The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome without systemic inflammation in acutely ill patients admitted to hospital in a medical emergency. (1/1310)

Criteria of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are known to include patients without systemic inflammation. Our aim was to explore additional markers of inflammation that would distinguish SIRS patients with systemic inflammation from patients without inflammation. The study included 100 acutely ill patients with SIRS. Peripheral blood neutrophil and monocyte CD11b expression, serum interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein were determined, and severity of inflammation was evaluated by systemic inflammation composite score based on CD11b expression, C-reactive protein and cytokine levels. Levels of CD11b expression, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were higher in sepsis patients than in SIRS patients who met two criteria (SIRS2 group) or three criteria of SIRS (SIRS3 group). The systemic inflammation composite score of SIRS2 patients (median 1.5; range 0-8, n=56) was lower than that of SIRS3 patients (3.5; range 0-9, n=14, P=0.013) and that of sepsis patients (5.0; range 3-10, n=19, P<0.001). The systemic inflammation composite score was 0 in 13/94 patients. In 81 patients in whom systemic inflammation composite scores exceeded 1, interleukin-6 was increased in 64 (79.0%), C-reactive protein in 59 (72.8%) and CD11b in 50 (61.7%). None of these markers, when used alone, identified all patients but at least one marker was positive in each patient. Quantifying phagocyte CD11b expression and serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein concurrently provides a means to discriminate SIRS patients with systemic inflammation from patients without systemic inflammation.  (+info)

Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (2/1310)

We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process.  (+info)

Conformational changes in tertiary structure near the ligand binding site of an integrin I domain. (3/1310)

For efficient ligand binding, integrins must be activated. Specifically, a conformational change has been proposed in a ligand binding domain present within some integrins, the inserted (I) domain [Lee, J., Bankston, L., Arnaout, M. & Liddington, R. C. (1995) Structure (London) 3, 1333-1340]. This proposal remains controversial, however, despite extensive crystal structure studies on the I domain [Lee, J., Bankston, L., Arnaout, M. & Liddington, R. C. (1995) Structure (London) 3, 1333-1340; Liddington, R. & Bankston, L. (1998) Structure (London) 6, 937-938; Qu, A. & Leahy, D. J. (1996) Structure (London) 4, 931-942; and Baldwin, E. T., Sarver, R. W., Bryant, G. L., Jr., Curry, K. A., Fairbanks, M. B., Finzel, B. C. , Garlick, R. L., Heinrikson, R. L., Horton, N. C. & Kelly, L. L. (1998) Structure (London) 6, 923-935]. By defining the residues present in the epitope of a mAb against the human Mac-1 integrin (alphaMbeta2, CD11b/CD18) that binds only the active receptor, we provide biochemical evidence that the I domain itself undergoes a conformational change with activation. This mAb, CBRM1/5, binds the I domain very close to the ligand binding site in a region that is widely exposed regardless of activation as judged by reactivity with other antibodies. The conformation of the epitope differs in two crystal forms of the I domain, previously suggested to represent active and inactive receptor. Our data suggests that conformational differences in the I domain are physiologically relevant and not merely a consequence of different crystal lattice interactions. We also demonstrate that the transition between the two conformational states depends on species-specific residues at the bottom of the I domain, which are proposed to be in an interface with another integrin domain, and that this transition correlates with functional activity.  (+info)

Expression of the cell adhesion molecules on leukocytes that demarginate during acute maximal exercise. (4/1310)

The pulmonary vascular bed is an important reservoir for the marginated pool of leukocytes that can be mobilized by exercise or catecholamines. This study was designed to determine the phenotypic characteristics of leukocytes that are mobilized into the circulation during exercise. Twenty healthy volunteers performed incremental exercise to exhaustion [maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max)] on a cycle ergometer. Blood was collected at baseline, at 3-min intervals during exercise, at VO2 max, and 30 min after exercise. Total white cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), and lymphocyte counts increased with exercise to VO2 max (P < 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis showed that the mean fluorescence intensity of L-selectin on PMN (from 14.9 +/- 1 at baseline to 9.5 +/- 1.6 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) and lymphocytes (from 11.7 +/- 1.2 at baseline to 8 +/- 0.8 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) decreased with exercise. Mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b on PMN increased with exercise (from 10.2 +/- 0.6 at baseline to 25 +/- 2.5 at VO2 max, P < 0.002) but remained unchanged on lymphocytes. Myeloperoxidase levels in PMN did not change with exercise. In vitro studies showed that neither catecholamines nor plasma collected at VO2 max during exercise changed leukocyte L-selectin or CD11b levels. We conclude that PMN released from the marginated pool during exercise express low levels of L-selectin and high levels of CD11b.  (+info)

Neutrophil response to Neisseria meningitidis: inhibition of adhesion molecule expression and phagocytosis by recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21). (5/1310)

Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNL) activation enhances microbial clearance but also contributes to the vascular damage and multiorgan failure associated with severe meningococcal sepsis. By use of a whole blood model of meningococcal bacteremia, loss of PMNL L-selectin and up-regulation of CD11b was observed in response to Neisseria meningitidis serogroups B and C, which is followed by opsonophagocytosis. PMNL priming with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or FMLP prior to meningococcal challenge resulted in enhancement of both PMNL L-selectin shedding (1.5- to 4-fold) and phagocytosis (2- to 3-fold). Blockade of meningococcal LPS lipid A with recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) resulted in partial inhibition of the PMNL activation and phagocytosis response to N. meningitidis. The effect of rBPI21 was reversed by excess E. coli LPS or FMLP. It is proposed that PMNL priming by N. meningitidis results in an exaggerated activation and phagocytosis response to the organism.  (+info)

Specific activation of leukocyte beta2 integrins lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 and Mac-1 by chemokines mediated by distinct pathways via the alpha subunit cytoplasmic domains. (6/1310)

We show that CC chemokines induced a sustained increase in monocyte adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 that was mediated by Mac-1 (alphaMbeta2) but not lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; alphaLbeta2). In contrast, staining for an activation epitope revealed a rapid and transient up-regulation of LFA-1 activity by monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in monocytes and Jurkat CCR2 chemokine receptor transfectants or by stromal-derived factor-1alpha in Jurkat cells. Differential kinetics for activation of Mac-1 (sustained) and LFA-1 (transient) avidity in response to stromal-derived factor-1alpha were confirmed by expression of alphaM or alphaL in alphaL-deficient Jurkat cells. Moreover, expression of chimeras containing alphaL and alphaM cytoplasmic domain exchanges indicated that alpha cytoplasmic tails conferred the specific mode of regulation. Coexpressing alphaM or chimeras in mutant Jurkat cells with a "gain of function" phenotype that results in constitutively active LFA-1 demonstrated that Mac-1 was not constitutively active, whereas constitutive activity was mediated via the alphaL cytoplasmic tail, implying the presence of distinct signaling pathways for LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transendothelial chemotaxis of monocytes in response to MCP-1 was dependent on LFA-1; however, Mac-1 was involved at MCP-1 concentrations stimulating its avidity, showing differential contributions of beta2 integrins. Our data suggest that a specific regulation of beta2 integrin avidity by chemokines may be important in leukocyte extravasation and may be triggered by distinct activation pathways transduced via the alpha subunit cytoplasmic domains.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide-coated erythrocytes activate human neutrophils via CD14 while subsequent binding is through CD11b/CD18. (7/1310)

Interaction of LPS with monocytes and neutrophils is known to occur via CD14 and is strongly enhanced by LPS-binding protein (LBP). Integrins as well as CD14 play a role in the interaction of erythrocytes (E) coated with LPS or whole Gram-negative bacteria with phagocytes. We reasoned that the density of LPS on a particle is an important determinant in these interactions. Therefore, E were coated with different concentrations of LPS (ELPS). The binding of these ELPS to neutrophils was evaluated by flow cytometry. Simultaneously, we measured fMLP receptor expression to evaluate neutrophil activation. ELPS only bound to neutrophils in the presence of LBP. Blocking CD14 inhibited both activation and binding, whereas blocking complement (C) receptor 3 (CR3) inhibited binding but not activation. TNF activation restored ELPS binding in CD14-blocked cells but not in cells in which CR3 was blocked. Salmonella minnesota did bind to neutrophils independent of CR3 or CD14. The addition of LBP enhanced binding twofold, and this surplus was dependent upon CD14 but not on CR3. We conclude that ELPS interact with neutrophils via CD14, initially giving rise to cell activation; subsequently, binding is solely mediated by activated CR3.  (+info)

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon is critical for effective neutrophil-mediated response to inflammatory challenge. (8/1310)

Targeted mutation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) epsilon in mice results in early death, primarily due to spontaneous infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Functional analysis of C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils, in an in vivo model of peritoneal inflammation, shows multiple defects. Reduction of phagocytotic killing by C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils is a result of decreased uptake of opsonized bacteria as well as little to no expression of secondary granule proteins. Abnormalities in neutrophil migration detected in a chemical peritonitis model are likely secondary to abnormal CD11b integrin and L-selectin expression on C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils. Alterations in neutrophil cytokine expression in response to inflammation show decreased levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression by C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils. Additionally, TNF-alpha expression is increased in nonactivated, circulating C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils. Overall, C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils are severely functionally impaired, evoking an abnormal microenvironment, which may contribute to the loss of normal responses to inflammatory stimuli. Similarities between the C/EBPepsilon-deficient mouse model and the human disease, specific granule deficiency, will be discussed.  (+info)

