A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.
A group of malignant lymphomas thought to derive from peripheral T-lymphocytes in lymph nodes and other nonlymphoid sites. They include a broad spectrum of lymphocyte morphology, but in all instances express T-cell markers admixed with epithelioid histiocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Although markedly similar to large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, LARGE-CELL, IMMUNOBLASTIC), this group's unique features warrant separate treatment.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
A systemic, large-cell, non-Hodgkin, malignant lymphoma characterized by cells with pleomorphic appearance and expressing the CD30 ANTIGEN. These so-called "hallmark" cells have lobulated and indented nuclei. This lymphoma is often mistaken for metastatic carcinoma and MALIGNANT HISTIOCYTOSIS.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
An extranodal neoplasm, usually possessing an NK-cell phenotype and associated with EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. These lymphomas exhibit a broad morphologic spectrum, frequent necrosis, angioinvasion, and most commonly present in the midfacial region, but also in other extranodal sites.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
A DNA-binding protein that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target genes by recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Aberrant Blc-6 expression is associated with certain types of human B-CELL LYMPHOMA.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Large cells, usually multinucleate, whose presence is a common histologic characteristic of classical HODGKIN DISEASE.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.
A primary peripheral T-cell lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the jejunum, associated with a history of CELIAC DISEASE or other gastrointestinal diseases.
Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Two or more distinct types of malignant lymphoid tumors occurring within a single organ or tissue at the same time. It may contain different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells or both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
Inbred AKR mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are homozygous at all gene loci and have a high incidence of developing certain diseases, such as leukemia and autoimmune disorders, making them useful for research purposes in biomedicine.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.
Macrophages found in the TISSUES, as opposed to those found in the blood (MONOCYTES) or serous cavities (SEROUS MEMBRANE).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.
A form of malignant cancer which occurs within the eyeball.
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.
General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.
Tumors or cancer of the PALATINE TONSIL.
Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A family of transcription factors that share an N-terminal HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF and bind INTERFERON-inducible promoters to control GENE expression. IRF proteins bind specific DNA sequences such as interferon-stimulated response elements, interferon regulatory elements, and the interferon consensus sequence.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Pyrazines are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at opposite positions, often responsible for the characteristic flavors and aromas found in various foods, beverages, and some biological systems, but they do not have a direct medical definition as they are not a drug, treatment, or a significant component of human physiology or pathology.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Anaplastic lymphoma of the skin which develops as a primary neoplasm expressing the CD30 ANTIGEN. It is characterized by solitary nodules or ulcerated tumors.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.

Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (1/6021)

Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria.  (+info)

Immune responses to all ErbB family receptors detectable in serum of cancer patients. (2/6021)

Employing NIH3T3 transfectants with individual human ErbB receptor coding sequences as recombinant antigen sources, we detected by immunoblot analysis specific immunoreactivity against all four ErbB receptors among 13 of 41 sera obtained from patients with different types of epithelial malignancies. Overall, serum positivity was most frequently directed against ErbB2 followed by EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Specificity patterns comprised tumor patients with unique serum reactivity against ErbB2 or ErbB4. Moreover, approximately half of the positive sera exhibited concomitant reactivity with multiple ErbB receptors including EGFR and ErbB2, EGFR and ErbB4, ErbB2 and ErbB3 or EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB3. Serum reactivity was confirmed for the respective ErbB receptors expressed by human tumor cells and corroborated on receptor-specific immunoprecipitates. Positive sera contained ErbB-specific antibodies of the IgG isotype. Representative immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues suggested overexpression of ErbB receptors for which serum antibodies were detectable in five of six patients. These findings implicate multiple ErbB receptors including ErbB3 and ErbB4 in addition to EGFR and ErbB2 in primary human cancer. Heterogeneity of natural ErbB-specific responses in cancer patients warrants their evaluation in light of immunotherapeutic approaches targeting these receptors.  (+info)

ATF-2-binding regulatory element is responsible for the Ly49A expression in murine T lymphoid line, EL-4. (3/6021)

