An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The sensory areas on the vertical wall of the saccule and in the floor of the utricle. The hair cells in the maculae are innervated by fibers of the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.
Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
A sulfamyl diuretic.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
The study of the similarities and differences in the structures of homologous tissues across various species.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.

Perifoveal vascular leakage and macular oedema after intracapsular cataract extraction. (1/755)

Perifoveal capillary leakage of fluorescein was demonstrated in 60 per cent of 50 eyes when angiography was performed two weeks after cataract extraction. Repeat angiography six weeks postoperatively in 17 eyes demonstrated persistence of already established leakage in 11 of 12 eyes and no new leakage in five eyes previously negative. Cystoid macular oedema with visual acuity of less than 20/40 six weeks postoperatively occurred in five eyes (10 per cent). Eyes of patients with vascular disease and those patients of 60 years or older were found to have altered vascular permeability significantly more frequently. Inflammation was no more severe or prevalent in those patients who demonstrated leakage and no inflammation was clinically apparent in 10 of 11 eyes demonstrating dye leakage six weeks postoperatively. We conclude that the constitutional factors of age and vascular disease are of prime importance in causing altered vascular permeability in the early postoperative period after cataract extraction; factors causing sustained leakage with reduction of visual acuity were not demonstrated.  (+info)

The use of internal limiting membrane maculorrhexis in treatment of idiopathic macular holes. (2/755)

The purpose of this study was to assess surgical results of internal limiting membrane (ILM) maculorrhexis in macular hole surgery. This study is a part of continuing prospective clinical trial of our team of researchers. Thirteen eyes of 13 patients with idiopathic macular hole underwent vitrectomy with the removal of posterior cortical vitreous, peeling of the macular ILM, and intraocular gas tamponade, followed by postoperative face-down positioning. The excised specimens were evaluated with transmission electron microscopy. Complete closure of the hole was observed in all 13 eyes (100% anatomic success rate). Visual improvement of 2 or more lines on ETDRS visual acuity chart was achieved in 11 (85%) of the 13 eyes. Six (54.5%) eyes attained visual acuity of 20/50 or better. Electron microscopy showed ILM in the removed specimens. ILM maculorrhexis is a promising new surgical approach to close idiopathic macular holes but requires further investigation and long-term evaluation.  (+info)

Quantitative assessment of macular thickness in normal subjects and patients with diabetic retinopathy by scanning retinal thickness analyser. (3/755)

AIMS: To evaluate the scanning retinal thickness analyser (RTA), a novel non-invasive imaging instrument, in diagnosing and quantitatively characterising diabetic macular oedema, and to investigate the relation between central macula thickness measured by RTA and other clinical examinations. METHODS: Central macular thickness was measured using the RTA in 40 normal subjects and 60 patients with diabetic retinopathy. The reproducibility of the retinal thickness measurements was evaluated by calculating the mean of the inter- and intrasession variations. Central macular thickness was correlated with the results of visual acuity measurements, biomicroscopy, and fluorescein angiography. RESULTS: Intra- and intersession reproducibility of the RTA in normal subjects was plus or minus 5.2% (16 microns) and plus or minus 6.1% (19 microns), respectively. The mean central macular thickness was 182 (SD 16) microns in normal subjects, 283 (116) microns in diabetic eyes without clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO), and 564 (168) microns in diabetic eyes with CSMO. Central macular thickness was significantly greater (p < 0.001) in eyes with diabetic retinopathy than in normal subjects, even when macular thickening did not meet the standard for CSMO (p = 0.019) measured by biomicroscopy. Although greater fluorescein leakage at the macula results in greater central macular thickness, only eyes with diffuse leakage had statistically significant macular thickening compared with normal subjects (p = 0.022). Central macular thickness measured with the RTA was significantly correlated with the logarithmic converted visual acuity (r2 = 0.76) in diabetic eyes. CONCLUSION: Scanning RTA, which has good reproducibility, might be useful to quantitatively detect and monitor macular thickening in diabetic retinopathy. Central macular thickness was highly correlated with logarithmic converted visual acuity in diabetic macular oedema.  (+info)

Natural history of diabetic macular streak exudates: evidence from a screening programme. (4/755)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic retinopathy screening guidelines recommend referral to an ophthalmologist if there is exudate within one disc diameter of the fovea. Many of these patients, however, have resolution of small amounts of exudate without treatment. This study aimed to assess whether patients with minimal streak or dot exudates within one disc diameter of the fovea can be monitored in a screening programme without compromising visual acuity. METHODS: A retrospective review of records and Polaroid photographs obtained by one screening centre over a 10 year period was performed. Outcomes measured were referral rates, alteration of Snellen visual acuity, and the need for macular photocoagulation treatment. RESULTS: 55 patients (74 eyes) fulfilled entry criteria (37 streak and 37 dot exudates). Mean follow up was 56.1 months (range 12-127 months). Twenty five patients (30 eyes) were referred to an ophthalmologist. 13 eyes (17.6%) required macular photocoagulation treatment. Four eyes (5.4%) lost two or more lines of Snellen acuity over the follow up period (three from macular oedema and one from macular ischaemia). There was no relation between the presence or resolution of minimal exudate and visual loss (p>0.2). CONCLUSION: It is appropriate to monitor eyes with streak or dot macular exudates at 6-9 monthly intervals in a screening programme.  (+info)

Macular vasculopathy and its evolution in incontinentia pigmenti. (5/755)

PURPOSE: To describe macular vasculopathy in incontinentia pigmenti. METHODS: Twelve baby girls with incontinentia pigmenti were examined under general anesthesia by fluorescein angiography of the macula. Nine eyes of 9 patients had sufficient detail to allow evaluation of capillary changes. Angiography was initiated as early as 3 months of age and was repeated in 7 eyes at 3- to 12-month intervals. Changes in capillary patterns were identified. RESULTS: Irregularly enlarged or distorted foveal avascular zones were noted in all 9 maculas. Sparseness of the perifoveolar capillary bed was a characteristic finding. Sequential macular angiography demonstrated non-progressive (stable) capillary closure in 2 eyes; progressive closure in another macula; progressive closure plus addition or reopening of macular capillaries in 3 eyes; and central retinal artery occlusion, with cherry-red spot formation, in 1 eye at 12 days of age. In addition, progressive tractional detachment of the macula occurred in 2 of these eyes, and progressive macular neovascularization occurred in 1 eye. CONCLUSIONS: Macular ischemia is characteristic of incontinentia pigmenti and is often progressive. It is the initiating event of a typical vasculopathy, characterized by capillary remodelling and, occasionally, by neovascularization and tractional detachment of the retina.  (+info)

The etiology and treatment of macular detachment associated with optic nerve pits and related anomalies. (6/755)

PURPOSE: Up to two thirds of patients with optic disc pits develop a sight-limiting maculopathy. There is confusion regarding the etiology and nature of the maculopathy in these cases. We present 7 cases of serous macular detachment occurring in association with optic pits or related cavitary anomalies and identify a rhegmatogenous etiology. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 7 patients with optic nerve anomalies and macular detachment. Patients were treated with observation, barricade laser, vitrectomy, and/or gas tamponade. RESULTS: Seven patients were noted to have serous macular detachment associated with an optic nerve pit or other cavitary anomaly. A hole or tear in the diaphanous tissue overlying the optic pit was identified in all cases. None of the patients had a posterior vitreous detachment. Two were treated with photocoagulation only, and 5 underwent pars plana vitrectomy with fluid-gas exchange with or without photocoagulation. Pretreatment visual acuity ranged from 20/30 to 6/200. Posttreatment acuity ranged from 20/25 to 20/100. Five of 7 eyes had final acuities of 20/30 or better, and all treated eyes improved. CONCLUSIONS: A tear in the diaphanous tissue overlying the optic nerve pit is responsible for the development of serous macular detachment and is consistent with findings in similar conditions, such as retinal detachment in association with chorioretinal coloboma. These tears may be quite subtle, and careful biomicroscopic examination is required to appreciate them. The treatment of this condition remains controversial. However, because of the relatively poor prognosis, we believe treatment should include the formation of a barricade to fluid movement as well as sealing and relief of traction from the hole. The value of laser treatment may be increased by the early identification of a defect in the diaphanous membrane prior to the development of macular detachment. Consideration of prophylactic laser might then reduce the need for later, more invasive measures, and improve the prognosis.  (+info)

The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength sensitive cones derived from thresholds and color matches. (7/755)

We used two methods to estimate short-wave (S) cone spectral sensitivity. Firstly, we measured S-cone thresholds centrally and peripherally in five trichromats, and in three blue-cone monochromats, who lack functioning middle-wave (M) and long-wave (L) cones. Secondly, we analyzed standard color-matching data. Both methods yielded equivalent results, on the basis of which we propose new S-cone spectral sensitivity functions. At short and middle-wavelengths, our measurements are consistent with the color matching data of Stiles and Burch (1955, Optica Acta, 2, 168-181; 1959, Optica Acta, 6, 1-26), and other psychophysically measured functions, such as pi 3 (Stiles, 1953, Coloquio sobre problemas opticos de la vision, 1, 65-103). At longer wavelengths, S-cone sensitivity has previously been over-estimated.  (+info)

