The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Assays that measure the rate of migration of MACROPHAGES. They may involve the use hollow plastic chamber, sealed at one end with a porous membrane and suspended over a larger well which may contain CHEMOTACTIC FACTORS. The migration of cell through the pores to the other side of the membrane is measured.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A sialic acid binding lectin that was originally identified as an adhesion molecule for inflammatory MACROPHAGES and activated MONOCYTES. This protein is the largest known siglec subtype and contains 16 immunoglobulin C2-set domains. It plays a role in cell to cell interactions and interactions with BACTERIA.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
A bacteria isolated from normal skin, intestinal contents, wounds, blood, pus, and soft tissue abscesses. It is a common contaminant of clinical specimens, presumably from the skin of patients or attendants.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.

Expression of c-Myc in response to colony-stimulating factor-1 requires mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1. (1/1430)

The mitogen-inducible gene c-myc is a key regulator of cell proliferation and transformation. Yet, the signaling pathway(s) that regulate its expression have remained largely unresolved. Using the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 and dominant negative forms of Ras (N17) and ERK1 (K71R), we found that activation of Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is necessary for colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)-mediated c-Myc expression and DNA synthetic (S) phase entry. Quiescent NIH-3T3 cells expressing a partially defective CSF-1 receptor, CSF-1R (Y809F), exhibited impaired ERK1 activation and c-Myc expression and failed to enter the S phase of the cell division cycle in response to CSF-1 stimulation. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of MEK1 in cells expressing CSF-1R (Y809F) rescued c-Myc expression and S phase entry, but only in the presence of CSF-1-induced cooperating signals. Therefore, MEK1 participates in an obligate signaling pathway linking CSF-1R to c-Myc expression, but other signals from CSF-1R must cooperate with the MEK/ERK pathway to induce c-Myc expression and S phase entry in response to CSF-1 stimulation.  (+info)

Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice. (2/1430)

It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response.  (+info)

Enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 due to prolonged response to lipopolysaccharide in human macrophages infected in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (3/1430)

Elevated levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 have been detected in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. The overproduction of these cytokines could contribute to AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in human macrophages infected with HIV-1 was investigated. HIV-1 infection, per se, did not induce any TNF-alpha or IL-6 production or cytokine-specific mRNA expression. In contrast, HIV-1 primed macrophages to a prolonged TNF-alpha and IL-6 response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation with respect to uninfected cells. Time-course analysis and flow cytometry demonstrated that cytokine production stopped at 6 h in uninfected macrophages but continued up to 24 h in HIV-1-infected cells. RNA studies suggested that HIV-1 interfered with late steps of cytokine synthesis. No modulation of membrane CD14 was found to account for the enhanced response to LPS. Finally, the effect of HIV-1 on cytokine response could not be abolished by the antiviral compound U75875.  (+info)

The Ets2 transcription factor inhibits apoptosis induced by colony-stimulating factor 1 deprivation of macrophages through a Bcl-xL-dependent mechanism. (4/1430)

Bcl-xL, a member of the Bcl-2 family, inhibits apoptosis, and its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level, yet nothing is known about the transcription factors specifically activating this promoter. The bcl-x promoter contains potential Ets binding sites, and we show that the transcription factor, Ets2, first identified by its sequence identity to v-ets of the E26 retrovirus, can transactivate the bcl-x promoter. Transient expression of Ets2 results in the upregulation of Bcl-xL but not of Bcl-xS, an alternatively spliced gene product which induces apoptosis. Ets2 is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in a variety of cell types and tissues but is specifically induced to abundant levels during macrophage differentiation. Since Bcl-xL is also upregulated during macrophage differentiation, we asked whether the bcl-x could be a direct downstream target gene of Ets2 in macrophages. BAC1.2F5 macrophages, which are dependent on macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) for their growth and survival, were used in these studies. We show that CSF-1 stimulation of BAC1.2F5 macrophages results in the upregulation of expression of ets2 and bcl-xL with similar kinetics of induction. In the absence of CSF-1, these macrophages undergo cell death by apoptosis, whereas constitutive expression of Ets2 rescues these cells from cell death, and bcl-xL is upregulated. These results strongly suggest a novel role of Ets2 in affecting apoptosis through its regulation of Bcl-xL transcription.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide can block the potential of monocytes to differentiate into dendritic cells. (5/1430)

We examined whether priming monocytes (MO) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) influenced their further differentiation into either macrophages (Mphi) or dendritic cells (DC). LPS-primed MO differentiated into Mphi when cultured further with Mphi colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) but, if cultured then with granulocyte/Mphi (GM)-CSF and IL-4 (interleukin-4), only about 30% of the cells differentiated into CD1a+ CD14- DC and half became CD1a- CD14+ Mphi. Cytokines present during LPS priming could affect subsequent MO differentiation. Relative to priming with LPS alone, adding M-CSF to LPS did not modify differentiation of MO to Mphi in further culture with M-CSF, nor did it change the way of differentiation of MO into DC was altered if culture was later switched to GM-CSF/IL-4. Using GM-CSF/IL-4 plus LPS upon priming did not modify differentiation of MO to Mphi in further culture with M-CSF, as compared to priming with GM-CSF/IL-4 alone, but it counteracted the effect of LPS on the differentiation of MO to DC in further culture with GM-CSF/IL-4: about 75% of cells then became DC. Alternatively, despite activation by LPS, mature M-CSF-induced Mphi preserved the potential to differentiate into DC on subsequent culture with GM-CSF/IL-4. Thus, LPS, a bacterial product known to sustain maturation of MO/Mphi as well as of DC, may block the differentiation of MO into DC, except if signal triggering DC differentiation is delivered concomitantly, and modulate in this manner the induction of adaptive immune responses to infection.  (+info)

Endotoxin-mediated S-nitrosylation of p50 alters NF-kappa B-dependent gene transcription in ANA-1 murine macrophages. (6/1430)

Nitric oxide (NO) regulates cellular function, in part, by S-nitrosylating active site thiol groups of proteins. Ex vivo S-nitrosylation of NF-kappa B p50 significantly decreases its capacity for DNA binding. To determine the cellular relevance of this observation, we utilized the ANA-l murine macrophage model of endotoxin (LPS)-mediated NO synthesis. In selected instances, the NO synthase inhibitor, L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 microM), or the NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC; 100 microM), was added. In contrast to that of LPS cells, nuclear extracts from LPS + L-NAME cells demonstrated increased NF-kappa B DNA binding on gel shift analysis. Addition of SNAC to LPS + L-NAME cells restored binding to a level equivalent to that of LPS cells. Spectrophotometric analysis of NF-kappa B p50 immunoprecipitates demonstrated S-NO bonds exclusively in LPS cells; these p50 protein isolates retained the same DNA binding characteristics as that of the nuclear extracts. Transfection assays utilizing NF-kappa B-dependent promoter-reporter constructs demonstrated increased activity in LPS + L-NAME cells compared with LPS cells; nuclear run-on assays confirmed increased transcription of the corresponding genes. These results suggest that LPS-mediated NO synthesis is associated with S-nitrosylation of NF-kappa B p50 and inhibition of NF-kappa B-dependent DNA binding, promoter activity, and gene transcription. We conclude that NO can regulate gene transcription by S-nitrosylation of NF-kappa B.  (+info)

Mutation of tyrosine 960 within the insulin receptor juxtamembrane domain impairs glucose transport but does not inhibit ligand-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (7/1430)

CSF-1 is equipotent to insulin in its ability to stimulate 2-[3H]deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes expressing the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor chimera (CSF1R/IR). However, CSF-1-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is reduced by 50% in comparison to insulin in 3T3-L1 cells expressing a CSF1R/IR mutated at Tyr960 (CSF1R/IRA960). CSF-1-treated adipocytes expressing the CSF1R/IRA960 were impaired in their ability to phosphorylate insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) but not in their ability to phosphorylate IRS-2. Immunoprecipitation of IRS proteins followed by Western blotting revealed that the intact CSF1R/IR co-precipitates with IRS-2 from CSF-1-treated cells. In contrast, the CSF1R/IRA960 co-precipitates poorly with IRS-2. These observations suggest that Tyr960 is important for interaction of the insulin receptor cytoplasmic domain with IRS-2, but it is not essential to the ability of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase to use IRS-2 as a substrate. These observations also suggest that in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-2 by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase is not sufficient for maximal stimulation of receptor-regulated glucose transport or glycogen synthesis.  (+info)

Protein phosphatase 2A is expressed in response to colony-stimulating factor 1 in macrophages and is required for cell cycle progression independently of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activity. (8/1430)

Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) is required for the development of monocytes/macrophages from progenitor cells and for the survival and activation of mature macrophages. The receptor for CSF-1 is the product of the c-fms proto-oncogene, which, on binding ligand, can stimulate a mitogenic response in the appropriate cells. To investigate which genes are regulated in response to CSF-1-stimulation in murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), we employed mRNA differential display reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR to identify cDNA species induced by CSF-1. Both Northern and Western blot analyses confirmed the increased expression of one of the cDNA species identified as coding for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), an observation not previously reported during the response to a growth factor. To determine the significance of the increased expression of PP2A in response to CSF-1, the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) was added to CSF-1-treated BMM and found to inhibit DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis with flow cytometry in the presence of OA led to the novel conclusion that PP2A activity is critical for CSF-1-driven BMM cell cycle progression in both early G1 and S phases. Surprisingly, in the light of previous studies with other cells, the PP2A-dependent proliferation could be dissociated from activation by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in macrophages because OA did not affect either the basal or CSF-1-induced ERK activity in BMM. Two-dimensional SDS/PAGE analysis of lysates of 32P-labelled BMM, which had been treated with CSF-1 in the presence or absence of OA, identified candidate substrates for PP2A.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor in nonhuman primates. T2 - Selective expansion of a CD16+ monocyte subset with phenotypic similarity to primate natural killer cells. AU - Munn, David H.. AU - Bree, Andrea G.. AU - Beall, Arthur C.. AU - Kaviani, Michelle D.. AU - Sabio, Hernan. AU - Schaub, Robert G.. AU - Alpaugh, R. Katherine. AU - Weiner, Louis M.. AU - Goldman, Samuel J.. PY - 1996/8/15. Y1 - 1996/8/15. N2 - The CD16 receptor (FcγR-III) is found on many tissue macrophages (Mφs), but its expression on circulating monocytes is restricted to a small, phenotypically distinct subset. The number of these CD16+ monocytes may be markedly increased in response to sepsis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, or metastatic malignancy. We have recently shown that the CD16+ monocyte population is selectively expanded by administration of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhM-CSF). In the current study, we used the highly rhM-CSF-responsive ...
Phase I study of continuous-infusion recombinant macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic melanoma Academic Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peritoneal fluid and plasma levels of human macrophage colony-stimulating factor in relation to peritoneal fluid macrophage content. AU - Weinberg, J. B.. AU - Haney, A. F.. AU - Xu, F. J.. AU - Ramakrishnan, Sundaram. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with infertility (especially in the presence of endometriosis) contains increased numbers of leukocytes, 90% to 95% of which are macrophages. The high numbers of peritoneal macrophages presumably result from an influx of blood monocytes into the peritoneum, and/or from local proliferation of peritoneal macrophages. Once in the peritoneal cavity, monocytes differentiate into tissue macrophages. Mononuclear phagocyte proliferation and differentiation are influenced by different cytokines, including macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of M-CSF levels in human PF and ...
We show that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) infiltrating a kidney tumor recognize a peptide encoded by an alternative open reading frame (ORF) of the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) gene. Remarkably, this alternative ORF, which is translated in many tumors concurrently with the major ORF, is also translated in some tissues that do not produce M-CSF, such as liver and kidney. Such a dissociation of the translation of two overlapping ORFs from the same gene is unexpected. The antigenic peptide encoded by the alternative ORF is presented by human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*3501 and has a length of 14 residues. Peptide elution indicated that tumor cells naturally present this 14 mer, which is the longest peptide known to be recognized by CTLs. Binding studies of peptide analogues suggest that it binds by its two extremities and bulges out of the HLA groove to compensate for its length.
Recombinant Human M-CSF Protein (Met1-Asn190) Biotinylated with a fusion His Tag, is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this Human M-CSF protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha / CCL3 (ab53337). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
Active Recombinant human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 alpha is an Escherichia coli Full length protein, | 0.100 Eu/µg endotoxin level and validated in FuncS, SDS-PAGE.
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a cytokine that stimulates proliferation and differentiation of phagocytic cells. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is produced by ovarian epithelial cancer cell lines and might provide a useful serum marker for the disease. Among sera from 69 patients with …
This application note assesses a variety of metabolic parameters as well as cell yield and human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) production. The results show how that the performance of microcarrier cultures grown in glass or disposable spinner vessels are equivalent.
M-CSF, also called CSF-1, is a hematopoietic growth factor that is involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of monocytes, macrophages, and bone marrow progenitor cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preclinical and clinical studies of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. AU - Munn, David H. AU - Cheung, Nai Kong V. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026688226&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026688226&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 1387243. AN - SCOPUS:0026688226. VL - 19. SP - 395. EP - 407. JO - Seminars in Oncology. JF - Seminars in Oncology. SN - 0093-7754. IS - 4. ER - ...
Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is a homodimeric glycoprotein that is the major regulator of the survival, proliferation and differentiation of cells of the mononuclear phagocytic lineage. The effects of CSF-1 are mediated by the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) tyrosine kinase. The ligand-activated CSF-1R induces transient tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins, which is partially dependent on intact cytoskeleton and is tightly regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs).;In an investigation of the role of PTPs in CSF-1R signaling, three cDNAs encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase-phi (PTP&phis;) were cloned from the murine macrophage cell line BAC1.2F5. The corresponding mRNAs encode two membrane-spanning isoforms, p47PTP&phis; and p43PTP&phis;, and a putative cytosolic form p33PTP&phis;, only detectable at the mRNA level, that arise by alternative splicing. A GST-p47PTP&phis; fusion protein displayed PTP activity that was lost upon mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue to serine. ...
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) controls the development of macrophage lineage cells via activation of its tyrosine kinase receptor, c-Fms. After adding CSF-1 to M1 myeloid cells expressing CSF-1R (CSF-1 receptor), tyrosine phosphorylation of many cellular proteins occurs, which might be linked to subsequent macrophage differentiation. The biological significance and characterization of such proteins were explored by a dual strategy comprising two-dimensional SDS/PAGE analysis of cell lysates of CSF-1-treated M1 cells expressing the wild-type or a mutated receptor, together with an enrichment strategy involving a tyrosine-phosphorylated receptor construct. In the present study, we report the identification by MS of a novel, low-abundance, 110 kDa form of myosin XVIIIA (MysPDZ, myosin containing PDZ domain), which appears to be preferentially tyrosine-phosphorylated after CSF-1R activation when compared with other known isoforms. Receptor mutation studies indicate that ...
M-CSF Receptor antibody [604B5 2E11] (colony stimulating factor 1 receptor) for FACS. Anti-M-CSF Receptor mAb (GTX42493) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Purification and characterization of the biologically active human truncated macrophage colony-stimulating factor expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.: A huma
Rat Monoclonal Anti-M-CSF R/CD115 Antibody (AFS98). Validated: WB, B/N, Flow, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Mouse. 100% Guaranteed.
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Looking for online definition of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the Medical Dictionary? macrophage colony-stimulating factor explanation free. What is macrophage colony-stimulating factor? Meaning of macrophage colony-stimulating factor medical term. What does macrophage colony-stimulating factor mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage colony-stimulating factor in cooperation with transforming growth factor-β1 induces the differentiation of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells into Langerhans cells under serum-free conditions without granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. AU - Mollah, Zia U.A.. AU - Aiba, Setsuya. AU - Nakagawa, Satoshi. AU - Hara, Masahiro. AU - Manome, Hideaki. AU - Mizuashi, Masato. AU - Ootani, Tomoyuki. AU - Yoshino, Yumiko. AU - Tagami, Hachiro. PY - 2003/2/1. Y1 - 2003/2/1. N2 - Macrophage colony-stimulating factor has not been considered as a factor responsible for dendritic cell or Langerhans cell development from hematopoietic progenitor cells. In this study, we examined whether macrophage colony-stimulating factor could be used instead of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for the in vitro development of Langerhans cells from hematopoietic progenitor cells. We replaced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor with macrophage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage colony-stimulating factor differentially regulates low density lipoprotein and transferrin receptors. AU - Du, Liqin. AU - Post, Steven R.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - Endocytosis mediated by both LDL receptors (LDLRs) and transferrin receptors (TfRs) occurs in clathrin-coated pits and requires specific tyro-sine-based internalization sequences located in the cytoplasmic domain of these receptors. Internalization of these receptors is mediated by endocytic proteins that interact with the internalization domains. We previously showed that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) rapidly increases LDLR-dependent uptake and metabolism of LDL. To study the mechanism by which M-CSF regulates LDL uptake, we compared the effect of M-CSF on the internalization of LDL and transferrin (Tf). Our results show that M-CSF substantially increased the rate of LDLR internalization without increasing LDLR ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CpG oligonucleotides enhance the tumor antigen-specific immune response of a granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-based vaccine strategy in neuroblastoma. AU - Sandler, Anthony D.. AU - Chihara, Hiroshi. AU - Kobayashi, Gen. AU - Zhu, Xiaoyan. AU - Miller, Michal A.. AU - Scott, David. AU - Krieg, Arthur M.. PY - 2003/1/15. Y1 - 2003/1/15. N2 - Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-transduced autologous tumor cells form the basis of many immunotherapeutic strategies. We tested whether combining this approach with T-helper 1 (Th-1)-like immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) would improve therapeutic efficacy in an established model of murine neuroblastoma. The weakly immunogenic Neuro-2a cell line was used in syngeneic A/J mice. CpG 1826 was tested for its antitumor effect alone and as an adjuvant to Neuro-2a cells retrovirally transduced to express murine GM-CSF (GM/Neuro-2a). Three days after wild-type (WT) tumor cell inoculation, ...
The primary cytokine induced from the interaction of oral epithelial cells with is granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); however, the mechanisms regulating this response are unfamiliar. potent inducer of granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating element (GM-CSF) in human being oral keratinocytes (Li and Dongari-Bagtzoglou, 2007; Li and the prevention of invasive illness, as suggested in clinical reports (Nicolatou-Galitis infection, a better understanding of the specific mechanisms involved in GM-CSF induction in response to is needed. The current study was consequently undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of strains GDH2269 and 94-11 were from ATCC. Two pathogenic esophageal candidiasis isolates, MRL2302 and MRL7525, were kindly provided by Dr. M. Ghannoum (Case Western Reserve University or college, Cleveland, OH, USA). Stationary-phase fungus cells were made by development for 18 hrs at area temperature in fungus remove, peptone, and dextrose (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, ...
0009]Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-I) appears to play an important role in promoting and maintaining macrophage reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through its effects on monocyte proliferation, differentiation, susceptibility to infection and increased survival. M-CSF could also play a role in HIV-associated central nervous system disorders; M-CSF levels are moreover elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid in HIV-1 infected patients with dementia. The role of viral and cellular regulators on M-CSF regulation was determined by first cloning the M-CSF promoter upstream the luciferase reporter gene. We determined the role of Vpr, Tat and Rev as well as C/EBPβ in THPI cells for M-CSF promoter enhancement by cotransfection. Both Vpr and C/EBPβ upregulate M-CSF promoter activity in this cell line. In primary human monocytes, Vpr also upregulates M-CSF promoter activity. ELISA assay of culture supernatants demonstrated a 8-fold increase in M-CSF production in ...
We describe a patient with self-induced disease who presented with repeated urinary tract infection and sepsis due to intravesical and intravenous injection of feces. Sepsis occurred repeatedly such that the patient exhibited 10 bouts of fever , 40 degrees C in a single month. This bacterial challenge led to massive activation of the monocyte system with high levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). This cytokine response was followed by strong expansion of the novel CD14+CD16+ monocyte subset. These results suggest that cytokines induce the development of CD14+CD16+ cells in human septicemia and that CD14+CD16+ cells may serve as indicator for previous bouts of excessive inflammation. ...
The specific biological function of the cell surface or membrane-bound isoform of colony-stimulating factor-1 (mCSF-1) is not well understood. To help define the role of this isoform in bone, we developed a transgenic mouse in which targeted expression of human mCSF-1 in osteoblasts was achieved under the control of the 2.4-kb rat collagen type I alpha promoter. Bone density, determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, was reduced 7% in mCSF-1 transgenic compared with that in wild-type mice. Histomorphometric analyses indicated that the number of osteoclasts in bone (NOc/BPm, NOc/TAR, OcS/BS) was significantly increased in transgenic mice (1.7- to 1.8-fold; P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) compared with that in wild-type animals. Interestingly, the osteoblast-restricted isoform transgene corrected the osteopetrosis seen in CSF-1-deficient op/op mice. Skeletal growth and bone density in op/op mice expressing mCSF-1 in osteoblasts were similar to those in wild-type mice and were dramatically ...
Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), the primary regulator of mononuclear phagocyte (Mphi) production, exists as either a circulating or cell surface, membrane-spanning molecule. To establish transplacental transfer of maternal CSF-1, gestational day
Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) were administered intravenously to rats, and their effects on neutrophils and monocytes were...
Definition of macrophage colony stimulating factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is macrophage colony stimulating factor? Meaning of macrophage colony stimulating factor as a legal term. What does macrophage colony stimulating factor mean in law?
As shown in Table 2⇓ , only 1 of 3 patients at dose level 1 developed grade 3 fever. At dose level 2, 3 of 3 had grade 3 fever and chills, but no other grade 3 toxicity except fatigue and malaise with a decrease in performance status to WHO grade 3. At dose levels 3 and 4, all of the patients developed grade 4 fever with chills and hypotension the first day, which could be corrected by i.v. fluids within 12 h. In all of the patients the dose of GM was reduced to 2.5 μg/kg (level 3) and the dose of IL-2 to 4 MIU/m2 (level 4). A further dose reduction of IL-2 was necessary in three patients (in one patient, to 2 MIU/m2; in two, to 1 MIU/m2) to maintain systolic blood pressure at, 100 mm Hg without i.v. fluids (see Table 1⇓ ). These results defined dose level 2 as the MTD. Six additional patients were entered at this dose level to clearly establish the MTD. In 1 of 6 patients, dose reduction of IL-2 to 2 MIU/m2 was necessary because of grade 4 fever with hypotension. In two other patients, a ...
Copyright 2013 by the Massachusetts General Hospital. Some sections copyright 2008-2009 by The President and Fellows of Harvard College.. ...
The name colony-stimulating factors comes from the method by which they were discovered. Hemopoietic stem cells were cultured (see cell culture) on a so-called semi solid matrix which prevents cells from moving around, so that if a single cell starts proliferating, all of the cells derived from it will remain clustered around the spot in the matrix where the first cell was originally located, and these are referred to as colonies. It was therefore possible to add various substances to cultures of hemopoietic stem cells and then examine which kinds of colonies (if any) were stimulated by them. The substance which was found to stimulate formation of colonies of macrophages, for instance, was called macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and so on. ...
Introduction Various researches have been made in the field of the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Different mechanisms are involved in the progression of cellular damage that gives an idea about new drug targets. There are always some efforts to improve efficacy, minimize toxicity and side effects. One well known target is pro-inflammatory cytokine: colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1). It comes under the category of colony stimulating factors. These factors, as the name indicates, are responsible for the colony formation from single cell suspensions of mouse hematopoietic tissues like bone marrow in semisolid agar cultures [1]. Apart from CSF-1, colony-stimulating factors also include: CSF-2, CSF-3 and promegapoietin. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), also called macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF), interact with transmembrane receptor, colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R; c-FMS) leads to the differentiation and proliferation of Aminophylline of ...
Mancini A, Koch A, Wilms R, Tamura T (April 2002). c-Cbl associates directly with the C-terminal tail of the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor, c-Fms, and down-modulates this receptor but not the viral oncogene v-Fms. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (17): 14635-40. PMID 11847211. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109214200. ...
Cross-talk between cancer cells as well as the defense cells occurring in the tumor microenvironment is vital in promoting indicators that foster tumor development and metastasis. and showed that tumor cells may make and react to this cytokine functionally. With this review, we summarize the multiple jobs of IL-34 in a variety of cancers, with desire to to raised understand the partnership between the manifestation of the cytokine and tumor behavior also to offer fresh insights for discovering a fresh potential therapeutic focus on. gene is situated on chromosome 16q22.1, whereas the mouse ortholog (we.e., em Il-34 /em ) maps to chromosome 8E1. Human being IL-34 stocks an amino acidity sequence identification of 99.6%, 72%, and 71% with IL-34 from the chimpanzee, rat, and mouse, [5] respectively. IL-34 displays no intended consensus structural site/theme, nor a series similarity with some other development element, including macrophage colony-stimulating element (M-CSF-1; also called CSF-1) [6]. ...
Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) ,also known as CSF1,is a potent hematopoietic factor produced by a variety of cells including lymphocytes, monocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myoblasts and osteoblasts. The active form of the protein is found extracellularly as a disulfide-link...
M-CSF induces SR-A expression and AcLDL association. (A) Cultured resident MPMs were incubated with the indicated concentrations of M-CSF for 24 hrs. Subsequent
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The cellular mechanisms which account for the formation of osteoclasts and bone resorption associated with enlarging benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours of bone are uncertain. Osteoclasts are marrow-derived, multinucleated, bone-resorbing cells which express a macrophage phenotype. We have determined whether tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts. Macrophages were cultured on both coverslips and dentine slices for up to 21 days with UMR 106 osteoblastic cells in the presence of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or, in the absence of UMR 106 cells, with M-CSF and RANK ligand. In all tumours, the formation of osteoclasts from CD14-positive macrophages was shown by the formation of tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase and vitronectin-receptor-positive multinucleated cells which were capable of carrying out lacunar resorption. These results
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutralization of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor decreases amyloid beta 1-42 and suppresses microglial activity in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimers disease. AU - Manczak, Maria. AU - Mao, Peizhong. AU - Nakamura, Kazuhiro. AU - Bebbington, Christopher. AU - Park, Byung. AU - Reddy, P. Hemachandra. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The purpose of our study was to investigate microglia and astrocytes that are associated with human mutant amyloid precursor protein and amyloid beta (Aβ). We investigated whether the anti-granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) antibody can suppress microglial activity and decrease Aβ production in Alzheimers disease transgenic mice (Tg2576 line). An antibody to mouse GM-CSF was introduced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections into the brains of 10-month-old Tg2576 male mice. We assessed the effect of several GM-CSF-associated cytokines on microglial activities and their association with Aβ using ...
Clinical data regarding the use of colony-stimulating factors for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are conflicting because of varying study conditions. Interpretation of data is affected by differences in patients ages, induction regimens, the timing of growth factor administration, the presence of marrow hypoplasia, disease states, differences in the products used, and statistical endpoints. Most trials of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and yeast-derived granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have demonstrated a significant shortening of neutrophil recovery time and a trend toward higher rates of complete remission. Several studies have demonstrated a significant reduction in the rates of morbidity or early mortality with G-CSF or GM-CSF. In vitro data support the concept of enhancing antimicrobial activity with macrophage colony-stimulating factor or GM-CSF. The safety and potential benefit of these cytokines suggest that cytokines should be ...
Injection of RANKL CDK inhibition into RANKL deficient mice induced many osteoclasts in bone although not delicate tissues. These effects advise that osteoblasts establish the put of osteoclastogenesis from haemopoietic stem cells in bone. We subsequent explored roles of osteoclasts in ectopic bone formation induced by BMP utilizing op/op and c fos deficient osteopetrotic mice. The ectopic bones formed in op/op mice showed particularly tough surfaces, whereas those in wild form mice showed smooth ones. Bone mineral density of BMP induced ectopic bone in op/op mice was about 2 times increased than that in wild kind mice. TRAP constructive osteoclasts exhibit in outer of the ectopic bone while in the wild form mice. In op/op mice, despite the fact that osteoclasts strongly exhibit in inside with the BMP induced ectopic bone, TRAP positive osteoclasts didnt exhibit in outer of the BMP induced ectopic bone.. Furthermore, order BYL719 the accentuation of the BMP induced ectopic bone formation did ...
Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (TEPMs) were isolated from peritoneal cavities after intraperitoneal injections of 1 mL of 10% thioglycollate broth, followed by peritoneal lavage with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) 3 to 4 days later. Pulmonary macrophages were obtained from broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), whereas bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were obtained by isolation of bone marrow cells from the femurs of adult mice followed by differentiation of cells in complete RPMI medium (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Serum Supreme, BioWhittaker, Walkersville, MD) and 2 mM l-glutamine (Glutamax, Invitrogen), 20 U/mL penicillin, 20 μg/mL streptomycin (Invitrogen), and 100 U/mL CSF-1 (Chiron) for 7 days.16 For dual-color fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of splenocytes (Figure 5A) using Mac-1 (CD11b) and F4/80 antibodies, spleen cells were mechanically disaggregated by mincing the tissues using sterile scalpel blades. Spleen adherent cells ...
DCs are bone marrow-derived APCs that express high levels of MHC, adhesion molecules, and other important costimulatory molecules required for antigen presentation (32 , 33) . Their ability to take-up antigens and induce antigen-specific immunity has stimulated considerable interest in using them to treat cancer. However, naturally occurring DCs are exceptionally rare, comprising only 0.01-0.5% of circulating and tumor-infiltrating mononuclear leukocytes (19 , 34) . Even when present, DCs harvested from cancer patients often fail to express normal levels of antigen-presenting molecules and lack the ability to stimulate effective immune responses (27 , 34 , 35) . Enk et al. (35) purified CD83+ DCs from the tumors of patients with both regressing and progressing melanoma metastases. Whereas the DCs from regressing metastases expressed CD86 and functioned as APCs, the DCs recovered from progressing metastases expressed little CD86 and induced T-cell anergy instead of stimulation. Similarly, ...
MCSFR - Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor. Looking for abbreviations of MCSFR? It is Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor. Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor listed as MCSFR
Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan, HA) is a component of the extracellular matrix and is also used clinically to treat joint and cartilage diseases such as osteoarthritis. Chang et al. show that high molecular mass HA (HMM-HA), but not low molecular mass HA, inhibited osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages in response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). HMM-HA did not block RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis of RAW264.7 cells, which is independent of M-CSF. Although CD44 is one known receptor for HA, antibodies that block CD44 had no effect on the inhibition of osteoclast formation by HA. However, function-blocking antibodies against Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) blocked the inhibitory effect of HA, suggesting that HA was acting through the TLR4. TLR4-transfected cells bound labeled HA based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and osteoclastogenesis of cells from mice with a nonfunctional TLR4 ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and macrophages play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Currently, it is not clear whether inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 predominate among the resident macrophages in the synovium. In the present study, we set out to investigate the impact of TLR stimulation on monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophage function and phenotype by mimicking the exposure to abundant TLR agonists as occurs in the context of RA. The response of macrophage subsets to TLR2 and TLR4 activation was evaluated on cluster of differentiation (CD) marker profile; cytokine secretion; gene expression; and NF-κB, interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3/7), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Human monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy individuals and patients with RA and differentiated into M1-like and M2-like macrophages by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), respectively.
Our study unveils a TREM2/β-catenin pathway that regulates bone mass by regulating the rate of OC generation. Mechanistically, TREM2 and β-catenin augment the M-CSF-induced proliferation of OcP, retarding their differentiation into mature OC. Ablation of either TREM2 or β-catenin inhibits the proliferation of OcP, accelerating their differentiation into bone-resorbing OC, which ultimately cause osteoporosis. The possibility that TREM2 and β-catenin act along the same pathway is supported not only by the similar osteoporotic phenotypes of TREM2−/− and βcatΔ/Δ mice, but also by genetic evidence that simultaneous heterozygosity for TREM2- and β-catenin-null alleles results in osteoporosis, whereas no phenotype is observed in mice heterozygous for either of these alleles.. TREM2 may enhance M-CSF-induced activation of β-catenin by facilitating the recruitment of DAP12 to the receptor for M-CSF. In turn, DAP12 may activate Syk and Pyk2, which promote phosphorylation and nuclear ...
The Jak-Stat pathway of intracellular signals is used by growth factor- and cytokine receptors to induce gene transcription. We have recently reported that differentiation of myeloid cells, induced by phorbol ester, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is accompanied by the activation of the differentiation-induced factor (DIF). Activated DIF specifically associates with a subclass of gamma-interferon activation site (GAS)-like DNA elements. We now report that GM-CSF, which like CSF-1 promotes the generation of mature macrophages, activates DIF. No activation was observed after treatment with the granulocyte growth and differentiation factor G-CSF. Antibodies raised against a Stat family protein, designated mammary gland factor-Stat 5 (MGF-Stat 5), reacted with DIF induced by either CSF-1, GM-CSF or IFN-gamma. Antisera to other known Stats were without effect on the DIF complex in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). A 112 kDa protein could be isolated from either
