The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.

Model for bacteriophage T4 development in Escherichia coli. (1/1542)

Mathematical relations for the number of mature T4 bacteriophages, both inside and after lysis of an Escherichia coli cell, as a function of time after infection by a single phage were obtained, with the following five parameters: delay time until the first T4 is completed inside the bacterium (eclipse period, nu) and its standard deviation (sigma), the rate at which the number of ripe T4 increases inside the bacterium during the rise period (alpha), and the time when the bacterium bursts (mu) and its standard deviation (beta). Burst size [B = alpha(mu - nu)], the number of phages released from an infected bacterium, is thus a dependent parameter. A least-squares program was used to derive the values of the parameters for a variety of experimental results obtained with wild-type T4 in E. coli B/r under different growth conditions and manipulations (H. Hadas, M. Einav, I. Fishov, and A. Zaritsky, Microbiology 143:179-185, 1997). A "destruction parameter" (zeta) was added to take care of the adverse effect of chloroform on phage survival. The overall agreement between the model and the experiment is quite good. The dependence of the derived parameters on growth conditions can be used to predict phage development under other experimental manipulations.  (+info)

Control of corynebacteriophage reproduction by heteroimmune repression. (2/1542)

Corynebacteriophages beta and gamma are closely related but heteroimmune; hence, gamma reproduces in C7(beta). A series of gamma mutants, designated gamma-bin (beta-inhibited), has been isolated. They reproduce in only 2 to 14% of infected C7(beta) cells, and, as a result, plaque with an efficiency of 10(-4) to 10(-5) on this strain. The proportion of C7(beta) cells in which gamma-bin phage can replicate is increased to 30 to 80% when immunity is lifted by UV induction of C7(beta) or by heat induction of C7(beta-tsr3). The gamma-bin mutants carry out a normal vegetative or lysogenic cycle in strain C7 and thus do not appear to be defective in any essential phage function. Infection of C7(beta) by gamma-bin results in cell killing whether the infection is productive or nonproductive. The data support the hypothesis that inhibition of gamma-bin is due to the direct or indirect action of a beta prophage gene. The simplest hypothesis is that gamma-bin phages have sustained mutations in an operator site and that beta repressor now combines with the mutated operator to inhibit normal replication in a significant proportion of infected cells.  (+info)

Correlated genetic and EcoRI cleavage map of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi105 DNA. (3/1542)

The seven previously identified EcoRI cleavage fragments of phi 105 DNA were ordered with respect to their sites of origin on the phage genome by marker rescue. One fragment, H, did not carry any determinants essential for replication. This fragment was totally missing in a deletion mutant which exhibited a lysogenization-defective phenotype. There is a nonessential region on the phi 105 genome which begins in fragment B, spans fragment H, and ends in fragment F. The size of the nonessential region, as estimated by alterations observed in the fragmentation patterns of deletion mutant DNAs, is approximately 2.7 X 10(6) daltons. Two new EcoRI cleavage fragments with molecular weights of approximately 0.2 X 10(6) were detected by autoradiography of 32P-labeled DNA. These small fragments were not located on the cleavage map.  (+info)

A complex control circuit. Regulation of immunity in temperate bacteriophages. (4/1542)

Temperate bacteriophages can display in a stable way two essentially different behaviours. In the immune state, a gene (cI) produces a repressor which prevents expression of all the other viral genes; in the non-immune state the typically viral functions are expressed. The choice between the two pathways and the establishment of one of them have much in common with cell determination and differentiation. This choice depends on a complex control system, in fact one of the most intricate nets of regulation known in some detail. Our paper provides a formal description and partial analysis of this regulatory net. It is shown that even for relatively simple known models, this kind of analysis uncovers predictions which had previously remained hidden. Some of these predictions were checked experimentally. The experimental part chiefly deals with the efficiency of lysogenization by thermoinducible lambda phage carrying mutations in one or more of the regulatory genes, N, cro and cII. Although N- mutations are widely known for preventing efficient integration, and both N- and cII mutations for preventing efficient establishment of immunity, it is shown that, as predicted by a simple model, both N- and cII- phage efficiently lysogenize at low temperature if they are in addition cro-. In contrast with lambda N- cro+, lambda N- cro- is not propagated as a plasmid at low temperature, precisely because it establishes immunity too efficiently. Genetic control circuits are described in terms of sets of logic equations, which relate the state of expression of genes or of chemical reactions (functions) to input (genetic and environmental) variables and to the presence of gene and reaction products (internal, or memorization varibles). From the set of equations, one derives a matrix which shows the stable stationary states (if any) of the system, and from which one can derive the pathways (temporal sequences of states) consistent with the model. This kind of analysis is complementary to the more widely used analysis based on differential equations; it allows one to analyze in less detail more complex systems. The language might be used as well, mutatis mutandis, in fields very different from genetics. The last part of the discussion deals with the role of positive feedback loops in our specific problem (establishment and maintenance of immunity in temperate bacteriophages) and in developmental genetics in general. As a generalization of an old idea, it is suggested that cell determination (for a given character) depends on a set of genes whose interaction constitutes a positive feedback loop. Such a system has two stable stationary states: which one is chosen will usually depend on additional controls grafted on the loop.  (+info)

Cooperative interaction of CI protein regulates lysogeny of Lactobacillus casei by bacteriophage A2. (5/1542)

The temperate bacteriophage A2 forms stable lysogens in Lactobacillus casei. The A2-encoded cI product (CI), which is responsible for maintaining the A2 prophage in the lysogenic state, has been purified. The CI protein, which is a monomer of 25.3 kDa in solution, specifically binds to a 153-bp DNA fragment that contains two divergent promoters, PL and PR. These promoters mediate transcription from cI and a putative cro, respectively. Three similar, although not identical, 20-bp inverted repeated DNA segments (operator sites O1, O2, and O3) were found in this segment. CI selectively interacts with O1, which is placed downstream from the transcription start point of the cro gene, and with O2 and O3, which overlap with the -35 region of the two promoters. Using a heterologous RNA polymerase, we have determined the transcription start points of PL and PR. CI exerts a negative effect on the in vitro transcription of PR by repositioning the RNA polymerase in a concentration-dependent manner. CI, when bound to O1 and O2, enhances the positioning of the RNA polymerase with the PL promoter. Our data indicate that the CI protein regulates the lytic and lysogenic pathways of the A2 phage.  (+info)

Site-specific integration of corynephage phi16: construction of an integration vector. (6/1542)

Phi16, a temperate phage induced from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21792, lysogenizes its host via site-specific recombination. The phage attachment site, attP, was located to a 6.5 kb BamHI fragment of the phi16 genome. This fragment also contained phi16 integrative functions. The minimal phage DNA fragment required for integration was defined. This 1630 bp region contained a large open reading frame, int, encoding a protein of 416 amino acids with similarity in its carboxyl-terminal domain to tyrosine recombinases and particularly to the Xer recombinases. The comparison of the nucleotide sequences of attB, attL, attR, and attP identified a common 29 bp sequence, the core sequence. It lies 11 bp downstream of the 3' end of the integrase gene. phi16 integrase was shown to catalyse site-specific integration in trans to attP with an efficiency of 5x10(3) integrants per microg DNA. The integrating fragment catalysed integration in several Corynebacterium strains that are not infected by phi16, thus enlarging the host spectrum of integrating vectors derived from phi16. In these strains, the phi16 attB site was located in a conserved intergenic region and lies downstream of a clp gene.  (+info)

Characterization of the major control region of Vibrio cholerae bacteriophage K139: immunity, exclusion, and integration. (7/1542)

