A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (1/19184)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (2/19184)

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (3/19184)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (4/19184)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

Stable remodeling of tailless nucleosomes by the human SWI-SNF complex. (5/19184)

The histone N-terminal tails have been shown previously to be important for chromatin assembly, remodeling, and stability. We have tested the ability of human SWI-SNF (hSWI-SNF) to remodel nucleosomes whose tails have been cleaved through a limited trypsin digestion. We show that hSWI-SNF is able to remodel tailless mononucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays, although hSWI-SNF remodeling of tailless nucleosomes is less effective than remodeling of nucleosomes with tails. Analogous to previous observations with tailed nucleosomal templates, we show both (i) that hSWI-SNF-remodeled trypsinized mononucleosomes and arrays are stable for 30 min in the remodeled conformation after removal of ATP and (ii) that the remodeled tailless mononucleosome can be isolated on a nondenaturing acrylamide gel as a novel species. Thus, nucleosome remodeling by hSWI-SNF can occur via interactions with a tailless nucleosome core.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two H-2Db/glycopeptide complexes suggest a molecular basis for CTL cross-reactivity. (6/19184)

Two synthetic O-GlcNAc-bearing peptides that elicit H-2Db-restricted glycopeptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) have been shown to display nonreciprocal patterns of cross-reactivity. Here, we present the crystal structures of the H-2Db glycopeptide complexes to 2.85 A resolution or better. In both cases, the glycan is solvent exposed and available for direct recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR). We have modeled the complex formed between the MHC-glycopeptide complexes and their respective TCRs, showing that a single saccharide residue can be accommodated in the standard TCR-MHC geometry. The models also reveal a possible molecular basis for the observed cross-reactivity patterns of the CTL clones, which appear to be influenced by the length of the CDR3 loop and the nature of the immunizing ligand.  (+info)

Structural basis of Rab effector specificity: crystal structure of the small G protein Rab3A complexed with the effector domain of rabphilin-3A. (7/19184)

The small G protein Rab3A plays an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. The crystal structure of activated Rab3A/GTP/Mg2+ bound to the effector domain of rabphilin-3A was solved to 2.6 A resolution. Rabphilin-3A contacts Rab3A in two distinct areas. The first interface involves the Rab3A switch I and switch II regions, which are sensitive to the nucleotide-binding state of Rab3A. The second interface consists of a deep pocket in Rab3A that interacts with a SGAWFF structural element of rabphilin-3A. Sequence and structure analysis, and biochemical data suggest that this pocket, or Rab complementarity-determining region (RabCDR), establishes a specific interaction between each Rab protein and its effectors. RabCDRs could be major determinants of effector specificity during vesicle trafficking and fusion.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two Sm protein complexes and their implications for the assembly of the spliceosomal snRNPs. (8/19184)

The U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) involved in pre-mRNA splicing contain seven Sm proteins (B/B', D1, D2, D3, E, F, and G) in common, which assemble around the Sm site present in four of the major spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). These proteins share a common sequence motif in two segments, Sm1 and Sm2, separated by a short variable linker. Crystal structures of two Sm protein complexes, D3B and D1D2, show that these proteins have a common fold containing an N-terminal helix followed by a strongly bent five-stranded antiparallel beta sheet, and the D1D2 and D3B dimers superpose closely in their core regions, including the dimer interfaces. The crystal structures suggest that the seven Sm proteins could form a closed ring and the snRNAs may be bound in the positively charged central hole.  (+info)

Povidone, also known as PVP or polyvinylpyrrolidone, is not a medication itself but rather a pharmaceutical ingredient used in various medical and healthcare products. It is a water-soluble synthetic polymer that has the ability to bind to and carry other substances, such as drugs or iodine.

In medical applications, povidone is often used as a binder or coating agent in pharmaceutical tablets and capsules. It can also be found in some topical antiseptic solutions, such as those containing iodine, where it helps to stabilize and control the release of the active ingredient.