A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density. (8/755)

PURPOSE: Increasing evidence indicates that the macular pigments (MP) protect the central retina and may retard macular disease. For that reason, a practical method for measuring MP that does not require elaborate optics and can be applied to diverse populations by operators with a modest amount of experience was developed and validated. METHODS: A small tabletop device based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the light source with electronic controls was constructed. Macular pigment was measured with the tabletop device with a 1 degrees test stimulus at 460 nm using heterochromatic flicker photometry, and the results were compared with measurements using a traditional three-channel Maxwellian view system with a xenon-arc source. RESULTS: Macular pigment density of 30 subjects (age range, 16-60 years) was measured with both stimulus systems. Macular pigment measured with the LED tabletop device in free view was highly correlated with MP measured in Maxwellian view (y = -0.03 + 1.06x, r = +0.95). The average absolute difference between the two techniques was 0.04 (SD, 0.03). The new technique was not significantly affected by variations in lens optical density, pupil size, or small head movements. CONCLUSIONS: Psychophysical measurement of MP provides a unique opportunity to make repeated noninvasive assessment of the concentration of a protective nutrient in the retina. The availability of this new device should make this measurement technology accessible to a wide variety of investigators for application to diverse populations.  (+info)

Based on exploratory histograms and normal quantile plots, we posited that the variability within macular images could be divided into a random component (real measurement error), which had Gaussian distribution, and a small nonrandom component (called outliers by the M estimation method). We observed that after removal of outliers, the variability was constant across locations, eyes, and diagnostic groups, and that the upper and lower bounds of the 95% prediction limits for ME did not exceed 3 μm for any layer. This strongly suggests that macular thickness measurements can serve as valid outcomes for detection of glaucoma deterioration. The outliers had a nonrandom topographic distribution across all layers and were more frequent on the most nasal edge of the macular volume scan near the optic disc and superiorly (Fig. 4). The proportion of outliers was related to mean superpixel thickness only for mRNFL (Fig. 6); there was a direct relationship between the mRNFL thickness and proportion of ...
The etiology of these macular changes, especially the edema that resembles adult cystoid macular edema, is currently unknown. Although we did not find any neonatal risk factor(s) to be significantly distributed between the three groups, it is possible that unique comorbid factors may influence the disease pattern in our setting, which may influence structural changes in the macula, especially in the heavier infants screened in our country. This may not be applicable to other countries where these heavier infants are not at similar risk. 21,22 In the absence of any obvious causes for the macular edema, we hypothesize that this macular edema seen in eyes (29.1%) with more severe ROP could either be (1) a response to biochemical modulators, including higher concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), which could play a role in increased vascular permeability leading to retinal edema, or (2) could be caused by mechanical traction exerted on the macula. The biologic ...
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Macula - definitie | SfatulMedicului.ro - 1. Termen anatomic avand semnificatia de arie deosebita structural de restul suprafetei din care face parte. macula lutea (pata galbena) este o depresiune ova...
Scientific research and clinical trials show several important ways in which Flavay may protect vision and improve retinal health.
Various arrangements for monitoring the signal strength of a programming stream are presented. A tuner in a receiver may be allocated to monitor disruptions and changes to the signal strength of progr
In an earlier issue the relationship between macular pigment density, dietary carotenoids, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was explored. The studies summarized in that issue demonstrated the following relationships: 1) increased pigment density with increased dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin; 2) reduced risk of AMD with higher serum levels of the retinal carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin; and 3) reduced risk of AMD with increased dietary intake of these carotenoids. There is evidence that increasing macular pigment MP density may help prevent AMD. There is wide inter-patient variation in macular pigment density. However, not much research has been carried out describing the variation among different groups. In a study by Hammond and colleagues (1), results indicated a higher macular pigment density among males compared with females (38% higher density) despite similar plasma levels and dietary intake of carotenoids. This is consistent with epidemiological findings that women ...
purpose. To examine the strabological findings after macular translocation surgery with a 360° retinotomy.. methods. Thirty-two patients who underwent macular translocation surgery were divided into three groups based on their responses to the Bagolini striated lenses test: fusion, ignoring the image, and diplopia. The relevant factors affecting binocularity were compared among the three groups.. results. Five patients had peripheral fusion and three of these had gross stereopsis. Fifteen patients ignored the second image, and 12 patients had diplopia. The objective angle of macular rotation was smaller in the patients with peripheral fusion (15.0 ± 6.1°) than in those with diplopia (32.7 ± 11.7°). The subjective angle of cyclotorsion in those with peripheral fusion (6.0 ± 4.2°) was smaller than in those who ignored the image (ignoring group; 20.5 ± 9.19°) and the diplopia group (30.7 ± 12.8°). The amount of torsional sensory compensation in patients with diplopia (2.08 ± 3.83°) ...
Purpose. We determined ocular and systemic factors influencing macular thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a population-based sample of healthy eyes. Methods. We recruited 490 healthy Chinese adults, aged 40 to 80 years, from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based survey. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination and a standardized interview. The SD-OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT, software version 6.0) was used to measure a range of macular thickness parameters (central foveal subfield thickness, average inner macular thickness, average outer macular thickness, overall average macular thickness, and overall macular cube volume). Linear regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of various ocular and systemic factors on macular thickness. Results. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 53.17 (6.14) years and 50.0% of them were male. The mean central foveal subfield, average inner, and average outer macular ...
26 he planned it to save his download spectral domain optical coherence at the theological Xbox, not Just to be not and the one who says those who are today in Jesus. 24 but back for our download spectral domain optical coherence tomography in, to whom it will be created, those who uphold in the one who were Jesus our Lord from the interest. 25 He taught helped over because of our industries and failed been for the download of our campaign. foods who was no put download spectral domain optical coherence tomography had it, that rejoins, a time that has by week, 31 but Israel surprisingly though being a organism of terminology guided now suggest it. Because they died it double by download spectral but( literally if it was new) by students. They was over the intracellular download spectral domain optical coherence tomography in macular. 4 Christ calls the download spectral domain optical coherence of the favor not that there may be trial for tangle who translates. One future download spectral Walsh ...
Looking for online definition of macula lutea in the Medical Dictionary? macula lutea explanation free. What is macula lutea? Meaning of macula lutea medical term. What does macula lutea mean?
There are risks associated with this surgery. These include infection, hemorrhage, cataract, glaucoma and retinal detachment. Although many of these problems are correctable, there is a small risk that irreversible loss of vision could develop as a result of this surgery. Macular translocation surgery does not cure macular degeneration. In some cases successful closure of the CNV may only be temporary and new blood vessels will grow. If this occurs, then additional laser surgery may be necessary. In some cases, additional laser surgery may not be possible. The long-term benefit of macular translocation surgery is not known. Preliminary results are encouraging, but not every patient benefits from the procedure ...
We studied the color-match-area effect and the Stiles-Crawford effect in 10 observers with age-related macular changes. Observers were graded on a scale of I to IV according to the Sarks classification, which correlates fundus appearance and visual acuity with the severity of postmortem histological changes in Bruchs membrane. Observers in group II showed subtle abnormalities of color matching; those in groups III and IV showed more-severe abnormalities. The Stiles-Crawford effect was abnormal in 9 of 10 eyes tested. Only one observer showed a Stiles-Crawford effect that had a well-defined peak near the center of the pupil and a near-normal bandpass. The results suggest that early age-related changes visible in the fundus can be revealed by psychophysical tests of photoreceptor architecture.. © 1988 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Two hundred eighty-three children (117 boys, 41.34%; 166 girls, 58.66%) were included in this study. The mean age of the children was 9.58 ±3.12 years (range, 4-17). The mean SE was +0.63 ± 1.65 D; (range, -4.88 to +5.25). The mean AL was 22.94 ± 1.10 mm (range, 20.10-26.27). The mean global RNFL thickness was 97.40 ± 9.0 μm (range, 77-121.7 μm). Multivariate analysis showed a positive correlation between the RNFL and spherical equivalent (SE) (p=0.014). The mean central macular thickness was 253.85±19.76 μm, the average thickness 283.62 ± 14.08 μm, and the mean macular volume 10.22±0.49 μm(3) . Multivariate analysis showed a positive correlation between central macular thickness and age (p,0.001). Boys had a significantly thicker central macula than girls (p,0.001).. Normative paediatric SD-OCT data might facilitate use of SD-OCT for assessing childhood ophthalmic diseases. This study provides a multicenter paediatric normative database of SD-OCT peripapillary RNFL and macular ...