The surface expression and regulation of the adhesion promoting glycoproteins Mac-1 and L-selectin was measured on monocytes and neutrophils from neonates and adults. A significant decrease in Mac-1 up regulation on both monocytes and neutrophils was found in neonates after both high (10(-7)M) and low (10(-9)M) concentrations of the chemotactic factor N-formyl-methionyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). A significant difference was obtained after incubation for five minutes, which was further enhanced after incubation for 15 minutes. Factors related to bacterial infections, lipopolysaccharides, activated sera (C5a), and aggregated IgG induced an impaired Mac-1 up regulation on both monocytes and neutrophils from neonates compared with adults. The expression of L-selectin was significantly lower on neutrophils from neonates and was less down regulated upon stimulation with a low concentration (10(-12)M) of FMLP. On monocytes from neonates, the expression and down regulation of L-selectin did not differ from ...
Minors under 16 may not be employed in feed mills, flour mills, grain warehouses, or any workplace where power-driven machinery is used in or incidental to adapting articles or goods for sale. No minor under age 18 may be employed to operate or assist in the operation of power-driven machinery, however, under certain circumstances, agricultural employers may employ 16 and 17 year olds to operate or assist in the operation of power-driven machinery in an agricultural warehouse. Youths employed on farms owned or operated by their parents may be employed in any occupation. Fourteen and 15 year old student learners enrolled in vocational agricultural programs are exempt from some of the hazardous occupations provisions when certain requirements are met. For a complete listing of prohibited/hazardous occupations or operations or for more information, contact the Bureau of Labor and Industries or U.S. Department of Labor ...
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The Integrin family proteins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors composed of an alpha and a beta subunit. The Integrin alpha M subunit, also known as MAC-1 alpha subunit or CD11b, combines with the Integrin beta 2 subunit (CD18) to form the non-covalent heterodimer Integrin alpha M/ beta 2, also known as MAC-1 and Complement Receptor type 3 (CR3). Integrin alpha M/ beta 2 is expressed on granulocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Upon activation, alpha M/ beta 2 can bind several ligands (including ICAM-1, Fibrinogen and the C3 Complement Fragment C3bi) to mediate phagocyte adhesion, migration and ingestion of complement-opsonized particles ...
Our data demonstrate that an alternative approach to inhibiting leukocyte migration by enhancing the activation of integrins with small molecules is highly effective in reducing leukocyte infiltration and subsequent inflammation in vivo (Fig. 5). We used a cell-based HTS assay (22, 24) to identify and optimize small-molecule agonists of CD11b/CD18, which we have termed leukadherins. The leukadherin compounds LA1 to LA3 have similar chemical structures, and they bind to the ligand-binding αA domain and convert CD11b/CD18 into its active conformation. We showed that leukadherins, but not the structurally similar compound LA-C, promoted CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion and decreased leukocyte motility, which led to a substantial reduction in leukocyte TEM and recruitment into tissues.. In addition, we found that leukadherins had a higher affinity for CD11b/CD18 than did a CD11b/CD18 agonist (32), perhaps because of their more rotationally constrained furanyl thiazolidinone central ring ...
We report that a subpopulation (10%) of the Mac-1 (CD1 1b/CD18) molecules on activated neutrophils mediates adhesion to ICAM-1 and fibrinogen. We describe a novel mAb (CBRM1/5) that binds to an activation-specific neoepitope on a subset of Mac-1 molecules on neutrophils and monocytes after stimulation with chemoattractants or phorobol esters but does not recognize Mac-1 on resting myeloid cells. CBRM1/5 immunoprecipitates a subpopulation of Mac-1 molecules from detergent lysates of neutrophils, binds to immunoaffinity-purified Mac-1, and localizes to the I domain on the alpha chain of Mac-1. Because CBRM1/5 recognizes a fraction of Mac-1 on activated neutrophils, but still blocks Mac-1-dependent adhesion to fibrinogen and ICAM-1, we suggest that only a small subset of Mac-1 molecules is competent to mediate adhesion. ...
CD11b (integrin alphaM subunit) is a 165-170 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that non-covalently associates with integrin beta2 subunit (CD18); expression of the CD11b chain on the cell surface requires the presence of the CD18 antigen. CD11b/CD18 integrin (Mac-1, CR3) is highly expressed on NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes and less on macrophages. CD11b/CD18 integrin is implicated in various adhesive interactions of monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, facilitating their diapedesis, as well as it mediates the uptake of complement coated particles, serving as a receptor for the iC3b fragment of the third complement component ...
CD11b (integrin alphaM subunit) is a 165-170 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that non-covalently associates with integrin beta2 subunit (CD18); expression of the CD11b chain on the cell surface requires the presence of the CD18 antigen. CD11b/CD18 integrin (Mac-1, CR3) is highly expressed on NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes and less on macrophages. CD11b/CD18 integrin is implicated in various adhesive interactions of monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, facilitating their diapedesis, as well as it mediates the uptake of complement coated particles, serving as a receptor for the iC3b fragment of the third complement component ...
The CD11b antigen is also known as the integrin αM subunit. It combines with the CD18 antigen (integrin β2 subunit) to build the integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2, CR3, iC3bR, Mo-1). CD11b is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein of 170 or 165 kDa under reducing or non-reducing conditions, respectively.
Hi, Ive joined the mac family. I just bought an Imac 24 3.06ghz/4gb/1TB hd, and a macbook for my wife. I also have mobile me and a wireless...
We are in a climate crisis.. According to the UN IPCC Report, we have less than 12 years left to drastically reduce carbon emissions, or else well face the irreversible tipping point of catastrophic climate change. This will create a domino effect of drought, wild fires, food insecurity, storms, floods, mass migration and societal collapse.. In CBRM, climate change has already caused storms and storm surges, flooding, and infrastructure damage -- and its only going to get worse. By 2100, our shorelines will rise by at least 100 cm. Our land, coastal, and ocean ecosystems will be devastated. The natural beauty and stability of our island is poised to collapse.. This is an existential crisis, but our governments are not taking appropriate action. Governments are STILL subsidizing fossil fuels and allowing new infrastructure that will add to the crisis. We need a massive societal mobilization to pressure government to shift rapidly to renewables and create millions of green jobs.. MAKE CBRM ...
Data indicate that a reduction in adhesion molecule expression may not contribute significantly to the reduction in SCD neutrophil adhesion mediated by NO donors. Instead, these agents may abrogate SCD neutrophil adhesion via alterations in the function (via affinity or avidity alterations) of the adhesion molecules already expressed on the cell surface. Similarly, NO-dependent signaling has been shown to alter platelet GPIIb/IIIa integrin function, as well as neutrophil Mac-1 integrin affinity or avidity.9,20. Interestingly, the adhesion of neutrophils from SCD individuals on HU therapy (SCDHUneu) demonstrated a significantly lower adhesion to fibronectin and ICAM-1 that approached that of CONneu adhesion (Figure 1). NOx in these cells were not found to be significantly higher than in SCDneu (SCDHUneu; 4.22±0.92 μM/1×106 cells; p,0.05; n=11). However, intracellular cGMP levels were found to be approximately doubled in SCDHUneu compared with control and SCD neutrophils (0.241±0.034 ...
A single administration of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA), type 1 carrageenan (Car), or silica 7, 2, and 2 days, respectively, before infection with a low dose (1 × 102 plaque-forming units/mouse) of encephalomyocarditis D (EMC-D) virus resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of diabetes in SJL/J mice (100%) compared with untreated EMC-D virus-infected mice (40%). Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from uninfected SJL/J mice, which had been treated once with silica, and transferred into SJL/J mice 2 days before low-dose EMC-D infection. Approximately 90% of the mice became diabetic, whereas 30% of mice that received virus alone became diabetic. The depletion of macrophages by treatment with the combined anti-Mac-1 and anti-Mac-2 monoclonal antibodies after a single administration of CFA, Car, or silica resulted in almost complete prevention of β-cell destruction in EMC-D virus-infected mice. Furthermore, none of the mice in which macrophages were depleted by long-term treatment ...
Objective: The expression of complement receptor type 1 on different cells is associated with autoimmunity. Erythrocyte-Complement Receptor Type 1 (E-CR1) is a candidate ..
All regular meetings are open to the public. 22(2)(c) of the, Audit Committee In Camera As Per Sec. Rookie councillor Glenn Paruch has made a request that council direct CBRM staff to prepare an issue paper on a proposed study into the possibility of establishing a new recreational facility with two courts to be used for activities such as basketball, volleyball and seniors activities. A partner of the Municipal Website Venture.Copyright © Cape Breton Regional Municipality. var path = hr + ef + =; After blood donations plummet during pandemic, donors answer the … This problem has now been corrected. - following In-Camera sessionCity Hall, Council Chambers, (Rescheduled from Tuesday, January 30, 2018), Addendum to January 30, 2018 Agenda (1.2 MB), Tuesday, February 6, 20184:30 p.m. DAVID JALA • CAPE BRETON POST . CBRM Meetings and Minutes Regional Council and its Committees meet in the Council Chambers on the second floor of City Hall, 320 Esplanade, Sydney, NS. We apologize for any ...
CD11c is a member of the leukocyte integrin family of adhesion proteins. t is reported to be expressed in normal tissues, mainly on myeloid cells eg.
A method and a package for identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms in complement receptor is useful in identifying individual susceptibility to a disease. Complement receptors CR1 and CR2 are active in the immune response and autoimmune diseases. The susceptibility and severity of autoimmune disease is determined by genotyping or phenotyping an individual for complement receptor.
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MAC-11 - Splinter Cell: Blacklist: The MAC-11 is an ultra-compact machine pistol with a very high rate of fire. This weapon can be purchased for $81,000 after Upgrading the Holding Cel...
article{131414, author = {Diez Fraile, Araceli and Dosogne, Hilde and Meyer, Evelyne and Paape, Max and Burvenich, Christian}, issn = {0031-6768}, journal = {PFLUGERS ARCHIV-EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY}, language = {eng}, title = {Effect of induced Escherichia coli or endotoxin mastitis on bovine neutrophil adhesion molecules.}, volume = {21}, year = {1999 ...
The Cape Breton Regional Municipality appears to be speaking from both sides of its mouth on the issue of artificial water fluoridation. While they continue to add fluoride to the drinking water supplies of Sydney, North Sydney, New Waterford and Glace Bay until organizations such as Health Canada and the Canadian Dental Association go on record as opposing this practice, they actually ignored that same advice when it came to Louisbourg.. When the CBRM was asked why the decision was made not to fluoridate Louisbourgs water supply, the reasons given were that fluoride is not an essential component, adding it is not a formal requirement, there are now other forms of fluoride available to people (so dont add it to the water supply if you dont have to), and dont add all those costs if theres not a compelling reason to do it. Given all those reasons, why does the CBRM continue to add fluoride to the drinking water of any other community?. Weve been told for more than 50 years that adding ...
Created by Aaron Marino, IAmAlphaM is a mens lifestyle and personal development zone. IAmAlphaM is THE source for all things mens style, grooming, and fitness. The site features over 1,500 original videos and articles as well as super cool IAmAlphaM approved products at a great price. alpha m. Image Consulting also features Alphas very own Pete and Pedro, M. Apparel, Male Style Guide, and the stylesystem. Every weekday reveals the Deal of the Day as well as a topical video: Monday- Style, Tuesday- Grooming, Wednesday- Fitness, Thursday- Alpha M. and Friday- Q&A.
If you walk down Agricola, day or night, youve probably smelled the putrid stench of fresh, hot piss directly across from Obsolete Records. I dont...
Complement receptor type 1 (CR1 or CD35) is a peripheral glycosylated membrane protein that regulates the complement activation in the control of immune responses. The author would like to overview the folding and binding properties of the soluble form of CR1, so-called as sCR1, introducing our development of the high-yield overexpression and purification methods as well as the investigation to its molecular structure. Although sCR1 prepared through our method showed the highest binding affinity against C3b, it is quite difficult to be crystallized for X-ray structure analysis. In spite of many attempts, only microcrystals have been obtained so far. Considering the usefulness to understand factors within the difficulty, the primary sequence of sCR1 has been reexamined from the viewpoints both of secondary structure predictions and recent findings of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or natively unfolded proteins (NUPs). As an example, the theoretically predicted structure of a short consensus
A panel of 21 alpha-subunit (CD11a) and 10 beta-subunit (CD18) anti-LFA-1 mAbs was screened for ability to activate LFA-1. A single anti-CD11a mAb, MEM-83, was identified which was able to directly induce the binding of T cells to purified ICAM-1 immobilized on plastic. This ICAM-1 binding could be achieved by monovalent Fab fragments of mAb MEM-83 at concentrations equivalent to whole antibody, was associated with appearance of the activation reporter epitope detected by mAb 24, and was completely inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 and LFA-1 blocking mAbs. The epitope recognized by mAb MEM-83 was distinct from that recognized by mAb NKI-L16, an anti-CD11a mAb previously reported to induce LFA-1 activation, in that it was constitutively present on freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and was not divalent cation dependent for expression. The ICAM-1 binding activity induced by mAb MEM-83 was, however, dependent on the presence of Mg2+ divalent cations. Using an in vitro-translated CD11a ...
In the present study, we demonstrate that opsonization of HIV with complement enhances both the infection of iDC and the transmission in trans of virus to CD4 T lymphocytes. Enhancement of infection of iDC observed following preincubation of virus with normal serum was complement-dependent and occurred with both R5- and X4-tropic primary isolates of HIV-1. Thus, productive infection of iDC was seen much earlier and was 5-fold higher with AC-OV than in the presence of corresponding HIC-OV and unopsonized virus. The virus produced in supernatant at day 6 was infectious as demonstrated by productive infection of IL-2-activated lymphocytes. In addition, proviral HIV-1 DNA was detected in iDC within 6 h of incubation with complement-opsonized HIV-1, the amounts of HIV-1 pol DNA measured by semiquantitative nested PCR being significantly higher in cells infected with opsonized HIV, as compared with cells infected with virus that had been preincubated with culture medium. These data extend previous ...