It's important to note that while povidone is a widely used pharmaceutical ingredient, it is not typically considered a medication on its own.

Substance P is an undecapeptide neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, belonging to the tachykinin family of peptides. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is primarily found in sensory neurons. Substance P plays a crucial role in pain transmission, inflammation, and various autonomic functions. It exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, which are expressed on the surface of target cells. Apart from nociception and inflammation, Substance P is also involved in regulating emotional behaviors, smooth muscle contraction, and fluid balance.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neuropeptide substance P, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including pain transmission, neuroinflammation, and emesis (vomiting).

NK-1 receptors are activated by substance P, which binds to the receptor's extracellular domain and triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various intracellular signaling pathways. This activation can ultimately result in the modulation of neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression.

In addition to their role in normal physiological processes, NK-1 receptors have also been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, including pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders. As such, NK-1 receptor antagonists have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Substance abuse treatment centers are healthcare facilities that provide a range of services for individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs), including addiction to alcohol, illicit drugs, prescription medications, and other substances. These centers offer comprehensive, evidence-based assessments, interventions, and treatments aimed at helping patients achieve and maintain sobriety, improve their overall health and well-being, and reintegrate into society as productive members.

The medical definition of 'Substance Abuse Treatment Centers' encompasses various levels and types of care, such as:

1. **Medical Detoxification:** This is the first step in treating substance abuse, where patients are closely monitored and managed for withdrawal symptoms as their bodies clear the harmful substances. Medical detox often involves the use of medications to alleviate discomfort and ensure safety during the process.
2. **Inpatient/Residential Treatment:** This level of care provides 24-hour structured, intensive treatment in a controlled environment. Patients live at the facility and receive various therapeutic interventions, such as individual therapy, group counseling, family therapy, and psychoeducation, to address the underlying causes of their addiction and develop coping strategies for long-term recovery.
3. **Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHP):** Also known as day treatment, PHPs offer structured, intensive care for several hours a day while allowing patients to return home or to a sober living environment during non-treatment hours. This level of care typically includes individual and group therapy, skill-building activities, and case management services.
4. **Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP):** IOPs provide flexible, less intensive treatment than PHPs, with patients attending sessions for a few hours per day, several days a week. These programs focus on relapse prevention, recovery skills, and addressing any co-occurring mental health conditions.
5. **Outpatient Treatment:** This is the least restrictive level of care, where patients attend individual or group therapy sessions on a regular basis while living at home or in a sober living environment. Outpatient treatment often serves as step-down care after completing higher levels of treatment or as an initial intervention for those with milder SUDs.
6. **Aftercare/Continuing Care:** Aftercare or continuing care services help patients maintain their recovery and prevent relapse by providing ongoing support, such as 12-step meetings, alumni groups, individual therapy, and case management.

Each treatment modality has its unique benefits and is tailored to meet the specific needs of individuals at various stages of addiction and recovery. It's essential to consult with a healthcare professional or an addiction specialist to determine the most appropriate level of care for each person's situation.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a class of medications that are commonly used to treat various cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage in people with diabetes).

ACE inhibitors work by blocking the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme that converts the hormone angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, meaning it narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure. By inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, ACE inhibitors cause blood vessels to relax and widen, which lowers blood pressure and reduces the workload on the heart.

Some examples of ACE inhibitors include captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril, and fosinopril. These medications are generally well-tolerated, but they can cause side effects such as cough, dizziness, headache, and elevated potassium levels in the blood. It is important for patients to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking ACE inhibitors and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

HIV Protease Inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral medications used in the treatment of HIV infection. They work by blocking the activity of the HIV protease enzyme, which is necessary for the virus to replicate and infect new cells. By inhibiting this enzyme, the medication prevents the virus from maturing and assembling into new infectious particles.

HIV protease inhibitors are often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. This approach has been shown to effectively suppress viral replication, reduce the amount of virus in the bloodstream (viral load), and improve the health and longevity of people living with HIV.