To understand the mechanism of Ly49A-expression and its significance in T-cell differentiation, we analyzed the 5'-flanking region of the Ly49A gene in a search for the Ly49A-regulatory element. Since very few known regulatory elements have been found in this region, presumably a novel regulatory sequence(s) could exist. Accordingly, we defined the 13-bp regulatory element, 5'-ATGACGAGGAGGA-3', restricted to Ly49A-expression in EL-4 cells in comparison with two other representative cell lines tested. This element, designated as EL13, proved to be previously undiscovered by homology search and is highly homologous with several virus DNAs. Using EL13 as a probe we have cloned a cDNA encoding a binding protein to EL13. Its deduced nucleotide sequence revealed that EL13-binding protein is almost identical with rat ATF-2. Although ATF-2 is known to bind to cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE), EL13 shares five out of eight nucleotides with this consensus sequence. Our results suggested that ATF-2 may play an important role via binding to EL13 for the expression of Ly49A. These data will provide useful information for understanding T-cell and NK-cell differentiation in murine immune system.  (+info)

Incidence and occupational pattern of leukaemias, lymphomas, and testicular tumours in western Ireland over an 11 year period. (4/6021)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of the following malignancies, testicular tumours, all leukaemias and all lymphomas in the West of Ireland in an 11 year period. Secondly, to examine the relation between disease patterns and available occupational data in male subjects of working age. DESIGN: A census survey of all cases occurring in the three counties in the Western Health Board (WHB) area, Galway, Mayo and Roscommon, for the 11 year period 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Average annual age standardised incidence rates for the period were calculated using the 1986 census data. Rates for the area are compared with rates from the southern region of Ireland, which had a tumour registry. Trends over the time period are evaluated. All male subjects for whom occupational data were available were categorised using the Irish socioeconomic group classification and incidence rates by occupation were compared using the standardised incidence ratio method. In one of the counties, Galway, a detailed occupational history of selected cases and an age matched control group was also elicited through patients' general practitioners. SETTING: All available case records in the West of Ireland. RESULTS: There are no national incidence records for the period. Compared with data from the Southern Tumour Registry, the number of cases of women with myeloid leukaemias was significantly lower. Male leukaemia rates were significantly lower as a group (SIR 84 (95% CI 74, 95) but not when considered as individual categories. Regression analysis revealed an increasing trend in the number of new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among both men (r = 0.47, p = 0.02) and women (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001) and of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in men (r = 0.77, p = 0.005) and women (r = 0.68 p = 0.02) in the WHB region over the last decade. Four hundred and fifty six male cases over the age of 15 years were identified and adequate occupational information was available for 74% of these. Standardised incidence ratios of testicular tumours 100, 938) and agriworkers other than farmers (SIR 377, 95% CI 103, 967). There were also significantly increased incidence ratios for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 169, 95% CI 124, 266) and three categories of leukaemias among farmers. Hodgkin's disease and acute myeloid leukaemias were significantly increased among semi-skilled people. Interview data with 90 cases and 54 controls of both sexes revealed that among farmers, cases (n = 31) were significantly less likely than controls (n = 20) to use tractor mounted spraying techniques (OR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.04, 0.80)) and less likely to wear protective masks (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.05, 0.84)). CONCLUSIONS: Trends of increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some leukaemias are consistent with studies elsewhere. The study provides further evidence of the relation between agricultural work and certain lymphoproliferative cancers. The possible carcinogenic role of chemicals used in agricultural industries must be considered as an explanation.  (+info)

A case of primary lymphoma of the liver. (5/6021)

A case of primary malignant lymphoma of the liver is described. Presenting with epistaxis, he died in hepatic encephalopathy with an intractable bleeding post-bulbar duodenal ulcer.  (+info)

Ovine MHC class II DRB1 alleles associated with resistance or susceptibility to development of bovine leukemia virus-induced ovine lymphoma. (6/6021)

