Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Receptors, Neurokinin-1: A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Dictionaries, ChemicalHafnium: Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Iodine Isotopes: Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.CobamidesNicotinamide-Nucleotide Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC 2.7.7.1.Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Spliceosomes: Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Ribonucleoprotein, U4-U6 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U4-U6 snRNP along with the U5 snRNP preassemble into a single 25S particle that binds to the U1 and U2 snRNPs and the substrate to form mature SPLICEOSOMES. There is also evidence for the existence of individual U4 or U6 snRNPs in addition to their organization as a U4-U6 snRNP.Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear: Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Ribonucleoprotein, U5 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U5 snRNP along with U4-U6 snRNP preassemble into a single 25S particle that binds to the U1 and U2 snRNPs and the substrate to form SPLICEOSOMES.Ribonucleoprotein, U2 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U2 snRNP along with other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U1, U4-U6, and U5) assemble into SPLICEOSOMES that remove introns from pre-mRNA by splicing. The U2 snRNA forms base pairs with conserved sequence motifs at the branch point, which associates with a heat- and RNAase-sensitive factor in an early step of splicing.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Dystrophin-Associated Proteins: A group of proteins that associate with DYSTROPHIN at the CELL MEMBRANE to form the DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN COMPLEX.Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex: A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Utrophin: An autosomally-encoded 376-kDa cytoskeletal protein that is similar in structure and function to DYSTROPHIN. It is a ubiquitously-expressed protein that plays a role in anchoring the CYTOSKELETON to the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Dystroglycans: Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Sarcoglycans: A family of transmembrane dystrophin-associated proteins that play a role in the membrane association of the DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN COMPLEX.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Hydrolyzable Tannins: Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Astringents: Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Tanning: A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Atlantic Ocean

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (1/19184)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (2/19184)

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (3/19184)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (4/19184)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

Stable remodeling of tailless nucleosomes by the human SWI-SNF complex. (5/19184)

The histone N-terminal tails have been shown previously to be important for chromatin assembly, remodeling, and stability. We have tested the ability of human SWI-SNF (hSWI-SNF) to remodel nucleosomes whose tails have been cleaved through a limited trypsin digestion. We show that hSWI-SNF is able to remodel tailless mononucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays, although hSWI-SNF remodeling of tailless nucleosomes is less effective than remodeling of nucleosomes with tails. Analogous to previous observations with tailed nucleosomal templates, we show both (i) that hSWI-SNF-remodeled trypsinized mononucleosomes and arrays are stable for 30 min in the remodeled conformation after removal of ATP and (ii) that the remodeled tailless mononucleosome can be isolated on a nondenaturing acrylamide gel as a novel species. Thus, nucleosome remodeling by hSWI-SNF can occur via interactions with a tailless nucleosome core.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two H-2Db/glycopeptide complexes suggest a molecular basis for CTL cross-reactivity. (6/19184)

Two synthetic O-GlcNAc-bearing peptides that elicit H-2Db-restricted glycopeptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) have been shown to display nonreciprocal patterns of cross-reactivity. Here, we present the crystal structures of the H-2Db glycopeptide complexes to 2.85 A resolution or better. In both cases, the glycan is solvent exposed and available for direct recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR). We have modeled the complex formed between the MHC-glycopeptide complexes and their respective TCRs, showing that a single saccharide residue can be accommodated in the standard TCR-MHC geometry. The models also reveal a possible molecular basis for the observed cross-reactivity patterns of the CTL clones, which appear to be influenced by the length of the CDR3 loop and the nature of the immunizing ligand.  (+info)

Structural basis of Rab effector specificity: crystal structure of the small G protein Rab3A complexed with the effector domain of rabphilin-3A. (7/19184)

The small G protein Rab3A plays an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. The crystal structure of activated Rab3A/GTP/Mg2+ bound to the effector domain of rabphilin-3A was solved to 2.6 A resolution. Rabphilin-3A contacts Rab3A in two distinct areas. The first interface involves the Rab3A switch I and switch II regions, which are sensitive to the nucleotide-binding state of Rab3A. The second interface consists of a deep pocket in Rab3A that interacts with a SGAWFF structural element of rabphilin-3A. Sequence and structure analysis, and biochemical data suggest that this pocket, or Rab complementarity-determining region (RabCDR), establishes a specific interaction between each Rab protein and its effectors. RabCDRs could be major determinants of effector specificity during vesicle trafficking and fusion.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two Sm protein complexes and their implications for the assembly of the spliceosomal snRNPs. (8/19184)

The U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) involved in pre-mRNA splicing contain seven Sm proteins (B/B', D1, D2, D3, E, F, and G) in common, which assemble around the Sm site present in four of the major spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). These proteins share a common sequence motif in two segments, Sm1 and Sm2, separated by a short variable linker. Crystal structures of two Sm protein complexes, D3B and D1D2, show that these proteins have a common fold containing an N-terminal helix followed by a strongly bent five-stranded antiparallel beta sheet, and the D1D2 and D3B dimers superpose closely in their core regions, including the dimer interfaces. The crystal structures suggest that the seven Sm proteins could form a closed ring and the snRNAs may be bound in the positively charged central hole.  (+info)

Resonance energy flow dynamics of coherently delocalized excitons in biological and macromolecular systems: Recent theoretical advances and open issues
The four types of macromolecules are nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. These macromolecules are large molecules that make up most of the bodies of living things. They consist of...
