A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE, infecting vertebrates and vectored by ticks. It has not been associated with human disease though antibodies have been isolated from human sera.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Loss of expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 is associated with GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE IIB.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (1/577)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Altered trafficking of lysosomal proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome due to mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor. (2/577)

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Here, we report the identification of two HPS patients with mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-3 complex. The patients' fibroblasts exhibit drastically reduced levels of AP-3 due to enhanced degradation of mutant beta 3A. The AP-3 deficiency results in increased surface expression of the lysosomal membrane proteins CD63, lamp-1, and lamp-2, but not of nonlysosomal proteins. These differential effects are consistent with the preferential interaction of the AP-3 mu 3A subunit with tyrosine-based signals involved in lysosomal targeting. Our results suggest that AP-3 functions in protein sorting to lysosomes and provide an example of a human disease in which altered trafficking of integral membrane proteins is due to mutations in a component of the sorting machinery.  (+info)

The Niemann-Pick C1 protein resides in a vesicular compartment linked to retrograde transport of multiple lysosomal cargo. (3/577)

Niemann-Pick C disease (NP-C) is a neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorder. A variety of studies have highlighted defective sterol trafficking from lysosomes in NP-C cells. However, the heterogeneous nature of additional accumulating metabolites suggests that the cellular lesion may involve a more generalized block in retrograde lysosomal trafficking. Immunocytochemical studies in fibroblasts reveal that the NPC1 gene product resides in a novel set of lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP2)(+)/mannose 6-phosphate receptor(-) vesicles that can be distinguished from cholesterol-enriched LAMP2(+) lysosomes. Drugs that block sterol transport out of lysosomes also redistribute NPC1 to cholesterol-laden lysosomes. Sterol relocation from lysosomes in cultured human fibroblasts can be blocked at 21 degrees C, consistent with vesicle-mediated transfer. These findings suggest that NPC1(+) vesicles may transiently interact with lysosomes to facilitate sterol relocation. Independent of defective sterol trafficking, NP-C fibroblasts are also deficient in vesicle-mediated clearance of endocytosed [14C]sucrose. Compartmental modeling of the observed [14C]sucrose clearance data targets the trafficking defect caused by mutations in NPC1 to an endocytic compartment proximal to lysosomes. Low density lipoprotein uptake by normal cells retards retrograde transport of [14C]sucrose through this same kinetic compartment, further suggesting that it may contain the sterol-sensing NPC1 protein. We conclude that a distinctive organelle containing NPC1 mediates retrograde lysosomal transport of endocytosed cargo that is not restricted to sterol.  (+info)

Phagosomes are fully competent antigen-processing organelles that mediate the formation of peptide:class II MHC complexes. (4/577)

During the processing of particulate Ags, it is unclear whether peptide:class II MHC (MHC-II) complexes are formed within phagosomes or within endocytic compartments that receive Ag fragments from phagosomes. Murine macrophages were pulsed with latex beads conjugated with OVA. Flow or Western blot analysis of isolated phagosomes showed extensive acquisition of MHC-II, H-2M, and invariant chain within 30 min, with concurrent degradation of OVA. T hybridoma responses to isolated subcellular fractions demonstrated OVA (323-339):I-Ad complexes in phagosomes and plasma membrane but not within dense late endocytic compartments. Furthermore, when two physically separable sets of phagosomes were present within the same cells, OVA(323-339):I-Ad complexes were demonstrated in latex-OVA phagosomes but not in phagosomes containing latex beads conjugated with another protein. This implies that these complexes were formed specifically within phagosomes and were not formed elsewhere and subsequently transported to phagosomes. In addition, peptide:MHC-II complexes were shown to traffic from phagosomes to the cell surface. In conclusion, phagosomes are fully competent to process Ags and generate peptide:MHC-II complexes that are transported to the cell surface and presented to T cells.  (+info)

Neural cell surface differentiation antigen gp130(RB13-6) induces fibroblasts and glioma cells to express astroglial proteins and invasive properties. (5/577)

Transient expression of the differentiation and tumor cell surface antigen gp130(RB13-6) characterizes a subset of rat glial progenitor cells susceptible to ethylnitrosourea-induced neurooncogenesis. gp130(RB13-6) is as a member of an emerging protein family of ecto-phosphodiesterases/nucleotide pyrophosphatases that includes PC-1 and the tumor cell motility factor autotaxin. We have investigated the potential role of gp130(RB13-6) in glial differentiation by transfection of three cell lines of different origin that do not express endogenous gp130(RB13-6) (NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts; C6 and BT7Ca rat glioma cells) with the cDNA encoding gp130(RB13-6). The effect of gp130(RB13-6) expression was analyzed in terms of overall cell morphology, the expression of glial cell-specific marker proteins, and invasiveness. Transfectant sublines, consisting of 100% gp130(RB13-6)-positive cells, exhibited an altered, bipolar morphology. Fascicular aggregates of fibroblastoid cells subsequently developed into mesh-like patterns. Contrary to the parental NIH-3T3 and BT7Ca cells, the transfectant cells invaded into collagen type I. As shown by immunofluorescence staining of the transfectant sublines as well as of primary cultures composed of gp130(RB13-6)-positive and -negative cells, expression of gp130(RB13-6) induced coexpression of proteins typical for glial cells and their precursors, i.e., glial fibrillary acidic protein, the low affinity nerve growth factor receptor, and the neural proteins Thy-1, Ran-2, and S-100. In accordance with its expression in the immature rat nervous system, gp130(RB13-6) may thus have a significant role in the glial differentiation program and its subversion in neurooncogenesis.  (+info)

Soluble interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor with IL-6 stimulates megakaryopoiesis from human CD34(+) cells through glycoprotein (gp)130 signaling. (6/577)

We have recently shown that stimulation of glycoprotein (gp) 130, the membrane-anchored signal transducing receptor component of IL-6, by a complex of human soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and IL-6 (sIL-6R/IL-6), potently stimulates the ex vivo expansion as well as erythropoiesis of human stem/progenitor cells in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF). Here we show that sIL-6R dose-dependently enhanced the generation of megakaryocytes (Mks) (IIbIIIa-positive cells) from human CD34(+) cells in serum-free suspension culture supplemented with IL-6 and SCF. The sIL-6R/IL-6 complex also synergistically acted with IL-3 and thrombopoietin (TPO) on the generation of Mks from CD34(+) cells, whereas the synergy of IL-6 alone with TPO was barely detectable. Accordingly, the addition of sIL-6R to the combination of SCF + IL-6 also supported a substantial number of Mk colonies from CD34(+) cells in serum-free methylcellulose culture, whereas SCF + IL-6 in the absence of sIL-6R rarely induced Mk colonies. The addition of monoclonal antibodies against gp130 to the suspension and clonal cultures completely abrogated the megakaryopoiesis induced by sIL-6R/IL-6 in the presence of SCF, whereas an anti-TPO antibody did not, indicating that the observed megakaryopoiesis by sIL-6R/IL-6 is a response to gp130 signaling and independent of TPO. Furthermore, human CD34(+) cells were subfractionated into two populations of IL-6R-negative (CD34(+) IL-6R-) and IL-6R-positive (CD34(+) IL-6R+) cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The CD34(+) IL-6R- cells produced a number of Mks as well as Mk colonies in cultures supplemented with sIL-6R/IL-6 or TPO in the presence of SCF. In contrast, CD34(+) IL-6R+ cells generated much less Mks and lacked Mk colony forming activity under the same conditions. Collectively, the present results indicate that most of the human Mk progenitors do not express IL-6R, and that sIL-6R confers the responsiveness of human Mk progenitors to IL-6. Together with the presence of functional sIL-6R in human serum and relative unresponsiveness of human Mk progenitors to IL-6 in vitro, current results suggest that the role of IL-6 may be mainly mediated by sIL-6R, and that the gp130 signaling initiated by the sIL-6R/ IL-6 complex is involved in human megakaryopoiesis in vivo.  (+info)

Normal lysosomal morphology and function in LAMP-1-deficient mice. (7/577)

Lysosomal membranes contain two highly glycosylated proteins, designated LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, as major components. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are structurally related. To investigate the physiological role of LAMP-1, we have generated mice deficient for this protein. LAMP-1-deficient mice are viable and fertile. In LAMP-1-deficient brain, a mild regional astrogliosis and altered immunoreactivity against cathepsin-D was observed. Histological and ultrastructural analyses of all other tissues did not reveal abnormalities. Lysosomal properties, such as enzyme activities, lysosomal pH, osmotic stability, density, shape, and subcellular distribution were not changed in comparison with controls. Western blot analyses of LAMP-1-deficient and heterozygote tissues revealed an up-regulation of the LAMP-2 protein pointing to a compensatory effect of LAMP-2 in response to the LAMP-1 deficiency. The increase of LAMP-2 was neither correlated with an increase in the level of lamp-2 mRNAs nor with increased half-life time of LAMP-2. This findings suggest a translational regulation of LAMP-2 expression.  (+info)

The secretory route of the leaderless protein interleukin 1beta involves exocytosis of endolysosome-related vesicles. (8/577)

Interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), a secretory protein lacking a signal peptide, does not follow the classical endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi pathway of secretion. Here we provide the evidence for a "leaderless" secretory route that uses regulated exocytosis of preterminal endocytic vesicles to transport cytosolic IL-1beta out of the cell. Indeed, although most of the IL-1beta precursor (proIL-1beta) localizes in the cytosol of activated human monocytes, a fraction is contained within vesicles that cofractionate with late endosomes and early lysosomes on Percoll density gradients and display ultrastructural features and markers typical of these organelles. The observation of organelles positive for both IL-1beta and the endolysosomal hydrolase cathepsin D or for both IL-1beta and the lysosomal marker Lamp-1 further suggests that they belong to the preterminal endocytic compartment. In addition, similarly to lysosomal hydrolases, secretion of IL-1beta is induced by acidotropic drugs. Treatment of monocytes with the sulfonylurea glibenclamide inhibits both IL-1beta secretion and vesicular accumulation, suggesting that this drug prevents the translocation of proIL-1beta from the cytosol into the vesicles. A high concentration of extracellular ATP and hypotonic medium increase secretion of IL-1beta but deplete the vesicular proIL-1beta content, indicating that exocytosis of proIL-1beta-containing vesicles is regulated by ATP and osmotic conditions.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential expression of the lysosome-associated membrane proteins in normal human tissues. AU - Furuta, Koh. AU - Yang, Xiao Ling. AU - Chen, Juei Suei. AU - Hamilton, Stanley R.. AU - August, J. Thomas. PY - 1999/5/1. Y1 - 1999/5/1. N2 - The lysosome-associated membrane proteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 have closely related structures, with 37% sequence homology, and are major constituents of the lysosomal membrane. Their roles are unknown, but they are thought to be structural or functional components of the lysosomal membrane. Recent reports suggest that despite their similar structure and common localization, LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 may have different functions. In our further study of these two molecules, the presence of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 in a variety of human tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and their localization was compared to that of cathepsin D, a lysosomal hydrolase, the tissue content of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 and their respective mRNAs were also analyzed by Northern ...
The expression and clinical significance of murine double minute 2, lysosome-associated membrane protein 1, and P-glycoprotein in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Two murine lysosome-associated membrane proteins, LAMP-1 of 105,000-115,000 D and LAMP-2 of 100,000-110,000 D, have been identified by monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to lysosomal membranes. Both glycoproteins were distinguished as integral membrane components solubilized by detergent solutions but not by various chaotropic agents. The lysosome localization was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining, co-localization of the antigen to sites of acridine orange uptake, and immunoelectron microscopy. Antibody binding was predominantly located at the limiting lysosomal membrane, distinctly separated from colloidal gold-labeled alpha-2-macroglobulin accumulated in the lumen during prolonged incubation. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 also appeared to be present in low concentrations on Golgi trans-elements but were not detected in receptosomes marked by the presence of newly endocytosed alpha-2-macroglobulin, or in other cellular structures. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 were distinguished as ...