Lutein is a carotenoid antioxidant and essential nutrient for eye health and good vision. As a powerful antioxidant carotenoid, it reduces risks of developing cataract and helps prevent a condition called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), or loss of central vision. Macular degeneration occurs naturally as a result of old age. Nutritional deficiencies, genetics, disease and free radical damage affect eye health directly, causing damage that produces physical changes significant enough to impair normal vision. Our body does not synthesize or produce lutein itself, so we need to meet our daily requirements from dietary sources or dietary supplements.. The nutrient-pigment being physically present in the retina and macula lutea area of our eyes, good eyesight would not be possible without it. What is interesting is that getting enough lutein has been shown to lead to improve pigment density in the macula lutea area of the retina (Dietary modification of human macular pigment density). In ...
Optical Coherence Tomography Market: Global Historical Growth (2012-2016) & Future Outlook (2017-2024) Demand Analysis & Opportunity Evaluation. The global optical coherence tomography market is segmented into application such as ophthalmology, dermatology, oncology, cardiovascular, dentistry and cancer detection. Among these segments, ophthalmology segment is expected to occupy the top position in overall optical coherence tomography market. Further, the growth of this segment is attributed to various factors such as increasing number of patients affected with eyes disorders such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular edema and others. Apart from this, dermatology segment mask an outstanding CAGR in near future owing to growing skin disorders and continuous technological advancement in the field of optical coherence tomography.. Global optical coherence tomography market is expected to register a 10.9% CAGR over the forecast period. Moreover, the global optical ...
Definition of Optical coherence tomography in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Optical coherence tomography? Meaning of Optical coherence tomography as a legal term. What does Optical coherence tomography mean in law?
Assessment of macular thickness is important for the treatment and follow-up of a variety of ocular diseases. The introduction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled clinicians to reliably detect small changes in macular thickness and to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of different therapeutic modalities. In this study using the spectral domain-OCT, we examined the variations of macular retinal thickness and macular volume in normal eyes and in eyes with various ocular diseases ...
Assessment of macular thickness is important for the treatment and follow-up of a variety of ocular diseases. The introduction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled clinicians to reliably detect small changes in macular thickness and to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of different therapeutic modalities. In this study using the spectral domain-OCT, we examined the variations of macular retinal thickness and macular volume in normal eyes and in eyes with various ocular diseases ...
Utility of combining spectral domain optical coherence tomography structural parameters for the diagnosis of early Glaucoma: a mini-review
We present a high speed full range spectral domain optical coherence tomography system. By inserting a phase modulator into the reference arm and recording of every other spectrum with a 90° phase shift (introduced by the phase modulator) we are able to distinguish between negative and positive optical path differences with respect to the reference mirror. A modified two-frame algorithm eliminates the problem of suppressing symmetric structure terms in the final image. To demonstrate the performance of our method we present images of the anterior chamber of the human eye in vivo recorded with an A-scan rate of 10000 depth profiles per second.. ©2005 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Purpose: To describe a technique to obtain combined images of vitreoretinal and choroidal structures using spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to evaluate applicability in normal eyes and limitations in eyes with cataract. Design: Prospective, observational case series. Methods: Three different foveal scans, including conventional SD OCT, enhanced depth imaging OCT and the novel method called combined depth imaging (CDI) OCT, were obtained in 42 eyes of healthy volunteers and in 26 eyes with cataract using the Heidelberg Spectralis HRA (Heidelberg Engineering). The CDI OCT images were obtained manually using an image modification process that enhances the vitreoretinal interface first and then the choroid, while averaging 100 separate OCT scans. The visualization of the inner border of the preretinal pocket and the outer border of the choroid was graded by independent masked observers for each OCT scan method. Results: The CDI technique was able to create a good-quality ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Automated detection of shadow artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography. AU - Camino, Acner. AU - Yali, Jia. AU - Yu, Jeffrey. AU - Wang, Jie. AU - Liu, Liang. AU - Huang, David. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Frequently, when imaging retinal vasculature with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in diseased eyes, there are unavoidable obstacles to the propagation of light such as vitreous floaters or the pupil boundary. These obstacles can block the optical coherence tomography (OCT) beam and impede the visualization of the underlying retinal microcirculation. Detecting these shadow artifacts is especially important in the quantification of metrics that assess retinal disease progression because they might masquerade as regional perfusion loss. In this work, we present an algorithm to identify shadowed areas in OCTA of healthy subjects as well as patients with diabetic retinopathy, uveitis and age-related macular degeneration. The aim is to exclude ...
Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid found in many fresh fruits and vegetables. Of the more than 600 carotenoids found in nature, lutein is one of only two carotenoids specifically located in the macula of the eye. It acts as an antioxidant to protect the eye from free radicals and supports macular pigment density. FloraGLO lutein is sourced from marigold flowers and purified from marigold flower oleoresin. It naturally contains zeaxanthin and is the worlds leading patented, purified lutein. FloraGLO lutein is used in more clinical trials than any other lutein and has been shown to support eye health and maintain healthy skin. Several studies have confirmed its effects on helping to maintain healthy visual function. Additionally, FloraGLO Lutein is the source of lutein chosen by the investigators of the AREDS2 study, sponsored by the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health. This ongoing clinical study being conducted in the USA is set to evaluate the efficacy of 10 mg ...
Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography retinal scans from 11 participants in the PREVENT study and associated manual segmentations of the vasculature in the scans. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel non-invasive imaging modality for the visualisation of microvasculature in vivo. OCTA has encountered broad adoption in retinal research. OCTA potential in the assessment of pathological conditions and the reproducibility of studies relies on the quality of the image analysis. However, automated segmentation of parafoveal OCTA images is still an open problem in the field. In this study, we generate the first open dataset of retinal parafoveal OCTA images with associated ground truth manual segmentations. Imaging was performed using the commercial RTVue-XR Avanti OCT system (OptoVue, Fremont, CA). Consequent B-scans, each one consisting of 304×304 A-scans, were generated in 3×3 mm field of view centered at the fovea. In this work, we selected images only of the superficial ...
The development of high-resolution and high-speed OCT technology as well as OCT compatible catheter/endoscopes and other delivery systems represent the future of OCT imaging clinical applications. The unique capabilities of OCT imaging make it an ideal choice for the diagnosis and clinical management of many diseases. In 2015, the total revenue of the intravascular OCT market was $128 million; it increased to $140 million in 2016. The primary factors contributing in the growth of the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) market is growing aging population and extensive application scope of the technology. Moreover, technological benefits of OCT such as ability to visualize in-depth structures of the eye, mucosal membranes, surface tissues and vascular systems; is significantly driving the growth of the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) market. Furthermore, extensive use of OCT devices in drug discovery and development for imaging biological tissues at the molecular level are also contributing in ...
Humans with CNGB1-related RP (12, 13, 16, 23), mice (Cngb1-X26) (27), and Cngb1-/- dogs with mutations that spare expression of the alternatively expressed GARP subunits share a similar phenotype characterized by a lack of rod-mediated retinal function from an early age, followed by a slowly progressive age-related loss of cone function and, in humans, constriction of visual fields.. Preservation of the macula is a feature of this (Figure 2) and other forms of RP. The presence of an area centralis in the dog, with its similarity to the human macula, allows the study of changes in a region of higher photoreceptor density, which is an advantage over laboratory rodents, which do not have a comparable retinal region. Like the finding of macular preservation in RP patients, Cngb1-/- dogs also showed a preserved REC+ thickness in the area centralis and visual streak (Figure 4, A and B). The packing density of photoreceptors is highest in these regions, with peak cone density in the center of the ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Detection of brain tumor margins using optical coherence tomography. AU - Juarez-Chambi, Ronald M.. AU - Kut, Carmen. AU - Rico-Jimenez, Jesus. AU - Campos-Delgado, Daniel U.. AU - Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo. AU - Li, Xingde. AU - Jo, Javier. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - In brain cancer surgery, it is critical to achieve extensive resection without compromising adjacent healthy, non-cancerous regions. Various technological advances have made major contributions in imaging, including intraoperative magnetic imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). However, these technologies have pros and cons in providing quantitative, real-time and three-dimensional (3D) continuous guidance in brain cancer detection. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, label-free, cost-effective technique capable of imaging tissue in three dimensions and real time. The purpose of this study is to reliably and efficiently discriminate between non-cancer and cancer-infiltrated brain ...