The temperate bacteriophage K139 is highly associated with pathogenic O1 Vibrio cholerae strains. The nucleotide sequence of the major control region of K139 was determined. The sequences of four (cox, cII, cI, and int) of the six deduced open reading frames and their gene order indicated that K139 is related to the P2 bacteriophage family. Two genes of the lysogenic transcript from the mapped promoter PL encode homologs to the proteins CI and Int, with deduced functions in prophage formation and maintenance. Between the cI and int genes, two additional genes were identified: orf2, which has no significant similarity to any other gene, and the formerly characterized gene glo. Further analysis revealed that Orf2 is involved in preventing superinfection. In a previous report, we described that mutations in glo cause an attenuation effect in the cholera mouse model (J. Reidl and J. J. Mekalanos, Mol. Microbiol. 18:685-701, 1995). In this report, we present strong evidence that Glo participates in phage exclusion. Glo was characterized to encode a 13.6-kDa periplasmic protein which inhibits phage infection at an early step, hence preventing reinfection of vibriophage K139 into K139 lysogenic cells. Immediately downstream of gene int, the attP site was identified. Upon analysis of the corresponding attB site within the V. cholerae chromosome, it became evident that phage K139 is integrated between the flagellin genes flaA and flaC of O1 El Tor and O139 V. cholerae lysogenic strains.  (+info)

New insertion sequences and a novel repeated sequence in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. (8/1542)

The genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was found to contain 56 loci with homology to insertion sequences (ISs). As well as the previously described IS6110, IS1081, IS1547 and IS-like elements, new ISs belonging to the IS3, IS5, IS21, IS30, IS110, IS256 and ISL3 families were identified. In addition, six ISs created a grouping of their own to form a new family (the IS1535 family). Elements with similarity to ISs in other actinomycetes were identified, suggesting the movement of ISs between related genera. The location of ISs on the chromosome revealed that an approximately 600 kb region close to the origin of replication lacks ISs, pointing to the possible detrimental effect of insertions in this area. Analysis of the distribution of ISs through the tubercle strains Mycobacterium africanum, M. microti, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG Pasteur, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis CSU#93 and 29 clinical isolates revealed that only IS1532, IS1533, 1S1534, and IS1561' were absent from some of the strains tested. A novel repeated sequence, the REP13E12 family, is described that is present in seven copies on the M. tuberculosis H37Rv chromosome and which contains a probable phage attachment site. This study therefore offers an insight into the possible role of ISs and repetitive elements in the evolution of the M. tuberculosis genome, as well as identifying genetic markers that may be useful for phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of the tubercle complex.  (+info)