3. B 림프구의 분화단계에 따른 세포막 단백질 ∎ CD(cluster of differentiation) ※ CD19 : 성숙 B 세포의 표면에 지속적으로 존재하는항원 ( panmarker ). 4. 성숙 B cell 의 활성화 ∎ 활성화된 B cell - plasma cell( IgM ) 로 분화 - ...
CD11c is a member of the leukocyte integrin family of adhesion proteins. t is reported to be expressed in normal tissues, mainly on myeloid cells eg.
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As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) is a major macrophage phagocytic receptor. The biochemical pathways through which CR3 regulates immunologic responses have not been fully characterized. Francisella tularensis is a remarkably infectious, facult
Lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is a heterodimer, composed of an α L-chain and a β 2-chain. The I-domain is inserted in the ctL-chain and contains a binding site for ICAM-1. To study the adhesive interaction between the I-domain and ICAM-I, we constructed a GPIanchored form of the I-domain and expressed it stabily in BHK-cells. In contrast to the whole LFA-1 molecule (Kd=8nM), no interaction between soluble ICAM-1 dimers and I-domain expressing cells could be detected, suggesting that the ICAM-1/I-domain interaction is of low affinity (Kd|33||M). In flow cell experiments the I-domain expressing cells rolled on glass supported planar bilayers containing ICAM-1. Rolling was not caused by an uprooting of the GPI-linked protein, since BHK-cells expressing GPI-anchored ICAM-1 attached stabily to bilayers containing purified LFA-1. The interaction between ICAM-1 and the I-domain is dependent on divalent cations and is blocked by the LFA-1
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Exbio \ Mouse Monoclonal to CD11b Mac-1 alpha, Clone MEM-174, Isotype IgG2aApplication FC, IP Concentration 1 mg ml \ 11-211-C025 for more molecular products just contact us
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Exbio \ Mouse Monoclonal to CD11b _ Mac-1 alpha, Clone MEM-174, Isotype IgG2aApplication FC, IP Concentration 1 mg_ml \ 11-211-C025 for more molecular products just contact us
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The C3b receptor (CR1) is a polymorphic membrane glycoprotein (Dykman et al., 1983a,b, 1984, 1985; Wong et al., 1983). It is found in a variety of cell types and has several important immunologic...
The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid 2 (TREM2) is an immune phagocytic receptor expressed on brain microglia known to trigger phagocytosis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Critical role for serum opsonins and complement receptors CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) in phagocytosis of Francisella tularensis by human dendritic cells (DC). T2 - Uptake of Francisella leads to activation of immature DC and intracellular survival of the bacteria. AU - Nasr, Abdelhakim Ben. AU - Haithcoat, Judith. AU - Masterson, Joseph E.. AU - Gunn, John S.. AU - Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia. AU - Klimpel, Gary R.. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious human pathogens known. Although much has been learned about the immune response of mice using an attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS) derived from F. tularensis subspecies holarctica (Type B), little is known about the responses of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (DC). Here, we show that optimal phagocytosis of LVS by DC is dependent on serum opsonization. We demonstrate that complement factor C3-derived opsonins and the major complement receptors expressed by ...
OBJECTIVE: The endothelial protein C-receptor (EPCR) is an endothelial transmembrane protein that binds protein C and activated protein C (APC) with equal affinity, thereby facilitating APC formation. APC has anticoagulant, antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory properties. Soluble EPCR, released by the endothelium, may bind activated neutrophils, thereby modulating cell adhesion. EPCR is therefore considered as a possible link between the anticoagulant properties of protein C and the inflammatory response of neutrophils. In the present study, we aimed to provide proof of concept for a direct binding of EPCR to the β2-integrin Mac-1 on monocytic cells under static and physiological flow conditions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Under static conditions, human monocytes bind soluble EPCR in a concentration dependent manner, as demonstrated by flow cytometry. Binding can be inhibited by specific antibodies (anti-EPCR and anti-Mac-1). Specific binding was confirmed by a static adhesion assay, where a ...
The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the chicken beta 2 (CD18) subunit, common to the leukocyte integrin family. The deduced 748-amino-acid sequence reveals a transmembrane protein with 65% and 64% identity with its human and murine homologues, respectively. The chicken beta 2 can associate on the cell surface with the human alpha subunit of LFA-1 and yields a hybrid molecule capable of binding to purified ICAM-1 and ICAM-3 ...
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... macrophages and NK cells. These complement receptors participate in the innate immune response by recognizing foreign antigen ... CD18+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ... Binding of CD18 and CD11 results in the formation of Lymphocyte Functions Associated Antigen 1 (LFA-1), a protein found on B ... Huang C, Springer TA (August 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ...
The ICAM family consists of five members, designated ICAM-1 to ICAM-5. They are known to bind to leucocyte integrins CD11/CD18 ... In molecular biology, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are part of the ... Mammalian intercellular adhesion molecules include: ICAM-1 ICAM2 ICAM3 ICAM4 ICAM5 Gahmberg CG, Tolvanen M, Kotovuori P (April ... such as LFA-1 and Macrophage-1 antigen, during inflammation and in immune responses. In addition, ICAMs may exist in soluble ...
A macrophage engulfs the pathogen. Step 2: The macrophage then digests the bacterium and presents the pathogen's antigens. Step ... phagocytosis by macrophages. Wright and Douglas (1903)[10] Antibody. Formation (1900), antigen-antibody binding. hypothesis ( ... Antibody-antigen reaction[edit]. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ... When a B cell encounters an antigen, it is bound to the receptor and taken inside by endocytosis. The antigen is processed and ...
Macrophage-1 antigen Integrin alpha M Macintosh This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title formed ...
Rehli M, Krause SW, Andreesen R (2000). "The membrane-bound ectopeptidase CPM as a marker of macrophage maturation in vitro and ... Its expression is associated with monocyte to macrophage differentiation. This encoded protein contains hydrophobic regions at ... 50 (1): 204-8. doi:10.2337/diabetes.50.1.204. PMID 11147789. Suzuki Y, Taira H, Tsunoda T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Sese J, Hata H, ... 258 (1): 204-10. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.0619. PMID 10222261. Bektas A, Hughes JN, Warram JH, Krolewski AS, Doria A (January 2001 ...
Integrin+alphaM at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... In histopathology, immunohistochemistry with antibodies against CD11B is frequently used to identify macrophages and microglia ... also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3). ITGAM is also known as CR3A, and cluster of ... macrophages, and natural killer cells. It mediates inflammation by regulating leukocyte adhesion and migration and has been ...
... and sialyl Tn antigens in colorectal cancer patients: multivariate analysis of predictive factors for serum antigen levels". ... SeV can stimulate the production of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIB-1α) and -β (MIB-1β), RANTES (CCL5), tumor necrosis ... July 2008). "Antigen-specific T-cell induction by vaccination with a recombinant Sendai virus vector even in the presence of ... Low anti-SeV antibodies background does not block the ability of SeV-base vaccine to promote antigen-specific T cell immunity. ...
ED1 macrophage antigen, CD4, and leukocyte common antigen. These activated microglia decrease the ability for neurons to ... A decreased population of M2 macrophages and an increased population of M1 macrophages is associated with chronic inflammation ... Wang X, Cao K, Sun X, Chen Y, Duan Z, Sun L, Guo L, Bai P, Sun D, Fan J, He X, Young W, Ren Y (April 2015). "Macrophages in ... Cells involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses, such as macrophages, T Cells, and B Cells, may then enter into the ...
... present on macrophages that is also called Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) and αMβ2 integrin. CD11c/CD18 also called complement ... For example, LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) short representation of Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1, also called αLβ2 integrin Mac1 ...
... or CR-3 may refer to: Macrophage-1 antigen, an immunological cell surface receptor for a complement component CR3, an x86 ...
... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.833.249 - integrin alphaxbeta2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.833.500 - macrophage-1 antigen ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 - receptors, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 - antigens, cd40 MeSH ...
Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ... Marsh SG, Bodmer JG (1993). "HLA class II nucleotide sequences, 1992". Tissue Antigens. 40 (5): 229-43. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Major histocompatibility complex Human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQ ENSG00000206305, ENSG00000225890, ENSG00000232062, ...
Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ... Major histocompatibility complex Human leukocyte antigen HLA-DP "Entrez Gene: HLA-DPA1 major histocompatibility complex, class ... Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1, also known as HLA-DPA1, is a human gene. The protein encoded by this ... II, DP alpha 1". v t e This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the ...
It enhances MHC class II antigen (extracellular protein complex that interacts exclusively with CD4-T cells as part of the ... An alveolar macrophage (or dust cell) is a type of macrophage, a professional phagocyte, found in the pulmonary alveoli, near ... The alveolar macrophage is the third cell type in the alveolus, the others are the type I and type II pneumocytes. Alveolar ... Alveolar macrophages are also involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic and necrotic cells. They need to be selective of the ...
... (hereafter complement receptor 3 or CR3) (CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T ... Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b ( ... CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). "The continuing saga of complement receptor type 3 (CR3 ... Macrophage-1+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
Tissue Antigens. 59 (4): 311-5. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2002.590410.x. PMID 12135431. Bassuny WM, Ihara K, Matsuura N, Ahmed S ... Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC11A1 gene. This gene is a ... Søborg C, Andersen AB, Madsen HO, Kok-Jensen A, Skinhøj P, Garred P (August 2002). "Natural resistance-associated macrophage ... Kishi F, Nobumoto M (1996). "Identification of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes ...
"MACROPHAGE ANTIGEN CD68; CD68". Retrieved 16 September 2017. Leong, Anthony S-Y; Cooper, Kumarason; Leong, F Joel W-M ... In this species, it is expressed in most macrophage populations and thus ED1 is commonly used as a pan-macrophage marker. ... "Macrophage/histiocytic antigen CD68 expression in neoplastic and reactive lymph nodes". Roczniki Akademii Medycznej W ... "Rat macrophage lysosomal membrane antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody ED1". Immunology. 83 (1): 140-7. PMC 1415006. PMID ...
... and antigen in vitro: II. Mitogen-induced release of skin reactive and macrophage migration inhibitory factors". Cellular ... While in London, Pick focused on the study of soluble products made by antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes-known as lymphokines, ... Pick, E.; Krejci, J.; Cech, K.; Turk, J. L. (November 1969). "Interaction between 'sensitized lymphocytes' and antigen in vitro ... Pick, E.; Kroizman, T.; Abo, A. (15 December 1989). "Activation of the superoxide-forming NADPH oxidase of macrophages requires ...
"Rat macrophage lysosomal membrane antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody ED1. (1994) Immunology, 83 (1), pp. 140-147. Cited ... Liu, L.M., MacPherson, G.G. "Antigen acquisition by dendritic cells: Intestinal dendritic cells acquire antigen administered ... He is recognized for his "pioneering work" on the modulation of the adaptive immune response by sub-populations of antigen- ... Relationship between macrophages, Lagerhans cells, reticular cells, and dendritic cells in lymphoid and hematopoietic organs" ( ...
Katz FE, Parkar M, Stanley K, Murray LJ, Clark EA, Greaves MF (Jan 1985). "Chromosome mapping of cell membrane antigens ... macrophages, and lymphocytes. ICAM-1 is a ligand for LFA-1 (integrin), a receptor found on leukocytes. When activated, ... Huang C, Springer TA (Aug 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and fibrinogen. These three proteins are generally expressed on endothelial ...
The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may function as a cell surface antigen. Two transcript variants encoding distinct ... "Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA encoding human macrophage C-type lectin. Its unique carbohydrate binding specificity ... for Tn antigen". J. Immunol. 156 (1): 128-35. PMID 8598452. "Entrez Gene: CLEC10A C-type lectin domain family 10, member A". ... 2009). "Single nucleotide polymorphism of TAG-1 influences IVIg responsiveness of Japanese patients with CIDP". Neurology. 73 ( ...
Increases antigen presentation and lysosome activity of macrophages.. *Activates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) ... which activates the macrophages. Further activation of macrophages causes a cycle of further killing of intracellular bacteria ... Activation of macrophages by IFNγ from Th1 helper cells in mycobacterial infections allows the macrophages to overcome the ... antigen processing and presentation. • positive regulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity. • regulation of ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... negative regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation. • activation of protein kinase activity. • leukocyte ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... 936 (1): 340-54. Bibcode:2001NYASA.936..340B. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb03521.x. PMID 11460491. S2CID 25431334.. ...
M2 macrophages resolve inflammation, help tissue healing, tolerate self-antigens and certain neoantigens (for example apoptotic ... The diversity of macrophage phenotypes still remain to be fully characterized in vivo. The imbalance of the macrophage types is ... Macrophage polarization is a process by which macrophages adopt different functional programs in response to the signals from ... This plasticity of macrophage phenotype has added to the confusion regarding the existence of individual macrophage sub-types ...
