium. (selfgrowth.com)
  • 35% lower risk of heart attack in patients who consumed water rich in magnesium. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In addition to being rich in magnesium, leafy green vegetables offer a range of other health benefits. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • Legumes, nuts, and seeds are rich in magnesium and can be easily incorporated into a balanced diet. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • Seeds such as pumpkin seeds, flaxseed, and chia seeds are not only rich in magnesium but also packed with omega-3 fatty acids and fiber. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • Another 2016 study found that magnesium could be beneficial in treating tinnitus symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Liu was among the researchers who originally found that magnesium could boost memory in rats in 1999. (the-scientist.com)
  • A drug trial, called ISIS sought to disprove the effects of magnesium. (healthy.net)
  • MNT spoke to Dr. Bruce Albala , professor of environmental & occupational health at the University of California, Irvine, Program in Public Health, who was also not involved in the study, to understand what might explain the increased effects of magnesium on post-menopausal women. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of magnesium citrate? (cigna.com)
  • 4. Alcohol causes you to eliminate about 50 mg of magnesium through your kidneys. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Adequate magnesium levels may help reduce muscle cramps, spasms, and tension, promoting a relaxed and balanced muscular system. (healco.com)
  • If there is adequate magnesium, then toxins can leave the inside of the cell by passing through the cell membrane where they can then be transported out of the body (detox). (mbsfestival.com.au)
  • Adequate magnesium levels are necessary for proper cardiovascular function. (life-enhancement.com)
  • The main sources of Magnesium include soybeans, raw wheat jam, and even whole grains. (jigsawhealth.com)
  • Compared with aluminum and other materials, magnesium components have clear advantages: they are one-third lighter, have higher strength and good vibration damping. (zeiss.com)
  • It is not known whether magnesium citrate will harm an unborn baby. (cigna.com)
  • The studies ranged in length from three weeks to six months, and participants took between 240 and 960 milligrams of magnesium each day during their studies. (livescience.com)
  • Just one cup of cooked spinach provides approximately 157 milligrams of magnesium, which is around 37% of the recommended daily intake for adults. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • The researchers observed that the higher the levels of magnesium in the blood, the fewer issues people had with their cardiovascular system. (selfgrowth.com)
  • 30% lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases when levels of magnesium in the blood where high. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Assessing magnesium status is difficult because most magnesium is inside cells or in bone [ 3 ]. (nih.gov)
  • However, incorporating magnesium-rich foods into your diet can have potential benefits for blood pressure, heart health, diabetes management, mental health, and bone health after menopause. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • About 50% is sequestered in bone and is not readily exchangeable with magnesium in other compartments. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Optimized osteogenesis of porcine bone-derived xenograft through surface coating of magnesium-doped nanohydroxyapatite. (bvsalud.org)
  • With the aim of improving the osteogenic performance of xenografts , porcine bone -derived hydroxyapatite (PHA) was prepared and subsequently coated by magnesium -doped nano hydroxyapatite (nMgHA, 10%, 20%, and 30% of Mg/Ca + Mg) through a straightforward and cost -efficient approach. (bvsalud.org)
  • Magnesium is a cofactor in more than 300 enzyme systems that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation [ 1-3 ]. (nih.gov)
  • One of the most abundant minerals in your body, magnesium is a cofactor for enzymes that are responsible for converting food into energy. (natrol.com)
  • Intracellular magnesium is an important cofactor for various enzymes, transporters, and nucleic acids that are essential for normal cellular function, replication, and energy metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Magnesium is required for thiamine pyrophosphate cofactor activity and appears to stabilize the structure of macromolecules such as DNA and RNA. (msdmanuals.com)
  • When finely powdered, magnesium reacts with water to produce hydrogen gas: Mg(s) + 2H2O(g) → Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) + 1203.6 kJ/mol However, this reaction is much less dramatic than the reactions of the alkali metals with water, because the magnesium hydroxide builds up on the surface of the magnesium metal and inhibits further reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The magnesium particles can react with tissue fluid to create magnesium hydroxide, which is a strong base. (medscape.com)
  • Do not take magnesium citrate for more than 1 week, unless your doctor tells you to do so. (safemedication.com)
  • Take magnesium citrate exactly as directed. (safemedication.com)
  • How should I take magnesium citrate? (cigna.com)
  • Take magnesium citrate on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. (cigna.com)
  • Avoid taking any other medicines within 2 hours before or 2 hours after you take magnesium citrate. (cigna.com)
  • if you are taking other medications, take them at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after taking magnesium citrate. (safemedication.com)
  • If you become pregnant while taking magnesium citrate, call your doctor. (safemedication.com)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking magnesium citrate? (cigna.com)