Bacteriophages are the most abundant organisms on the planet and both lytic and temperate phages play key roles as shapers of ecosystems and drivers of bacterial evolution. Temperate phages can choose between (i)lysis: exploiting their bacterial hosts by producing multiple phage particles and releasing them by lysing the host cell, and (ii) lysogeny: establishing a potentially mutually beneficial relationship with the host by integrating their chromosome into the host cells genome. Temperate phages exhibit lysogeny propensities in the curiously narrow range of 5-15%. For some temperate phages, the propensity is further regulated by the multiplicity of infection, such that single infections go predominantly lytic while multiple infections go predominantly lysogenic. We ask whether these observations can be explained by selection pressures in environments where multiple phage variants compete for the same host. Our models of pairwise competition, between phage variants that differ only in their
Definition of lysogeny in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of lysogeny. What does lysogeny mean? Information and translations of lysogeny in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Usually bacteriophages lyse their hosts following infection, however a few so-called temperate phage undergo lysogeny. In lysogeny, the bacteriophage integrates its genome into that of its host. The phage, then, is replicated each time the bacterial cell divides. In the lysogenic state, the bacteriophage can have considerable influence over host physiology ...
Summary: When lysogenic salmonella strains were examined for conjugative ability in tri-parental crosses, false positive results were sometimes obtained because phage carried by the lysogenic strains multiplied on the intermediate salmonella recipient strain and then transduced its streptomycin/sulphonamide resistance plasmid to the final salmonella recipient strain. Back transfer of the plasmid to the lysogenic strains was also detected.
Regulation by a cascade in phages, Regulation of Gene Expression Cricuit of Lytic Cycle and Lysogeny in Bacteriophages, Genetics
Some mammalian carcinogens and their metabolites affect the viability of Salmonella typhimurium strains, as indicated by a decrease in colony formation, and also induce prophage. We determined the minimum concentration required for prophage induction and the maximum prophage induction frequency for each carcinogen. The latter value was determined by the ratio of the number of induced phage particles relative to that of spontaneously induced phage particles in the controls. This value is constant for each carcinogen, regardless of its concentration. Since damage of the bacterial genome results in prophage induction, the reactivity of each compound with the genome may be indicated by the minimum concentration required for prophage induction and the maximum frequency of prophage induction. Carcinogens unable to affect bacterial viability are also unable to induce prophage. Failure to induce prophage indicates a requirement for metabolic activation by mammalian enzymes. Interaction of these ...
Theory predicts that lysogeny becomes the preferred strategy when the cell density falls below the lower limit necessary for maintenance of the phage density by repeated cycles of lytic infections. The argument is that the production of temperate phages is independent of host cell density. Indeed, two marine surveys revealed 40% mitomycin C-inducible cells, and similar proportions of lysogens were identified in Pseudomonas colonies from lakes. In contrast, UV or sunlight was not a good inducer of prophages in water samples. The surveys showed a trend for lysogeny to be more prevalent in oligotrophic environments (35). This observation fits with theory, since this setting is dominated by the low density of slow-growing bacteria. Other data contradict this interpretation. Surveys in estuarine waters showed a seasonal development of lysogeny with highs in the summer months when eutrophic conditions were prevalent and lows in the winter months when cells were at their minimum (20, 44). There are ...
The emergence in the last two decades of new epidemic Salmonella strains with enhanced virulence traits is indicative of the fast pace of the evolutionary process. This chapter reviews the evidence pointing to a central role played by temperate phages in the dissemination of virulence determinants in the Salmonella complex. The lysogenic condition of most Salmonella strains was recognized prior to an understanding of the genetic bases of lysogeny. Early studies also indicated that some genes of certain prophages escape lysogenic repression and express functions that modify the host bacterium. Since phage and chromosomal sequences near the attachment sites of most prophages are conserved, PCR can be used to assess the phage occupancy of these sites. This approach is particularly attractive because the reaction can be designed in such a way as to always give a signal, and the presence or absence of the prophage can be deduced from the size of the amplified fragment. Preliminary analyses confirmed that the
296129088 - EP 0974666 A1 20000126 - METHODS FOR TRANSFERRING GENE INTO CHROMOSOME - Method for transferring a foreign gene into a host chromosome by contrived procedures to integrate the foreign gene into a vector by utilizing a lysogenic phage, for the purpose of deleting unnecessary genes derived from the vector or the like, except for the foreign gene. One of the inventive method comprises: a first step for preparing a vector with a lysogenic phage integration site (attP site) arranged between a first partial sequence of the objective foreign gene to be transferred but lacking one terminal region thereof and a second partial sequence of the gene but lacking the other terminal region and having an overlapping region with a portion of the first partial sequence; a second step for integrating the vector obtained in the first step into the host chromosome; and a third step for screening from among the recombinants obtained in the second step a recombinant from which unnecessary genes originating in the
André Lwoff, Jacques Monod, and François Jacob, the leaders of the French school of molecular biology, greatly contributed between 1937 and 1965 to its development and triumph. The main discovery of Lwoff was the elucidation of the mechanism of bacteriophage induction, the phenomenon of lysogeny, that led to the model of genetic regulation uncovered later by Jacob and Monod. Working on bacterial growth, Monod discovered in 1941 the phenomenon of diauxy and uncovered the nature of enzyme induction. By combining genetic and biochemical approaches, Monod brought to light the structure and functions of the Escherichia coli lactose system, comprising the genes necessary for lactose metabolism, i.e., β-galactosidase and lactose permease, a pump responsible for accumulation of galactosides into the cells. An additional genetic factor (the i gene) determines the inducibility and constitutivity of enzyme synthesis. Around the same time, François Jacob and Elie Wollman dissected the main events of bacterial
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Phages in this cluster are generally temperate. (This does not, however, guarantee that every single phage will be able to form lysogens, as some may have had important lysogeny genes deleted.). ...
We provide marker retention, lytic and lysogenic phage detection, bacterial viability determination, strain identity testing, purity testing, API 20E identification, and gram staining. Additional testing is available. We also provide extensive sequencing methodology, restriction digest analyses, and Southern and Northern blot testing.
The plaque grew very quickly, and had 3-5mm lysogenic plaques after about 17 hours. When allowed to grow for more than 24 hours, a bullseye pattern formed ...
If the regions total score is less than 70, it is marked as incomplete; if between 70 to 90, it is marked as questionable; if greater than 90, it is marked as intact ...
Spontaneous prophage induction in a small subpopulation of cells which takes place in the absence of a known stimulus is an often observed, but poorly understood phenomenon. With the proposed project we aim to investigate the impact of stress responses and stochasticity fluctuations of key regulatory proteins on the spontaneous induction of the Corynebacterium glutamicum prophage CGP3 at the single cell level. We aim to combine classical microbiological approaches with stochastic modelling and the design of novel microfluidic devices for single cell studies to contribute to a better understanding of spontaneous prophage induction as a general phenomenon in bacterial populations ...
In their study, the researchers first showed that lysogenic strains of S. aureus are killed when exposed to levels of hydrogen peroxide often found in S. pneumonia cultures. The non-lysogenic bacteria were not affected by the treatment of hydrogen peroxide, thereby supporting the selective lethality of hydrogen peroxide in lysogenic bacteria. Not only did the group show that lysogenic S. aureus is more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide lethality, but they also showed that phages are produced is greater quantities when the cultures are treated with hydrogen peroxide. S. pneumonia was resistant to the induction effects whether it was lysogenic or not, and co-culture with S. pneumonia and S. aureus resulted in phage induction and destruction of the lysogenic S. aureus strains. The authors made the point that S. aureus produces an effective catalase that protects it from hydrogen peroxide toxicity, suggesting it should be resistant to the effects of hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, while catalase ...
The effect of the cellular level of RecA protein on the ability of E. coli K12 bacteria to (i) survive UV-irradiation (ii) promote UV-reactivation of UV-damaged phage lambda (iii) induce prophage lambda was determined in bacterial mutants with discrete increasing levels of RecA protein. The various levels of RecA protein were obtained by combining lexA and recA alleles. Except for the double mutant lexA3 recAo98, whose repair ability was 25% less than that observed in wild type bacteria, bacterial survival was proportional to the level of RecA protein measured after 90 min of incubation. In lexA3 recAo98 bacteria, RecA protein, at a constitutive high basal level, failed to compensate totally for the lack of LexA repressor cleavage; UV-reactivation of UV-damaged phage lambda was not restored; yet, prophage lambda was induced with 35% efficiency. Efficient UV-induction of prophage lambda is linked to the induction of lexA-controlled host processes that repair the UV-damaged prophage.
Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), one of the principal virulence factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, is encoded by 933W, a lambda-like prophage. 933W prophage induction contributes to Stx2 production, and here, we provide evidence that Dam methyltransferase is essential for maintenance of 933W lysogeny. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the 933W prophage has a relatively low threshold for induction, which may promote Stx2 production during infection.
P2 is the prototype phage of the non-lambdoid P2 family of temperate phages. A developmental switch determines whether a temperate phage will grow lytically or form lysogeny after infection. P2 related phages have two face-to-face located promoters controlling the lysogenic and the lytic operon respectively, and two repressors. The immunity C repressor of P2 is the first gene of the lysogenic operon and it represses the lytic promoter. The Cox protein, the first gene of the lytic operon, is multifunctional. It represses the lysogenic promoter, acts as a directionality factor in site-specific recombination and activates the PLL promoter of satellite phage P4.. This thesis focuses on comparisons between the developmental switches of P2 and the two heteroimmune family members, P2 Hy dis and WΦ. A characterization of the developmental switch region of P2 Hy dis identifies a directly repeated sequence which is important for C repression. P2 Hy dis Cox can substitute for P2 Cox in repression of the ...
Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains belonging to the clonal complex 398 (CC398) are highly prevalent in livestock and companion animals but may also cause serious infections in humans. The authors isolated and characterized four temperate phages (P240, P282, P630 and P1105) containing genes of the immune evasion cluster (IEC) and/or for the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). The data demonstrate that lysogenic conversion of LA-CC398 strains by virulence-associated phages may occur and that new pathotypes may emerge by this mechanism.. Acquisition of virulence factors in livestock-associated MRSA: Lysogenic conversion of CC398 strains by virulence gene-containing phages ...
4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-sensitive mutants of Salmonella typhimurium were found to be sensitive to ultraviolet light (UV) and β-propiolactone. These mutants were subdivided into two groups: host cell reactivation minus (hcr̄) mutants lacking repair activity for the UV-damaged superinfecting phage and recombination-deficient (rec-) mutants. The hcr̄ mutant is known to lack an enzyme to excise pyrimidine dimers formed in UV-irradiated DNA.. 4NQO, β-propiolactone, and UV induced prophages from hcr̄ and wild-type strains but not from rec̄ strains. Prophage induction from hcr̄ strains was far more efficient than that from wild-type strain.. A metabolic intermediate of 4NQO, 4-hydroxylamino-quinoline 1-oxide (4HAQO), which is highly carcinogenic, inactivated Salmonella phage P22 in vitro whereas 4NQO did not. When 4HAQO-treated P22 was assayed simultaneously on hcr̄, rec̄, and wild-type strains lysogenic for P221b, no difference in inactivation rates on these indicator hosts was found. ...
When a virus infects a cell, it has an important decision to make - whether to kill the host (lysis) or to integrate its DNA into the host genome (lysogeny), entering a state of dormancy. This anthropomorphic view may not be far from the truth. A recent study by Zohar Erez and colleagues in Israel, published in Nature, demonstrated that a small signalling peptide used mediates the lysis-lysogeny decision.
Discrete mathematical formalisms are well adapted to model large biological networks, for which detailed kinetic data are scarce. This chapter introduces the reader to a well-established qualitative (logical) framework for the modelling of regulatory networks. Relying on GINsim, a software implementing this logical formalism, we guide the reader step by step towards the definition and the analysis of a simple model of the lysis-lysogeny decision in the bacteriophage λ.. ...
A sensitive and general technique has been devised for the dual purposes of cloning genes by using antibodies as probes and isolating unknown proteins encoded by cloned DNA. The method uses an expression vector, lambda gt11 (lac5 nin5 cI857 S100), that permits insertion of foreign DNA into the beta-galactosidase structural gene lacZ and promotes synthesis of hybrid proteins. Efficient screening of antigen-producing clones in lambda gt11 recombinant cDNA libraries is achieved through lysogeny of the phage library in hflA (high-frequency lysogeny) mutant cells of Escherichia coli; lysogens produce detectable quantities of antigen on induction, even when plated at high cell densities. The vector is also designed to facilitate the isolation of proteins specified by previously cloned gene sequences. Hybrid proteins encoded by recombinant phage accumulate in strains defective in protein degradation (lon mutants) in amounts amenable to large-scale purification. Antibodies produced against the portion ...
A major limitation with traditional phage preparations is the variability in titer, salts, and bacterial contaminants between successive propagations. Here we introduce the Phage On Tap (PoT) protocol for the quick and efficient preparation of homogenous bacteriophage (phage) stocks. This method produces homogenous, laboratory-scale, high titer (up to 1010-11 PFU·ml−1), endotoxin reduced phage banks that can be used to eliminate the variability between phage propagations and improve the molecular characterizations of phage. The method consists of five major parts, including phage propagation, phage clean up by 0.22 μm filtering and chloroform treatment, phage concentration by ultrafiltration, endotoxin removal, and the preparation and storage of phage banks for continuous laboratory use. From a starting liquid lysate of | 100 mL, the PoT protocol generated a clean, homogenous, laboratory phage bank with a phage recovery efficiency of 85% within just two days. In contrast, the traditional method took
Bacteria and their viruses (phages) are abundant across diverse ecosystems and their interactions influence global biogeochemical cycles and incidence of disease. Problematically, both classical and metagenomic methods insufficiently assess the host specificity of phages and phage-host infection dynamics in nature. Here we review emerging methods to study phage-host interaction and infection dynamics with a focus on those that offer resolution at the single-cell level. These methods leverage ever-increasing sequence data to identify virus signals from single-cell amplified genome (SAG) datasets or to produce primers/probes to target particular phage- bacteria pairs (digital PCR and phageFISH), even in complex communities. All three methods enable study of phage infection of uncultured bacteria from environmental samples, while the latter also discriminates between phage-host interaction outcomes (e.g., lytic, chronic, lysogenic) in model systems. Together these techniques enable quantitative,
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to phage) genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid. This is a latent form of a phage, in which the viral genes are present in the bacterium without causing disruption of the bacterial cell. Pro means before, so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its real form inside host. Upon detection of host cell damage, such as UV light or certain chemicals, the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome in a process called prophage induction. After induction, viral replication begins via the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the virus commandeers the cells reproductive machinery. The cell may fill with new viruses until it lyses or bursts, or it may release the new viruses one at a time in a reverse endocytotic process. The period from infection to lysis is termed the latent period. A virus following a lytic ...
Francois Jacob began studying medicine at the Faculty of Paris, with the intention of becoming a surgeon. These studies were interrupted by the war. After the war, Jacob completed his medical studies and submitted his doctoral thesis in Paris in 1947. He was unable to practice surgery on account of his injuries, and worked in various fields before turning to biology. The work of Jacob has dealt mainly with the genetic mechanisms existing in bacteria and bacteriophages, and with the biochemical effects of mutations. He first studied the properties of lysogenic bacteria and demonstrated their immunity. In 1954 he began a long and fruitful collaboration with Elie Wollman, in an attempt to establish the nature of the relationships between the prophage and genetic material of the bacterium. This study led to a definition of the mechanisms of bacterial conjugation, and also enabled an analysis of the genetic apparatusof the bacterial cell. From this work there emerged a whole series of new concepts, ...
In constructing a simple circuit consisting of an inducible promoter and a killer-gene, the combinations are limited by the promoters leak, strength of killer-function and many other factors. We looked for the solution to this problem and came up with an idea of using an anti-killer gene as well with two promoters (a constitutive one and an inducible one). With this circuit, we can apply more promoters to this device by using an appropriate constitutive promoter. We considered that lysis cassette of λ phage and its antagonist, SΔTMD1 are the most appropriate to Killer-gene and Anti-killer gene [5]. This was because some iGEM teams in the past already dealt with lysis cassette and also because we found some articles that shows the effect of SΔTMD1 in the yeast [9]. [learn more] ...
In constructing a simple circuit consisting of an inducible promoter and a killer-gene, the combinations are limited by the promoters leak, strength of killer-function and many other factors. We looked for the solution to this problem and came up with an idea of using an anti-killer gene as well with two promoters (a constitutive one and an inducible one). With this circuit, we can apply more promoters to this device by using an appropriate constitutive promoter. We considered that Lysis cassette of λ phage and its antagonist, SΔTMD1 are the most appropriate to Killer-gene and Anti-killer gene [4]. This was because some iGEM teams in the past already dealt with lysis cassette and also because we found some articles that shows the effect of SΔTMD1 in the yeast [10]. [learn more] ^Top ...