... metastasis by forming complexes with tumor cells and leukocytes in the vasculature thus preventing recognition by macrophage, ... 84 (1): 92-9. doi:10.1172/JCI114175. PMC 303957 . PMID 2472431.. *^ Herrmann SM, Ricard S, Nicaud V, Mallet C, Evans A, ... 79 (1): 181-213. PMID 9922371.. *^ Lorenzon P, Vecile E, Nardon E, Ferrero E, Harlan JM, Tedesco F, Dobrina A (September 1998 ... 28 (1): 53-66. doi:10.1055/s-2002-20564. PMID 11885026.. *. Furie B, Furie BC (2004). "Role of platelet P-selectin and ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... 2 (1): 15-26. doi:10.3109/15419069409014199. PMID 7982033.. *. Kido M, Obata S, Tanihara H, Rochelle JM, Seldin MF, Taketani S ... 98 (4): 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.02.018. PMC 4833290. PMID 27018473.. ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ... Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... 38 (1): 178-86. doi:10.1053/jhep.2003.50270. PMID 12830000.. *^ a b Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a ... doi:10.1016/S0959-8049(00)00158-1. PMID 10959047.. *^ a b Weinberg, Robert (2006). The Biology of Cancer. Garland Science. pp. ...
Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of integrins. VCAM-1 expression has also been observed in other cell ... Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... As a result, VCAM-1 is a potential drug target. References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000162692 - ... "Entrez Gene: VCAM1 vascular cell adhesion molecule 1".. *^ a b Barreiro O, Yanez-Mo M, Serrador JM, Montoya MC, Vicente- ...
macrophage migration inhibitory factor receptor complex. • membrane. • focal adhesion. • plasma membrane. • integral component ... In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
Carrasco, Yolanda R.; Batista, Facundo D. (July 2007). "B Cells Acquire Particulate Antigen in a Macrophage-Rich Area at the ... Unlike other DCs and macrophages, FDCs lack MHC class II antigen molecules and express few pattern-recognition receptors, so ... Noncognate (not antigen specific) B cells play a significant role in the transport of antigens to FDCs. They capture immune ... Follicular DCs receptors CR1, CR2 and FcγRIIb trap antigen opsonized by complement or antibodies. These antigens are then taken ...
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer ...
"First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... macrophages, dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication ... 55: 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2014.09.001. PMID 25260583.. *^ a b Smith, Tara (2005). Ebola (Deadly Diseases and Epidemics). ... a rapid antigen test which gives results in 15 minutes was approved for use by WHO.[101] It is able to confirm Ebola in 92% of ...
2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ... "Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex and ... 7 (1): 143-54. doi:10.1002/pmic.200600339. PMID 17154273.. *. Lowe JK, Maller JB, Pe'er I, et al. (2009). Gibson G, ed. "Genome ... doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(99)00459-1. PMID 10996355.. *. Klos KL, Sing CF, Boerwinkle E, et al. (2006). "Consistent effects of ...
The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. ... providing the ground for starting inflammatory and immune responses upon the detection of antigens.[15]:161 ... such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose connective tissue, ... ISBN 978-1-4160-6257-8.. *^ Mathews, M. B. (1975). Connective Tissue, Macromolecular Structure Evolution. Springer-Verlag, ...
... gayundin ang pagsusuri sa ihi para sa mga antigen (substansiyang lumilikha ng pangontra sa sakit) para sa Legionella at ... kung saan ang mga macrophage at mga neutrophil (mga depensibong puting selula) ay sinusubukang gawing inaktibo ang bakterya.[32 ... Ang mga impeksiyong sanhi ng birus ay maaaring kumpirmahin sa pamamagitan ng pagtuklas ng alinman sa birus o mga antigen ( ... 26 (1): 14-7.. *↑ 71.0 71.1 Behera, D. (2010). Textbook of pulmonary medicine (ika-2nd (na) edisyon). New Delhi: Jaypee ...
Liver biopsy can verify inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes and detect viral antigens. Because of the bleeding tendency of ... The viruses infect, amongst others, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They attach to the cell surfaces via specific ... 82 (1): 175-185. doi:10.1002/jmv.21606. PMID 19950229.. *^ "YELLOW FEVER - AMERICAS (01): PAHO/WHO 2016". ... Retrieved 1 June 2017.. *^ Times, Global. "Yellow fever cases continue to rise in Brazil, 253 confirmed - Global Times". www. ...
Strout, R.D.; J. Suttles (2005). "Immunosenescence and macrophage functional plasticity: dysregulation of macrophage function ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... Although myeloid cell production does not seem to decline with age, macrophages become dysregulated as a consequence of ...
... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ... MAC - macrophage - macrophage-tropic virus - magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - MAI - maintenance therapy - major ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Often these cells have specific names depending upon which tissue they settle in, such as fixed macrophages in the liver, which ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... Monocytes migrate from the bloodstream to other tissues and differentiate into tissue resident macrophages, Kupffer cells in ...
Monocytes/macrophages as well as granulocytes are capable of this process. In certain conditions, either the number of ... This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
2010). Lentiviruses and Macrophages: Molecular and Cellular Interactions. Caister Academic. ISBN 978-1-904455-60-8. .. ... Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are about 2000-4000 copies per virion. ... 8 (1-3): d117-34. doi:10.2741/957. PMID 12456349.. *^ Jolly C (March 2011). "Cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses: Innate ... 110 (1-4): 342-52. doi:10.1159/000084966. PMID 16093686.. *^ Svarovskaia ES; Cheslock SR; Zhang WH; Hu WS; Pathak VK. (January ...
These T cells can then go on to perform effector functions such as macrophage activation, B cell activation, and cell-mediated ... MHC complex on a professional antigen-presenting cell and by the B7:CD28 costimulatory signal. Upon activation, "low-affinity" ... When interleukin-1 is produced in response to external stimuli, it can bind to cell-surface receptors on the same cell that ... 75 (1): 196-207. doi:10.1124/mol.108.049544. PMC 2669785 . PMID 18849352. Yi, Eun Hee; Lee, Chang Seok; Lee, Jin-Ku; Lee, Young ...
Main article: Macrophage. Macrophages are large phagocytic leukocytes. They can move across the cell membrane of capillary ... rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... Macrophages are the most efficient phagocytes, and can phagocytose substantial numbers of bacteria or other cells or microbes.[ ... Pathogens also stimulate the macrophage to produce chemokines, which summon other cells to the site of infection.[9] ...
Primarna funkcija IL-8 citokina je da regrutuje neutrofile da fagocitoziraju antigen koji je pobudio antigenski obrazac toll- ... IL-1 • IL-2 • IL-3 • IL-4 • IL-5 • IL-6 • IL-7 • IL-8 • IL-9 • IL-10 • IL-11 • IL-12 (B) • IL-13 • IL-14 • IL-15 • IL-16 • IL- ... proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... 1]. n/a. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) je citokin koga proizvode makrofage i ćelije drugih tipova kao što su epitelijalne ćelije. NJega ...
... and macrophages is required.[2] ... TI-2 antigen[edit]. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells. However ... TI-2 antigens can activate only mature B lymphocytes. Immature B cells are anergized, so they do not elicit any immune response ...
Macrophages[edit]. Main article: Macrophages. Macrophages, from the Greek, meaning "large eaters", are large phagocytic ... Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Macrophages are the most efficient phagocytes and can phagocytose substantial numbers of bacteria or other cells or microbes.[1 ... Similar to macrophages, neutrophils attack pathogens by activating a respiratory burst. The main products of the neutrophil ...
... +Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... and transmembrane domains is induced in HL-60 by tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and is expressed in alveolar macrophages". Blood ... antigen is released by Ki-1-positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
macrophage. A kind of swallowing cell, which means it functions by literally swallowing up other particles or smaller cells. ... of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. The theory has become the widely accepted model for ... Macrophages engulf and digest debris (such as dead cells) and foreign particles through the process of phagocytosis, so ... which act as a critical part of the immune response by specifically recognizing and binding to particular antigens, such as ...
... macrophages and other particles. ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
TNF was thought to be produced primarily by macrophages,[36] but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ... On macrophages: stimulates phagocytosis, and production of IL-1 oxidants and the inflammatory lipid Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) ... It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it can be produced by many other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes ...
... macrophages, and/or antigen presenting cells, in an effort to drive an immune response towards a cytotoxic effect against the ... The resulting rapid change in viral genetics produces antigenic shifts, which are sudden changes from one antigen to another. ... If a human influenza virus is produced that has entirely new antigens, everybody will be susceptible, and the novel influenza ... Therapeutic biologics are designed to activate the immune response to virus or antigens. Typically, biologics do not target ...
Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils can also mediate ADCC, such as eosinophils killing certain parasitic worms known as ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.[1] It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ... also have an external structure or integument that is resistant to attack by substances released by neutrophils and macrophages ...
Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test and the food allergy profile are considered ... and macrophages to the initial site. The reaction is usually seen 2-24 hours after the original reaction.[41] Cytokines from ... 83 (1): 7-20. doi:10.2223/JPED.1587. PMID 17279290.. *^ a b c d e f Allen KJ, Turner PJ, Pawankar R, et al. (2014). " ... 101 (1): 2-7. doi:10.5740/jaoacint.17-0381. PMID 29202901.. *^ a b c Lee TH, Ho HK, Leung TF (2017). "Genetically modified ...
Walled off lesion containing macrophages and other cells. Some peripheral neuropathies. Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, ... Enteric microbiota and/or self antigens. Hyperactivation of T-cells, cytokine release, recruitment of macrophages and other ... Target antigen. Effects. Allergic contact dermatitis[1]. Environmental chemicals, like urushiol (from poison ivy and poison oak ... Myelin antigens (e.g., myelin basic protein). Myelin destruction, inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis[1]. Possibly collagen and/ ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... Fc receptors are also found on eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages and platelets in humans. There are two types of Fcε ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
பிறபொருளெதிரியாக்கி - முன்வைக்கும் உயிரணுவாக (antigen-presenting cell = APC) இதன் முக்கியமான தொழில் டி நிணநீர்க்கலங்களை ... "Cell size of alveolar macrophages: an interspecies comparison". Environ. Health Perspect. (Brogan & Partners) 105 Suppl 5 ... 1%. 12-15. *அழற்சி எதிர்வினைக்காக திசுநீர்த்தேக்கியை வெளியேற்றும்.. இருமடல் அல்லது மும்மடல். பெரிய நீலநிறம். சில ... வெண்குருதியணுக்களில் ஐந்து வேறுபட்ட வகையான உயிரணுக்கள் உள்ளன[1]. ஆனால் அவை யாவும் என்பு மச்சையில் இருக்கும் ...
The spleen and liver had abundant pigment containing macrophages and parasitized red blood cells. The kidney had evidence of ... and many West Africans lack the Duffy antigen - a protein on the surface of the red blood cell that the parasite uses to invade ... doi:10.1186/1756-3305-1-26. PMC 2531168. PMID 18710577.. *^ Lee K.S.; Cox-Singh J.; Brooke G.; Matusop A.; Singh B. (2009). " ... Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia.[1] It causes malaria in long-tailed ...
... viral antigen and viral RNA were found in macrophages in the synovial joint of a person experiencing a relapse of ... Viral antigen was detected in a muscle biopsy of a person suffering a recurrent episode of disease three months after initial ... Retrieved 1 January 2014.. *^ a b c d Morrison TE (October 2014). "Reemergence of chikungunya virus". Journal of Virology. 88 ( ... 15 (1): R9. doi:10.1186/ar4137. PMC 3672753. PMID 23302155.. *^ a b Moro ML, Grilli E, Corvetta A, Silvi G, Angelini R, ...
Epithelial, lymphocytes, and macrophages are the favored sites of replication in the host organism. The first report of a DVE ... be confirmed with presence of virus inclusion bodies in tissues or a positive immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen. ... AHV-1 has 67 genes in its genome, 65 of which are likely coding genes. Three of the genes have no homologs to other herpesvirus ... DVH-1 replicates in the mucus membranes of bird's esophagus and cloaca, the two primary entrances of the virus. The means of ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (hereafter complement receptor 3 or CR3) (CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T ... Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b ( ... CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). "The continuing saga of complement receptor type 3 (CR3 ... Macrophage-1+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
We examined these surface antigens and a monocyte marker antigen on fresh cord and adult blood monocytes, macrophages (Mφ) ... Glover, D. M. and Brownstein, D. and Burchett, S. and Larsen, A. and Wilson, C. B. (1987) Expression of HLA class II antigens ... HLA class II antigen expression and IL-1 production by mononuclear phagocytes are important for antigen-stimulated T-cell ... Expression of HLA class II antigens and secretion of interleukin-1 by monocytes and macrophages from adults and neonates ...
11 recognize cell surface antigens that are almost undetectable on monocytes but highly expressed on differentiated macrophages ... 11 recognize cell surface antigens that are almost undetectable on monocytes but highly expressed on differentiated macrophages ... Moreover, in vitro differentiated macrophages show the highest specific activity yet described in any tissue. In addition, ... membrane preparations of macrophages and placental microvilli were almost completely depleted of enzyme activity, indicating ...
T1 - Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in pancreatic ... Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in pancreatic juice ... We investigated the potential of pancreatic juice neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 ... Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in pancreatic juice ...
Cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage perform diverse functions ranging from phagocytosis of microorganisms and other ... Characterization of lymphocyte binding to antigen-pulsed macrophage monolayers, Cell. Immunol. 56:205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Ho, M.-K., and Springer, T. A., 1982b, Mac-2, a novel 32,000 Mr mouse macrophage subpopulationspecific antigen defined by ... Todd, R. F., III, and Schlossman, S. F., 1980, Human macrophage-lymphocyte interaction in proliferation to soluble antigen. II ...