Despite the extensive studies in the past two decades and the development of a generic cell migration model, composed of cell adhesion, detachment, and receptor recycling (Stossel, 1994; Murphy and Gavrilovic, 1999; Sanchez‐Madrid and del Pozo, 1999; Webb et al, 2002), the extracellular events that orchestrate temporally and spatially the transition among these individual steps are unknown. Moreover, evidence for a critical role of macrophage emigration to the lymph nodes in inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis is emerging (Libby, 2002; Llodra et al, 2004). However, the mechanism that controls their emigration, especially under activated conditions, remains elusive. In this work, we explored the mechanism by which activated macrophages migrate within an inflammatory environment using genetic and biochemical approaches. Our data reveal that deletion of the PAI‐1, tPA, LRP, and Mac‐1 genes all impair the ability of macrophages to migrate from the peritoneal cavity in response to ...
Herpes Simplex Derived Immunotherapy. On October 27, 2015, Amgen, Inc.s talimogene laherparepvec (IMLYGICTM, Thousand Oaks, CA) received manufacturing approval from the FDA based on results from a Phase III clinical trial (Andtbacka, 2016). Andtbacka and colleagues conducted a Phase III randomized, open-label clinical trial, known as OPTiM, using the first-in-class IMLYGIC (T-VEC). In early clinical trials, T-VEC, based on a modified herpes simplex virus, boosted replication and expression of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with responses observed in both injected and uninjected lesions. GM-CSF induces tumor-specific T-cell responses. A total of 436 individuals with unresectable stage IIIB to IV metastatic melanoma were randomized 2:1 to the intralesional T-VEC arm (n=295) or to subcutaneous recombinant GM-CSF (n=141). T-VEC was administered once every 3 weeks on average and GM-CSF was administered subcutaneously once a day for 14 days in 28-day cycles. After 24 weeks ...
Myeloid Elf-1 like factor (MEF) is an ETS protein, which activates the promoters of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3, lysozyme, human beta defensin-2 and perforin. In spite
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Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF), Clone 21Collection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen:
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIK3R2 gene. PIK3R2 has been shown to interact with: CRKL Cbl gene, Epidermal growth factor, FYN, HER2/neu, Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and PIK3CD. PIK3R2 mutations were recently shown to be associated with polymicrogyria. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000105647 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Volinia S, Patracchini P, Otsu M, Hiles I, Gout I, Calzolari E, Bernardi F, Rooke L, Waterfield MD (Apr 1992). Chromosomal localization of human p85 alpha, a subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and its homologue p85 beta. Oncogene. 7 (4): 789-93. PMID 1314371. Entrez Gene: PIK3R2 phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2 (p85 beta). Sattler M, Salgia R, Shrikhande G, Verma S, Pisick E, Prasad KV, Griffin JD (Apr 1997). Steel factor induces tyrosine phosphorylation of CRKL and binding of CRKL to a complex containing c-kit, ...
Pampfer S., Tabibzadeh S., Chuan F.-C., Pollard J.W. (1991). Expression of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) messenger RNA in human endometrial glands during the menstrual cycle: molecular cloning of a novel transcript that predicts a cell surface form of CSF-1.. Mol. Endocrinol. 5. с. 1931 - 1938. PubMed DOI:10.1210/mend-5-12-1931 ...
Rat IL-10 also known as TGIF, MCSF III, CSIF & B TCGF is a pleiotropic cytokine playing an important role as a regulator of lymphoid & myeloid cell function
... (tradename Leukine) is a recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that functions as ... "Emerging applications of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor". Blood. 92 (12): 4491-508. doi: ... macrophages, and, myeloid-derived dendritic cells; it can also activate mature granulocytes and macrophages, and can contribute ...
One notable example is the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. There are two main categories of immunostimulants ... For example, female sex hormones are known to stimulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. Some autoimmune diseases ... Dorshkind, Kenneth; Horseman, Nelson D. (1 June 2000). "The Roles of Prolactin, Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I, ... Immunostimulants, also known as immunostimulators, are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by ...
Production is stimulated by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). There is some controversy over which ... CFU-GM, also known as granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP), is a colony forming unit. It is derived from CFU-GEMM. The "GM" ... Nomenclature of hematopoietic colonies and lineages "Hem I WBC Morphology and Physiology". Archived from the original on ...
El Ouakfaoui S, Heitz D, Paquin R, Beaulieu AD (February 1999). "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor modulates ...
IL-3 shares the β subunit with IL-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This β subunit sharing ... Sometimes also called colony-stimulating factor, multi-CSF, mast cell growth factor, MULTI-CSF, MCGF; MGC79398, MGC79399: the ... Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-6. IL-3 is secreted by basophils and activated T cells to ... "Granulocyte-Macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin 3: Target cells and kinetics of response in vivo". Stem Cells ...
March 1985). "Structure and expression of the mRNA for murine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor". The EMBO ... Ludwig researchers in Melbourne discovered and cloned the granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) through a ... The factor is essential to the maturation of key white blood cells, and has been used extensively over the past few decades to ... October 1985). "Purification and characterization of a human tumor necrosis factor from the LuKII cell line". Proceedings of ...
In EG cytokines IL-3, IL-5 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be behind the recruitment and ... granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin 5 in eosinophilic gastroenteritis". Gastroenterology. 110 (3 ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) hypersensitivity of myeloid progenitors in vitro. These criteria are ...
... is a recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor which functions as an immunostimulator. Quittet ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor expands the circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell compartment in humans, ... The effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor on chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. N ... Antman developed standards for the treatment of patients receiving chemotherapy including pharmacology, growth factors and ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) upregulates CCL17 production in monocytes and macrophages. Dendritic ... January 1998). "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". The Journal of Biological ... CCL17 is a powerful chemokine produced in the thymus and by antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells, macrophages, and ... Cytokines, like CCL17, help cells communicate with one another, and stimulate cell movement. Chemokines are a type of cytokine ...
Carr R, Brocklehurst P, Doré CJ, Modi N (January 2009). "Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor administered as ... Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is sometimes used in neonatal sepsis. However, a 2009 study found ... Infants showing no signs of neonatal sepsis will have a sepsis workup done only if concerning factors are shown. Only a small ... The child can contribute to the onset of sepsis through multiple factors. Mothers contribute to the risk through a variety of ...
"Spontaneous and inducible production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor by human bone marrow stromal cells". European ... TACs secrete many pro-tumorigenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal-derived factor-1 alpha, IL ... These factors are known to recruit additional tumor and pro-tumorigenic cells. The cross-talk between the host stroma and tumor ... These factors make it an effective tool in potential cell therapies and tissue repair. Being a mesenchymal cell indicates an ...
"Oncolytic adenovirus coding for granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces antitumoral immunity in cancer ...
Secondary structure analysis has suggested similarity to IL4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF). ... These include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF). GCSF acts in hematopoiesis ... "Disulfide structures of human interleukin-6 are similar to those of human granulocyte colony stimulating factor". Archives of ... "Characterization of a human multilineage-colony-stimulating factor cDNA clone identified by a conserved noncoding sequence in ...
To engineer JX-594, human GMCSF gene (encoding granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor or GM-CSF; driven by a ...
Recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rGM-CSF) can be used as a temporary cure. GM-CSF stimulates ...
In patients with very low white blood cell counts, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor may be given. Depending on ... in a university hospital in Mexico shows that neutropenia in immunocompromised patients is the most common risk factor for ...
"Association of CrkL with STAT5 in hematopoietic cells stimulated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or ... "Signaling of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) to the small GTPase Rap1 via the large docking protein Gab1 and the ... van Dijk TB, van Den Akker E, Amelsvoort MP, Mano H, Löwenberg B, von Lindern M (November 2000). "Stem cell factor induces ... Sattler M, Salgia R, Shrikhande G, Verma S, Pisick E, Prasad KV, Griffin JD (April 1997). "Steel factor induces tyrosine ...
Lehmann MH (June 1998). "Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor triggers interleukin-10 expression ... adopting the morphology and characteristics of mature macrophages. U937 cells are of the myeloid lineage and so secrete a large ...
"Association of CrkL with STAT5 in hematopoietic cells stimulated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT family of transcription factors. In response to cytokines and growth ... STAT5A has been shown to interact with: CRKL, Epidermal growth factor receptor, ERBB4, Erythropoietin receptor, Janus kinase 1 ... "Transcription factor Stat5a/b as a therapeutic target protein for prostate cancer". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 42 (2): 186-92 ...
"Synergistic effects of nerve growth factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on human basophilic cell ... CFU-Baso is a colony forming unit. that gives rise to basophils. Some sources use the term "CFU-Bas". Tsuda T, Wong D, Dolovich ...
"A plasmid encoding murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increases protection conferred by a malaria DNA ... Stimulated macrophages secrete IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ, while stimulated B-cells secrete IL-6 and some IL- ... However, they can also be stimulated to secrete antiviral cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, which do not kill the cell, but ... Macrophage scavenger receptors bind to a variety of macromolecules, including polyribonucleotides and are thus candidates for ...
Upon administration, emactuzumab binds to CSF1R expressed on macrophages and inhibits the binding of colony-stimulating factor- ... also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating ... Emactuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the tyrosine kinase receptor colony stimulating factor 1 ... of CD68/CD163-positive macrophages and CSF1R-positive macrophages was seen in 22 patients (61%), showing that the ...
Harada T, Ohno N (2008). "Contribution of dectin-1 and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to ... Experiments suggest that S. crispa contains chemicals which may stimulate the immune system and have many biological properties ... mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB". Int. J. Mol. Med. 30 (2): 344-50. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2012.1000. PMID ...
In addition, ONCOS-102 codes for the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a potent immunostimulatory ...
In addition, CGTG-102 codes for the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a potent immunostimulatory ... "Expression of c-Met receptor and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor in synovial sarcoma and epithelioid sarcoma". Virchows ... "Interaction between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways: a ... The over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported in a majority of epithelioid sarcomas. EGFR is ...
Interleukin-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, and interleukin-33 enhance anti-Siglec-8 mediated destruction ...
"Inhibition of Posttraumatic Microglial Proliferation in a Genetic Model of Macrophage ColonyStimulating Factor Deficiency in ... "The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is required for efficient axonal regeneration." Neuron 43.1 (2004): 57-67. Raivich, ... "Brain microglia and blood-derived macrophages: molecular profiles and functional roles in multiple sclerosis and animal models ...
This cells are proliferatively responsive to interleukin-3 (IL-3) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF ... Ihle JN, Askew D (1989). "Origins and properties of hematopoietic growth factor-dependent cell lines". Int J Cell Cloning. 9 (1 ...
Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP; HLP, HGFLP). *Midkine (NEGF2). *Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4) ... It is mainly used to treat cases of NSCLC that harbour mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene.[5] ... Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine number 797 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a Michael addition (IC50 = ...
株落刺激(英語:Template:Colony-stimulating factors). *血基質和卟啉 *代謝酶 ... macrophage)的吞噬功能(
Colony-stimulating factors. *G-CSF *Filgrastim / Lipegfilgrastim / Pegfilgrastim. *Lenograstim. *Eflapegrastim. *GM-CSF * ... where they begin to interact with macrophages to activate immune function.[18] Radiolabeled studies have verified that both ...
株落刺激(英語:Template:Colony-stimulating factors). *血紅素和卟啉 *代謝酶 ... Neutrophil primary granule proteins HBP and HNP1-3 boost bacterial phagocytosis by human and murine macrophages. J. Clin. ... Neutrophil secretion products regulate anti-bacterial activity in monocytes and macrophages. Clin. Exp. Immunol. January 2008, ... platelet activating factor)和其他物
... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ... MAC - macrophage - macrophage-tropic virus - magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - MAI - maintenance therapy - major ... host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) - HTLV-II - ...
Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP; HLP, HGFLP). *Midkine (NEGF2). *Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4) ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
... granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for priming leukocyte-mediated ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... tumor necrosis factor-activated receptor activity. • nerve growth factor binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • integral ... "Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 5 and TRAF2 are involved in CD30-mediated NFkappaB activation". The ... "Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 5 and TRAF2 are involved in CD30-mediated NFkappaB activation". The ...
Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP; HLP, HGFLP). *Midkine (NEGF2). *Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4) ... Pegaptanib is a pegylated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) aptamer, a single strand of nucleic acid that binds ...
It has been shown that in monocytes-macrophages and fibroblasts, exogenously administered PDGF stimulates chemotaxis, ... Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one among numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division. In ... Chemically inhibiting the PI3K pathway in PDGF-stimulated cells negates the differential effect between the two growth factors ...
On macrophages: stimulates phagocytosis, and production of IL-1 oxidants and the inflammatory lipid Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) ... reported another cytotoxic factor produced by macrophages and named it tumor necrosis factor (TNF).[14] Both factors were ... TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... "Identity of tumour necrosis factor and the macrophage-secreted factor cachectin". Nature. 316 (6028): 552-4. Bibcode:1985Natur. ...
Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP; HLP, HGFLP). *Midkine (NEGF2). *Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4) ... It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in ... A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults."[5] ...
... as persistent joint pain has been associated with elevated levels of IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ... January 2010). "Factors associated with persistence of arthralgia among Chikungunya virus-infected travellers: report of 42 ... mouse studies suggest that IPS-1 is an important factor,[48] and that IRF3 and IRF7 are important in an age-dependent manner.[ ... and monocyte-derived macrophages. Viral replication is highly cytopathic, but susceptible to type-I and -II interferon.[43] In ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Interferon-gamma. References[edit]. *^ Julius M. Cruse; Robert Edwin Lewis ( ... Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an ...
Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP; HLP, HGFLP). *Midkine (NEGF2). *Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4) ...
... granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-15 belongs to ... "Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 22 (2): 99-108. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2011.04.001. PMC 3994286. PMID 21531164.. ... IL-15 was discovered in 1994 by two different laboratories, and characterized as T cell growth factor.[5] Together with ... IL-15 is constitutively expressed by a large number of cell types and tissues, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic ...
... and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF).[28] AU-rich elements also regulate the biosynthesis of proto- ... Messages that are being actively translated are bound by ribosomes, the eukaryotic initiation factors eIF-4E and eIF-4G, and ... In some instances, small RNA molecules (sRNA) tens to hundreds of nucleotides long can stimulate the degradation of specific ... "Multiple processing body factors and the ARE binding protein TTP activate mRNA decapping" (PDF), Mol. Cell, 20 (6): 905-15, ...
... induced by Chikungunya virus infection is associated with interleukin-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor". ... Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is ... "Entrez Gene: HGF hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)".. *^ Yang ZJ, Zhang YR, Chen B, Zhang SL, Jia EZ, ... Nakamura T (1992). "Structure and function of hepatocyte growth factor". Progress in Growth Factor Research. 3 (1): 67-85. doi: ...
... of leukocytes and in human neutrophils treated with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and then stimulated with ... For example, chemotactic factors stimulate human neutrophils to raise cytosolic Ca2+ which triggers cPLA2s, particularly the α ... platelet-activating factor, to stimulate and otherwise activate eosinophils.[18][38][39][40] ... potent chemotactic factor, LTB4, and possibly also weaker chemotactic factor, 5S-HETE, which serve to attract and otherwise ...
... epidermal growth factor,[30] granulocyte-macrophage-stimulating growth factor,[31] platelet-derived growth factor,[31] vascular ... Flidel-Rimon O, Roth P (November 1997). "Effects of milk-borne colony stimulating factor-1 on circulating growth factor levels ... endothelial growth factor,[32] and colony-stimulating factor-1.[33]. Notably in humans a lack of colostrum production is linked ... Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1),[24] and II,[25] transforming ...
granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor ସହ ଦ୍ଵନ୍ଦରେ ପଡ଼ିବେ ନାହିଁ ।. ଫିଲଗ୍ରାସ୍ଟିମ. Clinical data. ... ଗ୍ରାନୁଲୋସାଇଟ କଲୋନି-ସ୍ଟିମୁଲେଟିଙ୍ଗ ଫ୍ୟାକ୍ଟରgranulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) ସ‌ହିତ ଫିଲଗ୍ରାସ୍ଟିମର ସାମଞ୍ଜସ୍ୟ ଅଛି ।[୧] ...
... stimulates the expression of TSG-6 (TNF-stimulated gene 6) in fibroblasts and inflammatory cells. TSG-6, a HA-binding protein, ... One in vivo study, where HA hydrogels with endothelial colony forming cells were implanted into mice three days after hydrogel ... Wisniewski HG, Vilcek J (1997). "TSG-6: an IL-1/TNF-inducible protein with anti-inflammatory activity". Cytokine Growth Factor ... or both TLR2 and TLR4 in macrophages and dendritic cells. TLR and hyaluronan play a role in innate immunity. ...
Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP; HLP, HGFLP). *Midkine (NEGF2). *Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4) ... Stimulate the growth of sensory nerve 7 Insulin like growth factor Serum Stimulate incorporation of sulfates into cartilage, ... Stimulate growth of epidermal and epithelial cell 2 Platelet derived growth factor Platelets Stimulate growth of mesenchymal ...
... cells prepared in vitro using receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor". ...
title =A granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-15 fusokine induces a regulatory B cell population ...
Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP; HLP, HGFLP). *Midkine (NEGF2). *Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4) ... Nerve growth factor[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Main article: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... Hertzog PJ, Williams BR (June 2013). "Fine tuning type I interferon responses". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 24 (3): 217- ... binding interferon-stimulated response elements (ISRE) and gamma activating sequences (GAS), promoting gene transcription.[7][ ... type I IFNs induce interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, classically resulting in a robust anti-viral immune response. ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • receptor binding. • zinc ion ... TRAIL has also been designated CD253 (cluster of differentiation 253) and TNFSF10 (tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, ... The TRAIL gene lacks TATA and CAAT boxes and the promoter region contains putative response elements for transcription factors ...
Therapies such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferons, imiquimod and cellular membrane fractions from ... Immune effector cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T ... Dendritic cells can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen ... Cancer immunotherapy attempts to stimulate the immune system to destroy tumors. A variety of strategies are in use or are ...
Risk factors for Salmonella infections include a variety of foods. Meats such as chicken and pork have the possibility to be ... These T3SS-1 effectors stimulate the formation of membrane ruffles allowing the uptake of Salmonella by nonphagocytic cells. ... macrophages, and dendritic cells.[48] As facultative anaerobic organism, Salmonella uses oxygen to make ATP in aerobic ... Bacterial colonies may also become trapped in mucus produced in the esophagus. By the end of the incubation period, the nearby ...
Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines ... with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, ... macrophage colony-stimulating factor tumor cell vaccines elicit more potent antitumor immunity compared with B7 family and ... granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; PSMA, prostate-specific membrane antigen; RCR ...
The colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), is a secreted cytokine ... It is one of the three experimentally described colony-stimulating factors. M-CSF binds to the colony stimulating factor 1 ... "Entrez Gene: CSF1 colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage)". Jang MH, Herber DM, Jiang X, Nandi S, Dai XM, Zeller G, Stanley ER ... Macrophage+Colony-Stimulating+Factor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the ...
The hematopoietic growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), is considered to play a central ... Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. Jonathan L. McQualter, Rima Darwiche, Christine Ewing, Manabu Onuki, Thomas W ... 1993) Colony stimulating factors, cytokines and monocyte-macrophages-some controversies. Immunol. Today. 14:18-24, pmid:8442857 ... Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. Jonathan L. McQualter, Rima Darwiche, Christine Ewing, Manabu Onuki, Thomas W ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric ... CFU-GM Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor Filgrastim (Neupogen, a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor ... Root RK, Dale DC (March 1999). "Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: ... "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: not just another haematopoietic growth factor". Medical Oncology. 31 (1): 774 ...
... macrophages, and cells that become platelets, to multiply and mature. A laboratory-produced version of this protein is often ... A protein that stimulates white blood cells, especially granulocytes, ... Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor Speaker ... A protein that stimulates white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets, to multiply ...
macrophage colony stimulating factor synonyms, macrophage colony stimulating factor pronunciation, macrophage colony ... stimulating factor translation, English dictionary definition of macrophage colony stimulating factor. n. 1. One that actively ... contributes to an accomplishment, result, or process: Surprise is the greatest factor in war . See Synonyms at element. 2. a. ... Macrophage colony stimulating factor - definition of macrophage colony stimulating factor by The Free Dictionary https://www. ...
Surfactant metabolism in transgenic mice after granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor ablation.. Ikegami M1, Ueda T, ... Mice made granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-deficient by homologous recombination maintain normal ... Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/physiology*. *Lysophosphatidylcholines/administration & dosage. * ...
Colony-stimulating factor-1 promotes kidney growth and repair via alteration of macrophage responses.. Alikhan MA1, Jones CV, ... Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 controls the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of macrophages, which are ... Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Promotes Kidney Growth and Repair via Alteration of Macrophage Responses ... Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Promotes Kidney Growth and Repair via Alteration of Macrophage Responses ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is often used to treat leucopenia. Other haematopoietins may increase ... Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for sepsis: a meta- ... Macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces epithelial expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: ... Induction of macrophage tumoricidal activity by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Science. 1986;232:506-8. ...
Purified human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: direct action on neutrophils. By JC Gasson, RH Weisbart, SE ... Purified human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: direct action on neutrophils. By JC Gasson, RH Weisbart, SE ... Purified human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: direct action on neutrophils Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... The NIF-T was found to potently stimulate the growth of granulocyte and macrophage colonies from human bone marrow and colony ...
GM-CSF stands for Granulocyte-Macrophage-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (pharmacology). GM-CSF is defined as Granulocyte- ... Macrophage-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (pharmacology) very rarely. ... How is Granulocyte-Macrophage-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (pharmacology) abbreviated? ... Macrophage-Colony_Stimulating-Factor-(pharmacology)-(GM_CSF).html,GM-CSF,/a,. Citations. *MLA style: "GM-CSF." Acronym Finder ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor. ... The colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), is a secreted cytokine ... It is one of the three experimentally described colony-stimulating factors. M-CSF binds to the colony stimulating factor 1 ... Macrophage colony-stimulating factor has been shown to interact with PIK3R2.[14] ...
A naturally occurring protein that stimulates the production of granulocytes and macrophages by stem cells and is used as a ... n. A naturally occurring protein that stimulates the production of granulocytes and macrophages by stem cells and is used as a ... n. A cytokine protein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. ...
... such as macrophages and monocytes. Promotes the release of proinflammatory chemokines, and thereby plays an important role in ... Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1Add BLAST. 520. ChainiPRO_0000296232. 33 - 447. Processed macrophage colony-stimulating ... positive regulation of macrophage colony-stimulating factor signaling pathway Source: MGI. *positive regulation of macrophage ... macrophage colony-stimulating factor signaling pathway Source: BHF-UCL ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can stimulate proliferation of leukemic blasts and sensitize these ... Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can stimulate proliferation of leukemic blasts and sensitize these ... Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) priming with successive concomitant low-dose Ara-C for elderly ... Rossi, H., ODonnell, J., Sarcinelli, F. et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) priming with ...
Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance ... granulocyte and macrophage number and function, their use in the management of … ... Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance ... Granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in cord and maternal serum at delivery Pediatr Res. 1994 Feb; ...
Three-dimensional structure of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. ... Three-dimensional structure of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Display Files *FASTA ... R-Factor (All). R-Factor (Observed). R-Work. R-Free. R-Free Selection Details. ...
... recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, ... rHu GM-CSF (recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Ther. Class.. colony-stimulating factors ... rHu GM-CSF (recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Ther. Class.. colony-stimulating factors ...