) can release it, causing proliferation of new phages via the lytic cycle. Lysogenic cycles can also occur in eukaryotes, although the method of incorporation of DNA is not fully understood.Mixed cyclesFollowing are some types of viruses that…
Complete information for MIR548Q gene (RNA Gene), MicroRNA 548q, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for MIR548Q gene (RNA Gene), MicroRNA 548q, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
My major question of interest was, How does molecular stochasticity in the individual cell affect major life history traits? To address this question, I used the enterobacteriophage lambda strain cI857 as a model. Under normal circumstances, cI857 integrates itself into E. colis genome where it is passed horizontally to daughter cells. Most of the phages genome is repressed at this point. However, after a temperature spike, the phage is induced into the lytic cycle. Here the late genes are expressed, including the lysis cassette and the genes that make phage babies. ...
Mode of transfer of bacterial genes (genome) through a virus. There are two types, general and specialized by lytic and lysognic phages.
Abstract Prophages (viral genomes integrated within a host bacterial genome) are abundant within the bacterial world and are of interest because they often confer various phenotypic traits to their hosts, such as by encoding genes that increase pathogenicity. Satellite prophages are parasites of parasites that rely on the bacterial host and another helper prophage for survival. We analysed |1,300 genomes of 70 different Streptococcus species for evidence of prophages and identified nearly 800 prophages and satellite prophages, the majority of which are reported here for the first time. We show that prophages and satellite prophages were widely distributed among streptococci, were two clearly different entities and each possessed a structured population. There was convincing evidence that cross-species transmission of prophages is not uncommon. Furthermore, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading human pathogen worldwide, but the genetic basis for its pathogenicity and virulence is not yet
A new group of serotype F bacteriophages of Staphylococcus aureus has been found which mediates the simultaneous triple-lysogenic conversion of enterotoxin A, staphylokinase and beta-lysin. The phages were recovered fro methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus isolated in Irish hospitals between 1 …
Krogh, S, Jorgensen, ST, Devine, KM, Lysis genes of the Bacillus subtilis defective prophage PBSX, JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 180, 8, 1998, 2110-2117 ...
Prophage induction by heat shock at 42°C.A. Strains W3110 (λcI857knR) carrying the pR-gfp (orange), the pE-gfp (blue) or the pR′-tR′-gfp (red) plasmids we
In molecular biology, the Fic/DOC protein family is a family of proteins which includes the Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) protein and doc (death on curing) protein. The Fic protein is involved in cell division and is suggested to be involved in the synthesis of p-aminobenzoate or folate, indicating that the Fic protein and cAMP are involved in a regulatory mechanism of cell division via folate metabolism. This family contains a central conserved motif HPFXXGNG in most members. The exact molecular function of these proteins is uncertain. P1 lysogens of Escherichia coli carry the prophage as a stable low copy number plasmid. The frequency with which viable cells cured of prophage are produced is about 10(-5) per cell per generation. A significant part of this remarkable stability can be attributed to a plasmid-encoded mechanism that causes death of cells that have lost P1. In other words, the lysogenic cells appear to be addicted to the presence of the prophage. The plasmid withdrawal ...
I am based in the laboratory of Assoc Prof Keith Shearwin (Biochemistry, Molecular and Biomedical Science) https://researchers.adelaide.edu.au/profile/keith.shearwin.. Research in the Shearwin lab integrates biochemistry, genetics and mathematical modelling to characterise fundamental mechanisms of gene control and how these mechanism are combined to create gene regulatory circuits with complex functions. Our primary experimental systems are two E. coli bacteriophages, lambda and 186. These temperate phages can replicate their genomes using alternative developmental pathways, lysis and lysogeny, and are some of the simplest organisms to make developmental decisions. Despite their relative simplicity, the phage systems combine a wide range of gene control mechanisms in complex ways and have many lessons to teach us.. The phage systems have been the springboard for my particular interests in DNA looping, molecular traffic on DNA and epigenetics.. DNA loops are created when proteins bound to ...
Lysogenic bacteriophage such as lambda integrate into their host genome, but do they regulate specific host genes? This study shows that they do, thereby increasing the fitness of the lysogen.
Retroviral (MLV-based) and lentiviral (HIV-1-based) vectors were harvested once at 1.5 days and again at 2.5 days post-transfection. Retroviral genomic particles pseudotyped with VSVGs (gMLV-VSVG) were produced at a higher titer during the first harvest than during the second harvest (Fig. 1A). However, more retroviral transducing particles (functional ones, tMLV-VSVG) were produced during the second harvest than during the first harvest. The number of gMLV-VSVG particles required for the transduction of a single cell (genomic to transducing particle ratio) can be calculated to be 2,200 for the first harvest, but 1,200 for the second harvest. This result indicates that gMLV-VSVG particles assembled at later time points post-transfection are more infectious than the ones assembled earlier.. In contrast, both lentiviral genomic and transducing particles pseudotyped with VSVGs (gHIV1-VSVG and tHIV1-VSVG, respectively) were produced at a higher titer during the first harvest than during the second ...
Specialized transduction occurs only in some temperate phages. But specialized transduction is an extremely efficient gene transfer mechanism.. In some occasions, DNA from a specific region of the host chromosome is integrated directly into the virus genome-usually replacing some viral genes. The resulting defective transducing phage (temperate phage) particles now have bacterial DNA as a part of genome.. To understand the process of specialized transduction, you must first be aware about lytic cycle of Bacteriophage.. Lets contrast between normal lysogenic cycle and mechanism of transduction. ...
1AIH: Molecular organization in site-specific recombination: the catalytic domain of bacteriophage HP1 integrase at 2.7 A resolution.
Viral Scaffolding One of the problems bioengineers have to overcome with regenerating tissue is creating a scaffolding on which cells can [MORE]
Phages, Prophages, Transposable elements, Plasmids,Phages, Prophages,Staphylococcal phi-Mu50B-like prophages,Phage terminase, small subunit [SA bacteriophages 11, Mu50B ...
Learn Tox- Intro facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Learn Tox- Plants- GIT facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Для выдвижного усилия поршня шприца в инъекционных насосах VIT-FIT и насосах VIT-FIT HP высокого давления установлен качественный швейцарский двигатель. Его новая технология обеспечивает высокий крутящий момент и на порядок более долгий срок службы. Для того чтобы перевести вращательное движение в линейное перемещение применяется шариковинтовая пара, выдерживающая большие механические нагрузки. Тем не менее, эти дорогостоящие компоненты играют решающую роль в обеспечении жесткости хода толкателя. Это важно для неизменной непульсирующей линейной ...
2021년, 올해는 블록체인의 위기를 해결하고 본격적인 대중화를 위한 기회가 될 것으로 예상합니다. 람다256은 그 간 많은 고객과 정부 기관을 만났으며 다양한 현장 문제 해결에 블록체인 기술을 적용하기 위해 많은 노력을 기울였습니다. 이러한 노력과 경험을 통해 2021년 눈여겨볼 5가지 블록체인 분야를 전망해 봅니다.
Theories about Lysogeny dominated the field of microbiology between 1920-29. However, Lysogenic Bacterium were first brought to ... Lambda phage lysogenic cycle LWOFF, A (December 1953). "Lysogeny". Bacteriological Reviews. 17 (4): 269-337. PMC 180777. PMID ... LWOFF, A (December 1953). "Lysogeny". Bacteriological Reviews. 17 (4): 269-337. PMC 180777. PMID 13105613. Feiner, Ron; Argov, ... Currently a variety of studies are being conducted to see whether other genes are active during lysogeny, examples of which ...
This process is called lysogeny. As shown in Figure 2, a bacteriophage lands on a cell and pins itself to the cell. The phage ... "Lysogeny". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 April 2014. "Two Life Cycles of a Virus". Retrieved 8 April 2014. "The cycle of ...
Lysogeniya [Russian;Lysogeny]. Izdadelstvo Belarus, Minsk, Belarus Tikhonenko, A. S. 1970. Ultrastructure of Bacterial Viruses ...
Lysogeny, 1900-1960". Journal of the History of Biology. 50 (5): 5-52. doi:10.1007/s10739-015-9434-3. PMID 26732271. Regal, ...
Ortmann, Alice C.; Lawrence, Janice E.; Suttle, Curtis A. (2002). "Lysogeny and lytic viral production during a bloom of the ... McDaniel, Lauren; Houchin, Lee A.; Williamson, Shannon J.; Paul, John P. (2002). "Plankton blooms - Lysogeny in marine ...
An important distinction here is that between the two decisions; lysogeny and lysis on infection, and continuing lysogeny or ... Lysogeny is maintained solely by cI. cI represses transcription from PL and PR while upregulating and controlling its own ... Int and xis are integration and excision proteins vital to lysogeny. xis and int are found on the same piece of mRNA, so ... Low temperature, starvation of the cells and high multiplicity of infection (MOI) are known to favor lysogeny (see later ...
Howard-Varona C, Hargreaves KR, Abedon ST, Sullivan MB (July 2017). "Lysogeny in nature: mechanisms, impact and ecology of ... Barksdale L, Arden SB (1974). "Persisting bacteriophage infections, lysogeny, and phage conversions". Annual Review of ... its ability to display lysogeny through mutation rather than a phage lineage with no genetic potential to ever display lysogeny ...
PATERSON, A. C. (1 June 1965). "Bacteriocinogeny and Lysogeny in the Genus Pseudomonas". Journal of General Microbiology. 39 (3 ...