For the further characterization of bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-induced leukemogenesis, we investigated the association between polymorphism of ovine leukocyte antigen (OLA)-DRB1 gene and tumor development after infection of sheep with BLV. We infected 28 sheep with BLV and cloned exon 2 of the OLA-DRB1 gene from asymptomatic animals and from animals with lymphoma Sequence analysis revealed that, among 12 healthy sheep without any evidence of tumor, ten (83.3%) carried DRB1 alleles encoding Arg-Lys (RK) at positions beta70/71 as compared with only 6 (37.5%) of the 16 sheep with lymphoma, which suggested that alleles encoding the RK motif might protect against development of tumors after infection by BLV. By contrast, alleles encoding Ser-Arg (SR) at positions beta70/71 were present at a significantly elevated frequency in sheep with lymphoma as compared with the healthy carriers, which indicated that OLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the SR motif might be positively related to susceptibility to tumor development. The two amino acids in these motifs line a pocket that accommodates the side chain of a bound peptide according to a model of the crystal structure of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1. To analyze immunoreactions of sheep with alleles that encoded RK or SR at beta70/71, we selected sheep with either the RK/SR genotypes or the SR/SR genotypes and immunized them with a mixture of multiple synthetic antigenic peptides that corresponded to T-helper, T-cytotoxic, and B-cell epitopes of the BLV envelope glycoprotein gp51. Two weeks after the last immunization, all of the sheep were challenged with BLV. Sheep with the RK/SR genotype produced neutralizing antibodies against BLV; they eliminated BLV completely within 28 weeks of the BLV challenge, and they gave strong lymphocyte-proliferative responses to the peptides used for immunization. Moreover, such animals did not develop lymphoma. By contrast, sheep with the SR/SR genotype continued to produce BLV throughout the experimental period and developed terminal disease. Our results indicate that the differences in immunoresponse were due to differences in major histocompatibility complex class II alleles and reflected the risk of BLV-induced leukemogenesis. In addition, it appears that susceptibility to tumor development may be determined to some extent by polymorphic residues binding to antigenic peptides directly within the binding cleft of the OLA-DR molecule.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 determines susceptibility to 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced lymphomas. (7/6021)

CYP1B1-null mice, created by targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells, were born at the expected frequency from heterozygous matings with no observable phenotype, thus establishing that CYP1B1 is not required for mouse development. CYP1B1 was not detectable in cultured embryonic fibroblast (EF) or in different tissues, such as lung, of the CYP1B1-null mouse treated with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin whereas the equivalent wild-type EF cells express basal and substantial inducible CYP1B1 and lung expresses inducible CYP1B1. CYP1A1 is induced to far higher levels than CYP1B1 in liver, kidney, and lung in wild-type mice and is induced to a similar extent in CYP1B1-null mice. 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) was toxic in wild-type EFs that express CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1. These cells effectively metabolized DMBA, consistent with CYP1B1 involvement in producing the procarcinogenic 3,4-dihydrodiol as a major metabolite, whereas CYP1B1-null EF showed no significant metabolism and were resistant to DMBA-mediated toxicity. When wild-type mice were administered high levels of DMBA intragastrically, 70% developed highly malignant lymphomas whereas only 7.5% of CYP1B1-null mice had lymphomas. Skin hyperplasia and tumors were also more frequent in wild-type mice. These results establish that CYP1B1, located exclusively at extrahepatic sites, mediates the carcinogenicity of DMBA. Surprisingly, CYP1A1, which has a high rate of DMBA metabolism in vitro, is not sufficient for this carcinogenesis, which demonstrates the importance of extrahepatic P450s in determining susceptibility to chemical carcinogens and validates the search for associations between P450 expression and cancer risk in humans.  (+info)

Can we cure indolent lymphomas? (8/6021)

The current consensus is that indolent lymphomas are incurable disorders. There are some indications that these malignancies are potentially curable. Indeed, not all indolent lymphomas are currently incurable. For example, patients with Ann Arbor stage I-II indolent lymphomas can experience long-term disease-free survival and probable cure. Also, from the available literature data, it seems that the achievement of a molecular complete remission is a desirable objective. Patients who achieve a persistently negative PCR state seldom relapse, whereas the opposite is true for persistently positive cases. In view of its excellent correlation with disease-free survival when examined serially in multiple blood or marrow samples, the PCR technique has the potential of providing a tumor marker that can be used as an early end point for clinical trials. By serving as an early surrogate end point, PCR could play an important role in expediting the development of new treatment strategies. Whether IFN is capable of increasing the molecular complete remission rate as measured by PCR is not known. However, it is clear that from the clinical standpoint, IFN has been able to increase 2-fold the length of remission in patients with advanced indolent lymphomas. In at least two studies, this has been associated with prolongation of survival. More intensive regimens such as alternating triple therapy, when used in combination with IFN, seem to have improved the quality of remissions as judged by the PCR assay. Finally, the site where the bcl-2 breakpoint occurs seems to have clinical significance. Those follicular lymphomas with germ-line bcl-2, in our experience, have behaved more aggressively than the others, and their failure-free survival seems different from the usual indolent lymphomas and more closely resembles the large cell lymphomas. Although the biological significance of this observation is not yet understood, this group might actually constitute a prognostically different subset with a more aggressive and perhaps more curable lymphoma. Whether the plateau observed in their failure-free survival curve will be maintained with more follow-up and whether they might be a curable subset remain to be determined.  (+info)

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

B-cell lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the B-lymphocytes, which are a part of the immune system and play a crucial role in fighting infections. These cells can develop mutations in their DNA, leading to uncontrolled growth and division, resulting in the formation of a tumor.