Purification and some properties of the colony stimulating factor from medium conditioned by mouse L cells. j BioL Chem ... Factors regulating macrophage production and growth. Purification and some properties of the colony stimulating factor from ... 92:750-757.) Key words: macrophage * macrophage colony-stimulating factor * acidic cholesteryl ester hydrolase * neutral ... The proliferation of microglial cells is stimulated by colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), an astrocyte-produced growth factor ...
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor • GM-CSF = granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor • CSF = colony-stimulating ... The hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony ... 1992) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF): receptor ... granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3) on phagocyte ...
What is macrophage colony stimulating factor? Meaning of macrophage colony stimulating factor as a legal term. What does ... Definition of macrophage colony stimulating factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia ... Macrophage colony stimulating factor legal definition of macrophage colony stimulating factor https://legal-dictionary. ... Related to macrophage colony stimulating factor: M-CSF Factor. An event, circumstance, influence, or element that plays a part ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) facilitates epithelial wound healing, and recently, growth factor ... Regulation of wound healing by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor after vocal fold injury.. [Jae-Yol Lim, Byung ... The mRNA levels of genes related to ECM components and ECM production-related growth factors, such as HGF and TGF-ß1, were ...
... such as macrophages and monocytes. Plays an important role in innate immunity and in inflammatory processes. Plays an important ... Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor 2Add BLAST. 1001. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor 2 (EC:2.7.10.1*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ... sp,Q8UVR8,CSF12_TAKRU Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor 2 OS=Takifugu rubripes OX=31033 GN=csf1r2 PE=3 SV=1 ...
D. Kim, M. Kim, H. Kang et al., "The supplementation of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in culture ... I. Agerholm, A. Loft, F. Hald et al., "Culture of human oocytes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor has no ... S. A. Robertson and R. F. Seamark, "Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF): one of a family of epithelial ... S. A. Robertson, C. Sjöblom, M. J. Jasper, R. J. Norman, and R. F. Seamark, "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ...
Keywords: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, cancer, antitumor, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, esophageal ... Recent studies demonstrate the possible antitumor effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); however ... In addition, EC cells stimulated with GM-CSF were more likely to have suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), ... Novel role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: antitumor effects through inhibition of epithelial-to- ...
Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for Mycobacterium Abscessus in Cystic Fibrosis. J.P. Scott, Yindou Ji ... Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for Mycobacterium Abscessus in Cystic Fibrosis ... Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for Mycobacterium Abscessus in Cystic Fibrosis ... Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for Mycobacterium Abscessus in Cystic Fibrosis ...
Phase I Trial of mBACOD and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in AIDS-Associated Large Cell, ... Phase I Trial of mBACOD and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in AIDS-Associated Large Cell, ... Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. Administration, Oral. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Antineoplastic ... recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor; GM-CSF) to a standard chemotherapy drug combination (methotrexate ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was administered at a dose of 125 μg/m²/day subcutaneously for 14 ... Efficacy and Safety Study of Talimogene Laherparepvec Compared to Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in ...
... and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) were administered intravenously to rats, and their effects on neutrophils and ... Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) Neutrophil Monocyte Peroxidase ... Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) were administered ... Ultrastructural effects of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) on ...
Savara Reports Publication of Case Reports of Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for the Treatment of ... Savara Reports Publication of Case Reports of Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for the Treatment of ... Savara Reports Publication of Case Reports of Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for the Treatment of ... Savaras pipeline comprises: Molgradex, an inhaled granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or GM-CSF, in Phase 3 ...
  • M-CSF (or CSF-1) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of monocytes, macrophages, and bone marrow progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 controls the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of macrophages, which are recognized as scavengers and agents of the innate and the acquired immune systems. (nih.gov)
  • GM-CSF induces differentiation, proliferation and activation of macrophages and dendritic cells which are necessary for the subsequent T helper cell type 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation. (springer.com)
  • Thus a human lymphokine (NIF-T) that modulates the activities of mature neutrophilic granulocytes is also a colony-stimulating factor acting on precursors to induce growth and differentiation of new effector cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is indispensable for both proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast progenitors. (jci.org)
  • Cytokine that plays an essential role in the regulation of survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells, especially mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages and monocytes. (uniprot.org)
  • 8 , 9 Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a glycoprotein which supports proliferation and differentiation of a broad range of hematologic, especially myeloid, precursor cells. (nature.com)
  • Hck expression increases with terminal differentiation in both monocyte/macrophages and granulocytes and is further augmented during macrophage activation. (psu.edu)
  • Identification of a lymphokine that stimulates eosinophil differentiation in vitro. (psu.edu)
  • Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a cytokine that stimulates proliferation and differentiation of phagocytic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for CSF1 and plays an essential role in the regulation of survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells, especially mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages and monocytes. (uniprot.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a 22 kDa glycoprotein, was first described as an in vitro inducer of differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow progenitor cells into distinct colonies, including granulocytes and macrophages. (dovepress.com)
  • Freeze thaw will destroy a percentage in every cycle and should be avoided.Colonies can be formed by stimulating factors or recombinant GM-CSF and CSFs activity expressed in Units compared to a standard.Aplha, transcription related growth factors and stimulating factors or repressing nuclear factors are complex subunits of proteins involved in cell differentiation. (gentaur.com)
  • It plays an important role in controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. (aarkstore.com)
  • Macrophage growth factors induce macrophage differentiation and function. (springer.com)
  • Cytokines belong to a family of growth factors that play an important role in regulating the viability, differentiation, proliferation, and function of various hematopoietic cells ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • GMCSF is a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. (creativebiomart.net)
  • GM-CSF stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage CSF, a member of the hematopoietic growth factor family, is produced and released by monocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, and ECs and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Macrophage differentiation was evaluated by analysing TNF-α response to LPS stimulation and determining cytokine secretion patterns under both basal conditions and after classical and alternative activation. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • As expected, CD163, MHC class II DR and CD203a expression were up-regulated in both hM-CSF (M-CSF-moMΦ) and autologous plasma cultured macrophages (AP-moMΦ), although a lower percentage of CD163+ cells were found following differentiation with high percentages of porcine plasma. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Irrespective of differentiation conditions, monocyte differentiation into macrophages resulted in an increased susceptibility to ASFV and yielded larger amounts of LPS-induced TNF-α. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • But the exact role of macrophage differentiation during muscle regeneration remains to be elucidated. (unlv.edu)
  • Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF), a glycosylated cytokine, plays a vital role in proliferation and differentiation of granulocytes and macrophages from bone marrow progenitor cells [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Macrophage CSF (M-CSF) regulates monocyte differentiation, activation, and foam cell formation. (ecu.edu)
  • M-CSF binds to the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8 GM-CSF is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine that stimulates myelopoiesis, promotes leucocyte survival and activation, and regulates mucosal immunity and inflammation in part via modulation of Toll-like receptor-4 9 and neutrophil function. (bmj.com)
  • It has previously been shown that human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can be fused to a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT) to produce a recombinant fusion toxin that kills GM-CSF receptor-bearing cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We now report that DT388-GM-CSF induces apoptosis and inhibition of colony formation in semisolid medium in receptor positive cells, and that the induction of apoptosis correlates with GM-CSF-receptor occupancy at low ligand concentrations. (bloodjournal.org)
  • DT388-GM-CSF at 4 × 10 −9 mol/L inhibited colony formation 1.5 to 3.0 logs for receptor positive cell lines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 10 The normal tissue distribution showed the presence of receptor on committed myeloid progenitor cells 11 and alveolar macrophages, 12 but not on primitive hematopoietic stem cells or other vital normal tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Global Markets Directs, Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (researchmoz.us)
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA), targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchmoz.us)
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (researchmoz.us)
  • Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) pipeline Target constitutes close to 11 molecules. (aarkstore.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (aarkstore.com)
  • Formation of osteoclasts is highly dependent on the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). (springer.com)
  • When oxidized LDL binds to liver X receptor α, this upregulates expression of its target genes and acts to remove cholesterol from macrophages. (springer.com)
  • TIS1 is a member of the nuclear receptor supergene family that codes for ligand-dependent transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that has been demonstrated to regulate fat cell development and glucose homeostasis. (epfl.ch)
  • Effects of macrophage-colony-stimulating factor deficiency on the maturation of microglia and brain macrophages and on their expression of scavenger receptor. (umassmed.edu)
  • Sasaki A, Yokoo H, Naito M, Kaizu C, Shultz LD, Nakazato Y. Effects of macrophage-colony-stimulating factor deficiency on the maturation of microglia and brain macrophages and on their expression of scavenger receptor. (umassmed.edu)
  • Expression and selective cellular localization of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and GM-CSF alpha and beta receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in human ovarian tissue. (umassmed.edu)
  • Zhao Y, Rong H, Chegini N. Expression and selective cellular localization of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and GM-CSF alpha and beta receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in human ovarian tissue. (umassmed.edu)
  • Emerging applications of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (springer.com)
  • SDS-PAGE of Human Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Recombinant Protein SDS-PAGE of Human Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Recombinant Protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Application Note: Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Recombinant Protein is suitable as a control for polyclonal or monoclonal anti-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor in immunological assays. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Kinetics and mechanism of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-induced neutropenia. (springer.com)
  • Effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on neutrophil function in normal rats. (springer.com)
  • In vitro hematologic effects of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (springer.com)
  • Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (sargramostim) as an alternative therapy for fistulizing Crohn's disease. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cells were incubated with varying concentrations of recombinant fusion toxin for 48 hours and incorporation of 3 H-leucine (protein synthesis), segmentation of nuclei after DAPI staining (apoptosis), and colony formation in 0.2% agarose (clonogenicity) were measured. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Fourteen patients with advanced solid tumors were included in a phase I trial of recombinant human E. coli derived granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) given daily subcutaneously for 10 consecutive days. (eurekamag.com)
  • Recombinant Human Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor produced in Yeast is a single, glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 127 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 26-32 kDa. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) is a glycoprotein that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of neutropenia and leukemia in combination with chemotherapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A naturally occurring protein that stimulates the production of granulocytes and macrophages by stem cells and is used as a drug by some immunosuppressed individuals. (wordnik.com)
  • Harvesting and enrichment of hematopoietic progenitor cells mobilized into the peripheral blood of normal donors by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or G-CSF: potential role in allogeneic marrow transplantation. (springer.com)
  • 4 GM-CSF can also act on relatively early progenitor cells and interacts with erythropoietin to stimulate eosinophil and megakaryocyte colony formation in vitro. (dovepress.com)