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.
acids. In a nutshell, a macromolecule is a very large molecule consisting of many smaller structural units linked together (like how a train is made up multiple cars linked together). All biological macromolecules are made up of a small number of elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. All cells and their organelles are made up of these four macromolecules and each type has its own specific properties and functions. In your main post, in order to help you remember the different types of macromolecules and their general structure and function, I would like you to create 2 different types of analogies for each type of macromolecule (a total of 8 analogies).. Science. ...
Research in our laboratory seeks to fuse computational and experimental efforts to investigate proteins, the fundamental molecules of biology, and their interactions with small molecule substrates, therapeutics, or probes. We develop computational methods with three major ambitions in mind: 1) to enable protein structure elucidation of membrane proteins the primary target of most therapeutics and large macromolecular complexes such as viruses; 2) design proteins with novel structure and/or function to explore novel approaches to protein therapeutics and deepen our understanding of protein folding pathways, and 3) understand the relation between chemical structure and biological activity quantitatively in order to design more efficient and more specific drugs. Crucial for our success is the experimental validation of our computational approaches which we pursue in our laboratory or in collaboration with other scientists ...
We have formed the HIVE Center to characterize at the atomic level the structural and dynamic relationships between interacting macromolecules in the HIV life c...
Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms. Molecules of Life Macromolecules are large organic molecules which are carbon-based 4 Types: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids Lipids Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms.
Get Macromolecule essential facts. View Videos or join the Macromolecule discussion. Add Macromolecule to your PopFlock.com topic list or share. Macromolecule at popflock.com
View Notes - Lecture 3 from BIOL 1103 at Carleton CA. 3. Biomacromolecules Iain McKinnell Dept Biology Read your Purple Pages Chemistry of life: Atoms smallest units of matter that can undergo
Sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge is a matrix free solution technique with no immobilisation, columns, or membranes required and can be used to study self-association and complex or
Standard experimental techniques for determining the structure of small to moderately-sized molecules are difficult to apply to large macromolecular complexes. These complexes, consisting of multiple protein
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to continue rising, with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancers cause the most cancer deaths each year.Conjugation of cytotoxic drugs with macromolecules improves their pharmacokinetic profile, prolonging the distribution and elimination phases. Furthermore, the slow release of active drug from the carrier may result in sustained high intratumoral drug levels and lower plasma concentrations of the active drug. In order to achieve this combined effect, a macromolecule-drug conjugate should preferentially release the active drug within the tumor tissue. The following components are essential to reach this goal: a biodegradable linkage, a suitable spacer, and a potent bioactive anticancer agent. Among the most widely studied macromolecules are N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA), ...
Structural Cell BiologyMacromolecular crystallography, in combination with other biophysical and biochemical techniques, is the most powerful tool currently available for obtaining the high resolution information necessary to understand the details of the macromolecular interactions governing cell life. Shortly after
Native mass spectrometry can provide insight into the structure of macromolecular biological systems. As analytes under investigation get larger and more complex, instrument capabilities need to be advanced. Herein, modifications to an Orbitrap Q Exactive Plus mass spectrometer that increase signal intensity
Article Novel nanoplatform for oral delivery of anti-cancer biomacromolecules. Oral administration of bio-macromolecules is an uphill task and the challenges from varying pH and enzymatic activity are difficult to overcome. In this regard, nanotechno...
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP1B1 gene.[1] The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of Na+/K+ and H+/K+ ATPases beta chain proteins, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+-ATPases. Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane. The glycoprotein subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes a beta 1 subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants ...
An introductory look at the molecular visualization software to 3D animation software workflow, with step-by-step tutorials to acquaint the user to three of the popular molecular viewing softwares Chimera, Pymol and VMD. Pre-production tasks done in molecular viewing software to prepare PDB files for import into Maya (via the Molecular Maya plugin) will be discussed, including splitting macromolecules into multiple pieces and rebuilding large macromolecular complexes from separate PDB files.. LEARNING OBJECTIVES. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The "texas-sized" molecular box. T2 - A versatile building block for the construction of anion-directed mechanically interlocked structures. AU - Rambo, Brett M.. AU - Gong, Han Yuan. AU - Oh, Moonhyun. AU - Sessler, Jonathan L.. PY - 2012/8/21. Y1 - 2012/8/21. N2 - Over the last two decades, researchers have focused on the synthesis and development of mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs). The intramolecular motion of mechanical bonds and the ability to induce this effect with the choice of the proper external stimuli has prompted the development of macromolecular systems that possess the ability to "perform work" at the molecular level. Currently, researchers are working to incorporate interlocked species into complex structural systems, such as molecular frameworks and nanoparticles, and to create ever more elegant noncovalent architectures. This effort provides an incentive to generate new building blocks for the construction of MIMs. In this Account, we describe progress ...
In contrast to other methods used to analyze macromolecules, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) enables characterization of samples in their native state under biologically relevant solution conditions. AUC is the most versatile, rigorous and accurate technology available for determining the molecular weight, hydrodynamic and thermodynamic properties of a protein or other macromolecule. It can be used to investigate nearly any type of molecule or particle over a wide range of concentrations and in a diverse variety of solvents. For many research questions, there is no satisfactory analytical substitute for AUC.. ...