5H9 antigen , BA-2/p24 antigen , CD9 antigen , CD9 antigen (p24) , cell growth-inhibiting gene 2 protein , leukocyte antigen ... anti-Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (Glycosylation-Inhibiting Factor) Antikörper * anti-Macrophage Receptor with ... Show all anti-Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 (MRP1) Antikörper with Pubmed References. * Human Monoclonal ... anti-Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 Antikörper (MRP1). Auf finden Sie aktuell 76 ...
Antigens, CD / physiology * CD47 Antigen * Carrier Proteins / physiology * Cell Adhesion * Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology ... Macrophage-1 Antigen / physiology * Membrane Proteins / physiology * Models, Biological * Neutrophils / physiology* * Occludin ...
49 Comparison of Antigen Presentation Abilities of DCs and Macrophages 50 Functional Features of Dendritic Cells Potency Small ... Antigen presenting cells Antigen presenting cells - (1) dendritic cells (2) macrophages (3) B cells.. Published byDebra May ... Download ppt "Antigen presenting cells Antigen presenting cells - (1) dendritic cells (2) macrophages (3) B cells." ... Lecture outline Capture of antigens from sites of entry and display of antigens to T cells Function of MHC molecules as the ...
The CD11b (or macrophage-1 antigen; MAC-1) subunit of the leukocyte integrin family forms a noncovalently associated ... heterodimeric structure with the CD18 (beta) subunit on the surface of human granulocytes and monocyte/macrophages, where it ... PU.1, ets, and AP-2 are present, as well as retinoic acid response elements. The 1.7-kilobase CD11b promoter sequence displayed ... functional activity in transient transfection assays in the monocytic cell line THP-1 and the myeloid cell line HL-60. In ...
Clearance of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the ultimate aim of treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis B ( ... Subjects with the AA genotype at rs7944135 of macrophage-expressed gene 1 had a higher susceptibility to HBsAg clearance, ... Cis-eQTLs = cis-expression quantitative trait loci, MPEG1 = macrophage-expressed gene 1. ... Single-nucleotide polymorphism of rs7944135 (macrophage-expressed gene 1) is associated with hepatitis B surface antigen ...
Macrophage-1 Antigen / genetics * Macrophage-1 Antigen / immunology* * Mice * Mice, Knockout * Phagocytosis ...
Instruction of tumor associated macrophages (TAM) by tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Using HLA-transgenic mice we have ... to differentiate into immune-stimulatory M1 like macrophages. In this scenario, tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells would hold ... whether tumor antigen specific CD4+ T cells can instruct tumor associated macrophages (TAM) presenting HLA-DR-restricted ... Instruction of tumor associated macrophages (TAM) by tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells ...
When 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (D(3)) induces HL60 cells to differentiate to monocytes, a burst of approximately three ... Macrophage-1 Antigen / metabolism*. Monocytes / drug effects, metabolism. Myeloid Cells / cytology, drug effects, metabolism. ... 0/Antineoplastic Agents; 0/Calcium Channel Agonists; 0/Macrophage-1 Antigen; 302-79-4/Tretinoin; 32222-06-3/Calcitriol ... When 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (D(3)) induces HL60 cells to differentiate to monocytes, a burst of approximately three ...
We identified antigen presentation by CD11b+F4/80+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) as a key factor correlated with immune ... Targeted delivery of a long peptide antigen to TAMs by using a nano-sized hydrogel (nanogel) in the presence of a TLR agonist ... In the resistant tumors, TAMs remained inactive and did not exert antigen-presenting activity. ... splenocytes were isolated and restimulated with peptides of predicted neoepitopes or known tumor antigens (AH-1 in CT26 and NY- ...
Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 ELISA Kits vergleichen und bestellen. ... Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 ELISA Kits für viele Reaktivitäten. Huhn, Human, Affe und weitere. ... transplantation promoted the expression of CD206 antigen and increased phagocytic activity of macrophages through interleukin-6 ... Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 (MRC1) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens The recognition of complex carbohydrate structures on ...
Macrophage antigen 1 (mac1) beta antibody. *MF17 antibody. *MFI7 antibody. *OTTHUMP00000115278 antibody ... Defects in ITGB2 are the cause of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1) [MIM:116920]. LAD1 patients have recurrent ... Cell surface adhesion glycoprotein LFA 1/CR3/P150,959 beta subunit precursor) antibody ... Cell surface adhesion glycoproteins LFA 1/CR3/p150,95 subunit beta antibody ...
Selected quality suppliers for anti-Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 antibodies. ... Order monoclonal and polyclonal Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 antibodies for many applications. ... Variable antigen uptake due to different expression of the macrophage mannose receptor by dendritic cells in various inbred ... Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 (MRC1) Antigen Profile Protein Summary The recognition of complex carbohydrate structures on ...
Kim, S.H.; Seo, K.W.; Kim, J.; Lee, K.Y.; Jang, Y.S. The M cell-targeting ligand promotes antigen delivery and induces antigen- ... There are three types of professional APCs, namely DCs, macrophages and B cells. Among them, DCs have the broadest range of ... Plasmid DNA encoding antigen of interest is transfected into antigen presenting cells (APCs) or somatic cells. Secreted ... Plasmid DNA encoding antigen of interest is transfected into antigen presenting cells (APCs) or somatic cells. Secreted ...
Supplied as 250 µg purified antibody (1 mg/mL) in PBS with 0.09% sodium azide. ... macrophage antigen alpha; macrophage antigen alpha polypeptide; Neutrophil adherence receptor; neutrophil adherence receptor ... Protein Aliases: antigen CD11b (p170); CD11 antigen-like family member B; CD11b; CD11B (p170); cell surface glycoprotein MAC-1 ... Further, peritoneal macrophages are reported to express higher levels of CD11b than splenic macrophages. Diseases associated ...
Categories: Macrophage-1 Antigen Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
TNF-α (background, B6.129SF2J), TNFR1, TNFR2, and macrophage antigen-1 (Mac-1; background, C57BL/6) male knock-out mice aged 2- ... 2006) Oncomodulin is a macrophage-derived signal for axon regeneration in retinal ganglion cells. Nat Neurosci 9:843-852. ... and recruited macrophages express TNFR2 (Dziewulska and Mossakowski, 2003). Signaling via TNFR2 is important for cytotoxic ... Shown are control (A) and 1 d (B), 4 d (C), and 14 d (D) after TNF-α injection. E, F, APC+ oligodendrocytes in the optic nerve ...
... chimeric antigen receptor macrophages, TAM, Tumor Associated Macrophages on June 21, 2017. by Joseph Gulfo. Post navigation. ← ... it is hoped that macrophages and other antigen presenting cells present the antigens of the dying cells to the immune system to ... CARMA - Chimeric Antigen Receptor Macrophages. 1 Reply CARMA Therapeutics, a company that develops chimeric antigen receptor ... The hypothesis is that since macrophages engulf the cells that they attack and then present to the immune cells the antigens ...
0073] Consecutive sections of a 19 day old intra-cardiac graft were processed for H and E, βGAL activity, and macrophage and ... Steinhelper, M. E. and Field, L. J. "SV40 large T-Antigen induces myocardiocyte proliferation in transgenic mice", in The ... Similarly, an antibody which detects mouse macrophages and lymphocytes did not react with the intra-cardiac graft; once again ... 0106] 9. Field, L. J. Atrial natriuretic factor-SV40 T antigen transgenes produce tumors and cardiac arrhythmias in mice. ...
Antigen markers of macrophage differentiation in murine tissues, p. 1-37. In S. Russell and S. Gordon (ed.), Macrophage biology ... The macrophage scavenger receptor type A is expressed by activated macrophages and protects the host against lethal endotoxic ... Murine macrophage scavenger receptor: in vivo expression and function as receptor for macrophage adhesion in lymphoid and non- ... Macrophages and the immune response, p. 533-545. In W. Paul (ed.), Fundamental immunology, 4th ed. Lippincott Raven Publishers ...
PRN473, an inhibitor of Brutons tyrosine kinase, inhibits neutrophil recruitment via inhibition of macrophage antigen-1 ... The integrins Mac-1 and alpha4beta1 perform crucial roles in neutrophil and T cell recruitment to lungs during Streptococcus ... Soluble CD40 ligand stimulates CD40-dependent activation of the β2 integrin Mac-1 and protein kinase C zeda (PKCζ) in ... LFA-1 and MAC-1 mediate pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils and tissue damage in abdominal sepsis. ...
Antigens, CD11b. A CD Antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 ...
A consequence of macrophage - tumour cell fusion?. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Macrophage antigen expression ... and for integrin signaling in macrophages and neutrophils. The macrophage specific antigen CD163 is expressed in breast and ... were immunostained for the macrophage-specific antigen, CD163. The expression of CD163 was tested in relation to macrophage ... Macrophage antigen expression in breast and colorectal cancers: ... We hypothesize that macrophage traits in cancer cells may be ...
Macrophage and Neutrophil-engulf and digest antigen - Not discriminate. 5.2. Inflammation. 5.2.1. Reddish,Warm-Vasodilation of ... B cells is activated after binding to antigen,sensitised , enlarge and divide. 7.3. Form clone-Plasma cells and memory B cells ... T lymphocyte is activated after binding to antigen on APC, sensitised , enlarge and divide. 6.3. Form Clone - Helper T Cell, ... Memory B cell- Enable body to make more antibody at a faster rate if the same antigen invade body again. ...
Isolation on antigen-pulsed macrophages of two separate populations of F1 helper T cells each specific for antigen and one set ... antigen mediated interactions required that macrophages and lymphocytes be syngeneic. Prolongation of antigen-mediated Mphi-LNL ... Antigen-mediated physical interactions between immune guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes and syngeneic macrophages. P E Lipsky, ... Antigen-mediated physical interactions between immune guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes and syngeneic macrophages.. J Exp Med 1 ...
Metabolic control of antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages.. 2. T cell activation and ...
  • Macrophage-1 antigen (or integrin αMβ2 or macrophage integrin or Mac-1) is a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b (integrin αM) and CD18 (integrin β2). (
  • Macrophage-1 antigen (hereafter complement receptor 3 or CR3) (CD11b/CD18) is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (mostly neutrophils), NK cells, and mononuclear phagocytes like macrophages. (
  • CR3 CD11b/CD18 Macrophage 1 antigen (Mac-1) Macrophage Todd R (1996). (
  • The 1.7-kilobase CD11b promoter sequence displayed functional activity in transient transfection assays in the monocytic cell line THP-1 and the myeloid cell line HL-60. (
  • Cell proliferation and CD11b expression are controlled independently during HL60 cell differentiation initiated by 1,25 alpha-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) or all-trans-retinoic acid. (
  • We identified antigen presentation by CD11b+F4/80+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) as a key factor correlated with immune resistance. (
  • The CD11b/CD18 heterodimeric complex is also known as integrin alpha-M beta-2, Mac-1, and CR3 (complement receptor 3). (
  • CD11b is expressed on the surface of monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, activated lymphocytes, a subset of NK cells, a subset of dendritic cells, and microglia in the brain. (
  • CD11b is expressed on 8% of spleen cells, 44% of bone marrow cells, and less than 1% of thymocytes, and is commonly used as a microglial marker in nervous tissue. (
  • The expression of CD11b increases during monocyte maturation and expression levels vary on tissue macrophages. (
  • Further, peritoneal macrophages are reported to express higher levels of CD11b than splenic macrophages. (
  • Antigens, CD11b" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD11b" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD11b" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD11b" by people in Profiles. (
  • ADH-503 is an allosteric agonist of integrin CD11b/CD18 (also known as Mac-1) with an EC50 value of 4 mM. (
  • ADH-503 suppresses myeloid cell infiltration into inflamed or infected sites by increasing CD11b-dependent cell adhesion to ICAM-1 on the endothelium, preventing subsequent extravasation. (
  • Moreover, partial activation of CD11b by ADH-503 leads to the repolarization of tumor-associated macrophages, reduction in the number of tumor-infiltrating immunosuppressive myeloid cells, and enhanced dendritic cell responses. (
  • B ) CMS5a tumor-bearing BALB/c mice were intravenously injected with the rhodamine-CHP:LPA complex, and 1 hour, 6 hours, or 18 hours later, immune cells including CD11b + F4/80 + macrophages, B cells, CD8 + T cells, and CD4 + T cells in the tumor or the tumor-draining lymph node were isolated ( n = 4 per group). (
  • LFA-1 is involved in adhesion and binding to antigen presenting cells through interactions with the surface protein ICAM-1 Binding of CD18 and CD11b-d results in the formation of complement receptors (e.g. (
  • Macrophage-1 antigen receptor, Mac-1, when bound to CD11b), which are proteins found largely on neutrophils, macrophages and NK cells. (
  • Macrophage-1 antigen - (or integrin alphaMbeta2) is a complement receptor ( CR3 ) consisting of CD11b and CD18. (
  • CD11b - Subunit of MAC-1, a complement receptor (CR3). (
  • MAC-1 consists of an alpha-chain (CD11b) and beta-chain (CD18). (
  • Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is one protein subunit that forms the heterodimeric integrin alpha-M beta-2 (αMβ2) molecule, also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3) ITGAM is also known as CR3A, and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11B). (
  • Here, we asked for the importance of CD11b/CD18 also termed MAC-1 which is required for phagocytosis of opsonized A. fumigatus conidia by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) for control of pulmonary A. fumigatus infection. (
  • However, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed 1 day after infection revealed a higher lung infiltration of PMN in case of infected CD11b −/− mice than observed for WT mice. (
  • Macrophage-lymphocyte interaction. (
  • Further, it is suggested that the physical events involved in lymphocyte proliferation may proceed sequentially from antigen-independent reversible binding of lymphocytes by macrophages to prolonged antigen-stabilized interaction eventuating in the triggering of specifically immune lymphocytes. (
  • Histological examinations of the arthritic paws from FcγRIIB-deficient mice revealed that cartilage was destroyed and bone was focally eroded in association with marked lymphocyte and monocyte/macrophage infiltration, very similar to the pathologic findings observed in DBA/1 mice. (
  • In the clinic, three immune checkpoint inhibitor antibodies have been approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of advanced melanoma, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) blocking antibody ipilimumab, and two antibodies blocking programmed death 1 (PD-1), pembrolizumab and nivolumab. (
  • Binding of CD18 and CD11 results in the formation of Lymphocyte Functions Associated Antigen 1 (LFA-1), a protein found on B cells, all T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK cells. (
  • The lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is a member of the beta2-integrin family and plays a pivotal role for T cell activation and leukocyte trafficking under inflammatory conditions. (