  • Upon deprivation of survival factor from TF-1 myeloid progenitor cells, Mcl-1 levels quickly dropped prior to visible detection of apoptosis of these cells. (asm.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces the proliferation and maturation of immature myeloid progenitor cells and primes mature cell function in phagocytes. (ovid.com)
  • Stimulates the formation of macrophage colonies from bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Synergistic stimulation of macrophage proliferation by the monokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and colony stimulating factor-1. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, monocytic and T cell function such as mHLA-DR, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after LPS stimulation, T cell counts, Th1/Th2 specific cytokine production and the ratio of the number of Th17 cells to the number of Treg cells were studied after postoperative GM-CSF application. (medsci.org)
  • Regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 by IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IgG aggregates, and cAMP in mouse mesangial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. (rupress.org)
  • The colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), is a secreted cytokine which causes hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into macrophages or other related cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NIF-T was found to potently stimulate the growth of granulocyte and macrophage colonies from human bone marrow and colony formation by the KG-1 myeloid leukemia cell line. (sciencemag.org)
  • Methodology: Dendritic cells and macrophages were differentiated from mouse bone marrow and treated or depleted from GM-CSF prior to analyze their response to IL-10. (wur.nl)
  • Synergistic interactions between hematopoietic growth factors as detected by in vitro mouse bone marrow colony formation. (springer.com)
  • GM-CSF stimulates proliferation of myeloid precursors in bone marrow and primes mature leukocytes for enhanced functionality. (jimmunol.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a hemopoietic cytokine capable of supporting the proliferation and survival of granulocytic precursors in the bone marrow. (jimmunol.org)
  • (2) observed that immunogenic tumors expressing the B7-1 transgene were incapable of stimulating an immune response in the absence of MHC-matched, bone marrow-derived APCs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a more direct approach, murine bone marrow-derived DCs have been loaded with tumor antigen peptides (3 , 4) , antigenic proteins (5) , tumor lysates (6) , or tumor antigen genes (7) and have been shown in each case to stimulate antitumor activity when used to vaccinate naive mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Growth factors which have been studied both in the laboratory and in clinical trials include GM-CSF, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and interleukin-3 (IL-3). (nature.com)
  • The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin 3 locus is regulated by an inducible cyclosporin A-sensitive enhancer. (pnas.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) are pleiotropic hemopoietic growth factors whose genes are closely linked and induced in T lymphocytes in a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive fashion. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that systemic administration of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, which promote monocytes to differentiate into dendritic cells in vitro , might enhance the number and antigen-presenting activity of CD14 + cells in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 we have established dendritic cell (DC) lines from blood mononuclear cells that maintain the antigen capturing and processing capacity characteristic of immature dendritic cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • The purpose of our study was to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and DLT of combined administration of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), low-dose interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IFN-α in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) are two hematopoietic cytokines produced by activated T cells and mast cells that are potent growth factors for multipotential hematopoietic progenitors as well as various other hematopoietic cells ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • To evaluate the serum levels of interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor at the moment of diagnosis and in early second-trimester serum from women with preeclampsia and from gestational age-matched controls. (ovid.com)
  • Abstract -To investigate whether the production of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) by vascular endothelial cells is regulated by hemodynamic force, we exposed cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to controlled levels of shear stress in a flow-loading apparatus and examined changes in the production of CSFs at both the protein and mRNA level. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mice made granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-deficient by homologous recombination maintain normal steady-state hematopoiesis but have an alveolar accumulation of surfactant lipids and protein that is similar to pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Having successfully pioneered inhaled GM-CSF for over a decade in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), we were prompted to try the same approach to treat NTM infection after learning of the increasing scientific evidence of GM-CSF's important role in activating macrophages to kill mycobacteria. (benzinga.com)
  • NTM lung infection is a considerable therapeutic challenge due to the unique ability of these bacteria to evade the normal killing mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, a type of immune cell responsible for killing bacteria in the lungs. (benzinga.com)
  • To investigate the role of PPARγ in alveolar macrophage homeostasis, we generated myeloidspecific PPARγ knockout mice using the Lys-Cre method to knock out the floxed PPARγ gene. (ecu.edu)
  • Similar to the GM-CSF-deficient mouse, absence of alveolar macrophage PPARγ resulted in development of lung pathology resembling PAP in 16-wk-old mice, along with excess M-CSF gene expression and secretion. (ecu.edu)
  • In ex vivo wild-type alveolar macrophages, we observed that M-CSF itself is capable of inducing foam cell formation similar to that seen in PAP. (ecu.edu)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that M-CSF is an important mediator of alveolar macrophage homeostasis, and that transcriptional control of M-CSF production is regulated by NF-κB and PPARγ. (ecu.edu)
  • Very recently, a modest but significant efficacy of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) inhalation therapy for the treatment of mild to moderate autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP) has been reported. (ersjournals.com)
  • Besides granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, GM-CSF is also a growth factor for erythroid, megakaryocyte and eosinophil progenitors. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance granulocyte and macrophage number and function, their use in the management of neonatal sepsis may be beneficial. (nih.gov)
  • GM-CSF stimulates monocytes and macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, including CCL17. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sheridan JW, Metcalf D. A low molecular weight factor in lung-conditioned medium stimulating granulocyte and monocyte colony formation in vitro. (springer.com)
  • In vitro studies have generally confirmed the impact of growth factors on leukemic cell proliferation and sensitivity to chemotherapy. (nature.com)
  • GM-CSF was initially characterized as a growth factor that can support the in vitro colony formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is produced by ovarian epithelial cancer cell lines and might provide a useful serum marker for the disease. (nih.gov)
  • Circulating levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor did not correlate with serum levels of CA 125. (nih.gov)
  • Among 29 patients with serum CA 125 levels less than 35 U/ml before positive surgical surveillance procedures, 9 (31%) had at least 2.5 ng/ml macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (nih.gov)
  • Serum levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor at the moment of diagnosis were detected less frequently (21 compared with 71%, P (ovid.com)
  • In second-trimester serum, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor detection rates (20 and 70% respectively, P = .06) and concentrations (0 pg/mL [range 0-32] and 2.5 pg/mL [range 0-37], respectively, P = .08) were lower in the group of preeclampsia, but the differences do not reach statistical significance. (ovid.com)
  • These deficient mice were significantly protected from the development of severe crescentic injury, with significant reductions in glomerular crescent formation, T cell and macrophage glomerular influx, and preservation of renal function indicated by serum creatinine and proteinuria ( 7 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, allergen or self-antigen presentation on macrophages induces a chronic inflammatory response and stultification of immunity. (springer.com)
  • Vaccine site biopsies manifested infiltrates of dendritic cells and macrophages among prostate tumor vaccine cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Brain dendritic cells and macrophages/microglia in central nervous system inflammation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A protein that stimulates white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets, to multiply and mature. (nih.gov)
  • PPARgamma is also expressed in a subset of macrophages and negatively regulates the expression of several proinflammatory genes in response to natural and synthetic ligands. (epfl.ch)
  • M-CSF affects macrophages and monocytes in several ways, including stimulating increased phagocytic and chemotactic activity, and increased tumour cell cytotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • reference 10), necessary for T cell activation by foreign proteins, induction of monocyte/macrophage MHC class II expression ( 11 ), enhancement of the phagocytic activity and antigen presenting function of macrophages and/or microglia ( 12 )( 13 ), priming of monocytes for cytokine production ( 14 )( 15 ), and enhancement of macrophage and granulocyte adherence ( 16 )( 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • Functional maturation of adult mouse resting microglia into an APC is promoted by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interaction with Th1 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have, therefore, examined the regulation of two monocyte-specific cytokines, i.e., macrophage CSF-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), the product of the mouse JE gene, in mouse mesangial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • A panel of purified cytokines has been tested, and only granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) substitutes for bulk-conditioned medium. (rupress.org)
  • In the context of acute kidney injury, M-CSF has been implicated in promoting repair following injury, but also been described in an opposing role, driving proliferation of a pro-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is increasing consensus that the mucosa of CD is dominated by CD4+ lymphocytes with T-cell Helper 1 (Th1) phenotype characterized by the production of INF-[gamma], IL-2, TNF-[alpha], and macrophage activation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a major regulator of inflammatory cells of the myeloid lineage and has been implicated in asthma and COPD. (bmj.com)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate induce a distinct, restricted subset of primary-response TIS genes in both proliferating and terminally differentiated myeloid cells. (asm.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts that functions as a cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cytokine protein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. (wordnik.com)
  • 7 It is released by a range of structural and inflammatory cells, including airway epithelium, airway smooth muscle (ASM), fibroblasts, T lymphocytes, mast cells, eosinophils and macrophages. (bmj.com)
  • Released as a paracrine hormone principally by activated T cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells ( 1 , 2 , 3 ), GM-CSF also enhances the functionality of mature cells, such as neutrophils. (jimmunol.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, often abbreviated to GM-CSF, is a protein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Burgess AW, Camakaris J, Metcalf D. Purification and properties of colony-stimulating factor from mouse lung-conditioned medium. (springer.com)
  • Purification and some properties of the colony stimulating factor from medium conditioned by mouse L cells. (psu.edu)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: presence in human follicular fluid, protein secretion and mRNA expression by ovarian cells," Molecular Human Reproduction , vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 555-562, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • Induction of chemokine secretion and enhancement of contact-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity by engineered expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human colon cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The hematopoietic growth factor, GM-CSF, was first considered to be proinflammatory because of its ability to stimulate macrophage plasminogen activator activity ( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Unlike granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which specifically promotes neutrophil proliferation and maturation, GM-CSF affects more cell types, especially macrophages and eosinophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutrophil migration inhibition factor from T lymphocytes (NIF-T) is a lymphokine that acts to localize granulocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this setting, time to neutrophil recovery is shortened by growth factor administration. (nature.com)
  • This study investigates the potential for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to effect a clinically relevant increase in neutrophil number when used prophylactically in high-risk preterm neonates, and assesses its safety in this population. (aappublications.org)
  • The hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), have become standard treatment for preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and accelerating neutrophil recovery after marrow transplantation. (aappublications.org)
  • The hematopoietic growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), is considered to play a central role in maintaining chronic inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • Colony-stimulating factors in inflammation and autoimmunity. (springer.com)
  • In a pilot study with five oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) three were given Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) as a protective agent to reduce the mucosal inflammation during radiotherapy. (amrita.edu)
  • 3], and macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2-D-Deoxyglucose (2-dGlc) uptake and accumulation into rat peritoneal macrophages was increased by colony-stimulating factor (mCSF) by stimulating the coupling between endofacial hexokinase activity and the sugar transporter. (portlandpress.com)
  • The mCSF-dependent increase in 2-dGlc uptake by macrophages was enhanced by preincubation of the cells in mCSF-free solution. (portlandpress.com)
  • The activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) measured by the differential uptake of 2-d[1-3H]Glc and 2-d[2,6-3H]Glc was not stimulated by mCSF. (portlandpress.com)