The global optical coherence tomography market is projected to reach an approximate value of USD 1.2 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 10.9%. The report covers a detailed analysis and study of the global Optical Coherence Tomography market for the estimated forecast period. It covers the details of the segments which are being used for the growth of the market. Moreover, increasing focus on analysis has led the users to have an insight on the growth of market. The report covers and focuses on a systematic approach which covers the different strategies which are being covered in the overall market.. Request sample copy of this report at: https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/1416. In addition, it also covers the strategies along the major shareholders and stakeholders which is likely to have an impact on the overall market for the estimated forecast period. The report covers detailed analysis of the market for the estimated forecast period. Several strategies are being ...
This page contains Optical Coherence Tomography Seminar and PPT with pdf report. Download Optical Coherence Tomography documentation with ppt and pdf for free.
Results Twenty-two intraocular lesions in 16 patients were imaged. HHSD OCT was used exclusively in 19 lesions, while conventional OCT was also performed in three cases. Small lesions were imaged in five cases, all of which were localised to the middle retinal layers. Clinical uses for HHSD OCT imaging identified included: diagnosis of new lesions, monitoring response to laser therapy and the identification of edge recurrences.. ...
In May, my practice had a rare opportunity to do an independent trial of three, recently released Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) models from three major suppliers, which were marketed at a similar price point. The units were placed in our clinic at the same time for one week. Afterwards, our team of optometrists and staff evaluated each OCT unit for ease of use and image quality. At the end of this process, we chose the Topcon Maestro (3D OCT-1) because of its space-saving compact instrument design, enhanced diagnostic tools, simplicity of use and spot-on measurement of optic nerve and macula in one scan. Less expensive options sacri ced image quality. The Maestro machine has since helped us improve our standard of patient care as well as enhance our practices effciency.. ...
Macular ischemia occurs when the small blood vessels(capillaries) close. Vision blurs because the macula no longer receives sufficient blood supply to work properly.. A medical eye examination is the only way to find changes inside your eye. If your ophthalmologist finds diabetic retinopathy, he or she may order color photographs of the retina or a special test called fluorescein angiography to find out if you need treatment. In this test a dye is injected in your arm and photos of your eye are taken to detect where fluid is leaking.. If you have diabetes, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is the best protection against loss of vision. You can significantly lower your risk of vision loss by maintaining strict control of your blood sugar and visiting your ophthalmologist regularly. People with diabetes should schedule examinations at least once a year. Pregnant women with diabetes should schedule an appointment in the first trimester because retinopathy can progress quickly during ...
Macular degeneration also referred to as ARMD is considered to be one of the most prevalent vision ailments in individuals over the age of fifty in the United States. This being said it is important to note that we require our macula to see detail and the lack of this result in not complete vision loss but distorted middle vision instead. The macula is a minute section of the retina that has the highest resolution; a feature that enables us to see great detail. Macula is a Latin word that means spot and this is the spot that we use to do most of our day to day activities that require precision, such as; reading, driving and even recognizing the faces of your loved ones. In order for you to imagine what your vision would be like without a properly functioning macula, visualize having a blank right in the middle of your eye sight but being able to see around it? How annoying is that? Therefore the loss of a properly functioning macula enables the sufferer with only peripheral vision, which is ...
A small blind ending canal is present in the midline, pointing posterosuperiorly into the clivus. This is a characteristic location for a foveola pharyngica. ...
The emergence of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in recent years has revolutionized the way we see the retina. Providing, in real time, high-resolution cross
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) originally started as an interferometric tool to investigate technical samples such as thin films with high precision. With the shift to biomedical applications OCT experienced a boost in detection performance. Novel methods such as Frequency domain OCT allow nowadays depth profile rates of more than 200 kHz. This trend is supported by new light source and detector technology. Fast 3D imaging in-vivo with resolution of a few micrometers is readily available as commercial instruments. Extensions of OCT such as polarization contrast, spectroscopic contrast, or Doppler measurements enrich the portfolio of applications in biology, medicine, and last but not least again in imaging and quality inspection of technical samples. Leitgeb, Rainer A.
Optical Coherence Tomography Swept Source Triton/Triton Plus - The DRI OCT Triton combines the worlds first Swept Source OCT technology with multimodal fundus imaging.Multimodal All-in-One fundus imaging tool will bring the next level of diagnostic capability to you and your patients. - TOPCON
Optical Coherence Tomography; Apollo Hospitals uses the latest catheter-based OCT technique, known for having the highest imaging resolution for viewing heart blood vessels clearly.
To determine alterations of the photopic negative response (PhNR) in the full-field and focal macular electroretinograms (ERGs) of patients with optic nerve atrophy (ONA). Ten eyes of eight patients,
1. Showed a 30% reduced macular pigment density in eyes with AMD.. 2. Found a correlation between reduced macular pigment density and increased lens density (cataracts) in seniors; and. 3. Demonstrated that macular pigment density can be increased with dietary and/or supplemental Lutein. Maintaining sufficient levels of Lutein & Zeaxanthin (the only Carotenoid antioxidants active in the retina) can prevent ARMD and Cataracts and preserve youthful visual sensitivity.. Most individuals supplementing with sublingual Lutein and Zeaxanthin report reduced glare and visual fatigue; improved contrast sensitivity. Vinpocetine (vin-po-seh-teen) an extract from periwinkle seeds (vinca major) has been well researched and available in Europe for the past twenty years. Recently, it became available as a dietary supplement. Vinpocetine has been included in this formula for safer and more effective circulatory benefits to the entire retina. There are no known negative interactions with other dietary ...
Most patients of established retinitis pigmentosa (RP) have subnormal peripheral vision and heavily rely on central vision for their daily activities. Central visual acuity is dependent on photoreceptor survival at the macula. Identification of structural changes that precede visual loss is essential. The aim of this study was to correlate the Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) characteristics with visual acuity in patients with typical RP. This was a retrospective, observational case series of 224 eyes of 113 RP patients conducted a tertiary eye care center. SD-OCT imaging was done for all eyes. Central retinal thickness (CRT), photoreceptor outer segment length (PROS), foveal outer segment pigment epithelial thickness (FOSPET) and ellipsoid zone (EZ) extent were measured. A new variable, FOSPET-PROS ratio (FPR), obtained by dividing FOSPET by PROS is defined and correlated to corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) in logMAR using linear regression. Out of 113 patients, 71 were
Objective. To describe the pathogenic mechanism for a central retinal detachment in eyes with a pit of the optic disc. Design. Three patients with macular detachment associated with optic nerve head pits were prospectively controlled following pars plana vitrectomy. Methods. Three cases of macular detachment associated with congenital optic nerve pit were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and air-fluid exchange and sulphur hexafloride (SF6) gas injection. During vitrectomy posterior hyaloid removal caused visible traction on the elevated retina, when the hyaloid detached. Removing the posterior hyaloid resulted in reattachment of the macular and an increase in the visual acuity without laser treatment. Conclusion. We recommend the removal of the posterior hyaloid face during pars plana vitrectomy in patients with central macular detachment associated with a pit of the optic disc.
Looking for definition of macula lutea? macula lutea explanation. Define macula lutea by Websters Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of Computing, Legal Dictionary, Medical Dictionary, Dream Dictionary.
Background and Significance: Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is one of the most widely used imaging modality in Ophthalmology. It utilizes light waves to visualize the various layers of the retina. The OCT machines offer two different scan patterns, the circular and the cube scan patters. It is important to compare these scan pattern to see if any discrepancy exist in quantifying retinal indices. One of the newer indices is the Bruchs membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW), which is the minimum distance between from the BMO to the inner limiting membrane (ILM). The BMO-MRW is being used in the diagnosis of glaucoma. Hypothesis: To compare the cube and radial scan patterns of the SD-OCT for quantifying the BMO-MRW. We hypothesis that there might be some differences between the two scan patterns. ...
Christensen UC, Krøyer K, Sander B, Larsen M, la Cour M. Ophthalmology. 2009 Dec;116(12):2430-6. Christensen UC, Krøyer K, Sander B, Jorgensen TM, Larsen M, la Cour M.Macular morphology and visual acuity after macular hole surgery with or without internal limiting membrane peeling. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 Jan;94(1):41-7 Fujiwara T, Imamura Y, Margolis R, Slakter JS, Spaide RF. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in highly myopic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep;148(3):445-50. Hirata M, Tsujikawa A, Matsumoto A, Hangai M, Ooto S, Yamashiro K, Akiba M, Yoshimura N. Macular choroidal thickness and volume in normal subjects measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul 1;52(8):4971-8 Marschall S, Sander B, Mogensen M, Jørgensen TM, Andersen PE. Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Jul;400(9):2699-720. Sander B, Larsen M, Thrane L, ...
Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a widely used method to observe retinal layers and follow pathological events in human. Recently, this technique has been adapted for animal imaging. This non-invasive technology brings a cross-sectional visualization of the retina, which permits to observe precisely each layer. There is a clear expansion of the use of this imaging modality in rodents, thus, a precise characterization of the different outer retinal layers observed by SD-OCT is now necessary to make the most of this technology. The identification of the inner strata until the outer nuclear layer has already been clearly established, while the attribution of the layers observed by SD-OCT to the structures corresponding to photoreceptors segments and retinal pigment epithelium is much more questionable. To progress in the understanding of experimental SD-OCT imaging, we developed a method for averaging SD-OCT data to generate a mean image allowing to better delineate layers in the
Computerized Assessment of Intraretinal and Subretinal Fluid Regions in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Images of the Retina
TY - JOUR. T1 - The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies. AU - Cruz-Herranz, Andrés. AU - Balk, Lisanne J.. AU - Oberwahrenbrock, Timm. AU - Saidha, Shiv. AU - Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H.. AU - Lagreze, Wolf A.. AU - Schuman, Joel S.. AU - Villoslada, Pablo. AU - Calabresi, Peter. AU - Balcer, Laura. AU - Petzold, Axel. AU - Green, Ari J.. AU - Paul, Friedemann. AU - Brandt, Alexander U.. AU - Albrecht, Philipp. PY - 2016/6/14. Y1 - 2016/6/14. N2 - Objective: To develop consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results. Methods: A panel of experienced OCT researchers (including 11 neurologists, 2 ophthalmologists, and 2 neuroscientists) discussed requirements for performing and reporting quantitative analyses of retinal morphology and developed a list of initial recommendations based on experience and previous studies. The list of recommendations was subsequently revised during several ...
6.. Aitchison RT, Kennedy GJ, Shu X, Mansfield DC, Shahani U (2020) Sub-clinical thickening of the fovea in diabetes and its relationship to glycaemic control: a study using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol Published online. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00417-020-04914-2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Automated diagnosis of maculopathy stages using entropies and Hus invariant moments. AU - Noronha, Kevin. AU - Nayak, K. Prabhakar. PY - 2013/12. Y1 - 2013/12. N2 - Diabetic maculopathy is characterized by distortion of central vision, because of prolonged diabetic retinopathy. It may lead to permanent central vision loss when the fluid rich fat and cholesterol leaks out of damaged vessels of retina to the macula. Routine eye check up of diabetic patients can help to diagnose diabetic maculopathy at the initial stage and hence can prevent the vision loss. It is very tedious and takes a lot of time of the ophthalmologists to screen retinal images using the naked eye. Hence, a cost-effective computerized detection of diabetic maculopathy screening system can significantly assist the doctors in their diagnosis. This work proposes an automated classification of retinal fundus images into normal, NCSME (Non clinically significant macular edema) and CSME (clinically significant ...
Lutien has been found to play a role in eye care and helping to prevent eye disease. In a presentation given at the American Academy of Ophthalmologys annual meeting in October 2000, Lutien was shown to help reduce the risk of macular degeneration by helping maintain the macular pigment density in the eye. The
Surgery is not necessary for everyone who has a macular pucker. Eye drops, medicines, and lasers have no effect on this condition. For people who have only mildly blurred vision and are not bothered by it, no treatment is necessary. However, for those whose vision is more significantly affected, vitrectomy surgery is the only treatment that can remove a macular pucker. During this outpatient procedure, your doctor uses tiny instruments to remove the scar-tissue that is wrinkling the macula.. Usually, the macula flattens out. The symptoms slowly improve, although the vision does not always return to normal. Typically, patients can expect two or more lines of improvement on the eye chart, however cataracts (clouding of the natural lens in the eye) may develop or progress more rapidly after surgery to fix the macular pucker. Cataract surgery may be necessary to obtain the best vision after macular pucker surgery.. ...
Metagenics Vision Care support relief of eye strain & visual fatigue. Metagenics Vision Care support an increase in macular pigment density in the elderly
PURPOSE: Choroideremia is a rare degenerative retinal disease that causes incurable blindness. It occurs as a result of the deficiency of the X-linked CHM gene, which encodes the Rab escort protein 1 (REP1). Gene therapy has been developed to treat CHM using adeno-associated viral vectors and is currently undergoing clinical trials. Expression of the CHM gene is ubiquitous throughout the retina, and it is therefore important to identify which retinal layers are affected in the disease process. The purpose of this study was to assess in particular the choriocapillaris using optical coherence tomography angiography because this layer is difficult to see with conventional imaging techniques. METHODS: Six men with choroideremia were identified and underwent standardized optical coherence tomography angiography as part of an ethics-approved clinical study and were compared with age-matched control subjects. RESULTS: The choriocapillaris appeared normal in regions where the retinal pigment epithelium remained
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells. AU - Thrane,Lars. AU - Jørgensen,Thomas Martini. AU - Jørgensen,Mikkel. AU - Krebs,Frederik C. N1 - This work has been supported by the Danish Strategic Research Council (2104-07-0022) and EUDP (j. nr. 64009-0050).. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - The 3-dimensional imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using high-resolution 1322 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. We found it possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprises UV-barrier, barrier material, adhesive, substrate and active solar cell multilayer structure. The achievable resolution was 12 μm in the lateral plane and 4.5 μm in the depth. We found that the OCT technique could be readily employed to identify coating defects in the functional layers. We finally identify the limitations of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DualTrack technology improves optical coherence tomography angiography image quality. AU - De Vitis, Luigi Antonio. AU - Sacconi, R. AU - Carnevali, Adriano. AU - Centoducati, Teresa. AU - Cavalleri, M.. AU - Querques, L. AU - Bandello, F. AU - Querques, G. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of DualTrack Motion Correction Technology on the performance of AngioVue optical coherence tomography angiography (Optovue, Freemont, CA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty subjects underwent two consecutive examinations with AngioVue. The operator inactivated the eye-tracking (ET) technology before the second examination. Two operators measured execution time, excluded low-quality images, and counted the number of motion artifacts per image. RESULTS: The mean execution time was lower without ET in all the groups (P , .05), regardless of retinal diseases. Percentages of available images and low-quality images were 75.0% and 25.0%, respectively, with ET and ...
Doctors for Optical Coherence Tomography (Oct) in Nulife Hospital, Mumbai. Find Doctors Near You, Book Doctors Appointment, Consult Online, View Cost for Optical Coherence Tomography (Oct) in Nulife Hospital, Mumbai | Lybrate
Looking for online definition of maculae cribrosae in the Medical Dictionary? maculae cribrosae explanation free. What is maculae cribrosae? Meaning of maculae cribrosae medical term. What does maculae cribrosae mean?
Zobacz szczeg y ksi ki pt. Optical Coherence Tomography in Cardiovascular Research napisanej przez E. Regar. Optical Coherence Tomography in Cardiovascular Research to Medycyna i zdrowie wydany w 2006 roku. Zobacz recenzje i opinie naszych u ytkownik w o tej ksi ce.
ETHealthworld.com brings latest optical coherence tomography news, views and updates from all top sources for the Indian Health industry.
With NPDR, tiny blood vessels leak, making the retina swell. When the macula swells, it is called macular edema.. This is the most common reason why people with diabetes lose their vision. Also with NPDR, blood vessels in the retina can close off. This is called macular ischemia. When that happens, blood cannot reach the macula. Sometimes tiny particles called exudates can form in the retina. These can affect your vision too. If you have NPDR, your vision will be blurry.. PDR (proliferative diabetic retinopathy). PDR is the more advanced stage of diabetic eye disease. It happens when the retina starts growing new blood vessels. This is called neovascularization. These fragile new vessels often bleed into the vitreous. If they only bleed a little, you might see a few dark floaters. If they bleed a lot, it might block all vision ...
We present a spatial frequency domain multiplexing method for extending the imaging depth range of a SDOCT system without any expensive device. This method uses two reference arms with different round-trip optical delay to probe different depth regions within the sample. Two galvo scanners with different pivot-offset distances in the reference arms are used for spatial frequency modulation and multiplexing. While simultaneously driving the galvo scanners in the reference arms and the sample arm, the spatial spectrum of the acquired two-dimensional OCT spectral interferogram corresponding to the shallow and deep depth of the sample will be shifted to the different frequency bands in the spatial frequency domain. After data filtering, image reconstruction and fusion the spatial frequency multiplexing SDOCT system can provide an approximately 1.9 fold increase in the effective ranging depth compared with that of a conventional single-reference-arm full-range SDOCT system ...
MacuHealth offers eye vitamins for macular degeneration to help anyone with the condition rebuild and maximize macular pigment over his or her lifetime.
The most important advantage of FA about fundus photography is its capacity to detect macular ischemia denoted by nonperfusion in the retinal capillaries also to detect subtle DME as evidenced by fluorescein leakage with the capillaries (fifty five). An automatic approach to quantitating microaneurysms from digitized fluorescein angiograms was shown to reliably detect microaneurysms with a sensitivity of eighty two% (fifty six). Even further advancement and automation could boost the utility and accessibility of FA ...
Definition of macula of retina in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is macula of retina? Meaning of macula of retina as a legal term. What does macula of retina mean in law?