Examples of HIV protease inhibitors include saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, fosamprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, and tipranavir. These medications are usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules, and may be prescribed alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs.

It is important to note that HIV protease inhibitors can have significant side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, as well as metabolic changes such as increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Therefore, regular monitoring of liver function, lipid levels, and other health parameters is necessary to ensure safe and effective use of these medications.

Ritonavir is an antiretroviral medication used in the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. It is a protease inhibitor, which works by blocking the action of protease, an enzyme that the virus needs to multiply. By doing this, Ritonavir helps to reduce the amount of HIV in the body, keeping it at a low level and preventing the disease from progressing.

Ritonavir is often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is also sometimes used at lower doses to boost the levels of other protease inhibitors in the body, a practice known as "pharmacologic boosting."

It's important to note that Ritonavir does not cure HIV/AIDS, but it can help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. As with all medications, Ritonavir can have side effects, and it may interact with other drugs, so it's important to take it exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider.

Enzymes are complex proteins that act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions in the body. They help to lower activation energy required for reactions to occur, thereby enabling the reaction to happen faster and at lower temperatures. Enzymes work by binding to specific molecules, called substrates, and converting them into different molecules, called products. This process is known as catalysis.

Enzymes are highly specific and will only catalyze one particular reaction with a specific substrate. The shape of the enzyme's active site, where the substrate binds, determines this specificity. Enzymes can be regulated by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of inhibitors or activators. They play a crucial role in many biological processes, including digestion, metabolism, and DNA replication.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