The cDNA sequence of mouse LAMP 2: evidence for two classes of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
subject:1450510 title:Assignment of O-Glycan Attachment Sites to the Hinge-like Regions of Human Lysosomal Membrane Glycoproteins Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 author:Carlsson، نويسنده , , S.R. and Lycksell، نويسنده , , P.O. and Fukuda، نويسنده , , M.، نويسنده ,
Lysosomes and lysosomal enzymes play a central part in numerous cellular processes, including cellular nourishment, recycling, signaling, defense, and cell death. demonstrated by electron microscopy, with Rabbit polyclonal to STAT6.STAT6 transcription factor of the STAT family.Plays a central role in IL4-mediated biological responses.Induces the expression of BCL2L1/BCL-X(L), which is responsible for the anti-apoptotic activity of IL4. an electron dense appearance and membranous whorls [1, 7, 8]. Lysosomes consist of a phospholipid bilayer membrane enclosing a lumen wherein the pH is definitely managed at 4.5C5.0 to facilitate the action of acid hydrolases (Number 1A) [9, 10]. In addition, the lysosomal membranes consist of integral proteins that are greatly glycosylated to prevent their personal degradation by the hydrolytic enzymes in the lumen. The major proteins, lysosome-associated membrane proteins LAMP-1, LAMP-2, LAMP-3 or tetraspanin CD63, and lysosome integral membrane protein LIMP-2, ...
On the cover: In mice deficient for the major lysosomal membrane protein LAMP-2 severe periodontitis develops early in life. Isolated neutrophils from these animals show an accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and a reduced bacterial killing capacity, which underlines the importance of LAMP-2 for maturation of phagosomes and anti-microbial activity in neutrophils needed to prevent periodontal disease. Beertsen, W., M. Willenborg, V. Everts, A. Zirogianni, R. Podschun, B. Schröder, E.-L. Eskelinen, and P. Saftig. 2008. Impaired phagosomal maturation in neutrophils leads to periodontitis in lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 knockout mice. J. Immunol. 180: 475-482. ...
Craige B, Salazar G, Faundez V. Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha contains an AP-3-sorting motif and a kinase domain that are both required for endosome traffic. Mol Biol Cell. 2008 Apr; 19(4):1415-26 ...
CD107a (lysosome-associated membrane protein-1, LAMP-1), together with LAMP-2, is a major constituent of lysosomal membrane, 1-2% of total CD107a is found also on the plasma membrane. The LAMP proteins are involved in lysosome biogenesis and are required for fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes. Increased CD107a immunoreactivity is observed in neurones, and in glial cells surrounding senile plaques in Alzheimers disease cases and is localized mainly in medullary epithelial cells, single macrophages and lymphocytes in acute thymic involution. CD107a is a good marker of mast cell activation ...
Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of ...
APC anti-human CD107a (LAMP-1) Antibody - CD107a, also known as Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP-1) or LGP-120, is a 110-140 kD type I membrane glycoprotein.
FITC anti-human CD107a (LAMP-1) Antibody - CD107a, also known as Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP-1) or LGP-120, is a 110-140 kD type I membrane glycoprotein.
Clone REA777 recognizes the mouse CD107a antigen, a 110-140 kDa type I membrane protein which is heavily glycosylated from a 40 kDa core protein. CD107a, also known as lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1), is a ligand for galaptin, an S-type lectin, and is located on lysosomal membrans that can be used to distinguish lysosomes from other organelles. It is expressed on epithelial cells, macrophages, as well as on cells of different organs in mice.Additional information: Clone REA777 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Ireland
RPB441Hu01, Recombinant Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP1), Homo sapiens (Human), Recombinant protein, CD107-A, CD107a, LAMPA, LGP120, Lysosome-associated membrane protein 1, CD107 antigen-like family member A, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp.
Studying the biophysical characteristics of glycosylated proteins and solving their three-dimensional structures requires homogeneous recombinant protein of high quality.We introduce here a new approach to produce glycoproteins in homogenous form with the well-established, glycosylation mutant CHO Lec3.2.8.1 cells. Using preparative cell sorting, stable, high-expressing GFP master cell lines were generated that can be converted fast and reliably by targeted integration via Flp recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) to produce any glycoprotein. Small-scale transient transfection of HEK293 cells was used to identify genetically engineered constructs suitable for constructing stable cell lines. Stable cell lines expressing 10 different proteins were established. The system was validated by expression, purification, deglycosylation and crystallization of the heavily glycosylated luminal domains of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP).
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2; Plays an important role in chaperone-mediated autophagy, a process that mediates lysosomal degradation of proteins in response to various stresses and as part of the normal turnover of proteins with a long biological half-live. Functions by binding target proteins, such as GAPDH and MLLT11, and targeting them for lysosomal degradation. Plays a role in lysosomal protein degradation in response to starvation (By similarity). Required for the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes during autophagy. Cells that lack LAMP2 express normal levels o ...
Niemann-Picks disease type C1 is a rare, inheritable and currently untreatable lysosomal storage disease. The main characteristic of this disease is accumulation of cholesterol in the endo-lysosomal system. The cause of the disease is a mutation in the NPC1 protein, which is necessary for egress of cholesterol from lysosomes. The disease is severe and progressive and includes neurological symptoms such as ataxia, dysphagia and dementia. In most cases, (hepato)splenomegaly is also present. Besides, Niemann-Picks disease type C is simmilar to Alzheimers disease. Neurofibrillary tangles and amyloidogenic processing of APP are present in both of these conditions. An effort was made to see this disease in a new light by investigating the N-glycans of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. CHO-NPC1 -/- cell culture was used for this purpose, as well as CHOwt cells as a control group. In order to isolate the lysosomal membrane glycoproteins, magnetic chromatography and Triton x-114 mediated phase ...
Cell Biology (see also Plant sciences) ; Immunology ; T-lymphocytes ; Cytotoxic ; AP3B1 Protein ; human ; Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome ; Lysosomes ; Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins
Quantity100 testsVolume1ImmunogenHuman Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) T cellsBackground InformationCD63 (LAMP-3; lysosome-associated membrane pro...
Тут расположен текст песни (слова песни) Limp Bizkit feat. Method Man - N 2 Gether Now, перевод и видео (клип).
Alright guys, how are yall doing? Im guessing this goes here since its recovery/rehab related. So post cycle I got limp dk, over the course of 1-1.5
1. сущ.. 1) лампа; фонарь; светильник to light a lamp, to turn on a lamp ≈ включать лампу to plug in a lamp ≈ включать лампу в розетку to turn off a.
High-quality LAMP1 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of LAMP1 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
LAMP2b兔多克隆抗体(ab118959)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Shop Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Danon disease is caused by mutations in the LAMP2 gene, which contains instructions for the production of an enzyme called lysosomal associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2). This enzyme is thought to assist with the transportation of cellular material into the lysosomes of the cell, where the materials are normally broken down and recycled. Mutations in the LAMP2 gene impair this process, leading to an abnormal accumulation of material that eventually inhibits function and leads to Danon disease.. Every human cell contains two sex chromosomes. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome in each of their cells. Females have two X chromosomes. Danon disease is a genetic condition located on the X chromosome. A mutated gene on the lone X chromosome in males is sufficient to cause a severe form of Danon disease. Because girls have two X chromosomes and a non-mutated gene on the additional X chromosome may reduce the severity of the disease, Danon disease is often less severe in girls.. ...
casSAR Dugability of Q9D387 | Lamp5 | Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 5 - Also known as LAMP5_MOUSE, Lamp5. Plays a role in short-term synaptic plasticity in a subset of GABAergic neurons in the brain.
Danon disease is a rare, severe X-linked form of cardiomyopathy caused by deficiency of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2). Other clinical manifestations include skeletal myopathy, cognitive defects and visual problems. Although individuals with Danon disease have been clinically described since the early 1980s, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in pathological progression remain poorly understood. LAMP-2 is known to be involved in autophagy, and a characteristic accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in the affected tissues further supports the idea that autophagy is disrupted in this disease. The LAMP2 gene is alternatively spliced to form three splice isoforms, which are thought to play different autophagy-related cellular roles. This Commentary explores findings from genetic, histological, functional and tissue expression studies that suggest that the specific loss of the LAMP-2B isoform, which is likely to be involved in macroautophagy, plays a crucial role in causing ...
Lysosomes are the primary catabolic compartment for the degradation of intracellular proteins through autophagy. The presence of abnormal intracellular alpha-synuclein-positive aggregates in Parkinsons disease (PD) indicates that the degradative capacity of lysosomes is impaired in PD. Specific dysfunction of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in PD is suggested by reductions in the CMA membrane receptor, lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 2A, although whether LAMP2A is the only LAMP2 isoform affected by PD is unknown. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of all three LAMP2 isoforms was assessed in brain extracts from regions with and without PD-related increases in alpha-synuclein in autopsy samples from subjects in the early pathological stage of PD (n = 9), compared to age- and postmortem delay-matched controls (n = 10). In the early stages of PD, mRNA expression of all LAMP2 isoforms was not different from controls, with LAMP2B and LAMP2C protein levels also unchanged in PD. The
Glycogen is the stored form of glucose and serves as a buffer for glucose needs. It is composed of long polymers of a 1-4 linked glucose, interrupted by a 1-6 linked branch point every 4 to 10 residues. Glycogen is formed in periods of dietary carboh
Background- Danon disease is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by the clinical triad of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and variable mental retardation. Pathologically, autophagic vacuoles are noted in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. It exhibits an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance, and male carriers are severely affected, whereas female carriers develop milder and later-onset cardiac symptoms. Danon disease has been associated with mutations in the lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (LAMP2) gene located at Xq24, typically resulting in splicing defects or protein truncation affecting the LAMP2. Because of its rarity, the full spectrum of genetic mutation resulting in Danon disease has not been elucidated.. Methods and Results- We analyzed 3 male cases with clinical and pathological findings consistent with Danon disease. Comprehensive mutational analysis failed to yield detectable products for selected LAMP2 exons, and genomic DNA deletion was suspected. ...
Background- Danon disease is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by the clinical triad of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and variable mental retardation. Pathologically, autophagic vacuoles are noted in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. It exhibits an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance, and male carriers are severely affected, whereas female carriers develop milder and later-onset cardiac symptoms. Danon disease has been associated with mutations in the lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (LAMP2) gene located at Xq24, typically resulting in splicing defects or protein truncation affecting the LAMP2. Because of its rarity, the full spectrum of genetic mutation resulting in Danon disease has not been elucidated.. Methods and Results- We analyzed 3 male cases with clinical and pathological findings consistent with Danon disease. Comprehensive mutational analysis failed to yield detectable products for selected LAMP2 exons, and genomic DNA deletion was suspected. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. This glycoprotein provides selectins with carbohydrate ligands. It may also play a role in tumor cell metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells. Immature DCs efficiently capture antigens and differentiate into interdigitating dendritic cells (IDCs) in lymphoid tissues that induce primary T-cell responses (summary by de Saint-Vis et al., 1998 [PubMed 9768752]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2010 ...
A genetically altered mouse will be generated in which the selective degradation of specific cytosolic proteins in lysosomes could be modulated at wish. This mouse model will allow further analysis of the role of this lysosomal protein degradation pathway in preventing the intracellular accumulation of damaged proteins with age. Under stress conditions, such as nutrient deprivation, the selective degradation of cytosolic proteins in lysosomes by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is activated. Degradation of proteins by CMA requires their binding in a rate-limiting fashion to a receptor, the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2a (lamp2a), in the lysosomal membrane. Activity of CMA is modulated by changes in the levels of lamp2a in the lysosomal membrane. CMA decreases with age in cultured cells and in different rodent tissues. Decreased levels of the receptor in the lysosomal membrane have been found in lysosomes from old tissues. We intend to prevent the decrease in receptor levels by ...