  • Incubation of the macrophages with mCSF enhanced the sugar transport and PMA-dependent stimulation of HMPS activity and superoxide production, indicating a role for mCSF in the 'priming' of macrophage functions. (portlandpress.com)
  • GM-CSF stimulates stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocytes exit the circulation and migrate into tissue, whereupon they mature into macrophages and dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of action of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in osteoclast development was examined in a co-culture system of mouse osteoblastic cells and spleen cells. (jci.org)
  • Simultaneously adding hydroxyurea for the final 2 d completely inhibited proliferation of cultured cells without affecting 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-stimulated MNC formation. (jci.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can stimulate proliferation of leukemic blasts and sensitize these cells to the cytotoxic effects of S-phase-specific drugs. (nature.com)
  • 10 By stimulating proliferation of leukemic blasts, GM-CSF can sensitize these cells to the cytotoxic effects of S-phase-specific drugs, such as cytarabine. (nature.com)
  • The use of growth factors to drive malignant cells into cell cycle and increase sensitivity to chemotherapy has been attempted in a variety of settings. (nature.com)
  • Herein we demonstrate that manipulation of the level of hck expression in the murine macrophage cell line BAC1.2F5 alters the responsiveness of these cells to activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but does not affect survival or proliferation. (psu.edu)
  • Overexpression of an activated mutant of hck in BAC1.2F5 cells augments tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in response to LPS, whereas inhibition of endogenous hck expression, by antisense oligonucleotides, interferes with LPS-mediated TNF synthesis. (psu.edu)
  • In addition, EC cells stimulated with GM-CSF were more likely to have suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), accompanied by increased E-cadherin and decreased vimentin expression. (dovepress.com)
  • The interaction of mesangial cells and monocyte-macrophages plays an important role in renal glomerular immune injury. (jimmunol.org)
  • The locally produced CSF-1 and MCP-1 may in turn influence the interaction between mesangial cells and monocyte-macrophages in glomerular injury. (jimmunol.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are essential for stimulating antigen-specific immunity, including immunity against tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, combination therapy with GM-CSF and IL-4 stimulated CD14 + cells to acquire several APC characteristics including increased expression of HLA-DR and CD11c, decreased CD14, increased endocytotic activity, and the ability to stimulate T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Macrophages respond to a variety of extracellular stimuli which can modulate the proliferation, development, activation and functional activity of these cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • Primitive macrophages develop from hematopoietic cells and then differentiate into fetal macrophages. (springer.com)
  • GM-CSF stimulated MAP kinase activation in both the undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells. (ovid.com)
  • Evidence that granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor regulates the distribution and differentiated state of dendritic cells/Langerhans cells in human lung and lung cancers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • GM-CSF is made by T cells and macrophages and participates in enhancing phagocytosis and inducing MHC II, CD1a, CD80, and CD86 on the surface of dendritic cells, which augments their antigen presentation ( 10 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Antitumor effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by melanoma cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We here demonstrate that PPARgamma is expressed in macrophage foam cells of human atherosclerotic lesions, in a pattern that is highly correlated with that of oxidation-specific epitopes. (epfl.ch)
  • PPARgamma mRNA expression was also induced in primary macrophages and THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). (epfl.ch)
  • Role of macrophage-colony stimulating factor in osteoclast formation in marrow cocultures with primary osteoblast-like cells derived from different skeletal sites. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor is essential for the viability and function of cultured murine epidermal Langerhans cells. (rupress.org)
  • The conditioned media of stimulated macrophages and T cells also support the viability and maturation of cultured LC. (rupress.org)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • C2C12 cells cultured in conditioned medium from M-CSF-differentiated, LPS-stimulated macrophages had significantly more nuclei and greater length than cells cultured in conditioned medium from undifferentiated, LPS-stimulated macrophages. (unlv.edu)
  • Overexpression of PPARγ prevented LPS-stimulated M-CSF production in RAW 264.7 cells, an effect that was abrogated by a specific PPARγ antagonist, GW9662. (ecu.edu)
  • Yoon J , Juhn K , Jung E , Park H , Yoon S , Ko Y , Hur C , Lim J , . Effects of resveratrol, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or dichloroacetic acid in the culture media on embryonic development and pregnancy rates in aged mice. (aging-us.com)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increases tumor growth and angiogenesis directly by promoting endothelial cell function and indirectly by enhancing the mobilization and recruitment of proangiogenic granulocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is glycosylated in its mature form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The supplementation of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in culture medium improves the pregnancy rate in human ART programs," Fertility Sterility , vol. 76, no. 3, supplement 1, p. (hindawi.com)
  • C. Sjöblom, M. Wikland, and S. A. Robertson, "Granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes inner cell mass blastomer viability in human pre-implantation embryos," Fertility Sterility , vol. 76, no. 3, supplement 1, p. (hindawi.com)
  • B. S. Shapiro, K. S. Richter, S. T. Daneshmand, P. Quinn, and B. Bechr, "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances human embryo development to the blastocyst stage: a randomized study," Fertility Sterility , vol. 79, supplement 2, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Culture of human oocytes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor has no effect on embryonic chromosomal constitution," Reproductive BioMedicine Online , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 477-484, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) were administered intravenously to rats, and their effects on neutrophils and monocytes were examined by electron microscopy. (springer.com)
  • Molgradex offers a novel treatment approach for NTM infection by stimulating the human immune system in the lungs with localized delivery of GM-CSF, directly into the site of infection. (benzinga.com)
  • Instead, it stimulates the human immune response without targeting the bacteria directly, thus avoiding the problem of inducing antibiotic resistance. (benzinga.com)
  • Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can be used as a potent stimulator for immune suppressed patients as defined by a decrease of human leukocyte antigen-D related expression on monocytes (mHLA-DR) after surgery. (medsci.org)
  • We chose to use diphtheria toxin as the toxophore and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as the haptophore or ligand. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Objectives To determine the safety, tolerability and signs of efficacy of MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (bmj.com)
  • Metabolism of platelet-activating factor in human haematopoietic cell lines. (portlandpress.com)
  • R.W. Lim, B.C. Varnum, and H.R. Herschman, Oncogene 1:263-270, 1987) by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and TPA was examined both in a factor-dependent murine cell line, 32D clone 3, and in mature human neutrophils. (asm.org)
  • Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human mus musculus murine Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human detects proteins from variouse species most likely human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Moreover, CSF-1 promotes postnatal renal repair in mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury by recruiting and influencing macrophages toward a reparative state. (nih.gov)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of whole kidneys indicates CD45 + CD11b + CD11c − /F480 + renal macrophages are increased in CSF-1-treated mice at P5. (nih.gov)
  • A particularly severe form of GN, with a poor clinical outcome, crescentic GN is a T cell-and macrophage-dependent form of inflammatory renal injury. (asnjournals.org)
  • Binding studies employing Jurkat cell nuclear extracts indicated that four sites within the enhancer associate with the inducible transcription factor AP1. (pnas.org)
  • Three of these AP1 elements lie within sequences that also associate with factors resembling the CsA-sensitive, T cell-specific transcription factor NFAT. (pnas.org)
  • Cell-type restriction of inducible transcription factors may contribute to developmental specification. (asm.org)
  • They function by binding to their cognate receptors and triggering a cascade of tyrosine phosphorylation of both various known intracellular signaling proteins and the STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) family of transcription factors (references 12 and 28 and references therein). (asm.org)
  • TPA induced the expression of PPARgamma in RAW 264.7 macrophages by increasing transcription from the PPARgamma1 and PPARgamma3 promoters. (epfl.ch)
  • Lyophilized Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18 °C . Upon reconstitution GMCSF should be stored at 4 °C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18 °C . For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA). (creativebiomart.net)
  • We have now developed rLS expressing chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and IBV Ark Se in an attempt to enhance vaccine effectiveness. (allenpress.com)
  • The cytokine activates macrophages to inhibit fungal survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it is part of the immune/inflammatory cascade, by which activation of a small number of macrophages can rapidly lead to an increase in their numbers, a process crucial for fighting infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, GM-CSF deficiency leads to various immune dysfunctions and the current utilization of GM-CSF as haematopoietic factor might be an accurate but very incomplete indication for a cytokine with vast clinical potential. (springer.com)
  • NeuVax consists of the E75 peptide derived from HER2 combined with the immune adjuvant granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A recent study of our research group aimed to stimulate postoperative immune function using GM-CSF and found an increase of mHLA-DR as well as a decrease of infection days after application of GM-CSF [ 5 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Although detailed precipitating events are still unknown, it is thought that the disease process is multifactorial.1 The additive effect of genetic and environmental factors, loss of tolerance to intestinal bacterial flora, and immune dysfunction predispose to this sustained immune response (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in HIV-infected subjects using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as a vaccine adjuvant: ACTG study 5220. (actgnetwork.org)
  • Porcine monocyte-derived macrophages (moMΦ) have been employed as a model cell in numerous studies of the porcine immune system. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Because of their plasticity, macrophages are endowed with many other essential roles during development and tissue homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • Notably, the injection of CSF-1 postnatally enhanced kidney weight and volume and was associated with increased numbers of tissue macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Dr Thornton, a senior lecturer at Swansea's clinical school, has already analysed tissue from the placenta of women with and without allergies and found that lower levels of one of these growth factors - macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) - was produced by mothers- to-be with allergies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) facilitates epithelial wound healing, and recently, growth factor therapy has been applied to promote tissue repair. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Surfactant metabolism in transgenic mice after granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor ablation. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophages contribute as effectors of metabolism and the host defense. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, macrophages play a pivotal role in metabolism and host defense. (springer.com)
  • The role of M-CSF is not only restricted to the monocyte/macrophage cell lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • GM-CSF is a monomeric glycoprotein that functions as a cytokine - it is a white blood cell growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific factors are named for the cell lines that they stimulate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Additionally, GM-CSF can also stimulate the proliferation of a number of tumor cell lines, including osteogenic sarcoma, carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cell lines. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which are known to be present in atherosclerotic lesions, stimulated PPARgamma expression in primary macrophages and monocytic cell lines. (epfl.ch)
  • T cell functions in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The objective of the study was to examine the effect of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated, lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated-macrophage-conditioned medium on muscle-cell proliferation, fusion, and elongation, which are key events during muscle regeneration and myogenesis. (unlv.edu)
  • Purified rhGM-CSF from P. pastoris was 327 times more potent than rhGM-CSF from S. cerevisiae in terms of proliferative stimulating capacity on the hGM-CSF-dependent cell line, TF-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regulation of antigen presentation activity by endogenous macrophage populations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor ( GM-CSF ) but not colony-stimulating factor ( CSF-1 ) neutralization suppresses antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Synthes Award for Resident Research on Spinal Cord and Spinal Column Injury: granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) prevents apoptosis and improves functional outcome in experimental spinal cord contusion injury. (harvard.edu)
  • 1 Attempts to prevent sepsis or reduce sepsis-related mortality using intravenous immunoglobulin have failed to make a major impact 2 and attention has recently turned to the potential enhancement of phagocyte immunity using the hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors. (aappublications.org)
  • Glomerular macrophage accumulation, proteinuria, and interstitial infiltrate were equivalent in both chimeric groups but intermediate between WT and GM-CSF −/− , indicating that both sources are required for the full development of glomerular injury in crescentic GN. (asnjournals.org)
  • Local transgenic expression of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor initiates autoimmunity. (semanticscholar.org)