... s are carbon-based macromolecular substances, that can be found in soil chemistry or as a by-product from saccharide-based ... Due to their very complex molecular structure, humic substances, including humin, do not correspond to pure substances but ... 2010-02-01). "Humin-like substances formed under the conditions of industrial hydrolysis of wood". Russian Journal of Applied ... Humins are not considered to be a dangerous substance according to officially recognized hazardous material classification ...
... conducted extensive research of the regularities of the dynamics of low-molecular weight additives in macromolecular substances ... Kovarski new methods for the research of magnetic nanoparticles aggregation in dispersions and macromolecular adsorption on ...
Such covalent substances are usually gases, for example, HCl, SO2, CO2, and CH4. In molecular structures, there are weak forces ... Macromolecular structures have large numbers of atoms linked by covalent bonds in chains, including synthetic polymers such as ... Such covalent substances are low-boiling-temperature liquids (such as ethanol), and low-melting-temperature solids (such as ... There are several types of structures for covalent substances, including individual molecules, molecular structures, ...
... macromolecular substances D06 - hormones, hormone substitutes, and hormone antagonists D07 - none (enzymes and coenzymes) D08 ...
The statutes of the GFP set out the following goals: the advancement and dissemination of studies on macromolecular substances ...
... s are a chemically diverse set of substances that range in size from organic small molecules to macromolecular ... These natural toxins include some of the most poisonous substances known. Artificial inhibitors are often used as drugs, but ... "Approaches to the description and prediction of the binding affinity of small-molecule ligands to macromolecular receptors". ...
The entire configuration is called a hapten-conjugated protein/macromolecular carrier. Adjuvants are substances with aluminum ... The immune system is then able to identify nicotine as a foreign substance and initiate an immune reaction targeting the drug. ... Scendoni R, Bury E, Ribeiro IL, Cameriere R, Cingolani M (November 2022). "Vaccines as a preventive tool for substance use ... Conjugated vaccines act as immune antagonists that hinder the efficacy of the target substances. The anti-drug antibodies do ...
... based on a highly specific macromolecular binding interaction between the biomolecule and another substance. The specific type ... Carbohydrate bonding is most often used with glycoproteins or any other carbohydrate-containing substance; carbohydrate is used ...
The Differentiation and Specificity of Corresponding Proteins and other Vital Substances in Relation to Biological ... It contained beta sheet (antiparallel) as well as helices, and was also the first macromolecular structure to have its atomic ... Richardson JS, Richardson DC (2014). "Biophysical highlights from 54 years of macromolecular crystallography". Biophysical ...
He also proposed the association theory which claimed that the substances such as cellulose or starch that we now know are ... It remained the most popular explanation until Hermann Staudinger's macromolecular theory of 1920s. Elected an Honorary Fellow ...
Macromolecular Symposia. 57 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1002/masy.19920570103. Brooks, Amy L.; Wang, Shunli; Jambeck, Jenna R. (June 2018 ... Victorin, K; Stahlberg, M; Ahlborg, U (June 1988). "Emission of mutagenic substances from waste incineration plants". Waste ... Schyns, Zoé O. G.; Shaver, Michael P. (February 2021). "Mechanical Recycling of Packaging Plastics: A Review". Macromolecular ... Schyns, Zoé O. G.; Shaver, Michael P. (February 2021). "Mechanical Recycling of Packaging Plastics: A Review". Macromolecular ...
In: Journal of Macromolecular Science: Part A - Chemistry. 16, 2006, p. 1463-1472, doi:10.1080/00222338108063248. Theodor Weyl ... the 26th time Council Directive 76/769/EEC relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances ... the 26th time Council Directive 76/769/EEC relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances ...
... unique small molecule chemical structures PubChem Substance: deposited chemical substance records Genome Project: genome ... three-dimensional macromolecular structures Taxonomy: organisms in GenBank Taxonomy dbSNP: single nucleotide polymorphism Gene ... bioactivity screens of chemical substances Probe: sequence-specific reagents NLM Catalog: NLM bibliographic data for over 1.2 ...
... for his fundamental works on the macromolecular conformation and the validation of macromolecular structures by means of the ' ... "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances." The substances included ... 233, 223 (1971) Meyer, E. F. Jr (1971). Interactive computer display for the three-dimensional study of macromolecular ... à plusieurs genres de substances cristallisées, Chez Gogué et Née de La Rochelle, Paris Haüy, R.J. (1795). Leçons de Physique, ...