2MOF: Structure of Transmembrane Domain of Lysosome-associated Membrane Protein Type 2a (LAMP-2A) Reveals Key Features for Substrate Specificity in Chaperone-mediated Autophagy.
Richards MH, Narasipura SD, Seaton MS, Lutgen V, Al-Harthi L. Migration of CD8+ T Cells into the Central Nervous System Gives Rise to Highly Potent Anti-HIV CD4dimCD8bright T Cells in a Wnt Signaling-Dependent Manner. J Immunol. 2016 Jan 01; 196(1):317-27 ...
Exocytosis of lysosomal contents from platelets has been speculated to participate in clearance of thrombi and vessel wall remodelling. The mechanisms that regulate lysosomal exocytosis in platelets are, however, still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the pathways underlying platelet lysosomal secretion and elucidate how this process is controlled by platelet inhibitors. We found that high concentrations of thrombin induced partial lysosomal exocytosis as assessed by analysis of the activity of released N-acetyl--glucosaminidase (NAG) and by identifying the fraction of platelets exposing the lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-1 on the cell surface by flow cytometry. Stimulation of thrombin receptors PAR1 or PAR4 with specific peptides was equally effective in inducing LAMP-1 surface expression. Notably, lysosomal exocytosis in response to thrombin was significantly reduced if the secondary activation by ADP was inhibited by the P2Y(12) antagonist cangrelor, while ...
Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, skeletal myopathy, and mild intellectual disability. Early morbidity and mortality due to heart failure or sudden death are known in Danon disease, more in males than in females. Here, we present a 17-year-old female adolescent with Danon disease and severe concentric hypertrophy with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function, who has been complaining of intermittent headache and weakness for about 3 years, initially diagnosed with hemiplegic migraine. Subsequently, her neurological manifestation progressed to transient ischemic attack (TIA) and eventually to ischemic stroke confirmed by CT scan with 1-day history of expressive aphasia followed by persistent left side weakness and numbness. Detailed echocardiogram for the first time revealed a small LV apical thrombus with unchanged severe biventricular hypertrophy and normal systolic function.
LAMP2 has been specifically implicated in tumor cell metastasis.[9] Both LAMP1 and LAMP2 have been found expressed on the surface of cancerous tumors, specifically in cells of highly metastatic cancer such as colon cancer and melanoma.[8] They are rarely found on the plasma membranes of normal cells, and are found more on highly metastatic tumors than on poorly metastatic ones. LAMP2, along with LAMP1, interact with E-selectin and galectins to mediate the adhesion of some cancer cells to the ECM. The two LAMP molecules act as ligands for the cell-adhesion molecules. It has also been shown that the down-regulation of LAMP2 could both reduce the resistance of breast cancer cells to the paclitaxel[10] and could inhibit cell proliferation in multiple myeloma cells.[11] Along with other genes such as LC3B, p62 and CTSB, a strong up regulation of LAMP2 was detected in perinecrotic areas of glioblastomas. This suggests autophagy induction in gliomas could be caused by micro-environmental changes.[12] ...
The CD107a antigen is the heavily glycosylated 110 kDa lysosomal-associated membrane protein, LAMP-1. Together with LAMP-2, they are the mayor glycoproteins on the membrane of lysosome granules. CD107a molecule is ubiquitously found as intracellular antigen.
Homo sapiens,Human,CD63 antigen,Granulophysin,Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3,LAMP-3,Melanoma-associated antigen ME491,OMA81H,Ocular melanoma-associated antigen,Tetraspanin-30 ...
The monoclonal antibody FA-11 recognizes mouse CD68, also known as macrosialin, which is a heavily glycosylated type I transmembrane protein of the LAMP (lysosomal-associated membrane protein) family. It is expressed on tissue macrophages, langerhans cells and at a low density on dendritic cells. Murine CD68 is predominantly intracellular but it is reported that 10-15% of CD68 is expressed on the cell surface as well. Macrosialin functions as a macrophage receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein. - Ísland
LAMP2 antibody [GL2A7] (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2) for ICC/IF, IP. Anti-LAMP2 mAb (GTX13524) is tested in Mouse, Rabbit samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Demirdas, S., van Slegtenhorst, M.A, Verdijk, R.M, Lee, M, van den Hout, HMP, Wessels, M.W, … Schaaf, G.J. (2019). Delayed Diagnosis of Danon Disease in Patients Presenting With Isolated Cardiomyopathy. Circulation-Genomic and Precision Medicine, 12(3). doi:10.1161/circgen. ...
Staphylococcus aureus is frequently the initial bacterium isolated from young cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and yet its role in CF disease progression has not been determined. Recent data from our lab demonstrates that S. aureus can invade and replicate within the CF tracheal epithelial cell line (CFT-1). Here we describe the finding that the fate of internalized S. aureus in CFT-1 cells differs from its complemented counterpart (LCFSN). S. aureus strain RN6390 was able to replicate within the mutant CFT-1 cells after invasion but not in the complemented LCFSN cells. At 1 h postinvasion, S. aureus containing vesicles within both cell lines acquired vacuolar-ATPase, lysosomal markers LAMP 1 and 2, and the lysomotrophic dye LysoTracker to a similar degree. However, at 4 h postinvasion, the percentage of S. aureus within CFT-1 cells associated with these markers decreased significantly compared to LCFSN, where the association approached 100%. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the
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View mouse Laptm4b Chr15:34238026-34284295 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
CD107a (LAMP-1) Antibody PE-Cyanine7 conjugate (eBioH4A3) from Invitrogen™. Species Reactivity: Human; Applications: Flow Cytometry Shop CD107a (LAMP-1) Mouse anti-Human,
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Consider a drug with the parameter values in original product: F = 0.30; V = 180 L; kel = 0.023 hr-1; ka = 5.0 hr-1; CL = 69 ml/min. Plot a concentration versus time curve after an oral dose of 500 mcg (0.5 mg). Contrast this with the results obtained with the same dose but with the new formulation. Use the parameter values: F = 0.75; V = 180 L; kel = 0.023 hr-1; ka = 5.0 hr-1; CL = 69 ml/min. Danon et al., 1977. Add a second line with these parameter values using the Plot Line button. ...
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விலங்கு உயிரணுக்களின் நுண்ணுறுப்புகளுள் ஒன்றான இலைசோசோம்கள் (lysosome) கழிவுப் பொருட்ளையும் தீங்கு விளைவிக்கும் நோய்க்கிருமிகளையும் செரிக்கும் இன்றியமையாத வேலையைச் செய்கின்றன. தாவரங்களிலும் பூஞ்சைகளிலும் இலைசோசோம்கள் இல்லை. இப்பணியை வெற்றிடப்பைகள் செய்கின்றன. இலைசோசோம் ஒரே ஒரு உறை மட்டுமே உடையது. இவ் உறைக்குள் பல வலிமையான நொதிகள் காணப்படும். இவை இந்த உறையை விட்டு வெளியே ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein. Organisations[edit]. *Lutheran Association of Missionaries and Pilots, a cross- ... LAMP3, Lysosomal-associated membrane glycoprotein 3. *All pages with a title containing lamp, includes many other forms of lamp ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3, Lamp3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMP3 gene. It is one ... Zhou Z, Xue Q, Wan Y, Yang Y, Wang J, Hung T (2011). "Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 is involved in influenza A ... 1998). "A novel lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein, DC-LAMP, induced upon DC maturation, is transiently expressed in MHC ... of the lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins. LAMP3 also known as DC-LAMP (Dendritic cell lysosomal associated membrane ...
... is one of the lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane ... which also house lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. LAMP1 and LAMP2 make up about 50% of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. (See ... "LAMP2 - Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - LAMP2 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. ... "Lysosome-associated membrane proteins h-LAMP1 (CD107a) and h-LAMP2 (CD107b) are activation-dependent cell surface glycoproteins ...
"C-terminal prenylation of the CLN3 membrane glycoprotein is required for efficient endosomal sorting to lysosomes". Traffic. 8 ... is a superfamily of membrane transport proteins that facilitate movement of small solutes across cell membranes in response to ... This forms a large aqueous cavity at the center of the membrane, which is alternatively open to the cytoplasm or periplasm/ ... Hediger MA, Clémençon B, Burrier RE, Bruford EA (2017-06-01). "The ABCs of membrane transporters in health and disease (SLC ...
"Cycling of the integral membrane glycoprotein, LEP100, between plasma membrane and lysosomes: kinetic and morphological ... "Membrane Kinesis - Shaping and Transport of Cell Membranes". Membrane Transport SFB 807. 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2015-04-20. " ... Before this work, it was thought that the membrane proteins in organelles such as the ER, Golgi, and plasma membrane were fixed ... Using the drug Brefeldin A to perturb membrane trafficking, she showed that membranes cycle between the endoplasmic reticulum ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type III glycoprotein that is located primarily in limiting membranes of lysosomes and ... "Cycling of an 85-kDa lysosomal membrane glycoprotein between the cell surface and lysosomes in cultured rat hepatocytes". ... "Isolation and characterization of a novel membrane glycoprotein of 85,000 molecular weight from rat liver lysosomes". Chemical ... Lewis V, Green SA, Marsh M, Vihko P, Helenius A, Mellman I (Jun 1985). "Glycoproteins of the lysosomal membrane". The Journal ...
Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 is a glycoprotein from a family of Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins. The LAMP ... Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) also known as lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 and CD107a (Cluster ... "Surface-targeted lysosomal membrane glycoprotein-1 (Lamp-1) enhances lysosome exocytosis and cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi ... and membrane insertion of the 120-kDa lysosomal membrane glycoprotein (lgp120): identification of a highly conserved family of ...
Cluster of differentiation Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein Scavenger receptor (immunology) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... the lysosomal/endosomal-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP) family, CD68 localizes primarily to lysosomes and endosomes but ... Damoiseaux JG, Döpp EA, Calame W, Chao D, MacPherson GG, Dijkstra CD (September 1994). "Rat macrophage lysosomal membrane ... Holness CL, Simmons DL (March 1993). "Molecular cloning of CD68, a human macrophage marker related to lysosomal glycoproteins ...
An example of a protein that undergoes palmitoylation is hemagglutinin, a membrane glycoprotein used by influenza to attach to ... in the cytosol and palmitoyl protein thioesterases in lysosomes. Because palmitoylation is a dynamic, post-translational ... When this protein is palmitoylated it is restricted to the membrane. This restriction to the membrane allows it to bind to and ... Also, in the presynaptic neuron, palmitoylation of SNAP-25 directs it to partition in the cell membrane and allows the SNARE ...
Weissmann, G. - Studies on Lysosomes,1965) Gruenberg J, Maxfield FR (August 1995). "Membrane transport in the endocytic pathway ... mitochondria and mRNAs including lysosomal membrane glycoproteins and acid hydrolases. They are acidic (approx. pH 5.5), and ... Late endosomes are thought to mediate a final set of sorting events prior the delivery of material to lysosomes. Lysosomes are ... Luzio JP, Rous BA, Bright NA, Pryor PR, Mullock BM, Piper RC (May 1, 2000). "Lysosome-endosome fusion and lysosome biogenesis ...
The cleaved glycoproteins are incorporated into the virion envelope when the virus buds and release from the cell membrane.[23] ... which at the lower pH of the endosome binds the lysosome protein LAMP1 which results in membrane fusion and escape from the ... On contact with the endosome pH-dependent membrane fusion occurs mediated by the envelope glycoprotein, ... A small aliphatic amino acid at the GP1 glycoprotein amino acid position 260 is required for high-affinity binding to alpha-DG ...