Lysogeny involves integration into the host chromosome. Krupovic, M; ICTV Report Consortium (May 2018). "ICTV Virus Taxonomy ...
Bacteriophages use a signaling peptides such as arbitrium to mediate the initiation of cell lysis and lysogeny in the host cell ... January 2017). "Communication between viruses guides lysis-lysogeny decisions". Nature. 541 (7638): 488-493. Bibcode:2017Natur. ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Barksdale L, Arden SB (1974). "Persisting bacteriophage infections, lysogeny, and phage ... including rates of reduction to lysogeny rates of lysogen induction the tendency of at least some phage to enter into (and then ...
Those phages able to undergo lysogeny are known as temperate phages. Their viral genome will integrate with host DNA and ... "Communication between viruses guides lysis-lysogeny decisions". Nature. 541 (7638): 488-493. Bibcode:2017Natur.541..488E. doi: ...
The viruses then switch from lysis to lysogeny, so as to not deplete all available hosts. According to a team led by Alberto ... a negative regulator of lysogeny. Marina has also shown in the same system that the virus's arbitrium receptor interacts not ... Structural and functional insights into the regulation of the lysis-lysogeny decision in viral communities. Nature microbiology ... "Communication between viruses guides lysis-lysogeny decisions". Nature. 541 (7638): 488-493. doi:10.1038/nature21049. ISSN 0028 ...
"Communication between viruses guides lysis-lysogeny decisions". Nature. 541 (7638): 488-493. doi:10.1038/nature21049. ISSN 0028 ...
Once lysogeny is established, cII is no longer needed, and thus is turned off. It serves as the switch element for establishing ... Lysogeny is therefore also favored in cells infected by multiple phages. cII levels during infection exhibit extensive post- ... lysogeny), or replicate and kill the host (lysis). cII is the central "switchman" in the lambda phage bistable genetic switch, ... Thus lysogeny is favored when cells are starved. Finally, if a bacterial cell is infected by multiple bacteriophages, the level ...
... grows on complex media supplemented with monounsaturated fatty acids (e. g. Lysogeny Broth (LB) agar ...
He was especially concerned with the control mechanisms for lysogeny. He found one of the first examples of self-regulation of ...
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other). Lysogeny is ... The model organism for studying lysogeny is the lambda phage. Prophage integration, maintenance of lysogeny, induction, and ... in which the decision between lysis and lysogeny is transmitted between bacteria by a peptide factor. In some interactions ...
Modest ppGpp levels favor lysogeny by leading to low HflB (FtsH). When ppGpp is either absent or high, HflB protease levels are ... and paQ promoters in vivo and have effects in vitro that seem to favor lysogeny. In contrast, absent or high concentrations of ... high; this leads to lower CII (a lysogeny-promoting phage protein) and favors lysis. One of the key elements of promoters ...
"Metagenomic analysis of lysogeny in Tampa Bay: implications for prophage gene expression". PLOS ONE. 3 (9): e3263. doi:10.1371/ ...
"A new perspective on lysogeny: prophages as active regulatory switches of bacteria". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 13 (10): 641- ... "A new perspective on lysogeny: prophages as active regulatory switches of bacteria". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 13 (10): 641- ...
Snyder L, Peters JE, Henkin TM, Champness W (2013). "Lysogeny: the λ Paradigm and the Role of Lysogenic Conversion in Bacterial ...
Those phages able to undergo lysogeny are known as temperate phages. Their viral genome will integrate with host DNA and ...
When the F− was lysogenic for λ, lysogeny was mapped to the gal locus. However, when the Hfr parent was lysogenic, lysogeny (i. ...
The phage protein Lom is expressed during lysogeny, and encode host-cell envelope proteins. Lom is found in the bacterial outer ... It has been suggested that lysogeny may generally have a role in bacterial survival in animal hosts, and perhaps in ...
In addition, their genome (around 45kb) does not encode obvious genes indicative of lysogeny. Genomes are linear, around 45kb ...
The most common growth media for microorganisms are nutrient broths (liquid nutrient medium) or lysogeny broth medium. Liquid ...
At BHU, she undertook research for understanding the biochemical differences between cells undergoing lysogeny and those ...
Phages like the lambda phage use their site specific recombinases to integrate their DNA into the host genome during lysogeny. ...
Lysogeny broth (LB) is a nutritionally rich medium primarily used for the growth of bacteria. Its creator, Giuseppe Bertani, ... The formula of the LB medium was published in 1951 in the first paper of Bertani on lysogeny. In this article he described the ... intended LB to stand for lysogeny broth, but LB has also come to colloquially mean Luria broth, Lennox broth, or Luria-Bertani ... "Lysogeny at mid-twentieth century: P1, P2, and other experimental systems". Journal of Bacteriology. 186 (3): 595-600. doi: ...
The cII protein is only required for establishment of lysogeny, not for maintence of lysogeny or for lytic growth, so the cI ... Most E. coli recA mutants do not prevent lambda lysogeny. However, a unique recA mutant was isolated that permits lysogeny of ... ANSWER: int, N, and cII are required for efficient lysogeny, xis is only required for excision. Q is required for expression of ... Lysogeny. What is the phenotype of a lambda int mutant? ANSWER: An int mutant would be unable to integrate or excise but would ...
... lysogeny explanation free. What is lysogeny? Meaning of lysogeny medical term. What does lysogeny mean? ... Looking for online definition of lysogeny in the Medical Dictionary? ... lysogeny. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. lysogeny. [li-soj´e-ne] the phenomenon in which a ... Lysogeny , definition of lysogeny by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/lysogeny ...
Insights into TLCΦ lysogeny: A twist in the mechanism of IMEX integration. Bhabatosh Das ... Insights into TLCΦ lysogeny: A twist in the mechanism of IMEX integration ... Insights into TLCΦ lysogeny: A twist in the mechanism of IMEX integration ... Insights into TLCΦ lysogeny: A twist in the mechanism of IMEX integration ...
Meaning of lysogeny. What does lysogeny mean? Information and translations of lysogeny in the most comprehensive dictionary ... Definition of lysogeny in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... What does lysogeny mean?. Definitions for lysogeny-ˈsɒdʒ ə ni. ... Discuss these lysogeny definitions with the community:. Word of the Day. Would you like us to send you a FREE new word ... lysogeny(Noun). The incorporation of the nucleic acid of a bacteriophage into that of a host bacterium; sometimes transmitted ...
Chapter 3 : Lysogeny, Prophage Induction, and Lysogenic Conversion Author: John W. Little1 VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS ... Bacteriophage λ development: temporal switches and the choice of lysis or lysogeny. Annu. Rev. Genet. 2: 26- 30.. ... Lysogeny, Prophage Induction, and Lysogenic Conversion, Page 1 of 2 , Previous page , Next page , /docserver/preview/fulltext/ ... Lysogeny, Prophage Induction, and Lysogenic Conversion, p 37-54. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, ...
Temperate phages exhibit lysogeny propensities in the curiously narrow range of 5-15%. For some temperate phages, the ... Temperate phages exhibit lysogeny propensities in the curiously narrow range of 5-15%. For some temperate phages, the ... When we compete phage variants whose lysogeny strategies are allowed to depend upon multiplicity of infection, we find that the ... When we compete phage variants whose lysogeny strategies are allowed to depend upon multiplicity of infection, we find that the ...
Electron microscopic investigation of lysogeny of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from antibiotic-associated diarrhea ...
... Virology. ... Sequence analysis identified a holin protein to the left of the lysogeny module. A site-specific deletion of 2.4 kb, which ... We speculate on the possibility of a bipartite immunity system for the control of lysogeny in phi Sfi21. ... the putative lysogeny module. Sequence analysis and database research identified an integrase within this module; orf 203 with ...
Cooperative Interaction of CI Protein Regulates Lysogeny of Lactobacillus casei by Bacteriophage A2. Pilar García, Victor ... Cooperative Interaction of CI Protein Regulates Lysogeny of Lactobacillus casei by Bacteriophage A2 ... Cooperative Interaction of CI Protein Regulates Lysogeny of Lactobacillus casei by Bacteriophage A2 ... Cooperative Interaction of CI Protein Regulates Lysogeny of Lactobacillus casei by Bacteriophage A2 ...
... Theres a great new post over at Microbiology Bytes about bacteriophage lysogeny.. Usually ... In lysogeny, the bacteriophage integrates its genome into that of its host. The phage, then, is replicated each time the ... bacteriophages lyse their hosts following infection, however a few so-called "temperate" phage undergo lysogeny. ...
Deletion of Stx2 phages from EHEC strains increased the level of T3S whereas lysogeny decreased T3S. This regulation was ... PT21/28 strains had a lower median level of T3S compared to PT32 strains and so the relationship between Stx phage lysogeny and ... Lysogeny with Shiga Toxin 2-Encoding Bacteriophages Represses Type III Secretion in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. @ ... inproceedings{Xu2012LysogenyWS, title={Lysogeny with Shiga Toxin 2-Encoding Bacteriophages Represses Type III Secretion in ...
Integration and Lysogeny by an Enveloped Mycoplasma Virus * Kevin Dybvig and Jack Maniloff ...
Lysogeny broth (LB), a nutritionally rich medium, is primarily used for the growth of bacteria. It is also known as Luria broth ... Bertani, G. (2004). Lysogeny at mid-twentieth century: P1, P2, and other experimental systems. J. Bacteriology. 186:595-600. ... "My first paper on lysogeny, describing the modified single-burst experiment and the isolation of P1, P2, and P3, also contained ... In the Postscript to his 2004 paper, "Lysogeny at Mid-Twentieth Century: P1, P2, and Other Experimental Systems", Giuseppe ...
... leading to lysogeny. We propose that a yet unidentified CII-stabilizing factor in λ may influence the lysis-lysogeny decision ... Stabilization of CII promotes lysogeny, while its destabilization induces the lytic mode of development. All other factors that ... does lysogeny necessarily correlate with the stabilization of CII? Our experiments indicate that CII is indeed stabilized under ... The lysis-lysogeny decision in the temperate coliphage λ is influenced by a number of phage proteins (CII and CIII) as well as ...