2010). "Hydrophobic substances induce water stress in microbial cells". Microbial Biotechnology. 3 (6): 701-716. doi:10.1111/j. ... even though they partition into the hydrophobic domains of macromolecular systems. Hamaguchi & Geiduschek (1962). "The Effect ... According to the original usage and work carried out on cellular stress mechanisms and responses, chaotropic substances do not ... Furthermore, hydrophobic substances known to stress cellular systems (including benzene and toluene) can chaotropically ...
His work in macromolecular synthesis underlies the development of "smart" materials, which respond to external cues like ... Recognizing that most synthetic polymers are mixtures, rather than pure substances, he developed pioneering techniques for the ... Tirrell, David A. (2008). "Reinterpreting the Genetic Code: Implications for macromolecular design, evolution and analysis". In ...
"Unusual Names Assigned to Chemical Substances" presented at the 101-st National Meeting of the ACS on April 14, 1986, and ... as member of the Commission on Macromolecular Nomenclature (1987-1999). Metanomski participated in the IUPAC as secretary of ...
Extracellular polymeric substance Microneme Mucilage Nan, Beiyan (February 2017). "Bacterial gliding motility: Rolling out a ... Energized nano-machinery or large macromolecular assemblies located on the bacterium's cell body. "Focal adhesion complexes" ...
The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its ... This high concentration of macromolecules in cytosol causes an effect called macromolecular crowding, which is when the ... Hoppert M, Mayer F (1999). "Principles of macromolecular organization and cell function in bacteria and archaea". Cell Biochem ... The cytosol also contains large amounts of macromolecules, which can alter how molecules behave, through macromolecular ...
Sirius is used to understand the atomic structure of substances, which can help in the development of new drugs, new materials ... Its first experiments were made during COVID-19 pandemic at MANACÁ beamline, dedicated to macromolecular crystallography. ...
Examples of such substances are xanthan and guar gum. Destabilization can be accomplished by different methods: Removal of the ... Macromolecular crowding strongly enhances colloidal phase separation and formation of biomolecular condensates. Colloidal ... If this is the case, then the colloidal particles will repel or only weakly attract each other, and the substance will remain a ... S2CID 186208563.. Page 183: "As gelatine appears to be its type, it is proposed to designate substances of the class as ...
Molecular and Cellular Biotechnology Chemistry and Technology of biologically active substances Technology of drugs Technology ... of organometallic compounds Chemical technology of natural energy and carbon materials Chemical Technology of Macromolecular ... and biological synthesis of various types of lipids and their complexes with a variety of biologically active substances, the ...
Linus Pauling and J. H. Sturdivant (1937): "The Structure of Cyameluric Acid, Hydromelonic Acid and Related Substances". ... Tamikuni Komatsu (2001): "The First Synthesis and Characterization of Cyameluric High Polymers". Macromolecular Chemistry and ...
Alternatively, the fibers, along with other extracted substances, can be processed chemically or digested to produce ethanol ... Characterization and properties". Die Angewandte makromolekulare Chemie: Applied macromolecular chemistry and physics. Hüthig ... and other useful substances. Maurizio Avella; Claudio Bozzi; Ramiro dell'Erba; Bonaventura Focher; Annamaria Marzetti; Ezio ...
Macromolecular components of respiratory secretions (proteins, glycoproteins, lipids, nucleic acids) are converted to nutrients ... Secondly, they are able to produce antibacterial substances called bacteriocins which inhibit the growth of pathogens. Genera ...
The membrane is semi-permeable, and selectively permeable, in that it can either let a substance (molecule or ion) pass through ... Embedded within this membrane is a macromolecular structure called the porosome the universal secretory portal in cells and a ...
Just which of the multitudinous substances present in a nucleus will constitute a part of the extracted material partly depends ... The term, introduced by Walther Flemming, has multiple meanings: Simple and concise definition: Chromatin is a macromolecular ...
The main components of the cytoplasm are cytosol (a gel-like substance), the organelles (the cell's internal sub-structures), ... an effect called macromolecular crowding occurs and the cytosol does not act as an ideal solution. This crowding effect alters ... The inclusions are small particles of insoluble substances suspended in the cytosol. A huge range of inclusions exist in ... The submicroscopic ground cell substance or cytoplasmic matrix which remains after exclusion of the cell organelles and ...
... and other functional substances. Currently, some preliminary progress has been made with the investigation of the therapeutic ... Macromolecular Bioscience. 7 (4): 401-409. doi:10.1002/mabi.200600255. PMID 17429812. "Smoking Scorpions For a New High". Wired ...