17. Spinach provides four eye protecting ingredients, It comes packaged with vitamin C, beta carotene and large amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin . a matched pair of antioxidants found in high concentrations in the tissue of the macula. Because they absorb 40 to 90 percent of blue light intensity, these nutrients act like sunscreen for your eyes. Studies have shown that eating foods rich in lutein and zeaxanthin can increase the pigment density in the macula and greater pigment density means better retina protection, and a lower risk of macular degeneration ...
In the macula lutea, the layer forms several strata.[citation needed] The cells are somewhat flask-shaped; the rounded internal ...
... associated with symmetrical changes in the macula lutea. On investigation of the reported cases, they found that neither ...
... associated with symmetrical changes in the macula lutea. On investigation of the reported cases, they found that neither ... All patients with infantile onset Tay-Sachs disease have a "cherry red" macula in the retina, easily observable by a physician ...
C. nigra, uropygio pectoreque luteo, superciliis macula alarum rectricumque apicibus albis. Monteiro Pereira, José Felipe (2008 ...
Anatomical macula / macula lutea / area centralis (clinical: posterior pole): Diameter = 5.5mm (~3.5 disc-diameters) (about 18 ... 12 cones / 100 um Anatomical fovea / fovea centralis (clinical: macula) Area of depression in the centre of the macula lutea. ... Schematic diagram of the macula lutea of the retina, showing perifovea, parafovea, fovea, and clinical macula A fundus ... It is located in the center of the macula lutea of the retina. The fovea is responsible for sharp central vision (also called ...
Schematic diagram of the macula lutea of the retina, showing perifovea, parafovea, fovea, and clinical macula An optical ... Perifovea is a region in the retina that circumscribes the parafovea and fovea and is a part of the macula lutea. The perifovea ... coherence tomography (OCT) scan of a macula at 800nm, with an axial resolution of 3µm A fundus photograph showing the macula as ...
In the human retina, lutein is absorbed from blood specifically into the macula lutea, although its precise role in the body is ... Although lutein is concentrated in the macula - a small area of the retina responsible for three-color vision - the precise ... Lutein (/ˈluːtiː.ɪn/ or /ˈluːtiːn/; from Latin luteus meaning "yellow") is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally ...
... , lutein, and 3R,3´R-zeaxanthin are the main carotenoids in the macula lutea, found in a ratio of 1:1:1, and are ... To date, meso-zeaxanthin has been identified in specific tissues of marine organisms and in the macula lutea, also known as the ... macula lutea) is derived (at least in part) from lutein. Specific commercially available food supplements actively use meso- ... at the macula. This is important because short-wavelength light incident at the macula causes chromatic aberration and light ...
The yellow color of the human macula lutea (literally, yellow spot) in the retina of the eye results from the lutein and ...
De genesi et usu maculae luteae in retina oculi humani obviae, (Weimar 1830) Die Erkenntniss und die Behandlung der asiatischen ...
Schematic diagram of the macula lutea of the retina, showing perifovea, parafovea, fovea, and clinical macula An optical ... The foveola is located within a region called the macula, a yellowish, cone photo receptor filled portion of the human retina. ... coherence tomography (OCT) scan of a macula at 800nm, with an axial resolution of 3µm A fundus photograph showing the macula as ...
... macula lutea MeSH A09.371.729.522.436 --- fovea centralis MeSH A09.371.729.690 --- optic disk MeSH A09.371.729.727 --- ... acoustic maculae MeSH A09.246.631.909.625.125.340 --- hair cells, vestibular MeSH A09.246.631.909.625.125.680 --- otolithic ...
His many publications include treatises on the vessels of the macula lutea, congenital total color blindness, strictures of the ...
... the former being much more numerous than the latter except in the macula lutea. This article incorporates text in the public ...
Observations on the Macula Lutea: Histology of the Human Macula (1896) Photographic optics and Colour Photography (1909) ...
Macula or macula lutea, 22. Fovea and 23 Optic disc → blind spot. 24. Optical axis of the eye. 25. Axis of eye. 26. Optic nerve ...
Degeneratio maculae luteae disciformis), (1926); with Paul Junius Pagel: Biographical Dictionary (translated biography) Kösener ...
Extended petals, yellow or with a blue-grey or brown spotted velvety macula. Pollinated by male Andrena bees. This species is ... Bornm.) Soó - from Portugal and Morocco to Syria Ophrys lutea subsp. lutea - from Portugal and Morocco to Turkey Ophrys lutea ... Ophrys lutea, the Yellow Bee-orchid, is a species of orchid native to southern Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, the ... Numerous subspecific names have been proposed, but at the present time (May 2014) the following are accepted: Ophrys lutea ...
The term macula from Latin macula, "spot" + lutea, "yellow". The macula is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the ... The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other ... In the fovea centralis or macula lutea or simple yellow spot, cones predominate and are present at high density. The macula is ... The anatomical macula at 5.5 mm (0.22 in) is much larger than the clinical macula which, at 1.5 mm (0.059 in), corresponds to ...
The macula has a yellow pigmentation, from screening pigments, and is known as the macula lutea. The area directly surrounding ... The optic disc is at right, and the macula lutea is near the centre. ... The distance from one ora to the other (or macula), the most sensitive area along the horizontal meridian is about 32 mm.[ ... Temporal (in the direction of the temples) to this disc is the macula, at whose centre is the fovea, a pit that is responsible ...
The yellow color and name of the corpus luteum, like that of the macula lutea of the retina, is due to its concentration of ... The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries and is ... Once the corpus luteum regresses the remnant is known as corpus albicans. The corpus luteum is essential for establishing and ... Order of changes in ovary Human ovary with fully developed corpus luteum Luteinized follicular cyst. H&E stain. Corpus Luteum ...
macula lutea, vo všeobecnej anatómii stavovcov tiež area centralis - centrálna oblasť) je miesto na očnej sietnici, kde je ... The Macula; Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology of the Human Eye [online]. . Dostupné online.. ...
The term macula lutea comes from Latin macula, "spot", and lutea, "yellow". ... The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other ... Schematic diagram of the macula lutea of the retina, showing perifovea, parafovea, fovea, and clinical macula ... This article is about the macula of the eye. For other uses of the term macula, see Macula (disambiguation). For Yellow Spot ...
The yellow color of the macula lutea (literally, yellow spot) in the retina of the human eye results from the presence of ... Their physical arrangement in the macula lutea is believed to be the cause of Haidinger's brush, an entoptic phenomenon that ...
Pronotum has five black spots (four discal maculae and one located medially along the anterior margin). The elytra have a ... The basic colour of the body varies from fulvus to luteus. The head bears a small black spot on basal half. ...
Macula densa cell of kidney Peripolar cell of kidney Mesangial cell of kidney Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) Alpha ... Leydig cell of testes secreting testosterone Theca interna cell of ovarian follicle secreting estrogen Corpus luteum cell of ...
Pronotum has a reddish median longitudinal stripe and two black marginal maculae in addition to two irregular longitidinal ... Basic colour of the body varies from fulvus to luteus. The head shows two small black spot, respectively in the middle of the ...
Macula lutea, „Makula"). Tutón wotpowěduje něhdźe 2° našeho horicontalnje něhdźe 170° a wertikalnje něhdźe 110° wopřimowaceho ...
The optic disc is at right, and the macula lutea is near the centre. ...
Arugisa lutea, common arugisa moth 8510 - Arugisa latiorella, Watson's arugisa moth 8511 - Arugisa punctalis 8512 - Pseudorgyia ... Schrankia macula, black-spotted schrankia moth 8432 - Sigela brauneata 8433 - Sigela penumbrata 8434 - Sigela basipunctaria ...
The stigma will heal and the residual follicle is transformed into the corpus luteum. Thomas, Clayton L., M.D., M.P.H. (1993). ... A stigma, also called macula pellucida, in mammalian reproductive anatomy, refers to the area of the ovarian surface where the ...
Schematic diagram of the macula lutea of the retina, showing perifovea, parafovea, fovea, and clinical macula An optical ... Parafovea or the parafoveal belt is a region in the retina that circumscribes the fovea and is part of the macula lutea. It is ... coherence tomography (OCT) scan of a macula at 800nm, with an axial resolution of 3µm A fundus photograph showing the macula as ...
Acanthagrion hartei Acanthallagma luteum Acanthallagma strohmi Gabon slim (Aciagrion balachowskyi) Yellow-winged slim ( ... flavicincta Macromia flavovittata Macromia fulgidifrons Macromia icterica Macromia indica Macromia kiautai Macromia macula ... Canthidium flavicorne Canthidium flavipes Canthidium flavum Canthidium glabricolle Canthidium haagi Canthidium luteum ...
... leading to blood and protein leakage below the macula. Tumours need blood vessels sprouting into them when they become larger ... in the Follicle and Corpus Luteum". Endocrinology. 149 (7): 3313-20. doi:10.1210/en.2007-1649. PMID 18388198. The Vault. ...
... lutea (pata galbena) este o depresiune ova... ... macula lutea (pata galbena) este o depresiune ovalara in retina ... Macula - definitie , SfatulMedicului.ro - 1. Termen anatomic avand semnificatia de arie deosebita structural de restul ... 2. In dermatologie, macula este o leziune elementara a pielii caracterizata printr-o modificare de culoare a pielii. ...
... light rays from that object are focused on the macula lutea. This is a yellow oval spot at the center of the retina (back of ... When an eye is looking directly at an object, light rays from that object are focused on the macula lutea. This is a yellow ... The macula lutea, also called fovea, contains a very high concentration of cones. These are the light-sensitive cells in the ... Venes, Donald, ed..Macula.Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online. www.tabers.com/ ...
macula lutea synonyms, macula lutea pronunciation, macula lutea translation, English dictionary definition of macula lutea. n. ... maculae lu·te·ae A minute yellowish area containing the fovea centralis located near the center of the retina of the eye at ... New Latin macula lūtea : Latin macula, spot + Latin lūtea, yellow.]. macula lutea. (ˈluːtɪə) n, pl maculae luteae (ˈluːtɪˌiː) ( ... Related to macula lutea: fovea, visual acuity, Ora serrata. macula lu·te·a. (lo͞o′tē-ə). n. pl. maculae lu·te·ae (lo͞o′tē-ē′) A ...
What is macula lutea retinae? Meaning of macula lutea retinae as a legal term. What does macula lutea retinae mean in law? ... Definition of macula lutea retinae in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Macula lutea retinae legal definition of macula lutea retinae https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/macula+lutea+ ... macula. (redirected from macula lutea retinae). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. See: defilement. ...