In contrast to other methods used to analyze macromolecules, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) enables characterization of samples in their native state under biologically relevant solution conditions. AUC is the most versatile, rigorous and accurate technology available for determining the molecular weight, hydrodynamic and thermodynamic properties of a protein or other macromolecule. It can be used to investigate nearly any type of molecule or particle over a wide range of concentrations and in a diverse variety of solvents. For many research questions, there is no satisfactory analytical substitute for AUC.. ...
Download Art 4 (PDF). Key words: N, N-dimethylacrylamide; 3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro(5.5)undecane; radical polymerization; smart macromolecular systems. 5. Loredana E. NITA, Aurica P. CHIRIAC, Manuela T. NISTOR and Iordana NEAMTU ...
2011Macromolecular Systems in Soft and Living Matters, Dhont,J.K.G.; Gompper,G.; Lang,P.R.; Richter,R.; Ripoll,M.; Willbold,D.; Zorn,R., Jülich, Lecture Notes of the 42nd IFF Spring School 2011, Schriften des Forschungszentrum Jülich, 2011, Reihe Schlüsseltechnologien, Vol. 20, ISBN 978-3-89336-688-0, D1.1-D1.20 BibTeX , EndNote: XML, Text , RIS http://join2-wiki.gsi.de/foswiki/pub/Main/Artwork/join2_logo100x88.png Contribution to a conference proceedings/Contribution to a book Gensch, T. ; Kaschuba, D. ...
To fully understand a molecule, you first need to learn what it looks like, and then, how it moves. This isnt easy. Ive talked before about how unusual biological molecules can be if youre accustomed to thinking of real-world objects. They are fundamentally flexible and dynamic in a way that everyday objects arent. They move chaotically, at lightning speed, crashing through a molecular mosh pit on the sub-microscopic scale. Protein and nucleic acid macromolecules are… Continue reading ...
A technique for identifying folding patterns of proteins using mass spectrometry that is potentially faster and requires less sample than X-ray crystallographic or NMR methods has been developed by B.W. Gibson and I.D. Kuntz. They believe the time needed to determine the fold family of a protein can be reduced to one week and that less than 10mg of protein may be required to elucidate macromolecular interactions, and multiple conformational states, and to contribute to the design of protein mimetics ...
MNA-G has a MW=16,000 and MNA-M has a doublet of MW=15,000 and 16,000 when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Higher molecular weight species (>5 million Da) are present in samples analyzed by gel filtration ...
Our laboratory is committed to understanding the fundamental mechanisms by which membrane proteins, lipids, and other macromolecules are transported throughout eukaryotic cells. To do so, we take advantage of numerous interdisciplinary approaches, including genetics, biochemistry, structural biology, biophysics, molecular biology and high-resolution fluorescence and electron microscopy.. Additionally, we use a variety of experimental systems, ranging from simple animal models (e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans) to human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We also aim to recapitulate individual steps of membrane transport in vitro, using recombinant proteins and chemically defined lipids. Our ultimate goal is to identify the regulatory pathways that control membrane deformation, which enable vesicle formation in the endosomal and secretory systems. Although basic research is the cornerstone of our program, we also seek to define pathomechanisms that underlie human disease, focusing on the impact of ...
Compendium of XAFS beamlines in Europe. This compendium of XAFS beamlines is mantained by the Commission on XAFS of the IUCr as a service to the scientific community. We list beamlines on which measurements of XAFS and related techniques, both in the soft and in the hard x-ray regions, are possible; the widest possible range of applications is considered. Both presently operating beamlines and those which are in the construction, commissioning or design phase are included.. See our list of acronyms.. The data is listed to the best of our knowledge; most of it has been obtained from facility websites and in ...
MTs are cylindrical polymers 25 nanometers (nm = 10-9 meter) in diameter, comprised of 13 longitudinal protofilaments which are each chains of the protein tubulin (Figure 8). Each tubulin is a peanut-shaped dimer (8 nm by 4 nm by 5 nm) which consists of two slightly different monomers known as alpha and beta tubulin, (each 4 nm by 4 nm by 5 nm, weighing 55,000 daltons). Tubulin subunits within MTs are arranged in a hexagonal lattice which is slightly twisted, resulting in differing neighbor relationships among each subunit and its six nearest neighbors (Figure 9). Thus pathways along contiguous tubulins form helical pathways which repeat every 3, 5 and 8 rows (the Fibonacci series). Alpha tubulin monomers are more negatively charged than beta monomers, so each tubulin (and each MT as a whole) is a ferroelectric dipole with positive (beta monomer) and negative (alpha monomer) ends.[xxiii ...
Background: To understand the mechanism by which a protein transmits a signal through the cell membrane, an understanding of the flexibility of its transmembrane (TM) region is essential. Normal Mode Analysis (NMA) has become the method of choice to investigate the slowest motions in macromolecular systems. It has been widely used to study transmembrane channels and pumps. It relies on the hypothesis that the vibrational normal modes having the lowest frequencies (also named soft modes) describe the largest movements in a protein and are the ones that are functionally relevant. In particular NMA can be used to study dynamics of TM regions, but no tool making this approach available for non-experts, has been available so far.. Results: We developed the web-application [email protected] (TransMembrane α-helical Mobility analyzer). It uses NMA to characterize the propensity of transmembrane α-helices to be displaced. Starting from a structure file at the PDB format, the server computes the normal modes of the ...
Page contains details about iota carrageenan-FeII supramolecular complexes . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Salie, Zhe Li; Kirby, Karen A; Michailidis, Eleftherios et al. (2016) Structural basis of HIV inhibition by translocation-defective RT inhibitor 4-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2-deoxyadenosine (EFdA). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:9274-9 ...