... lysosome, and secretory granules, as well as the plasma membrane. This molecular function enables sortilin to participate in ... This protein is a type I membrane glycoprotein in the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family of sorting receptors ... In addition, two hydrophobic loops have been detected in this domain and act to anchor the protein in the cell membrane. ... At the cellular level, sortilin functions in protein transport between the Golgi apparatus, endosome, lysosome, and plasma ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins (LAMPs) are integral membrane proteins, specific to lysosomes, and whose exact ... Fukuda Minoru (November 1991). "Lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. Structure, biosynthesis, and intracellular trafficking". J. ... Holness CL, da Silva RP, Fawcett J, Gordon S, Simmons DL (1993). "Macrosialin, a mouse macrophage-restricted glycoprotein, is a ... CD69 (also called gp110 or macrosialin) is a heavily glycosylated integral membrane protein whose structure consists of a mucin ...
Trypanosoma have a simple, polarized membrane transport system consisting of a single ER, lysosome, and Golgi apparatus. VSG is ... trans-membrane) glycoprotein in trypanosomatid parasites Cross GA (1975). "Identification, purification and properties of clone ... The variant surface glycoprotein genes of T. brucei have been classified into two groups depending upon whether or not ... Variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) is a ~60kDa protein which densely packs the cell surface of protozoan parasites belonging to ...
The cleaved glycoproteins are incorporated into the virion envelope when the virus buds and release from the cell membrane. ... which at the lower pH of the endosome binds the lysosome protein LAMP1 which results in membrane fusion and escape from the ... On contact with the endosome pH-dependent membrane fusion occurs mediated by the envelope glycoprotein, ... and the surface glycoprotein precursor (GP, also known as the viral spike), which is proteolytically cleaved into the envelope ...
Both glycoproteins and glycolipids are transported into vesicles to the plasma membrane. The cell releases secretory proteins ... which are located on the plasma membrane. The pseudopods then package the particles in a food vacuole. The lysosome, which ... Lysosomes are structures that use enzymes to break down substances through phagocytosis, a process that comprises endocytosis ... Both have plasma membranes and ribosomes (structures that synthesize proteins[clarification needed] and float free in cytoplasm ...
After fusion with the lysosome the pH drops from ~7 to ~5. This induces a conformational change in the ApoL1 membrane ... The cell surface of the bloodstream form features a dense coat of variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) which is replaced by an ... Along the body surface, the flagellum is attached to the cell membrane forming an undulating membrane. Only the tip of the ... The ApoL1 protein then creates anionic pores in the membrane which leads to depolarization of the membrane, a continuous influx ...
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, membrane-associated is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD1E gene. This gene ... The protein encoded by this gene localizes within Golgi compartments, endosomes, and lysosomes, and is cleaved into a stable ... encodes a member of the CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which are structurally related to the major ...
Active mTORC1 is positioned on lysosomes. mTOR is inhibited when lysosomal membrane is damaged by various exogenous or ... by a glycoprotein-specific FBXO27-endowed ubiquitin ligase of several damage-exposed glycosylated lysosomal membrane proteins ... this type of injury can be modeled using membrane-permeant dipeptide precursors that polymerize in lysosomes), amyloid protein ... Upon activation by Rheb, mTORC1 localizes to the Ragulator-Rag complex on the lysosome surface where it then becomes active in ...
Crosslinking of T cell receptors and other glycoproteins by galectin-3 on the membrane of T cells prevents clustering of TCRs ... side of lysosomal membranes. However, under lysosome damaging conditions leading to exposure of the exofacially, i.e., lumenaly ... oriented glycans (glycoproteins and glycolipids), galectin-8 recognizes the cytofacial glycans exposed due to membrane damage ... such injury can be modeled using membrane-permeant dipeptide precursors that polymerize in lysosomes,. Under resting, ...
... lysosome; mitochondrion (inner and outer membranes); nucleus (inner and outer membranes); peroxisome; vacuole; cytoplasmic ... they can be covalently bound to lipids to form glycolipids or covalently bound to proteins to form glycoproteins. Membranes ... A biological membrane, biomembrane or cell membrane is a selectively permeable membrane that separates cell from the external ... such as mucous membranes, basement membranes, and serous membranes. The lipid bilayer consists of two layers- an outer leaflet ...
... of the SLAMF family are classified as type I glycoproteins and share an amino-terminal IgV variable domain and a membrane- ... by localizing to phagosomes and inducing a signaling cascade resulting in enhanced fusion of phagosomes and lysosomes. SLAMF2 ... SLAMF1 and SLAMF6 are known to directly interact with outer membrane porins on gram negative bacteria. SLAMF1 is a known ...
The virions taken up by the cell then travel to acidic endosomes and lysosomes where the viral envelope glycoprotein GP is ... EBOV is thought to infect humans through contact with mucous membranes or skin breaks.[48] After infection, endothelial cells ( ... After infection, a secreted glycoprotein, small soluble glycoprotein (sGP or GP) is synthesized. EBOV replication overwhelms ... Virions bud off from the cell, gaining their envelopes from the cellular membrane from which they bud. The mature progeny ...
... lysosome; mitochondrion (inner and outer membranes); nucleus (inner and outer membranes); peroxisome; vacuole; cytoplasmic ... they can be covalently bound to lipids to form glycolipids or covalently bound to proteins to form glycoproteins. Membranes ... This article is about various membranes in living things. For the membranes surrounding cells, see cell membrane. ... A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within ...
އަދި މިފަށަލަ ވަނީ ގްލައިކޯޕްރޮޓީން(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Glycoprotein)ގެ ކޯޓަކުން ނިވާކުރެވިފައެވެ. މިކޯޓް ހަލާކުވެފައިވާ ... އިލެކްޓްރޯން މައިކްރޯސްކޯޕަކުން ބަލައިފިނަމަ ޕްލޭޓްލިޓްގެ ބޭރުފަށަލަ(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Cell membrane)ހުންނަނީ ނިޒާމެއްނެތި އެވެ ... Lysosome) ، އަދި 3ބާވަތެއްގެ ގްރެނިއޫލް(Granule) ހުރެއެވެ. އެއީ ޑެންސް ގްރެނިއޫލްސް(Dense granules)އާއި، ބީޓާ ގްރެނިއޫލްސް(Beta ... ޕްލޭޓްލިޓް އެކުލެވިގެންވަނީ ސައިޓަޕްލާޒަމް(Cytoplasm) އާއި، އޭގެ ބޭރުން ވަށައިގެން ލެވިފައިވާ ފަށަލަ (Cell membrane)ގެ ...
HA is a homotrimeric integral membrane glycoprotein. It is shaped like a cylinder, and is approximately 13.5 nanometres long. ... then attempts to begin digesting the contents of the endosome by acidifying its interior and transforming it into a lysosome. ... The host cell membrane then engulfs the virus, a process known as endocytosis, and pinches off to form a new membrane-bound ... Wilson IA, Skehel JJ, Wiley DC (January 1981). "Structure of the haemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus at 3 A ...
The E1 gene is a membrane fusion protein that is important in viral entry and release. Together E1 and E2 are the glycoproteins ... The modified cellular lysosome create a new vesicular structure termed the cytopathic vacuole (CPV) which can serve as sites ... The "factories" in this case, are the host cell's endosomes and lysosomes. The role of the endosome was explained above in the ... After being taken in through endocytosis, a low pH triggers a membrane fusion, which delivers the viral RNA genomes into the ...
... to direct the MHC to the lysosomes for degradation instead of to the cell membrane where it normally functions. In addition to ... A glycoprotein called CD8 binds to residues 223-229 in the α3 domain of HLA-A and this glycoprotein stabilizes interactions ... At some point the ER will receive a signal and the portion of the membrane holding the complex will bud off and be transported ... These glycoproteins are essential for, respectively, helper t-cell and cytotoxic t-cell binding to MHCs. Without these ...
The virions taken up by the cell then travel to acidic endosomes and lysosomes where the viral envelope glycoprotein GP is ... EBOV is thought to infect humans through contact with mucous membranes or skin breaks.[54] After infection, endothelial cells ( ... After infection, a secreted glycoprotein, small soluble glycoprotein (sGP or GP) is synthesised. EBOV replication overwhelms ... Virions bud off from the cell, gaining their envelopes from the cellular membrane from which they bud. The mature progeny ...
membrane. • lysosomal membrane. • lysosomal lumen. • lysosome. • extracellular exosome. • plasma membrane. • azurophil granule ... Land A, Braakman I (August 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... tertiary granule membrane. • ficolin-1-rich granule membrane. • integral component of membrane. ... lysosome organization. • striated muscle contraction. • glucose metabolic process. • neutrophil degranulation. • carbohydrate ...
To engulf a particle or pathogen, a phagocyte extends portions of its plasma membrane, wrapping the membrane around the ... which merges with a lysosome.[1] The lysosome contains enzymes and acids that kill and digest the particle or organism. In ... endothelial cells (via passive diffusion/ osmosis & active selection). P-glycoprotein (mechanism by which active transportation ... form holes in the plasma membrane of the pathogen, resulting in cytolysis of the pathogen cell, causing the death of the ...
HlyD recruits TolC to the inner membrane and HlyA is excreted outside of the outer membrane via a long-tunnel protein channel. ... Secretory vesicles have pHs ranging between 5.0 and 6.0; some secretory vesicles evolve into lysosomes, which have a pH of 4.8 ... the accessory secretory system handles the export of highly repetitive adhesion glycoproteins. ... the formation of bacterial outer membrane vesicles.[26] Portions of the outer membrane pinch off, forming nano-scale spherical ...
This coating consists of several carbohydrate moieties of membrane glycolipids glycoproteins, which serve as backbone molecules ... is a glycoprotein and glycolipid covering that surrounds the cell membranes of some bacteria, epithelia, and other cells. In ... TEM micrograph of a B. subtilis bacterium, with the hair-like glycocalyx visible surrounding the cell membrane (scale bar = 200 ... meshwork 0.3 μm thick and consists of acidic mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins that project from the apical plasma membrane ...
HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 glycoprotein marker present on the cell membrane. ... "A histochemical study of hypertrophy and ischaemic injury of rat liver with special reference to changes in lysosomes". The ... Membrane blebbing: The cell membrane shows irregular buds known as blebs. Initially these are smaller surface blebs. Later ... thin extensions of the cell membrane called membrane protrusions. Three types have been described: microtubule spikes, ...
membrane raft. • extracellular matrix. • lysosome. • melanosome. • extracellular space. • specific granule lumen. • tertiary ... Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes.[7] The main function of cathepsin D is ...
Whether or not a given receptor is trafficked to a lysosome, detained in endosomes, or trafficked back to the plasma membrane ... Adenylyl cyclase is a 12-transmembrane glycoprotein that catalyzes ATP to form cAMP with the help of cofactor Mg2+ or Mn2+. The ... The side perspective is a view from above and to the side of the GPCR as it is set in the plasma membrane (the membrane lipids ... GPCRs are integral membrane proteins that possess seven membrane-spanning domains or transmembrane helices.[25][26] The ...
The mechanism for penetration is disputed, but may involve proteolytic digestion of the membrane, mechanical force, or both.[3] ... L-selectin requires a particular minimum of shear to sustain leukocyte rolling on P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and ... For example, the carbohydrate ligand for P-selectin, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), is expressed by different types ... Endothelial selectins bind carbohydrates on leukocyte transmembrane glycoproteins, including sialyl-LewisX. ...
This is a result of lysosome membrane permeabilization promoting cancer cell death. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization is not ... β-amyloid proteins via up-regulation of P-glycoprotein and LRP1.[3] ... Oleocanthal pierces cancer cells' lysosomes, the containers that store the cell's waste products, releasing enzymes that kill ... Cell apoptosis is tested by treating the lysosomal membrane with acridine orange. Acridine orange radiates a red fluorescent ...
HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 glycoprotein marker present on the cell membrane. ... Chen W, Li N, Chen T, Han Y, Li C, Wang Y, He W, Zhang L, Wan T, Cao X (December 2005). "The lysosome-associated apoptosis- ... Membrane blebbing: The cell membrane shows irregular buds known as blebs. Initially these are smaller surface blebs. Later ... thin extensions of the cell membrane called membrane protrusions. Three types have been described: microtubule spikes, ...
HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 glycoprotein marker present on the cell membrane. ... 2005). "The lysosome-associated apoptosis-inducing protein containing the pleckstrin homology (PH) and FYVE domains (LAPF), ... Membrane blebbing: The cell membrane shows irregular buds known as blebs. Initially these are smaller surface blebs. Later ... thin extensions of the cell membrane called membrane protrusions. Three types have been described: microtubule spikes, ...
... the interaction is required when endocytosed to prevent degradation in lysosomes and promote recycling to the plasma membrane.[ ... glycoprotein-associated/light or catalytic subunits of heterodimeric amino-acid transporters *SLC7A5 ... Six of these membrane-spanning helices are believed to bind together in the membrane to create a polar channel in the center ... GLUT1 accounts for 2 percent of the protein in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. GLUT1, found in the plasma membrane of ...
1997). "The enhanced immune response to the HIV gp160/LAMP chimeric gene product targeted to the lysosome membrane protein ... 1994). "Envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 interfere with T-cell-dependent B cell differentiation: role of CD4-MHC class II ... This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DOA) and a beta chain (DOB), both anchored in the membrane. It ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ...
lysosome. • external side of plasma membrane. • cell periphery. Biological process. • hemopoiesis. • extracellular exosome ... and Tindle et al.[8][9][10][11] in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also ... integral component of membrane. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • extracellular region ... basal plasma membrane. • glomerular endothelium fenestra. • apical plasma membrane. • intercellular bridge. • perinuclear ...
Secretory proteins, mostly glycoproteins, are moved across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Proteins that are transported by ... Integral membrane proteins that stay embedded in the membrane as vesicles exit and bind to new membranes. Rab proteins are key ... The membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum occurs in most types of ... The membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum forms large double membrane sheets that are located near, and continuous with, ...
Glycoproteins on the membrane assist the cell in recognizing other cells, in order to exchange metabolites and form tissues. ... Lysosomes[edit]. Main article: Lysosomes. Lysosomes are organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that are used for ... Plasma membrane[edit]. Main article: Plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer membrane that separates the ... Embedded in the membrane are proteins that perform the functions of the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is not a fixed or ...
lysosomal membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum. • ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane. • lysosome. • integral component of ... 1seb: COMPLEX OF THE HUMAN MHC CLASS II GLYCOPROTEIN HLA-DR1 AND THE BACTERIAL SUPERANTIGEN SEB ... membrane. • late endosome membrane. • Golgi membrane. • plasma membrane. • transport vesicle membrane. • MHC class II protein ... integral component of membrane. • endocytic vesicle membrane. • clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane. • endosome. • Golgi ...
membrane. • intracellular membrane-bounded organelle. • nucleoplasm. • lysosomal lumen. • endoplasmic reticulum. • lysosome. • ... This gene encodes a glycoprotein that associates with lysosomal enzymes beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase to form a complex ... lumenal side of lysosomal membrane. • extracellular exosome. • extracellular region. • azurophil granule lumen. ... "Transport of human lysosomal neuraminidase to mature lysosomes requires protective protein/cathepsin A". EMBO J. ENGLAND. 17 ...
integral component of membrane. • endosome. • membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • cell membrane. ... SSFA-GPHR: Sequence Structure Function Analysis of Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors. *GRIS: Glycoprotein-hormone Receptor ... A pinched-off coated pit is internalized and degraded by lysosomes. Proteins may be metabolized or the receptor can be recycled ... "Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors: LH". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
... which is an extension and invagination of that membrane. This complex runs just beneath these membranes, and is the chemical ... Peripheral zone - is rich in glycoproteins required for platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation. For example, GPIb/IX/X ... γ granules (gamma granules) - similar to lysosomes and contain several hydrolytic enzymes. ... Behnke O (1970). "The morphology of blood platelet membrane systems". Series Haematologica. 3 (4): 3-16. PMID 4107203.. ...
integral component of membrane. • cytosol. • nucleus. • membrane. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • lysosome. • melanosome ... As opposed to fungal tyrosinase, human tyrosinase is a membrane-bound glycoprotein and has 13% carbohydrate content.[14] ... intracellular membrane-bounded organelle. Biological process. • response to UV. • response to cAMP. • metabolism. • melanin ... Mammalian tyrosinase is a single membrane-spanning transmembrane protein.[12] In humans, tyrosinase is sorted into melanosomes[ ...
Plasma membranes also contain carbohydrates, predominantly glycoproteins, but with some glycolipids (cerebrosides and ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[13] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[14][15] Some ... The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) ... Intracellular membranes. The content of the cell, inside the cell membrane, is composed of numerous membrane-bound organelles, ...
Plasma membranes also contain carbohydrates, predominantly glycoproteins, but with some glycolipids (cerebrosides and ... The membrane also contains membrane proteins, including integral proteins that go across the membrane serving as membrane ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[15] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[16][17] Some ... The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the ...
Based on their localization, PRRs may be divided into membrane-bound PRRs and cytoplasmic PRRs. Membrane-bound PRRs include ... disruption of lysosomes and ROS originating from mitochondria. The NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for induction of effective ... one of the commonest outer residues of asialo-glycoprotein) specific receptors and even many of this family members can also ... Membrane receptor CLRs have been divided into 17 groups based on structure and phylogenetic origin. Generally there is a large ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins (LAMPs) are integral membrane proteins, specific to lysosomes, and whose exact ... Fukuda Minoru (November 1991). "Lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. Structure, biosynthesis, and intracellular trafficking". J. ... Holness CL, da Silva RP, Fawcett J, Gordon S, Simmons DL (1993). "Macrosialin, a mouse macrophage-restricted glycoprotein, is a ... CD69 (also called gp110 or macrosialin) is a heavily glycosylated integral membrane protein whose structure consists of a mucin ...
Lysosome. *Lysosome membrane PROSITE-ProRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic ... cDNA FLJ52540, highly similar to Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported ... tr,B7Z2R9,B7Z2R9_HUMAN cDNA FLJ52540, highly similar to Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 PE= ... Plasma membrane. Cytoskeleton. Lysosome. Endosome. Peroxisome. ER. Golgi apparatus. Nucleus. Mitochondrion. Manual annotation. ...
... which is the most likely explanation for the lack of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes (PubMed:27628032). Required ... Required for the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes during autophagy (PubMed:27628032). Cells that lack LAMP2 express ... Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2Add BLAST. 390. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... Cell membrane, Cytoplasmic vesicle, Endosome, Lysosome, Membrane. ,p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and ...
Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins*Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins. *Lysosome Associated Membrane ... "Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Lysosome-Associated Membrane ... "Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins" by people in Profiles. ...
... lysosomal membranes was used to identify a 78-kD glycoprotein that is present in the membranes of both endosomes and lysosomes ... Endolyn-78, a membrane glycoprotein present in morphologically diverse components of the endosomal and lysosomal compartments: ... Endolyn-78, a membrane glycoprotein present in morphologically diverse components of the endosomal and lysosomal compartments: ... In cultures of rat hepatoma (Fu5C8) and kidney cells (NRK), this glycoprotein could not be labeled with [35S]methionine or with ...
Recombinant Protein and Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant ... Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1. Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 ELISA Kit. Lysosome-associated ... Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2. Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 ELISA Kit. Lysosome-associated ... Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3. Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 ELISA Kit. Lysosome-associated ...
Loss of lysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) enhances cellular vulnerability against proteasomal inhibition.. ... HIV-1 gp120 downregulates the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) in human B cells. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. This glycoprotein provides selectins with ... Constitutive expression of a COOH-terminal leucine mutant of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 causes its exclusive ... Lysosome-associated protein 1 (LAMP-1) and lysosome-associated protein 2 (LAMP-2) in a larger family carrier of Fabry disease. ... a viral entry mechanism dependent on binding to the lysosome-resident receptor LAMP1 and further dissociation of the membrane- ...
Purchase Recombinant Rat Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2(Lamp2). It is produced in in vitro E.coli expression ... Recombinant Rat Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2(Lamp2). Recombinant Rat Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 ... Cell membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein, Endosome membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein, Lysosome membrane, ... Lamp2; Lamp-2; Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2; LAMP-2; Lysosome-associated membrane protein 2; CD107 antigen-like ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 5 - Also known as LAMP5_MOUSE, Lamp5. Plays a role in short-term synaptic plasticity ...
... and P-glycoprotein in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein. Organisations[edit]. *Lutheran Association of Missionaries and Pilots, a cross- ... LAMP3, Lysosomal-associated membrane glycoprotein 3. *All pages with a title containing lamp, includes many other forms of lamp ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3, Lamp3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMP3 gene. It is one ... Zhou Z, Xue Q, Wan Y, Yang Y, Wang J, Hung T (2011). "Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 is involved in influenza A ... 1998). "A novel lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein, DC-LAMP, induced upon DC maturation, is transiently expressed in MHC ... of the lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins. LAMP3 also known as DC-LAMP (Dendritic cell lysosomal associated membrane ...
Lamp; Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (Lamp). RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release ... It is a member of the lysosomal/endosomal-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP) family. The protein primarily localizes to ... lysosomes and endosomes with a smaller fraction circulating to the cell surface. It is a type I integral membrane protein with ... late endosome membrane IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
EPG5 is recruited to late endosomes/lysosomes by direct interaction with … ... that EPG5 is a Rab7 effector that determines the fusion specificity of autophagosomes with late endosomes/lysosomes. ... Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins * Lysosomes / metabolism* * Lysosomes / ultrastructure * Membrane Fusion * ... EPG5 is recruited to late endosomes/lysosomes by direct interaction with Rab7 and the late endosomal/lysosomal R-SNARE VAMP7/8 ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (IPR002000) Pfam signature: PF01299 YrdC-like domain (IPR006070) Pfam signature: ... Major outer membrane protein, Chlamydia (IPR000604) Pfam signature: PF01308 Equine arteritis virus GP2b envelope glycoprotein ( ... Coronavirus S1 glycoprotein (IPR002551) Pfam signature: PF01600 Coronavirus S2 glycoprotein (IPR002552) Pfam signature: PF01601 ... Yeast membrane protein DUP/COS (IPR001142) Pfam signature: PF00674 Peptidase M16, N-terminal (IPR011765) Pfam signature: ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2. LC3:. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3. ... G. Kroemer and M. Jaattela, "Lysosomes and autophagy in cell death control," Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 886-897 ... Type III cell death (necrosis) is characterized by oncosis and plasma membrane rupture [20]. Necrosis is an uncontrolled cell ... Type II cell death (autophagy) is characterized by the massive accumulation of double-membrane vesicles, commonly referred to ...
Structure of Transmembrane Domain of Lysosome-associated Membrane Protein Type 2a (LAMP-2A) Reveals Key Features for Substrate ... Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 A 42 Homo sapiens Fragment: unp residues 369-410 Gene Name(s): LAMP2 Gene View ...
... which we define as the late endosome and the lysosome) protein, NPC1. The function of NPC1 is unknown, but when it is ... Lysosomes / metabolism* * Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics * Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism * Mice * Mice, Knockout * ... which we define as the late endosome and the lysosome) protein, NPC1. The function of NPC1 is unknown, but when it is ...
Lysosomes ; Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins ... Secretory lysosomes are then able to polarise along ... These secretory lysosomes contain cytolytic effector molecules, such as perforin and granzymes, which are able to induce ... proteins to lysosomes and deficiency in AP-3 results in missorting of proteins from the lysosomal to plasma membrane. CTL from ... CTL from the new HPS2 patients show reduced cytotoxicity, which is shown here to be due to impaired secretory lysosome ...
Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism. Male. Microscopy, Immunoelectron. Microtubule-Associated Proteins/ ... Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins); 0 (Microtubule-Associated Proteins); 0 (Parathyroid Hormone); R5LM3H112R ( ...
0 (Antibodies, Monoclonal); 0 (Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments); 0 (Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins); 0 (Receptors, ... Membrane Glycoproteins); 0 (Receptors, Cell Surface); 0 (Receptors, Scavenger); 0 (Scavenger Receptors, Class A). ... Since SR-B LIMP2-deficient mice show reduced expression of several apical plasma membrane proteins, sorting of proteins to the ... Dsb localizes in intracellular vesicles, and a subset of these associate with lysosomes. However, we found that depletion of ...
... mOrange2-lysosomes-20 (rat lysosomal membrane glycoprotein 1); (l) mOrange2-peroxisomes-2 (peroximal targeting signal 1); (m) ... illustrated with ionomycin-induced translocation to the plasma and nuclear membranes); (i) TagRFP-T-lamin B1-10 (human); (j) ...
In 59 NAFLD patients, lipid droplet-loaded lysosomes/lipolysosomes and p62/SQSTM1 clusters correlated with NAFLD activity score ... In 59 NAFLD patients, lipid droplet-loaded lysosomes/lipolysosomes and p62/SQSTM1 clusters correlated with NAFLD activity score ... Lipophagy consists in selective degradation of intracellular lipid droplets by lysosome and mounting evidence suggests that ... Lipophagy consists in selective degradation of intracellularlipid droplets by lysosome and mounting evidence suggests that ...
... lysosome-associated membrane protein; gp, glycoprotein; LCL, lymphoblastoid B-cell line; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear ... Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1-mediated targeting of the HIV-1 envelope protein to an endosomal/lysosomal compartment ... The enhanced immune response to the HIV gp160/LAMP chimeric gene product targeted to the lysosome membrane protein trafficking ... we sought to determine whether human DCs transfected with mRNA encoding a chimeric hTERT/lysosome-associated membrane protein ( ...
... is one of the lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane ... plasma membrane. • lysosomal membrane. • lysosomal lumen. • platelet dense granule membrane. • lysosome. • endosome membrane. • ... which also house lysosomal membrane glycoproteins.[6] LAMP1 and LAMP2 make up about 50% of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. ( ... "LAMP2 - Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - LAMP2 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. ...
Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... cDNA FLJ52540, highly similar to Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (B7Z2R9_HUMAN) ... Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Endosome membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Lysosome membrane; ... Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2. *Lysosome-associated membrane protein 2. see all ... Cell membrane. Endosome membrane. Lysosome membrane. This protein shuttles between lysosomes, endosomes, and the plasma ... May function in protection of the lysosomal membrane from autodigestion, maintenance of the acidic environment of the lysosome ... adhesion when expressed on the cell surface (plasma membrane), and inter- and intracellular signal transduction. Protects cells ...
Lysosome associated membrane glycoprotein 2. *Lysosome associated membrane protein 2. *Lysosome-associated membrane ... Cell membrane. Endosome membrane. Lysosome membrane. This protein shuttles between lysosomes, endosomes, and the plasma ... May function in protection of the lysosomal membrane from autodigestion, maintenance of the acidic environment of the lysosome ... It is often associated with an accumulation of glycogen in muscle and lysosomes. ...
Showing Protein T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, membrane-associated (HMDBP02412). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, membrane-associated MLLLFLLFEGLCCPGENTAAPQALQSYHLAAEEQLSFRMLQTSSFANHSWAHSEGSGWLG ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e. *soluble:Lysosome lumen. Gene Properties. Chromosome Location. Chromosome:1. ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. The ...
  • Also known as Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 (LAMP-1) (Lysosome-associated membrane protein 1) (120 kDa lysosomal membrane glycoprotein) (CD107 antigen-like family member A) (LGP-120) (Lysosomal membrane glycoprotein A) (LGP-A) (P2B) (CD antigen CD107a). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (LAMP-2) (Lysosome-associated membrane protein 2). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP-3) (Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3) (CD antigen CD208). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 5 (Brain and dendritic cell-associated LAMP) (Brain-associated LAMP-like protein) (BAD-LAMP) (Lysosome-associated membrane protein 5) (LAMP-5). (mybiosource.com)
  • Loss of lysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) enhances cellular vulnerability against proteasomal inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. (nih.gov)
  • Constitutive expression of a COOH-terminal leucine mutant of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 causes its exclusive localization in low density intracellular vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Lysosome-associated protein 1 (LAMP-1) and lysosome-associated protein 2 (LAMP-2) in a larger family carrier of Fabry disease. (nih.gov)
  • In rat spermatogenic cells AGO2 colocalizes with the lysosomal membrane protein LAMP2 in small vesicles that contact and surround chromatoid bodies. (cusabio.com)
  • Results show that LAMP-2A organizes at the lysosomal membrane into protein complexes of different sizes. (cusabio.com)
  • Chaperone-mediated autophagy is increased in rats with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus through upregulation of de novo synthesis of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2a. (cusabio.com)
  • Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3, Lamp3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMP3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • While LAMP3 can be observed on the surface of dendritic cells, the protein is mainly found within lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • LAMP3 is a Type I integral membrane protein consisting of about 416 amino acid residues with about 90% of the protein located within the lumen of the lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein primarily localizes to lysosomes and endosomes with a smaller fraction circulating to the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • It is a type I integral membrane protein with a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain and binds to tissue- and organ-specific lectins or selectins. (nih.gov)
  • Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the acidic compartment (which we define as the late endosome and the lysosome) protein, NPC1. (nih.gov)
  • The Adaptor Protein 3 complex (AP-3) sorts transmembrane proteins to lysosomes and deficiency in AP-3 results in missorting of proteins from the lysosomal to plasma membrane. (bl.uk)
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether human DCs transfected with mRNA encoding a chimeric hTERT/lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP-1) protein, carrying the endosomal/lysosomal sorting signal of the LAMP-1, are capable of stimulating concomitant hTERT-specific CD8 + and CD4 + T-cell responses in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 ( LAMP2 ) also known as CD107b ( C luster of D ifferentiation 107b), is a human gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Its protein, LAMP2, is one of the lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • LAMP2 (Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This protein shuttles between lysosomes, endosomes, and the plasma membrane. (abcam.com)
  • Homo sapiens lysosomal associated membrane protein family member 5 (LAMP5), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (genscript.com)
  • Description: The monoclonal antibody 34.2 recognizes human lysosome-associated membrane protein 5 (LAMP5), a member of the LAMP family. (thermofisher.com)
  • Lysosome-associated membrane protein 5 (LAMP5) is a member of the LAMP family. (thermofisher.com)
  • Validation studies were performed on one of the differentially regulated proteins, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1), in human tissue lysates and ovarian tumor tissue sections. (mcponline.org)
  • The CD107a antigen is the heavily glycosylated 110 kDa lysosomal-associated membrane protein, LAMP-1. (beckman.com)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Anti-Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2 Antibody (Anti-LAMP2). (uscnk.com)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Anti-Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2 Antibody (Anti-LAMP2) and analogues was observed. (uscnk.com)
  • Matrices listed below were spiked with certain level of Anti-Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2 Antibody (Anti-LAMP2) and the recovery rates were calculated by comparing the measured value to the expected amount of Anti-Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2 Antibody (Anti-LAMP2) in samples. (uscnk.com)
  • Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Anti-Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2 Antibody (Anti-LAMP2) were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (uscnk.com)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Anti-Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2 Antibody (Anti-LAMP2) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (uscnk.com)
  • The linearity of the kit was assayed by testing samples spiked with appropriate concentration of Anti-Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2 Antibody (Anti-LAMP2) and their serial dilutions. (uscnk.com)
  • After TMB substrate solution is added, those wells that contain Anti-Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2 Antibody (Anti-LAMP2) will exhibit a change in color. (uscnk.com)
  • Multi-pass membrane CC protein (By similarity). (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Now since you are talking about glycoproteins I presume that you are dealing with a transmembrane protein. (bio.net)
  • To isolate those, you homogenise your cells and isolate the compartment where your protein lives (ER, Golgi, PM, lysosome. (bio.net)
  • There are hundreds of detergents out there, dozens are in common use for membrane protein isolation and may be one or two will solubilise your particular protein without destroying its activity. (bio.net)
  • Once you have a pure protein, you need to get it out of the detergent micells into a phospholipid membrane again. (bio.net)
  • The encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1" by people in this website by year, and whether "Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Immature and mature DC were defined by CD1a and DC-lysosome-associated membrane protein/CD83 expression, respectively. (jimmunol.org)
  • The DC-lysosome-associated membrane protein/CD1a ratio was 1.1 in RA synovium and 5.3 in tonsils, suggesting the relative accumulation of immature DC in RA synovium. (jimmunol.org)
  • Conversely, DC-lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) and CD83 have been associated with more mature DC subsets. (jimmunol.org)
  • These two subsets up-regulate MHC class II costimulatory molecules as well as the DC maturation marker DC-lysosome-associated membrane protein, and they stimulate naive, allogeneic CD4 + T cells efficiently. (jimmunol.org)
  • Description: The eBioH4A3 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD107a, also known as lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1). (fishersci.com)
  • The sugar composition and the number and size of branches in the sugar tree varies among glycans bound to a protein, among glycoproteins, and among cell types, tissues, and species ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Cancer cell membrane proteins are released into the plasma/serum by exterior protein cleavage, membrane sloughing, cellular secretion or cell lysis, and represent promising candidates for interrogation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, only three N-linked glycosylated proteins, galectin-3 binding protein, lysosome associated membrane glycoprotein 1, and oxygen regulated protein, were identified in all three breast cancer cell lines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP1) is a part of the LAMP family. (prospecbio.com)
  • LAMP1 is a membrane protein which is expressed in the endosome-lysosome membranes of cells and is implicated in tumor cell metastasis. (prospecbio.com)
  • Prior to posttranslational modification, Lysosome Associated Membrane Protein 2 (LAMP 2) is an ~45 kDa polypeptide. (genetex.com)
  • Lysosome membrane protein II (IPR005429) Lysosome membrane protein II (LIMP II) is a 478-residue glycoprotein expressed in the membrane of lysosomes and secretory granules with lysosomal properties. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that the bacteria-like vesicles and refringent particles observed in human blood represent non-living membrane vesicles and protein aggregates derived from blood. (nature.com)
  • Cells deficient in lysosome membrane-associated protein-2 (LAMP-2) have increased numbers of autophagosomes but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • This facilitates the fusion event that occurs when a v-SNARE (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) in the membrane of one vesicle engages a t-SNARE to form a bundle of four parallel core SNARE domains that approximates the two bilayers and precipitates fusion ( Whyte and Munro, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • The core protein machinery that is necessary to drive formation and consumption of intermediates in the macroautophagy pathway includes a ubiquitin-like protein conjugation system and a protein complex that directs membrane docking and fusion at the lysosome or vacuole. (sciencemag.org)
  • These include lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP), which is targeted as a transmembrane protein to the lysosome where it is cleaved to release the soluble enzyme, and a number of lysosomal membrane associated glycoproteins including the homologous families of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 as well as other smaller molecular weight glycoproteins including LIMP II and CD63. (go.jp)
  • Decreased levels of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) and elevated acid phosphatase and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activities indicated that the RNASET2 knockout rats likely had altered lysosomal function and potential defects in autophagy. (biologists.org)
  • The lysosomal integral membrane protein type-2 (LIMP-2) plays a pivotal role in the delivery of β-glucocerebrosidase (GC) to lysosomes. (northwestern.edu)
  • CD107a, also known as Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP-1) or LGP-120, is a 110-140 kD type I membrane glycoprotein. (biolegend.com)