  • What should I avoid while taking magnesium citrate? (cigna.com)
  • MARSHALLTOWN's Magnesium Alloy Screeds are rust-resistant, lightweight, and durable. (marshalltown.com)
  • This helped the company develop magnesium alloy technology for lightweight man portable devices & optics. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • In October 2013, the company entered into an agreement with the Northern Development Group in Qiqihar for research and development of magnesium alloy s motor casing for energy-saving electric vehicles. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The MgF 2 layer was prepared on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy in saturated NH 4 HF 2 solution by microarc fluorination (MAF) at 190 V. The cross-sectional SEM, EDS, and XRD analysis indicated that the alloy surface was covered with MgF 2 . (hindawi.com)
  • Meanwhile, SEM observation was used to compare the magnesium alloy samples before and after treatment, and it was found that the samples after coating were flatter and smoother. (hindawi.com)
  • The MAF coating was shown to be effective in controlling the corrosion rate and progression of the magnesium alloy. (hindawi.com)
  • Consequently, magnesium alloy seems to be a more desirable option. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, it is a standing concern for scholars to control the corrosion rate of magnesium alloy. (hindawi.com)
  • The negative effects of the magnesium alloy on the degradation and precipitation of hydrogen gas in body fluids have been mitigated to some extent [ 8 , 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The diets of the majority of Americans provide less than the recommended amounts of magnesium, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), with men older than 70 and teenage girls being the most likely to have low intakes. (aarp.org)
  • Intake recommendations for magnesium and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences) [ 1 ]. (nih.gov)
  • 2] A meta-analysis of 24 observational studies examining fracture risk did not find that higher magnesium intakes were associated with a reduced risk of hip and total fractures. (harvard.edu)
  • Increased dietary intakes of magnesium may reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome by about 30%, says a new meta-analysis of six studies. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Despite the benefits it is reported that between 70 and 80% of the US population are not meeting their recommended intakes of magnesium. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The average magnesium intakes ranged from 117 to 423 mg per day. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Crunching the numbers indicate that people with the highest average dietary intakes of magnesium were at a 31% lower risk of metabolic syndrome than people with the lowest average intakes. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The recommended daily allowance of magnesium varies based on factors such as age, gender, and pregnancy status. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • The recommended daily allowance of magnesium ranges from 30 to 420 milligrams per day, depending on your age and gender. (livestrong.com)
  • Magnesium, a silvery white metal, is one of the lightest metals available for structural applications. (openpr.com)
  • Magnesium is naturally present in a variety of foods, available as a supplement, and an ingredient in antacids and laxatives. (harvard.edu)
  • Learn about beneficial dietary sources to boost your magnesium intake naturally. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • The question is, can the best magnesium supplement help us out or is this just hype? (livescience.com)
  • The science is still inconclusive, but many people report that a magnesium supplement reduced their tinnitus symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Although the organization does note that some preliminary studies are pointing to a link between magnesium and improved ear function, they stop well short of endorsing the supplement. (healthline.com)
  • Because of this, it's easy to accidentally consume too much magnesium or select a supplement of questionable origin or quality . (healthline.com)
  • A magnesium supplement thought to improve brain functioning gets a small clinical trial. (the-scientist.com)
  • Wikimedia, Ondrej Mangl The biopharmaceutical company Magceutics, based in California, has enrolled 50 people with anxiety disorders in a clinical trial to test whether a magnesium supplement, Magtein, can improve thinking, memory, and sleep quality, while also lowering anxiety. (the-scientist.com)
  • The lead researcher on the Magceutics trial, neuroscientist Guosong Liu of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, acknowledged that they'll have to carry out larger trials in the future, but hopes that this first trial will spark interest in magnesium as a promising supplement. (the-scientist.com)
  • But, Liu and his colleagues hope that a compound such as Magtein will deliver magnesium directly to the brain, making the supplement more effective and more widely applicable-and, possibly, profitable. (the-scientist.com)
  • It may be because a magnesium-rich diet is often higher in other nutrients, which collectively work together in disease prevention as opposed to a supplement containing a single nutrient. (harvard.edu)
  • Recently, a study has found that a supplement of 700 mg/day of magnesium helped reduce hearing loss and speeded recovery in soldiers shooting firearms. (life-enhancement.com)
  • Consumers and healthcare professionals are waking up to the issue, and magnesium supplement sales are on the rise. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • For instance, in May 2016, Magnesium Elektron partnered with QIOPTIQ (UK) for the development of ultra-lightweight components on a next generation fused weapon sight, the SAKER 2. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Some experts [ 4 ] but not others [ 3 ] consider the tolerance test (in which urinary magnesium is measured after parenteral infusion of a dose of magnesium) to be the best method to assess magnesium status in adults. (nih.gov)