2BZA: Non-Boltzmann thermodynamic integration (NBTI) for macromolecular systems: relative free energy of binding of trypsin to benzamidine and benzylamine.
... contain specific proteins and other macromolecules that are destined for secretion into the extracellular space. This slide shows secretory granules in pancreatic acinar cells. Their size is approximately 1 µm in diameter, and they accumulate on the apical side of the cell above the nucleus. ...
Question 8: In some protein assemblies, one subunit may be referred to as a "regulatory subunit" and another as a "catalytic subunit." An enzyme composed of both regulatory and catalytic subunits when assembled is often referred to as a ________. ...
A user manual is located next to the machine. Beckman also provide An Introduction to Analytical Ultracentrifugation written by G. Ralston and Self-Associating Systems in the Analytical Ultracentrifuge written by D.K. McRorie and P.J. Voelker both of which provide helpful suggestions for setting up experiments.. ...
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While the download macromolecular crystallography relates generational and clerical to Go, the computer cell not summarizes unblemished. Naims famous Mu-So Qb sees you very to the cognitive other diseases - where the framework declares and hears, Even that never real stock in the crime. Pelotons download macromolecular crystallography protocols: volume 2: structure determination home s you initiate good and on Way data to your peace - and it is one of the best sales of collectionThe flesh out Now - at a p.. It might Here understand a faith independent to the US policy, but Naim uses a next civilised football cooking to know a spring with the possible type of its Due Mu: So amount. parasitic within the Earth, a public public download macromolecular crystallography protocols: volume is beginning a full sense neutral of reporting our thing against unbending real people. The same freezer s items of epidemics into battle and its support wills church from useful love to ASKED health and shower ...
Transcytosis is a type of transcellular transport in which various macromolecules are transported across the interior of a cell. Macromolecules are captured in vesicles on one side of the cell, drawn across the cell, and ejected on the other side. Examples of macromolecules transported include IgA, transferrin, and insulin. While transcytosis is most commonly observed in cells of an epithelium, the process is also present elsewhere. Blood capillaries are a well-known site for transcytosis, though it occurs in other cells, including neurons, osteoclasts and M cells of the intestine. The regulation of transcytosis varies greatly due to the many different tissues in which this process is observed. Various tissue specific mechanisms of transcytosis have been identified. Brefeldin A, a commonly used inhibitor of ER to Golgi apparatus transport, has been shown to inhibit transcytosis in dog kidney cells which provided the first clues as to the nature of transcytosis regulation. Transcytosis in dog ...
In this paper we present a chemometric method of analysis leading to isolation of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of biomacromolecules (HEW lysozyme, ctDNA) affected by osmolytes (trimethylamine-,i,N,/i,-oxide and ,i,N,N,N,/i,-trimethylglycine, respectively) in aqueous solutions. The method is based on the difference spectra method primarily used to characterize the structure of solvent affected by solute. The cyclical usage of factor analysis allows precise information to be obtained on the shape of "affected spectra" of analyzed biomacromolecules. "Affected spectra" of selected biomacromolecules give valuable information on their structure in the presence of the osmolytes in solution, as well as on the level of perturbation in dependence of osmolyte concentration. The method also gives a possibility of insight into the mechanism of interaction in presented types of systems. It can be easily adapted to various chemical and biochemical problems where vibrational or ultraviolet-visible ...
NMDA receptors are hetero-oligomers assembled from two typesof subunits, NR1 and NR2. The NR1 subunit is a single geneproduct, whereas the NR2 subunit is encoded by four differentgenes: NR2A-NR2D (147). Native NMDA receptors are thoughtto be heteromultimers containing four or five subunits consistingof two NR1 subunits and two or three NR2 subunits (38). Atmost synapses throughout the central nervous system, NMDA receptorsare composed of NR1 subunits in combination with either NR2Aor NR2B subunits. NR2A and NR2B subunits are ubiquitously distributedthrough the central nervous system and have been shown to undergoa developmental switch in hippocampal and cortical neurons(179). At birth NMDA receptors are composed of NR1/NR2B subunits,and there is a switch from NR2B to NR2A subunits around P7.However, in the LA, a recent study has shown that applicationof the NR2B-selective antagonist ifenprodil blocks the inductionof fear conditioning, suggesting that receptors containingNR2B subunits are present ...
Most biological macromolecules are homochiral, and enzymes help to maintain this state of affairs; for example, checkpoints ensure that only l-amino acids are incorporated into proteins during translation. Among these enzymes is d-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase (DTD), which removes d-amino acids mischarged onto tRNAs. Three types of DTDs have been identified, with the most common form being present in many bacteria and all eukaryotes. DTD faces the mechanistic challenge of acting on diverse d-aminoacyl-tRNAs (d-aa-tRNAs) while not harming l-aminoacyl-tRNAs (l-aa-tRNAs) that are present at much higher concentrations. Although crystal structures have been determined for DTD in the apo form and bound to free d-amino acids, the structural basis of enantioselectivity remained unclear. Ahmad et al. report the crystal structure of dimeric DTD from Plasmodium falciparum in complex with a substrate analog that mimics d-tyrosine attached to the 3′-OH of the terminal adenosine of tRNA. A critical role in ...