Macromolecular structure and function is dependent on the net effect of these forces (see protein folding), therefore it ... Antichaotropic salts such as ammonium sulphate can be used to precipitate substances from the impure mixture. This is used in ... A chaotropic agent is a substance which disrupts the structure of, and denatures, macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic ... "Hydrophobic substances induce water stress in microbial cells". Microbial Biotechnology. 3 (6): 701-716. doi:10.1111/j.1751- ...
title = "Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils",. abstract = "Humic substances (HSs) are the ... Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils. Satish Chandra Babu Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. ... Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils. / Myneni, Satish Chandra Babu; Brown, J. T.; Martinez ... Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils. In: Science. 1999 ; Vol. 286, No. 5443. pp. 1335-1337. ...
Substances * Enzyme Inhibitors * Macromolecular Substances * Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel * Cyclic AMP-Dependent ...
Macromolecular Substances * Carbon * Deuterium * Deuterium Oxide Grants and funding * R35 GM122522/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United ... and DNA-specific Raman shifts and develop spectral unmixing methods to obtain C-D signals with macromolecular selectivity. DO- ...
Macromolecular Substances [D05]. *Polymers [D05.750]. *Siloxanes [D05.750.900]. *Silicones [D05.750.900.850]. *Silicone ...
Capsid Proteins; Crystallization; Gold; Macromolecular Substances; Materials Testing; Metal Nanoparticles; Molecular ...
Humins are carbon-based macromolecular substances, that can be found in soil chemistry or as a by-product from saccharide-based ... Due to their very complex molecular structure, humic substances, including humin, do not correspond to pure substances but ... 2010-02-01). "Humin-like substances formed under the conditions of industrial hydrolysis of wood". Russian Journal of Applied ... Humins are not considered to be a dangerous substance according to officially recognized hazardous material classification ...
... humic substances in soils. Instead, soil organic matter is a continuum of progressively decomposing organic compounds. We ... chemically unique substances, but as a continuum of progressively decomposing organic compounds. ... humic substances, as has been widely accepted, soil organic matter is a mixture of progressively decomposing organic compounds ... Myneni, S. C. B., Brown, J. T., Martinez, G. A. & Meyer-Ilsel, W. Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water ...
C08K-Use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients ... C08K-Use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients ... C08L-COMPOSITIONS OF MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS * C08L27/00-Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or ... C08-ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON ...
Macromolecular Substances [D05]. *Polymers [D05.750]. *Biopolymers [D05.750.078]. *Biomedical and Dental Materials [D25] ... They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological ...
... or solid macromolecular substances in any form, classified according to the dyes, pigments, or auxiliary substances employed ... or solid macromolecular substances in any form, classified according to the dyes, pigments, or auxiliary substances employed ... or solid macromolecular substances in any form, classified according to the dyes, pigments, or auxiliary substances employed ... or solid macromolecular substances in any form, classified according to the dyes, pigments, or auxiliary substances employed ...
... and macromolecular hydrophilic substances accounted for the most (Figure 7a). Macromolecular hydrophilic substances were the ... The increased precursors at the AAO unit could be explained by macromolecular degradable substances that were degraded to small ... The increased precursors at the biodegradation unit could be explained by macromolecular degradable substances that were ... mainly lysine and tryptophan substances. It means that MBR can remove protein-like substances effectively; this was consistent ...
... associate professor in the field of Technology of Macromolecular Substances. His pedagogical and research activities are ...
Background Humic substances (HS) are compounds with a complicated structure, present in the humus soil layer, water, lake ... Macromolecular material (humic substance) in the water column and sediments.. Marine Chemistry 39(1-3):151-166 ... Humic substances (HS) are one of the most important soil components (Weber et al., 2018). As polymer substances with complex ... The effects of humic substances on DNA isolation from soils. Ewa Wnuk1, Adam Waśko2, Anna Walkiewicz​1, Piotr Bartmiński3, ...
... forming a selective filtration barrier for proteins and other macromolecular substances. The nephrin expression of podocytes is ...
Macromolecular Substances (MeSH) * Models, Chemical (MeSH) * Polymers (Science Metrix) * Polyvinyls (MeSH) * Stress, Mechanical ...
McKee, P. A., M. L. Schwartz, S. V. Pizzo, and R. L. Hill. "Cross-linking of fibrin by fibrin=stabilizing factor." Ann N Y Acad Sci 202 (December 8, 1972): 127-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1972.tb16326.x ...