... 14.05.2019 3 comments Sign in or Register. Crucial in the maintenance of lysogeny ... Define plaque lysogeny and prophage stage. Terminase The ATP-driven motor that packages genetic material into the capsid of the ... Video: Define plaque lysogeny and prophage stage. Lytic v. Lysogenic Cycles of Bacteriophages. This begins the eclipse period, ... Video: Define plaque lysogeny and prophage stage. Lysogenic Cycle. Define the following: bacteriophage, plaque, and phage ...
b) Lysogeny. c) Replication. d) Translation. View Answer. Answer: a. Explanation: In the lytic cycle after the infection of ... 7. Which of the following phage do not cause lysogeny?. a) T2. b) T1. c) lambda. d) P1. View Answer. Answer: a. Explanation: ... Explanation: In lysogeny the viral DNA of the temperate phage, instead of taking over the functions of the cells genes, is ... Explanation: In lysogeny of the P1 type, viral DNA does not normally become integrated into the host chromosome. Instead the ...
Stevens, R. H., Zhang, H., Sedgley, C., Bergman, A., & Manda, A. R. (2019). The prevalence and impact of lysogeny among oral ... Stevens, RH, Zhang, H, Sedgley, C, Bergman, A & Manda, AR 2019, The prevalence and impact of lysogeny among oral isolates of ... The prevalence and impact of lysogeny among oral isolates of Enterococcus faecalis. Journal of Oral Microbiology. 2019 Jan 1;11 ... From these results we conclude that lysogeny is common among oral E. faecalis strains, and that it alters properties of the ...
Lysogeny broth (LB), more commonly called Luria Broth, agar plates are typically used as a growth substrate for the culture of ... You are here: Home » Recipes » Preparation of Lysogeny broth (LB) agar plates ... Preparation of Lysogeny broth (LB) agar plates. * Last update on July 16, 2012 ...
This candidate has an unusually large dsDNA genome (303 kb), with no genes that encode known toxins or implicated in lysogeny ... This candidate has an unusually large dsDNA genome (303 kb), with no genes that encode known toxins or implicated in lysogeny ... Lysis, Host-Phage Interaction, and Lysogeny. We were able to annotate two proteins (ORFs 23 and 138) involved into host-virus ... This candidate has an unusually large dsDNA genome (303 kb), with no genes that encode known toxins or implicated in lysogeny ...
The second is lysogeny of mycobacteriophages originally obtained from Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 as a host that displayed ... Isolation of bacteriophages against Streptococcus species; Lysogeny of Ten Mycobacteriophages for host Mycobacterium ... allowing for identification of lysogeny genes. The same bacteriophage genomes can be used for comparison with other ... potential candidates for characterization of the genomes for further understanding of cross-infectivity and lysogeny. Future ...
Albany- New York, Oct. 8, 2015-- According to a new market report published by Transparency Market Research Cell Culture Market- Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014- 2022, the global cell culture market was valued at USD 6.1 billion in 2013 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.1% from 2014 to 2022, to reach an estimated value of USD...
Lysogeny Broth (LB) (10.0 g/L NaCl, 10.0 g/L tryptone, 5.0 g/L yeast extract, 15.0 g/L agar), and yeast extract peptone ...
The Lysogeny Hypothesis III. The Lysogeny Hypothesis Critically Revisited IV. The Mitogenic Effect of SV 40 and Polyoma Virus ...
For example, in lambda, a starved host or a multiplicity of infection (MOI) higher than two, favors lysogeny [1,2]. The ... Williamson, S.J.; Houchin, L.A.; McDaniel, L.; Paul, J.H. Seasonal variation in lysogeny as depicted by prophage induction in ... prophage; lysogeny; recombination directionality factor; integrase; excisionase; response regulator; prophage induction; random ... chaperone in lysogeny escape. J. Biol. Chem. 2011, 286, 38876-38885. [Google Scholar] ...
Langley, R.; Kenna, D.T.; Vandamme, P.; Ure, R.; Govan, J.R. Lysogeny and bacteriophage host range within the burkholderia ... Keywords: Burkholderia vietnamiensis; prophages; phylogenomics; induction; lysogeny; phage classification Burkholderia ...
Lysogeny broth,LB),是微生物學實驗中最常用的營養性培養基,用於培養大腸桿菌等 ... LB培養基(Lysogeny broth,LB),是微生物學實
Theories about Lysogeny dominated the field of microbiology between 1920-29. However, Lysogenic Bacterium were first brought to ... Lambda phage lysogenic cycle LWOFF, A (December 1953). "Lysogeny". Bacteriological Reviews. 17 (4): 269-337. PMC 180777. PMID ... LWOFF, A (December 1953). "Lysogeny". Bacteriological Reviews. 17 (4): 269-337. PMC 180777. PMID 13105613. Feiner, Ron; Argov, ... Currently a variety of studies are being conducted to see whether other genes are active during lysogeny, examples of which ...
In this report, we show that enterobacterial phage T1, previously described as a lytic phage, is able to undergo lysogeny. We ... We show that the transition from lysogeny to lysis depends on bacterial population density, perceived via interspecies ... Quorum sensing and metabolic state of the host control lysogeny-lysis switch of bacteriophage T1. ... further demonstrate that the lysogeny-to-lysis decision occurs in response to changes in the density of the bacterial ...
Lytic replication of bacteriophages; lysogeny and transduction. Animal virus replication cycle and organization of viral DNA ...
  • Lysogeny broth (LB) is a nutritionally rich medium primarily used for the growth of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its creator, Giuseppe Bertani, intended LB to stand for lysogeny broth, but LB has also come to colloquially mean Luria broth, Lennox broth, or Luria-Bertani medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the historical record, the abbreviation LB was intended to stand for "lysogeny broth. (protocolsonline.com)
  • Lysogeny broth (LB), more commonly called Luria Broth, agar plates are typically used as a growth substrate for the culture of bacteria (e.g. (protocolsonline.com)
  • I didn't know what LB was (lysogeny broth - basically bacteria food). (makezine.com)
  • Based on type, the cell culture media market can be segmented into classical media, chemically defined media, protein-free media, lysogeny broth,serum-free media, and custom media. (webnewswire.com)
  • Lysogeny broth rules the market with 22.5% of the global share. (webnewswire.com)
  • Usually bacteriophages lyse their hosts following infection, however a few so-called "temperate" phage undergo lysogeny. (blogspot.com)
  • An EOP of 10-3 or better indicated productive infection of these bacteriophages, which makes these two bacteriophage potential candidates for characterization of the genomes for further understanding of cross-infectivity and lysogeny. (unr.edu)
  • The lysis-lysogeny decision of P22 is very similar to phage lambda. (sdsu.edu)
  • Temperate phages can choose between (i) lysis: exploiting their bacterial hosts by producing multiple phage particles and releasing them by lysing the host cell, and (ii) lysogeny: establishing a potentially mutually beneficial relationship with the host by integrating their chromosome into the host cell's genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • When we compete phage variants whose lysogeny strategies are allowed to depend upon multiplicity of infection, we find that the optimal strategy is one which switches from full lysis for single infections to full lysogeny for multiple infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • The lysis-lysogeny decision in the temperate coliphage λ is influenced by a number of phage proteins (CII and CIII) as well as host factors, viz. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose that a yet unidentified CII-stabilizing factor in λ may influence the lysis-lysogeny decision in ΔhflKC cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other factors such as λCIII and the host hfl proteins that influence the lysis-lysogeny switching affect the stability of CII in one way or the other. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that the transition from lysogeny to lysis depends on bacterial population density, perceived via interspecies autoinducer 2. (bsu.by)
  • We further demonstrate that the lysogeny-to-lysis decision occurs in response to changes in the density of the bacterial population, mediated by interspecies quorum-sensing signal AI-2, and in the metabolic state of the cell, mediated by cAMP receptor protein. (bsu.by)
  • The phage can infect bacteria and multiply in the normal manner leading to lysis, but this mode can shift to lysogeny where the phage DNA gets integrated with host DNA and stays tnere 'as prophage till again it becomes lytic. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Srinivas, S & Cronan, JE 2019, ' Coping with inadvertent lysis of Escherichia coli cultures: Strains resistant to lysogeny and infection by the stealthy lysogenic phage Φ80 ', Biotechnology and bioengineering , vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 1820-1826. (illinois.edu)
  • All of the genomes are organized into five major gene clusters: lysogeny, replication, packaging, morphogenesis, and lysis clusters. (asm.org)
  • This coupling between molecular-level fluctuations and macroscopic phenotype selection is analyzed using the phage λ lysis-lysogeny decision circuit as a model system. (genetics.org)
  • To examine this phenomenon, we analyze herein the effect of fluctuations in gene expression rates and other molecular-level fluctuations on lysis or lysogeny pathway selection statistics by phage λ-infected Escherichia coli cells. (genetics.org)
  • This path selection is made by the λ lysis-lysogeny decision circuit wherein a well-characterized competitive regulatory mechanism is central to the regulatory circuit that partitions the population between lytic and lysogenic outcomes. (genetics.org)
  • Identification of polypeptides encoded by an Escherichia coli locus (hflA) that governs the lysis-lysogeny decision of bacteriophage LAM. (yale.edu)
  • There's a great new post over at Microbiology Bytes about bacteriophage lysogeny. (blogspot.com)
  • In lysogeny, the bacteriophage integrates its genome into that of its host. (blogspot.com)