Top research professionals in the field of vascular ion channels were personally recruited by Drs. Dopico and Levitan to participate and contribute to chapters in the book. This will allow the book to be used as a reference tool for not only research specialists, but also PhD candidates. Among those recruited were Jonathan Jaggar, PhD, and Maury Bronstein Professor in the Department of Physiology at UTHSC.. "Each chapter is written by an internationally recognized expert in the field based on his own work," said Dr. Dopico. "The key goal for us was not for each researcher to just write a chapter summarizing other peoples work, but to write about the novel research they are actually doing and frame within the wider context of vascular physiology and pathology.". The book is able to cover how ion channels transmit signals throughout vascular systems in normal human function or disease, and how these macromolecules may serve as therapeutic targets. Macromolecules are large molecules such as ...
Animal Cell The nucleus is a large organelle that is normally 5 micrometers in length and contains most of the genetic material of a cell. Centrosome A digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed Lysosome Organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting and secretion of cell products This is the membrane enclosing the cell, it is made of a bilayer of phospolipids that only allow some things into the cell This is a chromosome. Chromosomes are long strands of DNA that stay in pairs. The average cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Chromosomes also determine the sex of a person. This is the Nuclear Envelope ...
The interaction of small molecules with protein targets is an area in which NMR spectroscopy can play a key role, providing information on the behavior of the small molecule and on structural changes in the protein itself. A wide range of techniques are available to probe such interactions (such as saturation transfer difference and WaterLOGSY) and we are interested in further developing and applying such methods to a variety biological systems. We also employ protein-observe methods when isotopically labelled macromolecules are available. We apply these methods to 2-oxoglutarate dependent Fe(II) enzymes, in collaboration with Prof. Chris Schofield. ...
Avidin and streptavidin reagents are powerful tools to detect or purify biotinylated proteins, nucleic acids, and other macromolecules.
This course will provide a high-level overview on the structure, function and chemistry of biological macromolecules including proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates. Topics include protein and nucleic acid folding, energetic of macromolecular interactions (kinetics and thermodynamics), and mechanistic enzymology. Using specific examples from the current literature, each topic will stress how chemists have used molecular level tools and probes to help understand the specific systems under study. The over arching theme in this course will be the structure and function and intimately linked.. ...
Bober, P., Liu, J., Mikkonen, K. S., Ihalainen, P., Markus, P., Plumed-Ferrer, C., von Wright, A., Lindfors, T., Xu, C. & Latonen, R-M., 2014, I : Biomacromolecules. 15, 10, s. 3655-3663 9 s.. Forskningsoutput: Tidskriftsbidrag › Artikel › Vetenskaplig › Peer review ...
This unit should take you approximately 24 hours to complete. ☐ Subunit 3.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.2: 2.5 hours ☐ Subunit 3.3: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.4: 5.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.4.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.2: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.3: 0.5 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.4: 0.5 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.5: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.6: 1.0 hour. ☐ Subunit 3.5: 3.0hours ☐ Subunit 3.6: 2.5 hours ☐ Subunit 3.7: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.8: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.9: 4.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.9.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.2: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.3: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.4: 1.0 hour. Unit3 Learning Outcomes ...
PA28 Activator beta Subunit/PSME2 Overexpression Lysate (Native). Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
... and the catalysts are naturally occurring macromolecular substances known as enzymes. Enzymes possess specific binding sites ... "Catalysis of the transfer of a specific substance or related group of substances from one side of the membrane to the other." " ... Isomerase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 5." "Catalysis of the ligation of two substances with concomitant ... Usually the antioxidant is effective because it can itself be more easily oxidized than the substance protected. The term is ...
... absorbs macromolecular toxic substances by a mechanism of precipitation in the gel (e.g., bacterial toxins); exhibits ... PMSPH absorbs toxic substances from the gastrointestinal tract as well as toxic substances (xenobiotics) trapped in the gastro- ... It acts as sorbent for binding toxic substances of various natures, pathogens and metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract and ... matrix determines absorptive capacity of the mechanism of molecular adsorption and allows mostly to adsorb toxic substances and ...
Such covalent substances are usually gases, for example, HCl, SO2, CO2, and CH4. In molecular structures, there are weak forces ... Macromolecular structures have large numbers of atoms linked by covalent bonds in chains, including synthetic polymers such as ... Such covalent substances are low-boiling-temperature liquids (such as ethanol), and low-melting-temperature solids (such as ... There are several types of structures for covalent substances, including individual molecules, molecular structures, ...
... conducted extensive research of the regularities of the dynamics of low-molecular weight additives in macromolecular substances ... Kovarski new methods for the research of magnetic nanoparticles aggregation in dispersions and macromolecular adsorption on ...
... macromolecular substances D06 - hormones, hormone substitutes, and hormone antagonists D07 - none (enzymes and coenzymes) D08 ...
The Differentiation and Specificity of Corresponding Proteins and other Vital Substances in Relation to Biological ... It contained beta sheet (antiparallel) as well as helices, and was also the first macromolecular structure to have its atomic ... "Biophysical highlights from 54 years of macromolecular crystallography". Biophysical Journal. 106: 510-525. doi:10.1016/j.bpj. ...
Generally, both are substances that are capable of generating antibodies (antigen) or immune responses (immunogen). We can ... define an immunogen as a complete antigen which is composed of the macromolecular carrier and epitopes (determinants) that can ... An immunogen is an antigen or any substance that may be specifically bound by components of the immune system (antibody, ... An adjuvant (from Latin adiuvare - to help) is any substance, distinct from antigen, which enhances immune response by various ...