  • T1-type cell-mediated immunity to pulmonary C. neoformans infection is characterized by IFN-γ production, macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration into the lungs, and the development of Ag-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity to C. neoformans ( 23 ). (
  • The T2-type response is characterized by reduced macrophage and lymphocyte recruitment, pulmonary eosinophilia, leukocyte production of IL-4 and IL-5 but not IFN-γ, and increased serum IgE. (
  • Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) consists of an alpha-chain (CD11a) and beta-chain (CD18). (
  • Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on leukocytes is involved in recruitment to the site of infection. (
  • Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) is also known as ITGAL or CD11a. (
  • CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. (
  • MAC-1) subunit of the leukocyte integrin family forms a noncovalently associated heterodimeric structure with the CD18 (beta) subunit on the surface of human granulocytes and monocyte/macrophages, where it enables these myeloid cells to participate in a variety of adherence-related activities. (
  • β2 integrin-mediated crawling on endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 is a prerequisite for transcellular neutrophil diapedesis across the inflamed blood-brain barrier. (
  • This recognises the human CD18 cell surface antigen, the integrin beta2 subunit. (
  • Differential effects of volatile anesthetics on leukocyte integrin macrophage-1 antigen. (
  • For example, beta 2 combines with the alpha L chain to form the integrin LFA-1, and combines with the alpha M chain to form the integrin Mac-1. (
  • CD18 is the β2 chain (β-2 integrin subunit) common to LFA-1 and MAC-1. (
  • We investigated the potential of pancreatic juice neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1), and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) to aid in the diagnosis of patients with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic diseases. (
  • CD163 binds to haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex and TWEAK, and plays a role in clearing hemoglobin and regulating cytokine production by macrophages. (
  • GDF15 (growth/differentiation factor 15), also designated as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), prostate-derived factor, placental bone morphogenic protein, placental transforming growth factor, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-activated gene 1 (NAG-1), is a divergent member of the BMP subfamily of the TGFβ superfamily. (
  • Cytokine-mediated pathways underlying interstitial inflammation can be activated by the abnormal intrarenal protein traffic that is also responsible for proteinuria, the main clinical predictor of progressive renal disease regardless of etiology ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (
  • The pathologic significance of cytokine-recruited leukocytes was strengthened by evidence that the treatment with neutralizing MCP-1 antibodies attenuated the severity of inflammation and renal function impairment ( 10 ). (
  • Anoxia induces macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) in glioblastoma cells independently of p53 and HIF-1. (
  • Measurement of serum levels of macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 combined with prostate-specific antigen improves prostate cancer diagnosis. (
  • Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1/growth differentiation factor-15 as a predictor of colonic neoplasia. (
  • Both the NF-κB activation and cytokine profile of tumor-associated macrophages are closely linked to tumor growth ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • This reciprocal alteration in the pattern of macrophage cytokine production illustrates a potentially important role for FcγR-mediated clearance in suppressing macrophage proinflammatory responses. (
  • Cytokine conditions favoring outgrowth of DCs in vitro have been well defined in mouse and human cells, most commonly culture of bone marrow progenitors with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), CD34 + progenitors with GM-CSF and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), or stimulation of blood monocytes with GM-CSF and interleukin-4 (IL-4). (
  • In contrast to the cytokine requirements, the transcriptional events controlling the choice of macrophage versus DC fate have remained unresolved. (
  • To evaluate the impact of MTBC genetic diversity on the innate immune response, we analyzed intracellular bacterial replication, inflammatory cytokine levels, and autophagy response in human primary macrophages infected with MTBC clinical isolates belonging to the ancient lineages 1 and 5, and the modern lineage 4. (
  • Interestingly, we found that the increased autophagic flux observed in macrophages infected with modern MTBC is due to an autocrine activity of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, since autophagosome maturation is blocked by an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. (
  • Gene Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, NK cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts that functions as a cytokine. (
  • Reconstitution It is recommended that sterile ddH2O containing at least 0.1% human serum albumin or bovine serum albumin be added to the vial to prepare a stock solution of not less than 1 mg/mL of the cytokine. (
  • When combined with CD18 the two subunits form Macrophage-1 Antigen . (
  • LFA-1 is part of the family of leukocyte integrins which are recognised by their common β-chains (CD18). (
  • The inherited molecular defect in patients with LAD type 1 is a defect in CD18. (
  • Functional loss of CD18-termed leukocyte-adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1)-results in an immunocompromised state characterized by frequent occurrence of severe infections. (
  • Targeted delivery of a long peptide antigen to TAMs by using a nano-sized hydrogel (nanogel) in the presence of a TLR agonist activated TAMs, induced their antigen-presenting activity, and thereby transformed the resistant tumors into tumors sensitive to adaptive immune responses such as adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T cell receptor-engineered T cells. (
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 Antikörper (171) und Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 Proteine (15) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (
  • Dengue Virus Infection Is through a Cooperative Interaction between a Mannose Receptor and CLEC5A (zeige CLEC5A ELISA Kits ) on Macrophage as a Multivalent Hetero-Complex. (
  • Additionally we are shipping Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 Kits (51) and Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 Proteins (12) and many more products for this protein. (
  • CARMA Therapeutics, a company that develops chimeric antigen receptor technology, not for T-cells (CAR-T cells), rather, for macrophages, hence the name "CARMA," closed on an initial round of funding to advance its technologies. (
  • CD163 is also known as Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130 (M130), Hemoglobin scavenger receptor and Macrophage-associated antigen. (
  • CD163 is an acute phase-regulated receptor involved in clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. (
  • CD163 is a member of the group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily, also known as GHI/61, M130, RM3/1, p155, hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex receptor, or macrophage-associated antigen. (
  • IL-10 upregulation was specific to FcγR ligation, since the ligation of the Mac-1 receptor did not alter IL-10 production. (
  • Because other chemokines have similar target cell specificities and because CCR2, a cloned MCP-1 receptor, binds other ligands, it has been uncertain whether MCP-1 plays a unique role in recruiting mononuclear cells in vivo. (
  • With this profusion of monocyte-active chemokines and monocyte-expressed receptors, as well as ligand-receptor promiscuity in vitro, it can be legitimately asked whether a single chemokine such as MCP-1 could have an essential effect in inflammatory disease. (
  • Consequently, we used centrifugal elutriation of macrophage-like cells, fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis and receptor staining to investigate expression of FcγR and CR as a function of cell cycle. (
  • Correlation of receptor expression with cell size showed that FcγR and CR3 expression on macrophages was determined largely by cell size enlargement during the cell cycle. (
  • Ref. 1 ) and its receptor, CCR2, have been found to be involved in mediating T1/T2 polarization. (
  • Network level interaction analysis of microarray data derived from Fra-1- or Fra-2-deficient macrophages revealed a central role of Fra-1, but not of Fra-2, in orchestrating the expression of genes related to wound response, Toll-like receptor activation, and interleukin signaling. (
  • 1) dendritic cells (2) macrophages (3) B cells. (
  • Presentation on theme: "Antigen presenting cells Antigen presenting cells - (1) dendritic cells (2) macrophages (3) B cells. (
  • 1. Metabolic control of antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages. (
  • These cytokines activate various epithelial-associated lymphocytes (such as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and resident memory T cells (T RM cells)), sentinel cells such as fibroblasts, interstitial macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), and the pericytes associated with nearby blood vessels. (
  • It is a 134 kD (non-reduced)/155 kD (reduced) glycoprotein primarily expressed on macrophages, Kupffer cells, monocytes, a subset of dendritic cells, and a subset of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. (
  • Combined treatment with ACE inhibitor and a specific antilymphocyte agent, mycophenolate mofetil, dramatically attenuated macrophage and T cell infiltration, MHC-class II over-expression, dendritic cells, and all manifestations of the disease. (
  • Macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) represent alternative differentiation options of bone marrow progenitors and blood monocytes. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) serve a crucial function in the immune system as the major antigen presenting cells with the unique ability to activate naive T cells, 1 a capacity that has made them the major target of therapeutic manipulation in vaccination and cancer immunotherapy protocols. (
  • The current studies on Dendritic Cells (DCs) have confirmed not only their major role as antigen presenting cells in adaptive immunity but also their important functions in the initiation of the innate resistance and inflammatory responses. (
  • CD80 is expressed by macrophages, dendritic cells and activated B cells. (
  • The role of macrophages and dendritic cells subsets (cDCs & pDCs) in this context is investigated. (
  • To do so, we target monocyte-derived dendritic cells with two different strategies: anti-CD169 monoclonal antibodies conjugated to the melanoma antigens MART-1 and gp100 and ligand-specific liposomes containing the same antigens encapsulated in their core. (
  • In general, high densities of myeloid cells, that is, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), correlate with poor prognosis ( 6 ). (
  • Several cytokines released by monocytes and macrophages as well as other agents triggering T cell activation (such as oxidized LDL) are capable of inducing CD25 expression [11, 12]. (
  • CD163 expression reportedly changes on monocytes and macrophages as these cells differentiate. (
  • The origin and migration pattern of DCs as well as their sharing of hematopoietic lineages, functions, and receptors with other phagocytic cell types such as monocytes and macrophages is a subject of intense investigation. (
  • Immunohistochemistry techniques showed that iNOS expression was predominantly localised in neutrophils, with some staining also in macrophages. (
  • Gene inactivation studies in mice have revealed that PU.1 is required for the correct development of both the lymphoid and the myeloid lineages, including neutrophils, macrophages, osteoclasts, DCs, and mast cells. (
  • The cellular receptors for bacterial lipopolysaccharide include CD14, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked membrane protein on macrophages and monocytes ( 18 , 60 , 63 ) and, to a lesser extent, on polymorphonuclear neutrophils ( 2 , 32 ). (
  • LFA-1 antibody treatment severely enhanced leukocyte infiltration, in particular infiltration of CD11b+ monocytes, F4/80+ macrophages, CD4+ T cells, Ly6G+ neutrophils, and CD133+ progenitor cells at peak of inflammation which was accompanied by an increased heart weight/body weight ratio. (
  • Neutrophils immediately adhered to injured vessels, preceding platelets, by binding to the activated endothelium via leukocyte function antigen-1-ICAM-1 interactions. (
  • Based on this knowledge we have started to set up a transplantable, NY-BR-1 expressing breast cancer tumor model in HLA-tg mice. (
  • Using HLA-transgenic mice we have previously identified a panel of HLA-DRB1*03 and HLA-DRB1*04-restricted T cell epitopes specific for human melanoma and breast cancer associated tumor antigens (TRP-1, TRP-2 or NY-BR-1), and established stable CD4+ T cell lines specific for these new T cell epitopes. (
  • Checkpoint inhibitors including anti-PD-1 (200 μg/mouse), anti-CTLA-4 (100 μg/mouse), and anti-GITR (200 μg/mouse) Abs ( n = 8-10 mice per group) or isotype control Abs ( n = 8 mice per group) were i.p. injected on days 7, 9, and 11. (
  • It also appears to be crucial in the maintenance of regulatory T cell- (Treg-) mediated immunotolerance toward self-antigens, supported by the fact that IL-2-deficient mice develop severe autoimmunity with very low Treg and very high effector T numbers [7-9]. (
  • The maximal arthritis index of the FcγRIIB-deficient mice developing CIA (6.9 ± 3.6) was comparable to that of DBA/1 mice (8.6 ± 1.9), an H-2 q strain susceptible for CIA induction. (
  • IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody responses against CII were elevated in the FcγRIIB-deficient animals, especially in those mice showing arthritis, but less pronounced than DBA/1 mice. (
  • Here, we show that DNAM-1 plays an important role in generation of alloantigen-specific memory of immunity by using DNAM-1-deficient mice. (
  • Moreover, we observed that fibrosis of the kidney after renal transplantation was much milder in DNAM-1-deficient mice compared with those in wild-type mice. (
  • AMJ2-C8 ( ATCC CRL-2455 ) and AMJ2-C11 ( ATCC CRL-2456 ) are cloned, continuous, alveolar macrophage (AM) cell lines generated from C57BL6J mice by in vitro infection with the J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. (
  • In this study, diabetic RAGE apoE double-knockout (KO) mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with the AGE inhibitor, alagebrium (1 mg/kg/day), or the ACE inhibitor, quinapril (30 mg/kg/day), for 20 weeks, and renal parameters were assessed. (
  • A ) CMS5a tumor-bearing BALB/c mice were intravenously injected with rhodamine-CHP:LPA, and 1 hour or 6 hours later, tumors were removed. (
  • Macrophages from mice lacking the FcR γ chain, which is required for assembly and signaling by FcγRI and FcγRIII, failed to upregulate IL-10 in response to immune complexes. (
  • 15 - 21 Pu.1 - / - mice do not generate myeloid DCs. (
  • Danggui-Shaoyao-San ameliorates cognition deficits and attenuates oxidative stress-related neuronal apoptosis in d-galactose-induced senescent mice," Journal of Ethnopharmacology , vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 386-395, 2012. (
  • To address this question, we disrupted SCYA2 (the gene encoding MCP-1) and tested MCP-1-deficient mice in models of inflammation. (
  • Despite normal numbers of circulating leukocytes and resident macrophages, MCP-1 −/− mice were specifically unable to recruit monocytes 72 h after intraperitoneal thioglycollate administration. (