  • Interaction occurs with parenteral magnesium. (medscape.com)
  • Hundreds of enzymes require magnesium ions to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Science finds magnesium too difficult to corral, partly because it is responsible for the correct metabolic function of over 350 enzymes in the body. (healthy.net)
  • Present in more than 300 enzymes, magnesium regulates blood pressure, heart rate and sugar level. (livestrong.com)
  • Many enzymes are activated by or are dependent on magnesium. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Magnesium is required by all enzymatic processes involving ATP ( adenosine triphosphate) and by many of the enzymes involved in nucleic acid metabolism. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is used to treat occasional constipation on a short-term basis. (safemedication.com)
  • Over 95% of participants consumed stable amounts of magnesium over the study period. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nuts like almonds and cashews are not only crunchy and delicious but also contain high amounts of magnesium. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • However, this is where it gets a bit tacky - although dogs need large amounts of magnesium, they do not exactly like all the food where magnesium can be gotten from. (jigsawhealth.com)
  • Tell your doctor if you are on a magnesium or sodium-restricted diet. (safemedication.com)
  • Remember that while leafy green vegetables are a great source of magnesium, it's important to also include other magnesium-rich foods in your diet to ensure you meet your nutritional needs. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • By incorporating legumes, nuts, and seeds into your diet, you can increase your magnesium intake while enjoying a wide range of flavors and textures. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • Stress, age, wear and tear, and the typical American diet may increase magnesium requirements while reducing its levels. (life-enhancement.com)
  • Your dog typically requires about 0.04% of magnesium in his diet which is about 1mg every day. (jigsawhealth.com)
  • Within 7 days of initiation of a magnesium-deficient diet, renal and stool magnesium excretion each fall to about 12.5 mg/day (0.5 mmol/day). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives and antacids (such as milk of magnesia), and to stabilize abnormal nerve excitation or blood vessel spasm in such conditions as eclampsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium citrate is in a class of medications called saline laxatives. (safemedication.com)
  • Natrol® Magnesium Powder is a High Absorption Magnesium Blend that helps calm the mind and body so you can better manage occasional stress. (natrol.com)
  • Natrol® Mood + Stress Magnesium 325mg powder is a High Absorption Magnesium Blend that helps calm the mind and body so you can better manage occasional stress. (natrol.com)
  • Data included blood pressure measurements, a magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) scan, and dietary magnesium intake over a 24-hour period five times over 16 months. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the end, they found that higher dietary magnesium intake was linked to larger brain volumes and smaller white matter lesions (WML)-both of which are indicators of dementia-in MRI scans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They further found that high dietary magnesium intake was more neuroprotective for women than men, and post-menopausal women compared to premenopausal women. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Metabolic syndrome is less prevalent in participants with a higher level of dietary magnesium intake. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Results from this study support the hypothesis that a low level of dietary magnesium intake is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • "The findings from the present meta-analysis provide evidence that dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome," ​wrote the researchers. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Evidence points to the value of increased magnesium levels for the special needs of women. (life-enhancement.com)
  • This, they noted, means that increasing magnesium intake by 41% could improve brain health, preserve cognitive ability, and lower dementia risk. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Serum magnesium concentration is regulated by renal magnesium reabsorption. (medscape.com)
  • Normal serum magnesium concentration ranges from 1.8 to 2.6 mg/dL (0.74 to 1.07 mmol/L). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The maintenance of serum magnesium concentration is largely a function of dietary intake and effective renal and intestinal conservation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Indeed, the mechanisms for how magnesium lowers blood pressure "have been confirmed by laboratory studies," the researchers wrote. (livescience.com)
  • What lowers your level of magnesium? (selfgrowth.com)
  • Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and the fourth most common element in the Earth (after iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet's mantle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the earth's crust and the fourth most common element in the earth as a whole. (americanelements.com)
  • Foods high in fiber typically have abundant magnesium. (livestrong.com)
  • Different foods , such as dark chocolate, spinach, and nuts can be a good source of magnesium for those who may wish to up their intake. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Magnesium can be found in foods such as whole grains, beans, nuts and green leafy vegetables . (livescience.com)