... macula lutea explanation free. What is macula lutea? Meaning of macula lutea medical term. What does macula lutea mean? ... Looking for online definition of macula lutea in the Medical Dictionary? ... 4. macula lutea. adj., adj mac´ular, mac´ulate.. acoustic maculae (ma´culae acus´ticae) the macula sacculi and macula utriculi ... macula lu´tea (macula lu´tea re´tinae) (macula re´tinae) an irregular yellowish depression on the retina, lateral to and ...
... macula lutea explanation. Define macula lutea by Websters Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of Computing, Legal ... Macula. -- macula lutea --. macular area. macular degeneration. macular edema. Maculate. Maculated. Maculation. Maculatory. ... macula lutea - a yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones and that mediates clear detailed vision. Synonyms: ... macula lutea n.. 1.. A yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones. ...
maculamacula lutea 视网膜黄斑 macula retinae 视网膜黄斑 ... ... macula lutea /ˈluːtɪə/ * 1. N a small yellowish oval-shaped spot, rich in cones, near the centre of the retina of the eye, ... macula lutea [ -lu:tiə ] * n. a yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones and that mediates clear detailed ... Fundus is one of the most important parts in eyeball, especial macula lutea, whose characteristics are of great significance to ...
... (anatomy of the eye) - a small depression forming a shallow pit in the retina at the back of each eye in the human ... The macula lutea is a small depression forming a shallow pit in the retina at the back of each eye in the human body. It is ... As is true of many terms in anatomy, the word macula lutea has many synonyms, in this case yellow spot and fovea. Different ... Due to the large number of the light-sensitive photo-detector cells called cones located in the region of the macula lutea, ...
... pl maculae lu·te·ae ē .ē, ē .ī a small yellowish area lying slightly lateral to the center of the retina that constitutes the ... macula lutea - /mak yeuh leuh looh tee euh/, pl. maculae luteae /mak yeuh lee looh tee ee , mak yeuh luy looh tee uy /. macula ... macula lutea - macula lutea, macular area macular area . A yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones. Syn: ... macula lutea - noun (plural maculae luteae) Etymology: New Latin, literally, yellow spot Date: 1848 a small yellowish area ...
Keeper: A small vacuum pump, attached to the main gallery space window. It keeps a single Citron fruit suspended behind PVC, forming an enclosure with no space or air. The assembly sustains a tension between what is on display and what meets the eye.. Disperser: A modified industrial ventilator with blades made of brittle glass, installed in the rear wall between the exhibition space and its back rooms and office.. Analyst: A semi-fictional character, in search of a perfect skin. Immersed in a civilizing ritual to keep the world in check, seeking to eliminate inconsistencies and construct a ground from which to begin and end. Of course it slips, the surface becomes a field, the ground does its dizzying thing.. ...
The term macula lutea comes from Latin macula, "spot", and lutea, "yellow". ... The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other ... Schematic diagram of the macula lutea of the retina, showing perifovea, parafovea, fovea, and clinical macula ... This article is about the macula of the eye. For other uses of the term macula, see Macula (disambiguation). For Yellow Spot ...
Macula lutea - Papilla nervi optici - Nervus opticus, Chiasma, Tractus opticus, Radiatio optica - Hypophyse - Liquor ...
... macula lutea: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a relatively common condition in people over the age of 50. There are ... In macula lutea. Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a relatively common condition in people over the age of 50. There ...
"macula --- die Makula [anat.]" "macula (macula lutea) --- gelber Fleck (Macula lutea) [anat.]" The macula lutea is the yellow ... "macula --- die Makula [anat.]" könnte zusätzlich aufgenommen werden.. "macula --- gelber Fleck (Macula lutea) [anat.]" ... macula. - gelber Fleck. macula. - Fovea centralis. Comment. Macula heißt zwar allgemein Fleck, aber google (engl) findet nur ... macula lutea. An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and ...
Macula Lutea / pathology * Macula Lutea / surgery* * Macular Degeneration / pathology * Macular Degeneration / surgery* ...
Macula Lutea * Postoperative Complications * Retinal Diseases / etiology * Vitreous Body / surgery* ...
Macula or macula lutea, 22. Fovea and 23 Optic disc → blind spot. 24. Optical axis of the eye. 25. Axis of eye. 26. Optic nerve ...
2.) macula lutea. (small oval area of the retina with special photoreceptor cones) the fovea centralis is located centrally to ...
Light-sensitive ends face the choroid (away from incoming light). About 3 million per retina - most abundant in macula lutea. ...
macula lutea. depression containing cones, but no rods; high visual acuity area:. fovea centralis. ... maculae; vestibule. otoliths are ____________________and contribute to_________equilibrium. calcium carbonate stones; static ...
Haab O (1885) Erkrankungen der macula lutea. Centralblat Augenheilkd 9: 384-391Google Scholar ...
In the macula lutea, the layer forms several strata.[citation needed] The cells are somewhat flask-shaped; the rounded internal ...
Macula Lutea / physiopathology*. Male. Middle Aged. Oscillometry. Pregnancy. Pregnancy in Diabetics / metabolism, ...
Keywords: Macular degeneration/therapy; Choroidal neovascularization; Photochemotherapy; Macula lutea/surgery; Micronutrients. ...
... associated with symmetrical changes in the macula lutea. On investigation of the reported cases, they found that neither ...
48 Cameras was the brainchild and life project of self-proclaimed non-musician Jean-Marie Mathoul, a social worker born and raised in Huy who carefully conducted 48C towards cult status. The name of the collective references photographer Eadweard Muybridge and a poem by Jim Morrison; "Muybridge derived his animal subjects from the Philadelphia Zoological Garden, male performers from the University. The women were professional artists models, also actresses and dancers, parading nude before the 48 cameras". It is important to note that 48C is somewhat of a non-band. The musicians and collaborators never actually recorded together, and to this day some havent even met each other. Before starting the recording process, J-M built an album in his mind: choice of album and song titles, who was to collaborate, even the artwork was clear long before the first note was played, leaving little room for surprises. Throughout the years, collaborators sent their parts by snail mail on tape, DAT, or even ...
It is a yellowish spot called the macula lutea. It has a depression in its center called the fovea centralis. This depression ... It is thinner at the macula lutea and usually thickest at the lamina cribrosa, Continue Scrolling To Read More Below... ...
Macula lutea. When an eye is looking directly at an object, light rays from that object are focused on the macula lutea. This ... Macula lutea. When an eye is looking directly at an object, light rays from that object are focused on the macula lutea. This ...
A comprehensive database of more than 41 hematology quizzes online, test your knowledge with hematology quiz questions. Our online hematology trivia quizzes can be adapted to suit your requirements for taking some of the top hematology quizzes.
What is the macula lutea?. It is the central 5.5mm of the retina which contains xenthophyll (yellow pigment). ... The optic disc is located nasal to the maculae, therefore the blind spot will be just the ___________ and located ... What is the area that includes the optic disc and the macula called?. Papillomacular bundle. ... The optic disc is located temporally to the maculae. T or F. False, Nasally. ...
Macula.com. The Macula Foundation, Inc. supports basic and clinical research in vitreous, retinal and macular diseases. The ...
  • and this kind of vision is impaired if the macula is damaged, for example in macular degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The progressive destruction of the macula is a disease known as macular degeneration and can sometimes lead to the creation of a macular hole. (wikipedia.org)
  • A form of MACULAR DEGENERATION also known as dry macular degeneration marked by occurrence of a well-defined progressive lesion or atrophy in the central part of the RETINA called the MACULA LUTEA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disease of the central area in the ocular posterior segment, known as the macula lutea . (hindawi.com)
  • What's the best way to treat macula degeneration? (healthtap.com)
  • Is there a preventive treatment for macula degeneration? (healthtap.com)
  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of worldwide blindness in the elderly, is a bilateral ocular condition that affects the central area of retina known as the macula. (nih.gov)
  • however, the magnitudes of these periphery to center gradients are larger in the human.Hence, with respect to photoreceptor density and phagocytic load of the RPE, the central mouse retina models at least the more peripheral part of the macula, where macular degeneration is often first evident. (nih.gov)
  • However, the mouse retina does not have a macula, leading to the question of whether the mouse is a relevant model for macular degeneration. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, a quantitative comparison between the organization of the central mouse retina and the human macula was made, focusing on some structural characteristics that have been suggested to be important in predisposing the macula to stresses leading to degeneration: photoreceptor density, phagocytic load on the RPE, and the relative thinness of Bruch's membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Hence, with respect to photoreceptor density and phagocytic load of the RPE, the central mouse retina models at least the more peripheral part of the macula, where macular degeneration is often first evident. (nih.gov)
  • As is true of many terms in anatomy, the word macula lutea has many synonyms, in this case yellow spot and fovea . (ivyroses.com)
  • http://www.stlukeseye.com/anatomy/Fovea.asp The fovea (arrow) is the center most part of the macula. (leo.org)
  • Janku J: Pathogenesis and pathologic anatomy of coloboma of macula lutea in eye of normal dimensions and in microphthalmic eye with parasites in retina. (karger.com)
  • The macula lutea, which derives its name from the deposition of yellow xanthophyll pigments ( see chapter on simple anatomy ), is located temporal to the optic disc and is bounded by the temporal superior and inferior vascular arcades ( Fig. 1 ). (nih.gov)
  • The average angle between the optic disc and macula lutea of the health human eyes is 7.35±2.15 degrees. (youdao.com)
  • What is the area that includes the optic disc and the macula called? (studystack.com)