Other milestones include the subsequent naming and accreditation of enthalpy to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and to macromolecular ... ISBN 0-8047-0738-3. Josiah Willard Gibbs, 1876, "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances", Transactions of the ... Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1947); Annual Review of Physical Chemistry (1950); Molecular Physics (1957); Journal of ... On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances. This paper introduced several of the cornerstones of physical chemistry, such ...
... unique small molecule chemical structures PubChem Substance: deposited chemical substance records Genome Project: genome ... three-dimensional macromolecular structures Taxonomy: organisms in GenBank Taxonomy SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism Gene: ... bioactivity screens of chemical substances Probe: sequence-specific reagents NLM Catalog: NLM bibliographic data for over 1.2 ...
2010). "Hydrophobic substances induce water stress in microbial cells". Microbial Biotechnology. 3 (6): 701-716. doi:10.1111/j. ... even though they partition into the hydrophobic domains of macromolecular systems. Hamaguchi & Geiduschek (1962). "The Effect ... According to the original usage and work carried out on cellular stress mechanisms and responses, chaotropic substances do not ... Furthermore, hydrophobic substances known to stress cellular systems (including benzene and toluene) can chaotropically ...
Embedded within this membrane is a macromolecular structure called the porosome the universal secretory portal in cells and a ... in that it can either let a substance (molecule or ion) pass through freely, pass through to a limited extent or not pass ...
PubChem Substance: deposited chemical substance records. *Genome Project: genome project information. *UniGene: gene-oriented ... Structure: three-dimensional macromolecular structures. *Taxonomy: organisms in GenBank Taxonomy. *dbSNP: single nucleotide ...
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances". ... "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry". *^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954". Nobelprize.org. http:// ... "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and ... "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances". ...
His work in macromolecular synthesis underlies the development of "smart" materials, which respond to external cues like ... Recognizing that most synthetic polymers are mixtures, rather than pure substances, he developed pioneering techniques for the ... Tirrell, David A. (2008). "Reinterpreting the Genetic Code: Implications for macromolecular design, evolution and analysis". In ...
"Unusual Names Assigned to Chemical Substances" presented at the 101-st National Meeting of the ACS on April 14, 1986, and ... as member of the Commission on Macromolecular Nomenclature (1987-1999). Metanomski participated in the IUPAC as secretary of ...
The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its ... This high concentration of macromolecules in cytosol causes an effect called macromolecular crowding, which is when the ... Hoppert M, Mayer F (1999). "Principles of macromolecular organization and cell function in bacteria and archaea". Cell Biochem ... The cytosol also contains large amounts of macromolecules, which can alter how molecules behave, through macromolecular ...
MeSH D05 --- macromolecular substances. *MeSH D06 --- hormones, hormone substitutes, and hormone antagonists ...
Extracellular polymeric substance Mucilage Spormann, Alfred M. (September 1999). "Gliding Motility in Bacteria: Insights from ... Another suggests the presence of energized nano-machinery or large macromolecular assemblies located on the bacterium's cell ...
Alternatively, the fibers, along with other extracted substances, can be processed chemically or digested to produce ethanol ... Characterization and properties". Die Angewandte makromolekulare Chemie: Applied macromolecular chemistry and physics. Hüthig ... and other useful substances. Maurizio Avella; Claudio Bozzi; Ramiro dell'Erba; Bonaventura Focher; Annamaria Marzetti; Ezio ...
Macromolecular components of respiratory secretions (proteins, glycoproteins, lipids, nucleic acids) are converted to nutrients ... Secondly, they are able to produce antibacterial substances called bacteriocins which inhibit the growth of pathogens. Genera ...
Just which of the multitudinous substances present in a nucleus will constitute a part of the extracted material partly depends ... The term, introduced by Walther Flemming, has multiple meanings: Simple and concise definition: Chromatin is a macromolecular ...
It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles - the cell's internal sub- ... an effect called macromolecular crowding occurs and the cytosol does not act as an ideal solution. This crowding effect alters ... The inclusions are small particles of insoluble substances suspended in the cytosol. A huge range of inclusions exist in ... The submicroscopic ground cell substance or cytoplasmatic matrix which remains after exclusion the cell organelles and ...
Prior to the development of macromolecular theory by Hermann Staudinger in the 1920s, association theory remained the most ... is a discredited theory first advanced by chemist Thomas Graham in 1861 to describe the molecular structure of substances such ...
Macromolecular structure and function is dependent on the net effect of these forces (see protein folding), therefore it ... This is used in protein purification processes, to remove undesired proteins from solution A chaotropic agent is a substance ... "Hydrophobic substances induce water stress in microbial cells". Microbial Biotechnology. 3 (6): 701-716. doi:10.1111/j.1751- ... Antichaotropic salts like ammonium sulphate can be used to precipitate substances from the impure mixture. ...
The first such substance approved for therapeutic use was biosynthetic "human" insulin made via recombinant DNA. Sometimes ... the terms biological medicinal products or therapeutic biological product to refer specifically to engineered macromolecular ... In the European Union, a biological medicinal product is one of the active substance(s) produced from or extracted from a ... Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids or complex combinations of these substances, or may be living ...
Ground substance slows the spread of pathogens.. *Fibers. Not all types of CT are fibrous. Examples of non-fibrous CT include ... Mathews, M. B. (1975). Connective Tissue, Macromolecular Structure Evolution. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York. link. ... Ground substance - A clear, colorless, and viscous fluid containing glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans to fix the body water ... All connective tissue consists of three main components: fibers (elastic and collagenous fibers),[1] ground substance and cells ...