B-cell lymphomas can be classified into two main categories: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. B-cell lymphomas are further divided into subtypes based on their specific characteristics, such as the appearance of the cells under a microscope, the genetic changes present in the cancer cells, and the aggressiveness of the disease.

Some common types of B-cell lymphomas include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma. Treatment options for B-cell lymphomas depend on the specific subtype, stage of the disease, and other individual factors. Treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a type of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. It involves the abnormal growth and proliferation of malignant lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), leading to the formation of tumors in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, or other organs. NHL can be further classified into various subtypes based on the specific type of lymphocyte involved and its characteristics.

The symptoms of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include:

* Painless swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin
* Persistent fatigue
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever
* Night sweats
* Itchy skin

The exact cause of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not well understood, but it has been associated with certain risk factors such as age (most common in people over 60), exposure to certain chemicals, immune system deficiencies, and infection with viruses like Epstein-Barr virus or HIV.

Treatment for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on the stage and subtype of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the progression of the disease and manage any potential long-term side effects of treatment.

T-cell lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the T-cells, which are a specific type of white blood cell responsible for immune function. These lymphomas develop from mature T-cells and can be classified into various subtypes based on their clinical and pathological features.

T-cell lymphomas can arise in many different organs, including the lymph nodes, skin, and other soft tissues. They often present with symptoms such as enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. The diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma typically involves a biopsy of the affected tissue, followed by immunophenotyping and genetic analysis to determine the specific subtype.

Treatment for T-cell lymphomas may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation, depending on the stage and aggressiveness of the disease. The prognosis for T-cell lymphoma varies widely depending on the subtype and individual patient factors.

Large B-cell lymphoma, diffuse is a type of cancer that starts in cells called B-lymphocytes, which are part of the body's immune system. "Large B-cell" refers to the size and appearance of the abnormal cells when viewed under a microscope. "Diffuse" means that the abnormal cells are spread throughout the lymph node or tissue where the cancer has started, rather than being clustered in one area.

This type of lymphoma is typically aggressive, which means it grows and spreads quickly. It can occur almost anywhere in the body, but most commonly affects the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

Treatment for large B-cell lymphoma, diffuse typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, stem cell transplantation or targeted therapy may also be recommended. The prognosis varies depending on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

Follicular lymphoma is a specific type of low-grade or indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It develops from the B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell found in the lymphatic system. This lymphoma is characterized by the presence of abnormal follicles or nodules in the lymph nodes and other organs. The neoplastic cells in this subtype exhibit a distinct growth pattern that resembles normal follicular centers, hence the name "follicular lymphoma."

The majority of cases involve a translocation between chromosomes 14 and 18 [t(14;18)], leading to an overexpression of the BCL-2 gene. This genetic alteration contributes to the cancer cells' resistance to programmed cell death, allowing them to accumulate in the body.

Follicular lymphoma is typically slow-growing and may not cause symptoms for a long time. Common manifestations include painless swelling of lymph nodes, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats. Treatment options depend on various factors such as the stage of the disease, patient's age, and overall health. Watchful waiting, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches may be used to manage follicular lymphoma.

Burkitt lymphoma is a type of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which is a cancer that originates in the lymphatic system. It is named after Denis Parsons Burkitt, an Irish surgeon who first described this form of cancer in African children in the 1950s.

Burkitt lymphoma is characterized by the rapid growth and spread of abnormal B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which can affect various organs and tissues, including the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system.

There are three main types of Burkitt lymphoma: endemic, sporadic, and immunodeficiency-associated. The endemic form is most common in equatorial Africa and is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The sporadic form occurs worldwide but is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all NHL cases in the United States. Immunodeficiency-associated Burkitt lymphoma is seen in individuals with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS or immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation.