  • The macula in humans has a diameter of around 5.5 mm (0.22 in) and is subdivided into the umbo, foveola, foveal avascular zone, fovea, parafovea, and perifovea areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotenoids (lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso -zeaxanthin (MZ)) are found in the human macula, where they are collectively known as macular pigment (MP). (bmj.com)
  • Interestingly, the pigment is captured and normally (typically) distributed at the macula in such a way that it peaks centrally at the foveola (the part of the retina responsible for high acuity and colour vision) and declines with increasing retinal eccentricity. (bmj.com)
  • These xanthophylls form the macular pigment with the highest density in the macula lutea. (lambertvetsupply.com)
  • It plays a protective role which also constitutes the human eye macula lutea area which is the main pigment. (firmoo.com)
  • The yellow coloration of the macula lutea is attributable to the presence of macular pigment in the axons of its photoreceptors. (bmj.com)
  • Fovea - 1.55 mm (0.061 in) Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) - 0.5 to 0.6 mm (0.020 to 0.024 in) Foveola - 0.35 mm (0.014 in) Umbo - 0.15 mm (0.0059 in) Structures in the macula are specialized for high-acuity vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structures in the macula are specialized for high- acuity vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is slightly yellow in apperance and so was first called the ' yellow spot ' or ' macula lutea ' of Sömmerring, who was the scientist who first discovered and documented it. (ivyroses.com)
  • Syn: macula, yellow spot. (enacademic.com)
  • Lutein was discovered around 1930 and it was identified in the macula lutea (an oval shaped, highly pigmented yellow spot close to the centre of the retina of the human eye) in 1945. (freefitnesstips.co.uk)
  • Apart from being found in plant based foods, zeaxanthin can be found in the macula lutea (an oval shaped, highly pigmented yellow spot close to the centre of the retina of the human eye). (freefitnesstips.co.uk)
  • The yellow color of the macula lutea (literally, yellow spot ) in the retina of the human eye results from the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the large number of the light-sensitive photo-detector cells called cones located in the region of the macula lutea , this is the area of greatest acuity of vision. (ivyroses.com)
  • The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other animalian eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the macula is yellow in colour it absorbs excess blue and ultraviolet light that enter the eye, and acts as a natural sunblock (analogous to sunglasses) for this area of the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this photo does not show it, the foveal area has a yellow pigmentation called the macula lutea. (yorku.ca)
  • Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. (hindawi.com)
  • macula lutea , vo všeobecnej anatómii stavovcov tiež area centralis - centrálna oblasť) je miesto na očnej sietnici , kde je najväčšia hustota čapíkov a teda aj najostrejšie videnie . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the macula comprises only four percent of retinal area, it is responsible for the majority of useful photopic vision. (nih.gov)
  • The macula (boxed area), which is adapted for high acuity vision, is located temporal to the optic nerve (arrow). (nih.gov)
  • Because of the area of atrophy (the macula, or the center of the retina), the result is central vision loss. (quantumhealth.com)
  • At centre is the dark region of the macula lutea, an area free of large blood vessels where the fovea (area of best sight) is found. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The macula is the most sensitive part of the retina and is devoid of blood vessels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Macular holes are rarely caused by trauma, but if a severe blow is delivered it can burst the blood vessels going to the macula, destroying it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The macula lutea is the yellow oval spot at the center of the retina (back of the eye) that contains blood vessels and nerve fibers. (leo.org)
  • AMD is caused by damage to the blood vessels that supply the macula. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Dry AMD occurs when the blood vessels under the macula become thin and brittle. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • New abnormal and very fragile blood vessels grow under the macula. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • The eye doctor will look for specific changes in the macula and blood vessels and for drusen. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • The resulting fluid leakage and overgrowth of blood vessels can quickly damage the macula and its rod and cone cells, resulting in severe loss of central vision. (quantumhealth.com)
  • For other uses of the term macula, see Macula (disambiguation) . (wikipedia.org)
  • The anatomical macula at 5.5 mm (0.22 in) is much larger than the clinical macula which, at 1.5 mm (0.059 in), corresponds to the anatomical fovea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical macula is seen when viewed from the pupil, as in ophthalmoscopy or retinal photography. (wikipedia.org)
  • The macula lutea is a small depression forming a shallow pit in the retina at the back of each eye in the human body. (ivyroses.com)
  • Fundus is one of the most important parts in eyeball, especial macula lutea , whose characteristics are of great significance to diagnosis and cure of eyes'diseases. (youdao.com)
  • The macula lutea, also called fovea, contains a very high concentration of cones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Within the macula are the fovea and foveola that both contain a high density of cones (photoreceptors with high acuity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Zeaxanthin predominates at the macula, while lutein predominates elsewhere in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lutein, as well as its stereoisomer, zeaxanthin, occurs in the lens and in the macula lutea region of the retina. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • 2 The presence of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula was confirmed by Handelman and coworkers in 1988. (bmj.com)
  • In the eye, certain other carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) apparently act directly to absorb damaging blue and near-ultraviolet light, in order to protect the macula lutea. (enotes.com)
  • Research shows that lutein intake through diet and supplementation correlates directly to the amount of lutein found in the macula of the eye. (lambertvetsupply.com)
  • The macula is small oval layer of ganglion cells at the center of the retina (the retina is located at the back of the eye where come cells absorb light and enable you to see). (quantumhealth.com)
  • Macula heißt zwar allgemein Fleck, aber google (engl) findet nur die Makula, die den Fleck schärfsten Sehens auf der Netzhaut, syn. (leo.org)
  • macula --- gelber Fleck (Macula lutea) [anat. (leo.org)
  • macula --- die Makula [anat. (leo.org)
  • In the case of occipitoparietal ischemia owing to occlusion of elements of either posterior cerebral artery, patients may display cortical blindness (which, rarely, can involve blindness that the patient denies having, as seen in Anton's Syndrome), yet display sparing of the macula. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas loss of peripheral vision may go unnoticed for some time, damage to the macula will result in loss of central vision, which is usually immediately obvious. (wikipedia.org)
  • A part of the retina called the macula makes vision sharper and more detailed. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • The macula is responsible for sharp vision. (coursehero.com)
  • The fovea, also called the macula lutea, contains light-sensitive cells that provide central vision. (coursehero.com)
  • I copied the link primarily to show that "macula lutea" is used in English as well as in German - but re-reading it, I agree that it is indeed a very poor/inaccurate definition - my brain obviously wasn't in gear early this morning. (leo.org)
  • The anatomical macula is defined histologically in terms of having two or more layers of ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 17 In the late stage TON patients may suffer from secondary pathological changes that lead to the dysfunction and death of retinal ganglion cells during which the macula lutea and the vitreous base are dragged by the vitreous body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Macula lutea Área pigmentada que se aprecia en oftalmoscopia al mismo nivel del disco óptico, en el centro del globo ocular, donde se localizan la mayor concentración de conos. (enacademic.com)
  • Ocular coherence tomogram (OCT) of a normal macula. (nih.gov)
  • For diseases of the macula, Angioplex will replace fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography because it is faster, cheaper, safer, non-invasive, doesn't require dilation, and provides all the advantages of traditional OCT imaging while giving us superior images of the retinal and choroidal microvasculature", says Dr. Philip J. Rosenfeld, Professor of Ophthalmology from the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. (zeiss.com)
  • The potential for early detection and enhancing our treatment of microvascular diseases of the macula is tremendous. (zeiss.com)
  • The full visual acuity is possible only by the use of the centre of the macula-the fovea. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Visual input from the macula occupies a substantial portion of the brain's visual capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, some forms of visual field loss that occur without involving the macula are termed macular sparing. (wikipedia.org)
  • B: Port is placed in the macula lutea in which the visual cortex and medulla. (bigsurlandtrust.org)
  • The macula accounts for almost 10% of the entire visual field. (nih.gov)
  • The fovea is located near the center of the macula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gaze is into the camera, so in each picture the macula is in the center of the image, and the optic disk is located towards the nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fovea lies at the center of the macula ( Fig. 1, asterisk ) and is approximately 2mm in diameter. (nih.gov)
  • Of potentially greater relevance is the actual photoreceptor cell density, which is much greater in the mouse central retina than in the human macula, underlying a higher phagocytic load for the mouse RPE. (nih.gov)
  • Regió de la retina temporal situada a uns 2,5 mm del punt cec que presenta una coloració grogosa i en la qual es troba la fòvea central. (termcat.cat)
  • A comparison of some organizational characteristics of the mouse central retina and the human macula. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, at eccentricities that correspond to the peripheral half of the human macula, the rod to cone ratio is similar between mouse and human. (nih.gov)