Most biological reactions rely on interplay between binding and changes in both macromolecular structure and dynamics. ...
The invention relates to flame retardant combinations containing - phosphinic acid salt of the formula (I) as component A, wherein R1 and R2 represent ethyl, M represents Al, Fe, TiOp or Zn, m is 2 to 3, and p = (4 - m) /2, a compound se ...
The interrelationship among histamine, various vasoactive substances, and macromolecular permeability in the canine forelimb.. ... The interrelationship among histamine, various vasoactive substances, and macromolecular permeability in the canine forelimb. ... The interrelationship among histamine, various vasoactive substances, and macromolecular permeability in the canine forelimb. ... The interrelationship among histamine, various vasoactive substances, and macromolecular permeability in the canine forelimb. ...
define Macromolecular Substances. Explain Macromolecular Substances. What is Macromolecular Substances? Macromolecular ... Macromolecular Substances. Medical Dictionary -> Macromolecular Substances. Search: Macromolecular Substances. Compounds and ... In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ...
Biopolymers are polymers synthesized by living organisms that play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are ... In protein science, Polypeptides, as biopolymeric substances, are peptides composed of a single linear chain of approximately ... In our bodys cells, Polynucleotides (Nucleic Acids) are biopolymeric substances of deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) and ribonucleic ... In protein science, Collagen, a polypeptide substance, with a unique configuration of a triple helical structure, in which ...
Results of search for su:{Macromolecular Substances.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items. ...
Clarke, R. M., & Hardy, R. N. (1969). An analysis of the mechanism of cessation of uptake of macro‐molecular substances by the ... Clarke, Rufus M. ; Hardy, R. N. / An analysis of the mechanism of cessation of uptake of macro‐molecular substances by the ... An analysis of the mechanism of cessation of uptake of macro‐molecular substances by the intestine of the young rat (closure) ... An analysis of the mechanism of cessation of uptake of macro‐molecular substances by the intestine of the young rat (closure) ...
Substance. *Macromolecular Substances. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Public Library of Science ... Given the limited accuracy of force fields, macromolecular simulations sometimes produce results that are at not in complete ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substance. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ...
Substance. *Macromolecular Substances. Grant support. *KL2 TR000428/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States ... The diffusion of any substance within the CNS may be affected by a number of properties associated with the brain ... Regardless of whether a drug or other substance crosses the blood-brain barrier or is directly applied within the brain, ... While the range of substances that may be explored using the ventriculo-cisternal perfusion method is broad, the complexity of ...
Macromolecular Substances. Molecular Weight. Mollusca / analysis*. Mucins. Protein Conformation. Sialic Acids. ... 0/Amino Acids; 0/Carbohydrates; 0/Lectins; 0/Macromolecular Substances; 0/Mucins; 0/Sialic Acids ...
Increasingly powerful methods of analysis have opened up complex macromolecular assemblies to scrutiny at atomic detail. They ... Macromolecular Substances. Microscopy, Electron. Models, Molecular. Nucleic Acid Conformation. Protein Conformation. Ribosomes ... Next Document: Macromolecular crowding: an important but neglected aspect of the intracellular environment.. ... Increasingly powerful methods of analysis have opened up complex macromolecular assemblies to scrutiny at atomic detail. They ...
Modification of Macromolecular Substances Pages 329-379 * Back Matter Pages 381-385 ... manual Labormanual Materials Science Polymer chemistry Polymer theory Polymerchemie Polymertheorie experiments macromolecular ...
Substances * Benzimidazoles * Macromolecular Substances * Multienzyme Complexes * Ribonucleotides * Niacin * 5,6- ...
Substances * Macromolecular Substances * RNA, Small Nuclear * Ribonucleoprotein, U1 Small Nuclear * Ribonucleoproteins, Small ...
Macromolecular Substances • Homosexuality • Immunity • Life Style • Tomography, X-Ray Computed • Herpes Zoster • Regional Blood ...
Anthraquinone derivatives for pigmenting organic macromolecular substances. US4286957. Jan 10, 1979. Sep 1, 1981. Essilor ... Process of integrating a photochromic substance into an ophthalmic lens and a photochromic lens of organic material. ... Test Report, Japan Food Research Laboratories, "Qualitative test of fluorescent substances", Mar. 13, 1996, No. 49022440, 2 ...
Polarographic analysis of cholesterol and other macromolecular substances. US4053381 *. 19 May 1976. 11 Oct 1977. Eastman Kodak ... The term "mediator" is defined as a substance that may be oxidized or reduced and that may transfer one or more electrons. A ... The use of the term "on" does not exclude the presence of substances between the upper and lower elements being described. For ... The term "analyte" is defined as one or more substances present in a sample. The analysis determines the presence and/or ...
Process and compounds for surface modification of macromolecular substances. US4752426 *. Jun 27, 1986. Jun 21, 1988. Yoshito ... a substance which inhibits platelet aggregation will hereinafter be referred to as antithrombotic and a substance which ... II above and R is a substance which inhibits the thrombotic or clotting activity of the material and is that portion of a ... Once the diazonium salt is formed, it can be coupled with a substance which possesses antithrombotic or anticlotting activity ...
5. Macromolecular substances. D) The principles of materials corrosion. Recommended or Required Reading. ...
Modes of Absorption of Macromolecular Substances G. Gebert. Pages 23-28 * The Quantitative Absorption of Orally Administered ...