  • Development of secondary pulmonary granulomata in response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs was blunted in MCP-1 −/− mice, as was expression of IL-4, IL-5, and interferon γ in splenocytes. (
  • For example, studies in MCP-1-deficient mice show that this chemokine is essential for monocyte recruitment in inflammation, including diseases with inflammatory components such as atherosclerosis. (
  • To investigate the effect of LFA-1 in myocarditis, mice with experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) were treated with a function blocking anti-LFA-1 antibody from day 1 of disease until day 21, the peak of inflammation. (
  • Either deletion of CCR2 or treatment of wild-type mice with CCL2 neutralizing Ab produced significant and comparable reductions in macrophage and T cell recruitment into the lungs following infection. (
  • Using macrophage-specific Fra-1- or Fra-2-deficient mice, we observed enhanced expression and activity of Arg1 and a reduction of arthritis in the absence of Fra-1, but not of Fra-2. (
  • This phenotype was reversed by treatment with the arginase inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-ʟ-arginine, while ʟ-arginine supplementation increased arginase activity and alleviated arthritis, supporting the notion that reduced arthritis in macrophage-specific Fra-1-deficient mice resulted from enhanced Arg1 expression and activity. (
  • CCL3 deficient mice showed increased resistance to viral-induced mortality following infection with HSV-1. (
  • We purified the MAX.1/11 antigen by immunoaffinity chromatography using monoclonal antibody MAX.11. (
  • Most studies have focused on the protective (bactericidal) activity mediated by antibody and complement ( 26 , 45 ) and the inflammatory responses that result from circulating endotoxin, a correlate of disease severity ( 1 ). (
  • Each B cell has a unique antibody that binds with an antigen . (
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against macrophage surface antigen. (
  • Antibody Reactive Against macrophage surface antigen. (
  • AM-3K, a novel monoclonal antibody specific for tissue macrophages and its application to pathological investigation. (
  • Imunohistochemical analysis of human lymph node tissue, using Macrophage surface sntigen monoclonal antibody, clone AM-3K (Cat # MAB1733, 10 ug/mL). (
  • Imunohistochemical analysis of human liver tissue, using Macrophage surface sntigen monoclonal antibody, clone AM-3K (Cat # MAB1733, 10 ug/mL). (
  • The scheme proposed by Lachmann is as follows: A microbial/mucosal antigen causes lymphocytes to become sensitized, and there is antibody response to the mucous antigen. (
  • Description: The 16-10A1 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD80 (B7-1), a 55 kDa member of the Ig superfamily. (
  • KP1: a new monoclonal antibody that detects a monocyte/macrophage associated antigen in routinely processed tissue sections. (
  • A new monoclonal antibody, KP1, raised against a lysosomal fraction of human lung macrophages, recognises a fixation-resistant epitope in a wide variety of tissue macrophages (such as Kupffer cells germinal centre, splenic, and lamina propria macrophages), and in granulocyte precursors. (
  • Auf finden Sie aktuell 76 Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 (MRP1) Antikörper von 14 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 Proteine (7) und Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 Kits (4) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (
  • Insgesamt sind aktuell 88 Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Related Protein 1 Produkte verfügbar. (
  • IL-1β Induces the Rapid Secretion of the Antimicrobial Protein IL-26 from Th17 Cells. (
  • In addition, even in the absence of RAGE expression, alagebrium attenuated cortical inflammation, as denoted by the reduced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and the macrophage marker cluster of differentiation molecule 11b. (
  • The cell clusters induced significant infiltration of macrophage antigen-2 (Mac-2) positive macrophages by secreting monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) at the early stage of suction. (
  • We have reported previously that along with proteinuria and macrophage accumulation into the interstitium, the expression of MHC class II antigen (MHC II) is markedly enhanced in the rat kidney in the peritubular interstitium at the sites of excess protein traffic, even after a primary nonimmune insult ( 16 ). (
  • Elimination of the first and second hypervariable regions (V1 and V2 loops) from the envelope of the X4-tropic HIV-1 virus HxB2 does not abrogate the processing and expression of the modified envelope protein ( 63 ), and HxB2 virions expressing such a mutant envelope glycoprotein are capable of replicating in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) ( 6 ). (
  • Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a CC chemokine that attracts monocytes, memory T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. (
  • One approach our laboratory takes to understanding chemokines is to study one in detail, namely monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). (
  • These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. (
  • CCR2 and its major ligand, chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemotactic protein-1, have been found to influence T1/T2 immune response polarization. (
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha Mouse Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 69 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 7820 Dalton. (
  • It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1a in sterile 18MΩ-cm H2O not less than 100µg/ml, which can then be further diluted to other aqueous solutions. (
  • Retinas from 12- to 19-month old APPswe/PS1ΔE9 tg and age-matched non-transgenic (ntg) littermates were single or double stained with thioflavine-S and antibodies against Aβ, glial fibrilar acidic protein (GFAP), microglial marker F4/80, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and syntaxin 1. (
  • 1 2 3 Aβ peptides (∼4 kDa), which are the predominant component of plaques, are the result of sequential cleavage of an integral membrane protein, the amyloid precursor protein (APP), via a Bace1 and γ-secretase complex. (
  • PCAs have been proven to express the surfactant protein-A (SP-A) [ 5 ] and epithelial membrane antigens (EMA) [ 6 ]. (
  • The polarization of macrophages is regulated by transcription factors, such as NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1). (
  • Moreover, patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) showed increased Fra-1 expression in the peripheral blood and elevated Fra-1 protein in synovial macrophages compared with RA patients in remission. (
  • Clone REA355 recognizes the mouse C-C motif chemokine 3 (CCL3) antigen also known as Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 α (MIP-1a). (
  • Release of cardiac self-antigens can subsequently lead to breakdown of heart-specific tolerance tissue and can evolve into autoimmune-mediated inflammation sustaining the disease upon eradication of the virus. (
  • Autoimmune diseases involve aberrant regulation of cellular and humoral mediated immunity and are frequently associated with abnormal or enhanced T cell, B cell and macrophage effector functions directed towards self antigens. (
  • The activation of these cellular components towards self antigens is believed related to the break in feedback mechanisms associated with self tolerance. (
  • Recent studies also showed that the infiltration of macrophages precedes endothelial progenitor cells [ 9 ], and that common phenotypes are shared between blood-derived macrophages and recruited endothelial progenitor cells, suggesting an even more direct proangiogenic contribution [ 10 ]. (
  • Analysis of this mouse indicates that despite functional redundancy with other chemokines in vitro, MCP-1 alone is responsible for mononuclear cell infiltration in several inflammatory models in vivo. (
  • Those resembling erythema nodosum (EN) show small vessel vasculitis and perivascular lymphocytic and mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrin deposition in the vessel wall, while the punched out ulcers are characterized by a leucocytoclastic vasculitis (neutrophil infiltrate) with fibrinoid necrosis. (
  • While the presence of autoantibodies, inappropriate expression of class II antigens, macrophage activation and T cell infiltration to the target organ have been described in essentially all of the autoimmune diseases, neither the triggering mechanisms which result in disease activation nor disease progression are well understood. (
  • This gene encodes a 110-kD transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed by human monocytes and tissue macrophages. (
  • It is well documented that removal of the V1V2 region or of the V2 loop alone from the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) increases the susceptibility of these viruses to neutralization by antibodies. (
  • CD11a - Subunit of LFA-1, a membrane glycoprotein that provides cell-cell adhesion by interaction with ICAM-1. (
  • Upregulation of Mac-1 in the presence of certain factors such as IL-2 may cause a prolongation of the life of the immune cell while the presence of TNF-α induces apoptosis and selective removal of the cell. (
  • The Eichm ller lab has been working since many years on the identification of tumor antigens, their HLA-restricted T cell epitopes and the role auto-antibodies in the course of tumor immune-surveillance. (
  • G183) has been the identification of novel tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cell epitopes that could be included as vaccine components in tumor immunotherapy approaches or used for immune-monitoring of cancer patients. (
  • This system should allow us to decipher the functional contributions of TAMs in immune responses against soluble vs intracellular tumor antigen. (
  • The hypothesis is that since macrophages engulf the cells that they attack and then present to the immune cells the antigens from the cells that they destroy, CARMA cells may provide direct cell killing and prime a T-cell response against novel antigens expressed by the cancer cells. (
  • CAR T-cell are generated against a specific target - when they cause the lysis of target cells via injection of perforin, it is hoped that macrophages and other antigen presenting cells present the antigens of the dying cells to the immune system to generate a second wave or response. (
  • CARMA cells are also directed to a single antigen target, but, they may be able to enhance the immune response more directly since macrophages, themselves, present antigens. (
  • Antigen-mediated physical interactions between immune guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes and syngeneic macrophages. (
  • These studies are interpreted to indicate that physical interaction between immune lymphocytes and antigen-bearing Mphi represents a morphological correlate of the functional activation of immune lymphocytes. (
  • While several aspects of the pathogenesis are poorly understood, most findings support the central role of immune maladaptation-driven superficial placentation, leading to a systemic maternal inflammatory response, in which the role of activated T lymphocytes appears to be pivotal [1-3]. (
  • LEUKINE® (sargramostim) is a recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage growth factor (rhuGM-CSF) that stimulates the differentiation, maturation and mobilization of cells involved in the innate and adaptive immune response. (
  • Macrophages are prodigious secretory cells which can produce a number of molecules that can either potentiate or dampen immune responses ( 1 ). (
  • After years of controversy, it is now recognized that the immune system can play a role in the control of tumor growth and progression ( 1 ), a process known as cancer immunoediting ( 2 ). (
  • Anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 are thought to mediate their antitumor activity by blocking CTLA-4 or PD-1 on effector immune cells (such as CD8 + T cells) from interacting with their ligands CD80/CD86 or PD-L1/PD-L2 (program death ligand 1/2), respectively ( 9, 10 ). (
  • These complement receptors participate in the innate immune response by recognizing foreign antigen peptides and phagocytizing them, thus destroying the antigen. (
  • Emerging data suggest that COVID-19 is associated with immune dysfunction including deficiency of alveolar macrophages and GM-CSF,' said Dr. Debasish Roychowdhury , chief medical officer at PTx. (
  • We have also discovered that MCP-1 is required for the development of type 2 T helper cell-polarized immune responses, that is, those that fight parasites and are involved in allergies. (
  • Macrophages are key players in the immune response to foreign invaders such as infectious microorganisms. (
  • It is suggested that oral mucosa may be the initial source of antigen and that immune circulating complexes (IC) might be reponsible for extra-oral disease, or that immune circulating complexes may be deposited at a later stage in ulceration, possibly after the initial cell-mediated phase has failed. (
  • However, in patients with immune deficiency e.g., due to chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant diseases or immunosuppressive therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplantation A. fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) which is highly associated with relevant morbidity and mortality ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Studies show that antigen targeting to CD169+ macrophages promotes potent antigen-specific immune responses. (
  • In my project we exploit CD169 ligand-coated liposomes for antigen delivery to splenic CD169+ macrophages to stimulate (anti-cancer) immune responses. (
  • The differences between placental (fetal) Mφ and adult peritoneal Mφ may reflect both tissue-specific differences and generally diminished class II antigen expression on fetal and neonatal mononuclear phagocytes. (
  • The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence was determined and turned out to be identical to the NH2-terminal sequence of the membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M. By precipitation with antibodies MAX.1 and MAX.11, membrane preparations of macrophages and placental microvilli were almost completely depleted of enzyme activity, indicating that the two antibodies indeed recognize carboxypeptidase M. Immunoreactivity of both antibodies correlates with the reported tissue distribution of enzyme activity. (
  • Moreover, in vitro differentiated macrophages show the highest specific activity yet described in any tissue. (
  • 1. A myocardial graft in an animal, comprising: a stable graft of skeletal myoblasts or cardiomyocytes incorporated in myocardial tissue of said animal. (
  • 5. The myocardial graft of claim 1 wherein said stable graft delivers recombinant molecules to the myocardial tissue. (
  • CD163 is a monocyte/macrophage-restricted antigen expressed on the majority of tissue macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. (
  • EVE generated glandular epithelial cell clusters, which recruited macrophages to promote angiogenesis and subsequent adipose tissue regeneration. (
  • Soft tissue replacement is often required for patients with congenital defects, trauma, or surgical resections [ 1 ]. (
  • Studies have found that without macrophages, there was no tissue growth in the engineered adipose tissue [ 11-13 ]. (
  • We have been studying the mechanism underlying the restricted replication of SIVmac239 in alveolar tissue macrophages ( 42 , 43 , 54 ). (
  • MSCs are currently being tested for treating some neurological diseases in multiple ongoing clinical trials, although their exact therapeutic mechanisms in vivo remain largely unknown (i.e., immunomodulation versus secretion of trophic factors that promote tissue regeneration and vascularization) [ 1 , 6 , 7 ]. (