Macromolecular Substances [D05]. *Polymers [D05.750]. *Plastics [D05.750.716]. *Resins, Synthetic [D05.750.716.822] ...
Macromolecular Substances [D05] Macromolecular Substances * Polymers [D05.750] Polymers * Biopolymers [D05.750.078] Biopolymers ...
Activation of guanyl nucleotide regulatory proteins (G proteins) by hormones and neurotransmitters appears to require the formation of high affinity agonist-receptor-G protein ternary complexes. In the case of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor, multiple regions of the molecule have been implicated in coupling to the stimulatory G protein Gs. This finding raises the possibility that discrete regions of the receptor mediate ternary complex formation, whereas different loci may be involved in other aspects of G protein activation. To date, however, mutagenesis studies with the beta 2-adrenergic receptor have not clarified this question since mutant receptors with impaired abilities to activate Gs have generally possessed a diminished capacity to form the ternary complex as assessed in binding assays. We have expressed in a mammalian cell line a mutant beta 2-adrenergic receptor comprising a seven-amino acid deletion in the carboxyl-terminal region of its third cytoplasmic loop (D267-273), a region ...
Macromolecular Substances; Molecular Structure; Molecular Weight; Seaweed; Structure-Activity Relationship; Thrombin Time; Vero ... Anticoagulants; Antiviral Agents; Carrageenan, 9000-07-1; Macromolecular Substances. Registro:. https://bibliotecadigital. ...
Enzyme inhibitors are a chemically diverse set of substances that range in size from organic small molecules to macromolecular ... These natural toxins include some of the most poisonous substances known.[73] Artificial inhibitors are often used as drugs, ... "Approaches to the description and prediction of the binding affinity of small-molecule ligands to macromolecular receptors". ...
Macromolecular Systems. Macromolecular Substances. D24 - IMMUNOLOGIC AND BIOLOGICAL FACTORS. Luciferins. Firefly Luciferin. ...
In 2005 the D05 subcategory was recreated by MeSH but with other content: Macromolecular Substances. ...
Macromolecular Systems. Macromolecular Substances. D24 - IMMUNOLOGIC AND BIOLOGICAL FACTORS. Luciferins. Firefly Luciferin. ...
In 2005 the D05 subcategory was recreated by MeSH but with other content: Macromolecular Substances. ...
Macromolecular Systems. Macromolecular Substances. D24 - IMMUNOLOGIC AND BIOLOGICAL FACTORS. Luciferins. Firefly Luciferin. ...
In 2005 the D05 subcategory was recreated by MeSH but with other content: Macromolecular Substances. ...
Macromolecular Systems. Macromolecular Substances. D24 - IMMUNOLOGIC AND BIOLOGICAL FACTORS. Luciferins. Firefly Luciferin. ...
In 2005 the D05 subcategory was recreated by MeSH but with other content: Macromolecular Substances.. ...
  • Ultrafiltration membrane mainly removes bacteria, colloids, suspended solids, proteins and other macromolecular substances in water quality, and does not make any changes to trace elements in water quality. (wemacequipment.com)
  • Solvents and small molecular substances pass, and macromolecular substances and fine particles such as proteins, water-soluble polymers, bacteria, etc. are retained by the filter membrane to achieve separation, classification, purification, and concentration. (zhwywater.com)
  • Conjugates of anticancer agents and polymers: advantages of macromolecular therapeutics in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The in vitro assay system is composed of two components, a synthetic macromolecular biobarrier and a Chemical Detection System (CDS). (nih.gov)
  • Due to their very complex molecular structure, humic substances, including humin, do not correspond to pure substances but consist of a mixture of many compounds that remain very difficult to characterize even using modern analytical techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several ecologically relevant aspects of soil organic matter (SOM), like the sorption of organic compounds and the water uptake kinetics, can only be explained in terms of the macromolecular structure of the humic substances. (tu-berlin.de)
  • In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure. (nih.gov)
  • In this work, we present an approach for 3D single particle analysis in localization microscopy which hugely increases signal-to-noise ratio and resolution and enables determining the symmetry groups of macromolecular complexes. (tudelft.nl)
  • this term includes gene products that are parts of macromolecular complexes\, by the definition that all members of a complex normally copurify under all except extreme conditions. (bionity.com)
  • 1 Dynamics of Macromolecular Assembly Section, Laboratory of Cellular Imaging and Macromolecular Biophysics, National Institutes of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. (nih.gov)
  • 1. The ultrafiltration process is carried out at room temperature with mild conditions and no component damage, so it is particularly suitable for the separation, classification, concentration and enrichment of heat-sensitive substances, such as drugs, enzymes, fruit juices, etc. (zhwywater.com)