  • What are the foods high in magnesium? (selfgrowth.com)
  • 1.Foods high in salt favor the elimination of magnesium. (selfgrowth.com)
  • For infants from birth to 12 months, the FNB established an AI for magnesium that is equivalent to the mean intake of magnesium in healthy, breastfed infants, with added solid foods for ages 7-12 months. (nih.gov)
  • Magnesium is widely distributed in plant and animal foods and in beverages. (nih.gov)
  • What foods give you magnesium? (bacchusgamma.org)
  • Magnesium-rich foods can provide the necessary amount of this vital nutrient to support overall health and well-being. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • Make sure to prioritize magnesium-rich foods to support your overall health and well-being. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to magnesium citrate, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in magnesium citrate preparations. (safemedication.com)
  • Other Ingredients: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium stearate. (vitacost.com)
  • Normal serum magnesium concentrations range between 0.75 and 0.95 millimoles (mmol)/L [ 1 , 5 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Hypomagnesemia is defined as a serum magnesium level less than 0.75 mmol/L [ 6 ]. (nih.gov)
  • A 70-kg adult has about 2000 mEq (1000 mmol) of magnesium. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 0.70 mmol/L). Causes include inadequate magnesium intake and absorption or increased excretion due to hypercalcemia or medications. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A new, landmark study has shown that pregnant women with preeclampsia treated with magnesium sulphate can halve the risk of eclampsia (convulsions) and maternal death. (healthy.net)
  • In this randomised study dubbed the Magpie Trial (Magnesium Sulphate for Prevention of Eclampsia), 10,141 preeclamptic women from 33 countries received magnesium sulphate or placebo intravenously (iv) or intramuscularly (im). (healthy.net)
  • When it became clear that magnesium overwhelmingly reduced the risk of eclampsia by 58 per cent and maternal death by 45 per cent vs placebo, the investigators called an early halt to the trial. (healthy.net)
  • Elemental magnesium is a gray-white lightweight metal, two-thirds the density of aluminium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium is in demand here as a particularly lightweight and stable material. (zeiss.com)
  • Machining lightweight materials such as magnesium requires special expertise and appropriate machine equipment. (zeiss.com)
  • Urinary excretion is reduced when magnesium status is low [ 1 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Raj Dasgupta , a clinical associate professor of medicine at Keck Medicine, University of Southern California, who practises pulmonary, critical care and sleep medicine, says: "The big question I always get is, 'Is magnesium safe for sleep? (livescience.com)
  • A review of seven major clinical studies showed that IV magnesium reduced the odds of death by more than half in patients suffering acute myocardial infarction (heart attack). (healthy.net)
  • To comprehensively evaluate magnesium status, both laboratory tests and a clinical assessment might be required [ 6 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Magnesium is sometimes prescribed as a complementary treatment for migraine headaches, as clinical studies have found low magnesium levels in people suffering from this condition. (harvard.edu)
  • Nephrologists do not frequently discuss serum magnesium as a clinical subject. (medscape.com)
  • With the limitations of the present study, it could be concluded that PHA coated by 20%nMgHA may have the optimized osteogenic performance due to the elimination of the excess magnesium from the 'surface pool', the preservation of the inherent 3D porous framework with the favorable pore size, and the release of magnesium at an appropriate concentration that possessed osteoimmunomodulatory effects on macrophages . (bvsalud.org)
  • Along with magnesium, researchers also followed a cohort of 1,788 tinnitus patients from 53 different countries that consumed melatonin, Ginkgo biloba, lipo-flavonoids, vitamin B12, and zinc. (healthline.com)
  • Incorporating leafy greens into your meals can help you meet your daily magnesium needs. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • Other leafy greens such as kale, Swiss chard, and collard greens are also good sources of magnesium. (bacchusgamma.org)
  • When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, symptoms may develop due to low magnesium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, yet another study suggested that both too high and too low an intake of magnesium could raise the risk of dementia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Increasing dietary intake of magnesium can have positive effects on cardiovascular health with the study subsequently showing a decrease in white matter lesions in middle to early old age," he added. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The analysis, which used cross-sectional studies and therefore shows correlation and not causation, also found that the risk of having metabolic syndrome decreased by 17% for every 100 mg per day increase in magnesium. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Further research on the link between magnesium and cognitive status could inform preventative strategies for dementia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A small group of international magnesium researchers, however, have continued, against all odds, to prove the importance of magnesium - not only as a nutrient for thousands of body processes-but also as a medicine to treat magnesium-depleted health conditions. (healthy.net)
  • The National Institutes of Health has noted the importance of magnesium in health and disease. (livestrong.com)
  • It is not known whether magnesium citrate passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. (cigna.com)