  • I mostly perform various in vitro assays like antigen presentation, binding and internalization assays, immunostainings (FACS and immunofluorescent staining on tissue) and ELISA. (
  • KP1 recognises a molecule of about 110 kilodaltons in macrophage-rich human tissue when tested by either immunoprecipitation or Western blotting (although the latter procedure also shows two additional components with molecular weights of 70 and 40 kilodaltons). (
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor limited proteinuria, interstitial inflammation, MHC class II antigen expression, and severe lesions. (
  • Recent studies have identified NF-κB as a direct link between inflammation and cancer ( 1 - 3 ) and thus renders this family of transcription factors as a key molecular target for both prevention and treatments of cancers. (
  • Therefore, to address the question of whether MCP-1 plays a unique role in inflammation in vivo, we constructed an MCP-1-deficient mouse by targeted gene disruption. (
  • Blocking LFA-1 has reduced or aggravated inflammation depending on the inflammation model. (
  • Thus, blocking LFA-1 starting at the time of immunization severely aggravated acute cardiac inflammation in the EAM model. (
  • Sustained cardiac inflammation may eventually lead to cardiac remodeling and end-stage heart failure with dilation of the ventricles and deteriorating contractility of the cardiac muscle, a condition called inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMi) [ 1 ]. (
  • In conclusion, these data suggest that Fra-1 orchestrates the inflammatory state of macrophages by inhibition of Arg1 expression and thereby impedes the resolution of inflammation. (
  • The two monoclonal antibodies MAX.1 and MAX.11 recognize cell surface antigens that are almost undetectable on monocytes but highly expressed on differentiated macrophages. (
  • The virus-containing vacuoles were also labeled with antibodies against LAMP-1, CD81, and CD82, which were also incorporated into the viral envelope. (
  • Only antibodies against antigens found in late endosomes precipitated infectious virus, whereas antibodies against proteins located primarily on the cell surface did not. (
  • Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt. (
  • Interspecies reactivities of anti-human macrophage monoclonal antibodies to various animal species. (
  • Tumoricidal alveolar macrophage and tumor infiltrating macrophage cell lines. (
  • CCR5 + cells were profoundly depleted only from alveolar macrophage cultures infected with SIVmac239/316E. (
  • Alveolar macrophage - Micrograph showing hemosiderin laden alveolar marcophages, as seen in a pulmonary haemorrhage. (
  • Our data indicate that most of the infectious HIV produced by primary macrophages is assembled on late endocytic membranes and acquires antigens characteristic of this compartment. (
  • Finally, the individual elimination of the V1 and V2 loops from the envelope of the R5-tropic HIV-1 SF162 virus does not abrogate envelope function and the mutant viruses SF162ΔV1 and SF162Δ2 are capable of replicating in both PBMC and primary macrophages ( 53 ). (
  • Scavenger receptors typically function to clear cellular debris, promote phagocytosis, and mediate the recruitment and activation of macrophages. (
  • Live Cn cells were significantly more resistant to phagocytosis than dead cells at all stages of macrophage-like cell cycle. (
  • Data show that umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) transplantation promoted the expression of CD206 antigen and increased phagocytic activity of macrophages through interleukin-6 (IL-6 (zeige IL6 ELISA Kits )) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. (
  • They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. (
  • macrophage - Relatively long lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues, derived from blood monocyte. (
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphism of rs7944135 (macrophage-expressed gene 1) is associated with hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance in chronic h. (
  • Clearance of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the ultimate aim of treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. (
  • HBsAg = , hepatitis B surface antigen, MPEG1 = macrophage-expressed gene 1. (
  • Peritoneal Mφ preparations from women in the pre-luteal phase did not release detectable IL-1, whereas those from women in the post-luteal phase released as much as monocytes. (
  • Ko, Ladanyi, Lengyel, Naora: Expression of the homeobox gene HOXA9 in ovarian cancer induces peritoneal macrophages to acquire an M2 tumor-promoting phenotype. (
  • We examined these surface antigens and a monocyte marker antigen on fresh cord and adult blood monocytes, macrophages (Mφ) derived from monocytes in vitro, human placental (fetal) Mφ, from adult women. (
  • Expression of carboxypeptidase M on mRNA level and enzymatic activity markedly increase during in vitro differentiation of monocytes, according to the described increase in MAX.1 and MAX.11 antigen expression. (
  • VLA ("very late antigens") received their name because α1β1 and α2β1 were expressed on T cells 2 to 4 weeks after repetitive stimulation in vitro in the early experiments. (
  • Although antigen-independent interactions developed equally well between syngeneic and allogeneic combinations of lymphocytes and macrophages, antigen mediated interactions required that macrophages and lymphocytes be syngeneic. (
  • The primate lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infect CD4 + T lymphocytes and macrophages as major target cells ( 4 , 8 , 21 , 23 , 31 , 32 , 36 , 39 , 54 ). (
  • CD163 may play a role in the clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin and haptoglobin complexes by macrophages. (
  • Moreover, CD163 stimulates a cascade of intracellular signals which involves tyrosine kinase-dependent calcium recruitment, inositol triphosphate formation and secretion of IL-6 & CSF-1. (
  • Other members of the LFA-1 family include CD11bCD18 (Mac-1 or CR3) and CD11cCD18 (p150,95 or CR4), both of which have the same β subunit as LFA-1. (
  • Here, we investigated virus assembly in HIV-1-infected primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). (
  • Differentiation of normal human monocytes to DCs led to a rapid increase of PU.1 to high levels that preceded phenotypic changes, but no MafB expression, whereas monocyte-derived macrophages expressed MafB and only moderate levels of PU.1. (
  • Focusing on malignant melanoma, we could discover a number of new HLA-DRB1*0301-restricetd epitopes, derived from the melanoma associated differentiation antigens TRP-2 and TRP-1 [1, 2]. (
  • HLA class II antigen expression and IL-1 production by mononuclear phagocytes are important for antigen-stimulated T-cell activation. (
  • Exposure to IFN gamma augmented IL-1 release by adult and cord cells and DQ expression on cord cells. (
  • These data indicate that class II antigen expression and IL-1 secretion by mononuclear phagocytes are only in part co-ordinately modulated. (
  • In addition, carboxypeptidase M expression could be detected in HL-60, U937, and THP-1 myeloid cell lines. (
  • EAT/mcl-1 expression in the human embryonal carcinoma cells undergoing differentiation or apoptosis. (
  • Journal Article] Expression of DNAM-1 (CD226) on inflammatory monocytes. (
  • Since SIVmac239/316E has previously been described as a virus capable of infecting cells in a relatively CD4-independent fashion, we examined the levels of CD4 expression on the surface of fresh and cultured alveolar macrophages from rhesus monkeys. (
  • The levels of CD4 expression were extremely low, below the limit of detection by flow cytometry, on greater than 99% of the macrophages. (
  • The results suggest that the adaptation of SIVmac316 to efficient replication in alveolar macrophages results from its ability to infect these cells in a CD4-independent fashion or in a CD4-dependent fashion even at extremely low levels of surface CD4 expression. (
  • It has been proposed that four different types of tumor microenvironment exist based on the presence or absence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. (
  • DCs inducing levels of PU.1 inhibited MafB expression in monocytes, which appeared to be required for DC specification, since constitutive MafB expression inhibited DC differentiation. (
  • We propose that high PU.1 activity favors DCs at the expense of macrophage fate by inhibiting expression and activity of the macrophage factor MafB. (
  • 14 We have previously shown that the expression of the monocyte/macrophage-specific bZip transcription factor MafB in this system favored macrophage differentiation, whereas expression of the myeloid- and lymphoid-specific Ets family factor PU.1 did not. (
  • Our data indicate that MCP-1 is uniquely essential for monocyte recruitment in several inflammatory models in vivo and influences expression of cytokines related to T helper responses. (
  • We confirmed that FcγR expression on macrophage-like cells increased as the cells progressed from G1 to G2 phases. (
  • Luciferase reporter assays revealed that Fra-1 downregulated Arg1 expression by direct binding to the promoter region. (
  • When 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (D(3)) induces HL60 cells to differentiate to monocytes, a burst of approximately three shortened cell cycles ("maturation divisions") precedes exit from cell cycle and completion of maturation. (
  • Ligand-specific binding forces of LFA-1 and Mac-1 in neutrophil adhesion and crawling. (
  • A CD Antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. (
  • 2 When exiting the blood stream, monocytes can give rise to inflammatory macrophages or to antigen presenting DCs. (
  • Leukadherin-1, a CR3 agonist molecule, has been shown to suppress human innate inflammatory signals. (
  • The potential role of macrophages (Mφ) has hitherto received little attention aside from their proinflammatory response following exposure to meningococcal endotoxin ( 2 , 21 , 28 ). (
  • EAE is characterized by demyelinating lesions containing myelin-specific and nonspecific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and macrophages ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (
  • Immunohistochemically detected T cells and macrophages were the most abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in SCLC, whereas the number of B cells was small. (
  • The accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes into the renal interstitium is a common feature of proteinuric nephropathies leading to end-stage fibrosis and organ failure. (
  • 0.001) decline in the number of PTC, accompanied by a marked accumulation of macrophages, T cells, and fibrotic material. (
  • Although human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is generally thought to assemble at the plasma membrane of infected cells, virions have been observed in intracellular compartments in macrophages. (
  • Despite the view that HIV assembly occurs at the plasma membrane, a number of observations have suggested intracellular organelles may also play a role in HIV-1 production. (
  • Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and MIC-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas CA19-9 was measured by radioimmunoassay. (
  • RESULTS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, MIC-1, and CA19-9 were significantly elevated in the pancreatic juice of patients with CP and patients with PC as compared with nonpancreatic nonhealthy controls (P ≤ 0.034). (
  • Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin seemed most promising in differentiating diseased versus nondiseased pancreata (areas under the curve, 0.88-0.91), whereas MIC-1 was found to be higher in patients with PC than in patients with CP (P = 0.043). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic juice neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin shows potential utility in establishing pancreatic etiology in the context of nonspecific symptoms, whereas MIC-1 may aid in differentiating PC from CP. (
  • The integrins Mac-1 and alpha4beta1 perform crucial roles in neutrophil and T cell recruitment to lungs during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. (
  • Distinct binding affinities of Mac-1 and LFA-1 in neutrophil activation. (
  • In this report, we demonstrate that ligation of macrophage Fcγ receptors (FcγR) can lead to a reversal of macrophage proinflammatory responses by inducing an upregulation of interleukin (IL)-10, with a reciprocal inhibition of IL-12 production. (
  • It binds to iC3b and can be involved in cellular adhesion, binding to the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). (
  • Step 3: A T helper cell binds to the macrophage and becomes an activated T helper cell. (
  • 1] It binds to C3b and C4b. (
  • It binds to ICAM-1 on antigen-presenting cells and functions as an adhesion molecule. (
  • These activation responses are modulated by the type IIB FcR for IgG (FcγRIIB), 1 the most widely expressed FcR. (
  • Our group study different types of antigen-presenting-cells (APCs) in human and mouse and we previously found that antigen-targeting to CD169+ macrophages can stimulate superior T & B cells responses. (
  • Extending our studies to tumor antigens of further cancer entities, we could identify several novel HLA-DRB1*0301- and HLA-DRB1*0401-restricted CD4+ T cell epitopes specific for the breast cancer associated antigen NY-BR-1 [3]. (
  • Seven days after the last administration, splenocytes were isolated and restimulated with peptides of predicted neoepitopes or known tumor antigens (AH-1 in CT26 and NY-ESO-1 p81 in CMS5a/NY tumors). (
  • Defects in ITGB2 are the cause of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1) [MIM:116920]. (
  • Since resident macrophages in brains and lungs of humans also express little or no CD4, our findings predict the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 that is relatively CD4 independent in the lung and brain compartments of infected people. (
  • CD206 is a novel biomarker of alternative macrophage activation and treatment outcome in multiple myeloma. (
  • This finding suggests a role for this molecule in the differentiation and/or regulation of monocyte and macrophage function. (
  • In this setting, OVA-transfected B16F10 melanoma cells will be used expressing the tumor antigen TRP-2 intracellularly, while secreting soluble OVA into the tumor microenvironment. (
  • Stimulated by these findings, we have begun to screen for miRNAs that influence susceptibility of melanoma cells for recognition by tumor antigen specific CTLs. (
  • Sequential conditioning-stimulation reveals distinct gene- and stimulus-specific effects of Type I and II IFN on human macrophage functions. (
  • PU.1 activation also was instructive for DC fate in the absence of cytokines in human HL-60 cell-derived myeloid progenitor and monocyte clones. (
  • Native human alveolar macrophages. (
  • The ancient ones comprise two Mtb lineages (lineage 1 and the recently identified lineage 7) causing tuberculosis (TB) in humans, and two M. africanum lineages, one of which includes bacilli responsible for TB in animal species 4 . (
  • LEXINGTON, Mass. , Aug. 4, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Partner Therapeutics, Inc. (PTx), a commercial biotechnology company, today anounced a $35 million milestone-based Other Transaction Agreement (OTA) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to fund two clinical studies of inhaled Leukine® (sargramostim, rhu-Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor 'GM-CSF') in patients with COVID-19 associated acute hypoxemia. (
  • Given their ideal location to be in close contact with blood borne antigens in secondary lymphoid organs, CD169+ macrophages are exceptional candidates to target therapeutic strategies, so as to generate a specific antitumor response. (
  • In one of these, primary transformed avian myeloblasts can differentiate into granulocytes or macrophages under appropriate conditions. (