  • The retained substances can be removed with the concentrate without clogging the membrane surface, and it can run continuously for a long time. (wemacequipment.com)
  • This symposium will describe the current state of research on the structural analysis of large macromolecular assemblies and the most important challenges that must be met to take our understanding to the next level. (nih.gov)
  • It is particularly suitable for the separation of heat-sensitive substances. (wemacequipment.com)
  • Polymeric nanoparticles are solid, colloidal particles consisting of macromolecular substances that vary in size from 10 to 1000 nm. (medscape.com)
  • The filtration accuracy is within the range of 0.005-0.01μm, which can effectively remove particles, colloids, bacteria, heat sources and polymer organic substances in water. (wemacequipment.com)
  • In this paper, we discuss several methods of structure refinement that promise to increase the accuracy of macromolecular structures determined by NMR. (nih.gov)
  • Organic matter Soil organic matter Humus Humic substance Rice, James A. "Humin" Soil Science 2001, vol. 166(11), pp. 848-857. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humins are not considered to be a dangerous substance according to officially recognized hazardous material classification systems based on physical-chemical properties such as flammability, explosiveness, susceptibility to oxidation, corrosiveness or eco-toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be widely used in the separation, concentration and purification of substances. (wemacequipment.com)
  • Corrositex® is a validated and accepted (1)(2)(3)(4) in vitro test method that assesses if a substance can produce skin corrosion. (nih.gov)
  • Test substances are applied to the upper surface of the macromolecular biobarrier. (nih.gov)
  • Corrosive substances are able to disrupt the integrity of the biobarrier, leading to the penetration of the test substance through the biobarrier into the CDS located beneath (6)(8). (nih.gov)
  • The presence of the test substance in the CDS results in a color change that is detected visually. (nih.gov)
  • the more corrosive a test substance, the shorter the time required to affect a color change. (nih.gov)
  • Prior to performing Corrositex®, a test substance is evaluated as to its compatibility with the CDS. (nih.gov)
  • A sample of the test substance is placed in a small amount of CDS fluid. (nih.gov)
  • Corrositex® (i.e., the test substance qualifies). (nih.gov)
  • If the test substance does not cause a color change, it must be tested by another method. (nih.gov)
  • Qualified test substances are classified into one of four categories by a screening test that is supplied with the assay kit. (nih.gov)
  • The category that a test substance is assigned to will determine how the breakthrough time (if one occurs) will be interpreted. (nih.gov)
  • A test substance is assigned to a category based on its ability to induce a pH change in one of two defined buffers. (nih.gov)
  • In Corrositex®, a test substance is assigned to an UN transportation Packing Group by considering the pH category that is assigned based on the result obtained in the screening test and by the time it takes for the test substance to penetrate the biobarrier. (nih.gov)
  • Category A1 and B1 test substances are assigned to Group I if, after application to the biobarrier, a color change is observed between zero and three minutes, to Group II if a color change is observed after three minutes and up to one hour, and to Group III if a color change is observed after one hour and up to four hours. (nih.gov)
  • Policy Research - Research to examine the role of policy in preventing substance use initiation, and to directly test the implementation of policies in order to determine their impact on substance use. (nih.gov)
  • Social Determinants of Health - Research to test interventions addressing social factors that play a role in substance use initiation. (nih.gov)
  • It is known that the conformation of the macromolecular SOM network is distinctly affected by the water status in soil. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Humins are carbon-based macromolecular substances, that can be found in soil chemistry or as a by-product from saccharide-based biorefinery processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One critical area is large macromolecular assemblies, which accomplish many of the core functions of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • Category A1 substances produce a large change in pH when they are added to the acid buffer. (nih.gov)
  • Corrosive substances may be placed into one hazard class for most authorities, or into three different classes of corrosivity for transportation hazard classification. (nih.gov)
  • Packing Groups are assigned according to the degree of danger presented by the corrosive substance. (nih.gov)
  • Translational Research - Research to generate findings that can be actionable in translation of epidemiologic research into interventions to prevent substance use and addiction. (nih.gov)