  • The disulfide structure of mouse lysosome-associated membrane protein 1. (abnova.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a type III glycoprotein that is located primarily in limiting membranes of lysosomes and endosomes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Earlier studies in mice and rat suggested that this protein may participate in membrane transportation and the reorganization of endosomal/lysosomal compartment. (thermofisher.com)
  • The protein deficiency in mice was reported to impair cell membrane transport processes and cause pelvic junction obstruction, deafness, and peripheral neuropathy. (thermofisher.com)
  • Clone REA295 recognizes the CD208 antigen, a single-pass type I intracellular protein also known as lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP-3) or DC-lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (DC-LAMP). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2, synonyms: LAMPB, CD107b) is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. (ptglab.com)
  • Clone REA777 recognizes the mouse CD107a antigen, a 110-140 kDa type I membrane protein which is heavily glycosylated from a 40 kDa core protein. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD107a, also known as lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1), is a ligand for galaptin, an S-type lectin, and is located on lysosomal membrans that can be used to distinguish lysosomes from other organelles. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Endolyn-78 was present at low levels in the plasma membrane and in peripheral tubular endosomes, but was prominent in morphologically diverse components of the endosomal compartment (vacuolar endosomes and various types of multivesicular bodies) which acquired alpha-2-macroglobulin at 18.5 degrees C, and frequently contained substantial levels of the MPR and variable levels of beta-glucuronidase. (rupress.org)
  • Secretory lysosomes are then able to polarise along microtubules, fuse with the plasma membrane and deliver their effector molecules to the IS. (bl.uk)
  • Since SR-B LIMP2-deficient mice show reduced expression of several apical plasma membrane proteins, sorting of proteins to the apical membrane is likely an evolutionary conserved function of Dsb and LIMP2. (bireme.br)
  • 2%) of LAMP-1 is associated with the plasma membrane of most nucleated cells, presumably as a result of selective exchange of lysosomal and plasma membranes. (beckman.com)
  • Lattice structures forming between LacNAc repeats on N-glycan branches, and galectins determine plasma membrane glycoprotein residency time by inhibiting endocytosis of them (31,34). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the years just prior to that, Dr. Fambrough's research group studied the mechanisms by which cells regulate the number and spatial distribution of their membrane proteins, focusing upon integral membrane proteins that come to reside in the lysosomal membrane (LAMP-1and LAMP 2), the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca-ATPase), and the plasma membrane (Na,K-ATPase). (searlescholars.net)
  • of total CD107a is found also on the plasma membrane. (fishersci.com)
  • LAMP1 is also found on the plasma membrane during the activation of NK cells, CD8 & T cells, monocytes, basophils, and platelets. (prospecbio.com)
  • Pearse proposed that clathrin might assemble on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane and, by subunit rearrangement, deform a cell surface patch into a coated bud and vesicle and thus capture cell surface-bound ligands into a coated transport vesicle. (pnas.org)
  • Studies of LAP, LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 have generated conflicting data as to the biosynthetic targeting pathway of these proteins and, in particular, as to whether it includes the plasma membrane. (go.jp)
  • Native purified Lamp1 from plasma membrane fraction of mouse embryo NIH3T3 cell line. (abnova.com)
  • Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins (LAMPs) are integral membrane proteins, specific to lysosomes, and whose exact biological function is not yet clear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the process of lysosomal maturation appears to involve the progressive delivery of lysosomal enzymes to various types of endosomes that may have already received some of the lysosomal membrane proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Although endolyn-78 would be one of the proteins added early to endosomes, other lysosomal membrane proteins may be added only to multivesicular endosomes that represent very advanced stages of maturation. (rupress.org)
  • LAMP3 also known as DC-LAMP (Dendritic cell lysosomal associated membrane glycoprotein) is a member of the LAMP family along with LAMP1 and LAMP2, these proteins make up the members of the glycoconjugate coat present on the inside of the lysosomal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, we found that depletion of proteins involved in vesicular transport to the apical membrane, but not in lysosomal function, causes dsb-like airway elongation defects. (bireme.br)
  • 13] "Integral and associated lysosomal membrane proteins. (tcdb.org)
  • The monoclonal antibodies to these membrane proteins have been donated to the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, a non-profit center for distribution of hybridoma cells and antibodies. (searlescholars.net)
  • Lysosomal unique highly acidic environment creates some sort of protection for cytoplasmic components against noncontrolled autodigestion, additionally reinforced by integral proteins of the lysosomal membrane that are highly glycosylated to protect both lysosomal membrane and cytosolic elements against autodigestion [ 2 , 4 , 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • This 'reconstitution' step is the blackest of all arts in biochemistry, but recently some theoretical basics for the process have been worked out, for a review see: @article{Rig-98, AUTHOR= {J.L. Rigaud}, TITLE= {Membrane proteins: {F}unctional and structural studies using reconstituted proteoliposomes and 2-{D} crystals}, YEAR= {2002}, JOURNAL= {Braz. (bio.net)
  • The LAMP proteins are involved in lysosome biogenesis and are required for fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes. (fishersci.com)
  • Because many known disease biomarkers are both glycoproteins and membrane bound, we chose the hydrazide method to specifically target, enrich, and identify glycosylated proteins from breast cancer cell membrane fractions using the LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our initial goal was to select membrane proteins from breast cancer cell lines and then to use the hydrazide method to identify the N-linked proteome as a prelude to evaluation of plasma/serum proteins from cancer patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In MCF-7, MDA-MB-453 and MDA-MB-468 cell membrane fractions, use of the hydrazide method facilitated an initial enrichment and site mapping of 27 N-linked glycosylation sites in 25 different proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The lysosomal membrane consists of a lipid bilayer and membrane proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • The most abundant lysosomal membrane proteins are lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2). (hindawi.com)
  • The inner lumen of these proteins is highly glycosylated and protects the lysosomal membrane from the digestive enzymes [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on lipid analysis and Western blotting, we show that the bacteria-like entities consist of membrane vesicles containing serum and exosome proteins, including albumin, fetuin-A, apolipoprotein-A1, alkaline phosphatase, TNFR1 and CD63. (nature.com)
  • Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is characterized by unique double-membrane vacuoles that transfer surplus and damaged proteins and organelles into lysosomes for degradation. (biologists.org)
  • They involve the interactions between numerous proteins, including some specific for autophagosome/lysosome fusion and others involved in vesicular fusion more generally. (biologists.org)
  • Dsb localizes in intracellular vesicles, and a subset of these associate with lysosomes. (bireme.br)
  • Lipophagy consists in selective degradation of intracellular lipid droplets by lysosome and mounting evidence suggests that lipophagy is dysregulated in NAFLD. (frontiersin.org)
  • reported paradoxical observations after a vectorial study of saquinavir transport across a monolayer of modified P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Cyp3A4-expressing Caco-2 cells: there were higher intracellular levels of saquinavir, yet less metabolite formation after apical compared with basal dosing. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although this was not appreciated at the outset, we now know the action of these hormones is modulated by ligand-receptor internalization into intracellular membrane compartments. (pnas.org)
  • However, some intracellular pathogens inhabit vacuoles that interact with compartments of the biosynthetic pathway, while others escape from the phagosomes or remain in vacuoles which neither acidify nor fuse with lysosomes (for a review see reference 31 ). (asm.org)
  • It is a member of the lysosomal/endosomal-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP) family. (nih.gov)
  • 1] "Cloning of cDNAs encoding human lysosomal membrane glycoproteins, h-lamp-1 and h-lamp-2. (tcdb.org)
  • 5] "Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding lamp A, a human lysosomal membrane glycoprotein with apparent Mr approximately equal to 120,000. (tcdb.org)
  • 6] "The genes of major lysosomal membrane glycoproteins, lamp-1 and lamp-2. (tcdb.org)
  • 8] "The polylactosaminoglycans of human lysosomal membrane glycoproteins lamp-1 and lamp-2. (tcdb.org)
  • 9] "Assignment of O-glycan attachment sites to the hinge-like regions of human lysosomal membrane glycoproteins lamp-1 and lamp-2. (tcdb.org)
  • Together with LAMP-2, they are the mayor glycoproteins on the membrane of lysosome granules. (beckman.com)
  • NASDAQ: RCKT), is developing its first adeno-associated viral vector -based gene therapy, RP-A501, that is designed to restore the lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (LAMP-2) gene which is defective in patients afflicted with Danon disease, the company said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Concurrent reductions in B7-1 (CD80), B7-2 (CD86), CD40, MHC class II, CD83, DC-lysosomal-associated membrane glycoprotein (DC-LAMP), and CD11c expression were detected on lesional DCs, which also decreased in number within lesional biopsies. (rupress.org)
  • LAMP 2 has a structure comprised of a large amino-terminal intra-lysosomal domain, a hydrophobic trans-membrane domain, and a short carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail. (genetex.com)
  • By transfecting LAMP-2-deficient and LAMP-1/2--double-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with a tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 we observed a failure of fusion between the autophagosomes and the lysosomes that could be rescued by complementation with LAMP-2A. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, LAMP-2 is essential for STX17 expression by the autophagosomes and this absence is sufficient to explain their failure to fuse with lysosomes. (biologists.org)
  • DC vaccines consisted of 2 × 10 7 mature pp65 lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP) mRNA-pulsed DCs (pp65-DCs) admixed with 150 μg GM-CSF. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cytoplasmic domain of LAP, LAMP-1 and LIMP II is capable of targeting the ectodomain of non-lysosomal glycopoteins to the lysosome. (go.jp)
  • 1986) Lysosomal membrane glycoproteins: properties of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • EPG5 is recruited to late endosomes/lysosomes by direct interaction with Rab7 and the late endosomal/lysosomal R-SNARE VAMP7/8. (nih.gov)
  • Both late endosomes and lysosomes showed labeling for Igp120, the lysosomal membrane glycoprotein. (nih.gov)
  • Man-Au20, injected 24 h before fixation as a marker for late endocytic compartments, was found in two distinct compartments, presumably representing late endosomes and lysosomes. (nih.gov)
  • The antibody will label the presumptive lysosomes and late endosomes in cells that have been permeabilized with saponin. (genetex.com)
  • In cells expressing any one of these receptors, externally added FGF1 was localized to sorting/early endosomes after 15 minutes at 37°C. After longer incubation times, FGF1 internalized in cells expressing FGFR1 was localized mainly to late endosomes/lysosomes, similarly to EGF. (biologists.org)
  • Multivesicular bodies fuse with late endosomes and the endocytosed material is then sorted to lysosomes for degradation. (biologists.org)
  • Dense core lysosomes can fuse with late endosomes and are re-formed from the resultant hybrid organelles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CD107a has been suggested to play a role in the protection of lysosomal membrane from lysosomal hydrolases which is involved in cell adhesion and regulation of tumor metastasis, and mediates autoimmune disease progression. (biolegend.com)
  • At the beginning of this century, a number of researchers conducted systematic reviews on the association of platelet membrane glycoprotein polymorphisms and risk of CAD. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The data support a viral entry mechanism dependent on binding to the lysosome-resident receptor LAMP1 and further dissociation of the membrane-distal GP1 subunits. (nih.gov)
  • Acidic pH-Induced Conformations and LAMP1 Binding of the Lassa Virus Glycoprotein Spike. (nih.gov)
  • LAMP1 and LAMP2 make up about 50% of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study of glial tumors, the cell membranes of glial and endothelial cells were found to contain LAMP1 and LAMP2, while YKL-40 (a different glycoprotein) was found in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The targeting of Lamp1 to lysosomes is dependent on the spacing of its cytoplasmic tail tyrosine sorting motif relative to the membrane. (abnova.com)
  • A monoclonal antibody (2C5) raised against rat liver lysosomal membranes was used to identify a 78-kD glycoprotein that is present in the membranes of both endosomes and lysosomes and, therefore, is designated endolyn-78. (rupress.org)
  • Using a cell-free content mixing assay containing rat liver endosomes and lysosomes in the presence of pig brain cytosol, we demonstrated that after incubation at 37 degrees C, late endosome-lysosome hybrid organelles were formed, which could be isolated by density gradient centrifugation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cytoplasmic components are degraded within the lysosome by microautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy, and macroautophagy ( 3-5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Except for LIMP II, the lysosomal membrane glycoproteins contain a Gly-Tyr-X-X-hydrophobic amino acid lysosomal targeting motif in their cytoplasmic domains. (go.jp)