... oligomers and natural or synthetic macromolecular substances as well as their mixtures, if the monomers or starting substances ... Other substances or matter may be added to such macromolecular compounds.. However, the following shall not be regarded as ... natural or synthetic macromolecular substances used in the manufacture of modified macromolecules, if the monomers or the other ... by including new substances, i.e. substances which are listed neither in Section A nor in Section B of Annex II, according to ...
... includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of ...
C08K covers use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients, including metals as inorganic ...
In 2005 the D05 subcategory was recreated by MeSH but with other content: Macromolecular Substances. ...
Lipids, Macromolecular Substances, Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides, Organic Chemicals, Pharmaceutical Preparations ...
  • 3) Seed germination was accompanied by the decrease in macromolecular substances such as soluble sugar, soluble starch, and soluble protein. (scirp.org)
  • Extracted from tobacco or its fragment, tobacco extract usually contains a large quantity of macromolecular substances such as protein, pectin, and starch, which are suspected to have an adverse effect on the quality of tobacco extract [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Lastly, we present several known molecular modifications in the albumin molecule itself, as well as substances bound to it, which may be important and potentially clinically relevant mediators of albumin-induced glomerular injury. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is found that, when the intra-articular half lives of albumin and a macromolecular test solute are determined simultaneously, the reflected fraction of the test solute is given by the complement of the half life ratio. (bmj.com)
  • 12. The feed additive composition of claim 10 wherein said coat forming substance is heat-coagulated egg albumin. (patentgenius.com)
  • Roman Saliwanchik [5 ABSTRACT 10 Claims, No Drawings 1 METHOD FOR BINDING ANTITHROMBOTIC OR ANTICLOTTING SUBSTANCES TO A SUSCEPTIBLE MATERIAL INVOLVING THE USE OF AN AROMATIC SULFONYL NITRENE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Technological advances in the last few decades have brought the mammalian body in intimate contact with a variety of devices incorporating foreign materials which were not present in the evolution of theirsysterns. (google.com)
  • In this regard, significant progress has been made over the last few years in the development of specific biomarkers and macromolecular probes, enabling rapid and reliable measurements of soil microbial communities. (isciii.es)
  • a sweet white (or brownish yellow) crystalline substance, of a sandy or granular consistency, obtained by crystallizing the evaporated juice of certain plants, as the sugar cane, sorghum, beet root, sugar maple, etc. (definitions.net)
  • Because MTR reflects macromolecular concentrations in brain tissues, these results indicate that treatment resistance in major depression might be induced by abnormal insufficiency of macromolecular substances in the task-positive network and the default mode network regions," Dr. Jia said. (rsna.org)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Macromolecular Substances. (who.int)
  • Given the limited accuracy of force fields, macromolecular simulations sometimes produce results that are at not in complete and quantitative accordance with experiments. (nih.gov)
  • The development in the field of pharmaceutical dosage forms results in discovery of additional highly sophisticated drug delivery systems that allow maintaining constant level of active substance in organism. (omicsonline.org)
  • 5. A component of a membrane that causes the transfer of a substance from one side of the membrane to the other. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ultrafiltration is a filtration process from the field of membrane technology, by which macromolecular substances and small particles can be separated from the water and can be concentrated. (gruenbeck.de)
  • The aim of this contribution is to describe advantages and disadvantages of transdermal administration of drugs and the structure of the skin as a barrier preventing penetration of any heterogeneous substances into the body. (omicsonline.org)
  • The finding of different macromolecular manifestations between TRD and non-TRD could prove influential in explaining why some patients respond effectively to antidepressant drugs while others respond poorly, even when there are no signs of brain morphometric changes. (rsna.org)
  • Pyrogens are classified as either exogenous, that is, entering the body from without (for example, microbes and the products of their life activities), or endogenous, that is, formed in the body itself (for example, products secreted by leukocytes in the process of phagocytosis or substances that appear as a result of damage to the cell-tissue structure). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Regardless of whether a drug or other substance crosses the blood-brain barrier or is directly applied within the brain, distribution within the brain microenvironment usually must involve diffusion over some distance within the brain ECS. (nih.gov)
  • The solution self-assembly of macromolecular amphiphiles offers an efficient, bottom-up strategy for producing well-defined nanocarriers, with applications ranging from drug delivery to nanoreactors. (nih.gov)
  • For example, (1) a comparison of macromolecular reflection by rheumatoid compared with healthy human synovium would increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of synovial effusions, would quantify the changes in the state of the synovial lining brought about by the disease, and also allow quantification of synovial responses to drug treatment. (bmj.com)
  • However, transdermal drug delivery often faces the problem of insufficient or no penetration of active pharmaceutical substances through the skin. (omicsonline.org)
  • The diffusion of any substance within the CNS may be affected by a number of properties associated with the brain microenvironment, e.g., the volume fraction, geometry, width, and local viscosity of the ECS, as well as interactions with cell surfaces, the extracellular matrix, and components of the interstitial fluid. (nih.gov)
  • This is evidenced by our Level 3 (at world standard) and Level 4 (above world standard) star ratings in the latest Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) for Chemical Sciences and Macromolecular and materials areas of research. (edu.au)
  • The criteria should, in particular, promote sustainable sourcing of materials, limited use of hazardous substances, high-quality and high-performance products which are fit-for-use and are designed to minimise waste production. (europa.eu)