  • Lambda (λ) bacteriophage exhibits one of the most interesting, but intricate cascade circuits for the two alternative pathways (lytic cycle or lysogeny), that it can follow after infection. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • and Marinus, Martin G., "Dam methyltransferase is required for stable lysogeny of the Shiga toxin (Stx2)-encoding bacteriophage 933W of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7" (2007). (umassmed.edu)
  • The discovery of lysogeny, and the integration of the bacteriophage into the host chromosome, ultimately led to the idea of cancer viruses being integrated into the chromosome and the oncogene model of cancer. (springer.com)
  • Bacteriophage lambda C1 repressor controls the expression of viral genes as part of the lysogeny/lytic growth switch. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate how to overcome these obstacles in the lysogeny maintenance promoter of bacteriophage lambda, P RM . (sciencemag.org)
  • This activates the P RM promoter, which is divergent from P R , thereby activating the transcription of genes responsible for the maintenance of lysogeny ( 13 , 17 , 19 , 21 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Mutations in the cI, cII and cIII genes of λ [ 10 ] enhances the lytic frequency (leading to clear plaque formation, hence the names) and therefore the products of these genes were thought to be responsible for the establishment of lysogeny. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Binding of the immunity repressor during lysogeny to the stoperator sites likely prevents transcription from the entirety of the genome other than those genes involved in the maintenance of lysogeny. (alitcg.com)
  • Explanation: In lysogeny the viral DNA of the temperate phage, instead of taking over the functions of the cell's genes, is incorporated into the host DNA and becomes a prophage in the bacterial chromosome, acting as a gene. (sanfoundry.com)
  • This candidate has an unusually large dsDNA genome (303 kb), with no genes that encode known toxins or implicated in lysogeny control. (frontiersin.org)
  • Currently a variety of studies are being conducted to see whether other genes are active during lysogeny, examples of which include phage-encoded tRNA and virulence genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the late genes are expressed at this stage, lytic cycle sets in, but if^a regulator gene ( cI ) synthesizing a repressor is expressed, the late genes can not be expressed and lysogeny sets in (Fig. 36.3). (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Mutants in the gene cI cannot maintain lysogeny, since then the late' genes can not be stopped from being expressed, due to the absence of active repressor. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Delayed early genes ( cIIcIII and Q )and their control on lysogeny and lytic cycle. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Among the delayed early genes, regulators cII (on the right) and cIII (on the left) regulate synthesis of repressor by cl, to allow phage enter lysogeny (Figs. 36.2, 36.3). (biocyclopedia.com)
  • The late genes are silent during lysogeny and only become expressed during the lytic cycle. (asm.org)
  • Phage phi Sfi21, the only temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage from our phage collection, showed extensive DNA homology with virulent phages from lytic group I. Southern blot hybridizations demonstrated that the phi Sfi21-specific DNA was clustered in an approximately 6.6-kb-long region, the putative lysogeny module. (nih.gov)
  • Answer: a Explanation: Phages like T2 that do not cause lysogeny are termed virulent. (sanfoundry.com)
  • Phages produced by lysogenic strains are termed temperate phages, and the relationship between the phage and the bacterium is termed lysogeny. (sanfoundry.com)
  • Phages P35 and P40 have a broad host range and lack lysogeny functions, correlating with their virulent lifestyle. (asm.org)
  • Many phages have been described for the genus Listeria , and lysogeny appears to be widespread ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Viral marker gene distributions suggested that lysogeny was more prevalent at mesopelagic depths than in surface waters, consistent with prior prophage induction studies using mitomycin C. A total of 129 ALOHA viral genomes and genome fragments from 20 to 108 kbp were selected for further study, which represented the most abundant phages in the water column. (asm.org)
  • Lysogeny and prophage induction in coastal and offshore bacterial communities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Define plaque lysogeny and prophage stage. (alitcg.com)
  • Crucial in the maintenance of lysogeny and prophage stability. (alitcg.com)
  • Answer to Define plaque, lysogeny, and prophage. (alitcg.com)
  • 933W prophage induction contributes to Stx2 production, and here, we provide evidence that Dam methyltransferase is essential for maintenance of 933W lysogeny. (umassmed.edu)
  • investigated the behavior of the lysogeny maintenance promoter of phage lambda in individual Escherichia coli cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, lysogeny is a survival strategy for phage as well as for bacteria ( 17 ). (biology-online.org)
  • Alternatively, the viral genetic information may persist without destroying the bacteria, a process called "lysogeny. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The cII protein is only required for establishment of lysogeny, not for maintence of lysogeny or for lytic growth, so the cI mutation would be epistatic to the cII mutation. (sdsu.edu)
  • The mediums segment has been sub-segmented into chemically defined mediums, classical mediums, lysogeny broths, serum-free mediums, protein-free mediums, and specialty mediums. (bccresearch.com)
  • Lysogeny among enteropathogenic E.coli strains isolated in Sao Paulo between 1963 and 1981. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lysogeny of Klebsiella strains isolated from human infections]. (nih.gov)
  • In this report, we show that enterobacterial phage T1, previously described as a lytic phage, is able to undergo lysogeny. (bsu.by)
  • Theories about Lysogeny dominated the field of microbiology between 1920-29. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most E. coli recA mutants do not prevent lambda lysogeny. (sdsu.edu)
  • However, a unique recA mutant was isolated that permits lysogeny of lambda at 30 C but not at 42 C. What is the probable mechanism for this observation? (sdsu.edu)
  • Hence, one explanation for the new recA missense mutant is that the mutation does not affect the conformation of RecA at 30 C, but it causes the RecA protein to assume the activated RecA* conformation at 42 C. Thus, at 30 C lambda would make cI and be able to lysogenize the mutant, but at 42 C the RecA* conformation would stimulate autoproteolysis of cI, preventing lysogeny. (sdsu.edu)
  • For example, in lambda, a starved host or a multiplicity of infection (MOI) higher than two, favors lysogeny [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains represent a spectacular case of lysogeny. (biology-online.org)
  • A site-specific deletion of 2.4 kb, which reproducibly transformed phi Sfi21 into a lytic phage, was localized in the lysogeny module. (nih.gov)
  • The maintenance of lysogeny by an autogenous circuit of repressor production (A), and the onset of lytic cycle due to interruption in this circuit due to absence of repressor (B). (biocyclopedia.com)
  • ANSWER: Class (i) mutants are probably due to mutations in the proteins required for establishment and maintance of lysogeny (c1, c2, c3). (sdsu.edu)
  • Explanation: In lysogeny of the P1 type, viral DNA does not normally become integrated into the host chromosome. (sanfoundry.com)
  • To better understand the genetics of P1, it is important to identify mutations within the c1 gene that prevent this lysogeny maintenance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The second is lysogeny of mycobacteriophages originally obtained from Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 as a host that displayed successful cross-infection with Mycobacteria tuberculosis H37Ra in previous assays. (unr.edu)
  • All isolates were El Tor biotype and had the El Tor type regulatory gene for phage lysogeny and the co-regulated pilus A gene identified by PCR (6,7). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ulcerans can become toxigenic through lysogeny by beta-corynebacteriophages harboring the diphtheria toxin gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The lysogeny propensity is determined by the structure of the underlying genetic switch and the way this switch is connected to the intracellular molecular network. (frontiersin.org)
  • The surveys showed a trend for lysogeny to be more prevalent in oligotrophic environments ( 35 ). (biology-online.org)
  • Surveys in estuarine waters showed a seasonal development of lysogeny with highs in the summer months when eutrophic conditions were prevalent and lows in the winter months when cells were at their minimum ( 20 , 44 ). (biology-online.org)
  • We speculate on the possibility of a bipartite immunity system for the control of lysogeny in phi Sfi21. (nih.gov)
  • In the presence of inevitable noise, this typically results in stochastic behavior characterized by a certain lysogeny propensity, i.e., each infected cell has a certain probability to go lysogenic. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results suggest that there is an additional selection pressure for lysogeny propensity within phage populations infecting a bacterial host, independent of environmental conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lysogeny involves integration into the host chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysogeny results in the spread of the virus without killing the host cell. (scribd.com)
  • C1 is essential for maintaining lysogeny, where the phage replicates non-disruptively along with the host. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Theory predicts that lysogeny becomes the preferred strategy when the cell density falls below the lower limit necessary for maintenance of the phage density by repeated cycles of lytic infections. (biology-online.org)
  • My first paper on lysogeny, describing the modified single-burst experiment and the isolation of P1, P2, and P3, also contained the formula of the LB medium which I had concocted in order to optimize Shigella growth and plaque formation. (protocolsonline.com)
  • The switch from lysogeny to the lytic cycle is controlled by the bacterial SOS stress response ( 33 ), which is induced by certain antibiotics. (asm.org)