  • Human RNASET2 may have several functional roles that are dependent on its ribonuclease activity, including scavenging extracellular nucleic acids for nutrients during cellular stress and recycling cytoplasmic RNAs that are delivered to lysosomes or vacuoles during autophagy ( Luhtala and Parker, 2010 ). (biologists.org)
  • Cytoplasmic portions and organelles are sequestered in a membranous structure (i.e., autophagosome) that interacts with the endocytic pathway and finally fuses with the lysosomes, where the incorporated materials are degraded ( 17 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • One antibody, 2C6, was found to be specific for CD63, a membrane glycoprotein previously described in the lysosomes of platelets and other cell types. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Endolyn-78, a membrane glycoprotein present in morphologically diverse components of the endosomal and lysosomal compartments: implications for lysosome biogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • Excessive accumulation of Rab5-positive vesicles was observed in ALS2(-/-) neurons, which correlated with a significant reduction in endosomal motility and augmentation in endosomal conversion to lysosomes. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • It is predomitly expressed intracellularly in the lysosomal/endosomal membrane in nearly all cells. (fishersci.com)
  • Subsequently, phagosomes gradually lose these markers and acquire late endosomal markers such as mannose-6-phosphate receptors, Rab7, lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins (LAMPs), and cathepsin D ( 1 , 4 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • This gene encodes a 110-kD transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed by human monocytes and tissue macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Signalling from activated transmembrane receptors is attenuated by degradation in lysosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Lysosomes are membrane-bound vacuoles which play a critical role in cellular metabolism. (genetex.com)
  • In this process, portions of cytoplasm are sequestered within double-membrane vesicles known as autophagic vacuoles in mammalian cells or autophagosomes in yeast ( Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Unlike other ribonuclease families, RNASET2 is optimally active in an acidic environment of pH4 to 5, which is consistent with its localization in lysosomes and vacuoles ( Luhtala and Parker, 2010 ). (biologists.org)
  • Lysosomal membrane markers and enzymes, as well as molecules internalized by fluid phase endocytosis, are easily found in vacuoles containing C. burnetii ( 23 ), and. (asm.org)
  • Lysosomes are membrane-bound vesicles that contain hydrolases for the degradation and recycling of essential nutrients to maintain homeostasis within cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed vesicles that contain at least 60 hydrolases within an acidic environment. (hindawi.com)
  • Lysosomes are the most acidic vesicles within the cell. (hindawi.com)
  • In 59 NAFLD patients, lipid droplet-loaded lysosomes/lipolysosomes and p62/SQSTM1 clusters correlated with NAFLD activity score (NAS) and with NAS and fibrosis stage, respectively, and levels of expression of lysosomal genes, as well as autophagy-related genes, correlated with NAS and fibrosis stage. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lysosomes are acidic organelles originally described as cellular waste baskets and recycling centers responsible for the digestion and reuse of cargo delivered to them mainly by endocytosis and autophagy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Perfluorooctane sulfonate blocked autophagy flux and induced lysosome membrane permeabilization in HepG2 cells. (ptglab.com)
  • Consequently, a significant increase in endosome/lysosome-dependent degradation of internalized glutamate receptors was observed in ALS2(-/-) neurons. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, some of the membrane glycoproteins function as specific receptors for molecules destined to degradation in lysosomes [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Upon internalization, the receptors appear in early/sorting endosomes where the receptors destined for degradation in the lysosomes become ubiquitylated. (biologists.org)
  • These hydrolyses are stored in the lysosomal membrane, which also house lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the synthesis of N-linked glycans in mammalian cells ( Fig. 2 ), a 14-saccharide "core" unit is assembled as a membrane-bound dolichylpyrophosphate precursor by enzymes located on both sides of the ER membrane ( 1 , 4 , 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Interestingly, the hydrazide method isolated a number of other N-linked glycoproteins also known to be involved in breast cancer including, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), CD44, and the breast cancer 1, and early onset isoform 1 (BRCA1) biomarker. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This association is often found in the case of those surface glycoproteins bearing a predominant axonal localization. (go.jp)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) kill virally infected and tumourigenic cells via the regulated secretion of specialised secretory lysosomes. (bl.uk)
  • These secretory lysosomes contain cytolytic effector molecules, such as perforin and granzymes, which are able to induce apoptosis in target cells. (bl.uk)
  • Lysosomes are cell organelles found in most animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] They are rarely found on the plasma membranes of normal cells, and are found more on highly metastatic tumors than on poorly metastatic ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has made cancer cells susceptible to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). (hindawi.com)
  • Hickman and Neufeld observed that the fraction of lysosomal enzymes secreted by normal cultured fibroblasts could be recaptured into cells and then to the lysosome dependent on a selective process of uptake at the cell surface ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • In cells expressing FGFR2 or FGFR3, sorting of FGF1 to lysosomes was somewhat less efficient than that observed for FGFR1. (biologists.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the lysosome or vacuole is a major degradative organelle. (sciencemag.org)
  • F3 is a 135kDa glycoprotein expressed at the surface of cultured neuronal cells and released in soluble form in the culture medium. (go.jp)
  • Many commonly used CADs, including several cation amphiphilic antihistamines and antidepressants, induce cancer-specific, lysosome-dependent cell death and sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prompted by significant changes in the expression of genes involved in Ca 2+ and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathways in CAD-resistant MCF7 breast cancer cells, we identified here an early lysosomal Ca 2+ release through P2X purinergic receptor 4 (P2RX4) and subsequent Ca 2+ - and adenylyl cyclase 1 (ADCY1)-dependent synthesis of cAMP as a signaling route mediating CAD-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cancer-associated changes in lysosomal composition result in reduced lysosomal membrane stability, thereby sensitizing cells to lysosome-dependent cell death ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This frailty can be targeted by cationic amphiphilic drugs (CAD) that induce lysosome-dependent death of cancer cells regardless of their origin, and sensitize them to chemotherapy in vitro and in various murine cancer models in vivo ( 12-19 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9UQV4 (Human Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3)) at the PDBe-KB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syntaxin 7 is localized to late endosome compartments, associates with Vamp 8, and Is required for late endosome-lysosome fusion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An arrested late endosome-lysosome intermediate aggregate observed in a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant isolated by novel three-step screening. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The data indicate that after endocytosis, FGFR4 and its bound ligand are sorted mainly to the recycling compartment, whereas FGFR1-3 with ligand are sorted mainly to degradation in the lysosomes. (biologists.org)
  • CD208 is found in the MHC class II compartment immediately before the translocation of MHC class II molecules to the cell surface, after which it concentrates into perinuclear lysosomes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Lysosomes represent the hydrolytic compartment not only for extracellular substrates (e.g., microorganisms) but also for turnover of cellular components including organelles. (asm.org)
  • CD36/scavenger receptor class B member 1 (IPR005428) This entry includes platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) and scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1, also known as CD36 antigen-like 1) from humans, and sensory neuron membrane pro. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Purified preparation of mouse liver lysosomal membranes. (genetex.com)
  • This glycoprotein provides selectins with carbohydrate ligands. (nih.gov)
  • Ricin, a highly mannosylated glycoprotein, is internalized mainly by receptor-mediated endocytosis via the mannose receptor in the EC. (nih.gov)
  • In yet another landmark paper published in PNAS, Pedro Cuatrecasas developed the powerful approach of affinity purification to isolate the insulin cell surface receptor from liver membranes ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lysines are potential ubiquitylation sites and could thus target a receptor to lysosomes for degradation. (biologists.org)
  • CAD-induced inhibition of lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase is necessary, but not sufficient, for the subsequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death, while other pathways regulating this cell death pathway are largely unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data reveal a previously unrecognized lysosomal P2RX4- and ADCY1-dependent signaling cascade as a pathway essential for CAD-induced lysosome-dependent cell death and encourage further investigations to find the most potent combinations of CADs and cAMP-inducing drugs for cancer therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The effect of wortmannin on the localisation of lysosomal type I integral membrane glycoproteins suggests a role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in regulating membrane traffic late in the endocytic pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, biochemical and morphological studies show that in both pathways, the basic mechanism of cytoplasm-to-vacuole transport involves sequestration by a cytosolic double-membrane vesicle ( 12 , 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Lysosomes are often termed the garbage disposal of the cell, but as our knowledge and understanding increase, the roles lysosomes play in other cellular functions expand [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A third theme of discovery comes from the work of Gilbert Ashwell and Elizabeth Neufeld, who studied the tissue and cellular uptake of glycoproteins. (pnas.org)
  • In line with their role in such essential cellular processes, reduced lysosomal function is associated with severe degenerative diseases ( 5-7 ), while lysosomal activation is a common feature of aggressive cancers, where lysosomes promote cancer metabolism and invasion ( 8-10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunocytochemical experiments showed that endolyn-78 is present in the limiting membranes and the interior membranous structures of morphologically identifiable secondary lysosomes that contain the lysosomal hydrolase beta-glucuronidase, lack the MPR, and could not be labeled with alpha-2-macroglobulin at 18.5 degrees C, a temperature which prevents appearance of endocytosed markers in lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Finally, phagosomes fuse with secondary lysosomes, acquiring higher concentrations of hydrolytic enzymes and LAMPs and a lower pH ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • A number of lysosomal glycoproteins exist which are membrane associated and do not contain the mannose-6-phosphate lysosomal targeting signal which sorts soluble lysosomal hydrolases to the lysosome in the Golgi apparatus. (go.jp)
  • Designated for autodigestion, extracellular high-molecular substances reach lysosomes by endocytosis, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis [ 6 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The unwanted material is incorporated into autophagosomes that eventually fuse with lysosomes, leading to the degradation of their cargo. (biologists.org)
  • Eventually autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes to become autolysosomes. (biologists.org)
  • This acidic pH is maintained by the action of a proton pump which hydrolyzes ATP to ADP in order to pump an H + ion into the lumen of the lysosome [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • High intralysosomal [H + ] (about 100x higher than in cytoplasm) is maintained by vacuolar H + , V-type ATPase, located in the lysosomal membrane, which uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons into lysosomes [ 1 - 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Macroautophagy is a dynamic process involving the rearrangement of subcellular membranes to sequester cytoplasm and organelles for delivery to the lysosome or vacuole where the sequestered cargo is degraded and recycled. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, regulated turnover of organelles is confined to the lysosome. (sciencemag.org)
  • After internalization, the particles become sequestered in membrane-bound organelles, called phagosomes, which undergo a process of maturation that involves acidification and several fusion events. (asm.org)
  • The fusion event is mediated by the interaction between the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) on autophagosomes and the R-SNARE VAMP8 on lysosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes is essential for autophagic flux and the mechanisms responsible are beginning to be understood ( Mizushima, 2014 ). (biologists.org)
  • membrane attack complex (MAC) C5b,6,7,8,9, the five-molecule complex that is the cytolytic agent of the complement system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This molecule is located on the luminal side of lysosomes. (biolegend.com)
  • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. (hmdb.ca)
  • These glycans are then subjected to extensive modification as the glycoproteins mature and move through the ER via the Golgi complex to their final destinations inside and outside the cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, the spectrum of glycoforms remains rather uniform until the glycoproteins reach the medial stacks of the Golgi apparatus, where structural diversification is introduced through a series of nonuniform modifications. (sciencemag.org)
  • Spinster is required for autophagic lysosome reformation and mTOR reactivation following starvation. (umassmed.edu)