Burkitt lymphoma typically presents as a rapidly growing mass, often involving the jaw, facial bones, or abdominal organs. Symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis is made through a biopsy of the affected tissue, followed by immunohistochemical staining and genetic analysis to confirm the presence of characteristic chromosomal translocations involving the MYC oncogene.

Treatment for Burkitt lymphoma typically involves intensive chemotherapy regimens, often combined with targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The prognosis is generally good when treated aggressively and promptly, with a high cure rate in children and young adults. However, the prognosis may be poorer in older patients or those with advanced-stage disease at diagnosis.

B-cell marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a type of indolent (slow-growing) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It arises from B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell found in the lymphatic system. MZLs typically involve the marginal zone of lymphoid follicles, which are structures found in lymph nodes and other lymphatic tissues.

There are three subtypes of MZL: extranodal MZL (also known as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue or MALT lymphoma), nodal MZL, and splenic MZL. Extranodal MZL is the most common form and can occur at various extranodal sites, such as the stomach, lungs, skin, eyes, and salivary glands. Nodal MZL involves the lymph nodes without evidence of extranodal disease, while splenic MZL primarily affects the spleen.

MZLs are typically low-grade malignancies, but they can transform into more aggressive forms over time. Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Common treatments include watchful waiting, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which is a cancer of the lymphatic system. Specifically, MCL arises from abnormal B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) that typically reside in the "mantle zone" of the lymph node. The malignant cells in MCL tend to have a characteristic genetic abnormality where the cyclin D1 gene is translocated to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus, resulting in overexpression of cyclin D1 protein. This leads to uncontrolled cell division and proliferation.

Mantle cell lymphoma often presents with advanced-stage disease, involving multiple lymph nodes, bone marrow, and sometimes extranodal sites such as the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, and abdominal pain or discomfort.

Treatment for MCL typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and sometimes targeted therapy or stem cell transplantation. However, the prognosis for MCL is generally less favorable compared to other types of NHL, with a median overall survival of around 5-7 years.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a type of cancer that affects T-cells, a specific group of white blood cells called lymphocytes. These cells play a crucial role in the body's immune system and help protect against infection and disease. In CTCL, the T-cells become malignant and accumulate in the skin, leading to various skin symptoms and lesions.

CTCL is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which refers to a group of cancers that originate from lymphocytes. Within NHL, CTCL is categorized as a type of extranodal lymphoma since it primarily involves organs or tissues outside the lymphatic system, in this case, the skin.

The two most common subtypes of CTCL are mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome:

1. Mycosis fungoides (MF): This is the more prevalent form of CTCL, characterized by patches, plaques, or tumors on the skin. The lesions may be scaly, itchy, or change in size, shape, and color over time. MF usually progresses slowly, with early-stage disease often confined to the skin for several years before spreading to lymph nodes or other organs.
2. Sézary syndrome (SS): This is a more aggressive form of CTCL that involves not only the skin but also the blood and lymph nodes. SS is characterized by the presence of malignant T-cells, known as Sézary cells, in the peripheral blood. Patients with SS typically have generalized erythroderma (reddening and scaling of the entire body), pruritus (severe itching), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), and alopecia (hair loss).

The diagnosis of CTCL usually involves a combination of clinical examination, skin biopsy, and immunophenotyping to identify the malignant T-cells. Treatment options depend on the stage and subtype of the disease and may include topical therapies, phototherapy, systemic medications, or targeted therapies.

T-cell peripheral lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. This type of lymphoma is called "peripheral" because it typically develops in T-cells that have matured and are found in various tissues and organs outside of the bone marrow, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, skin, and digestive tract.

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are relatively rare and can be aggressive, with a tendency to spread quickly throughout the body. They can arise from different types of T-cells, leading to various subtypes of PTCL that may have different clinical features, treatment options, and prognoses.

Some common subtypes of peripheral T-cell lymphoma include:

1. PTCL, not otherwise specified (NOS): This is the most common subtype, accounting for about 25-30% of all PTCL cases. It includes cases that do not fit into any specific category or have features of more than one subtype.
2. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL): ALCL can be further divided into two groups: systemic ALCL and cutaneous ALCL. Systemic ALCL is a more aggressive form, while cutaneous ALCL tends to be less aggressive and primarily affects the skin.
3. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL): AITL is an aggressive subtype that often involves the lymph nodes and can affect other organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. It frequently presents with B symptoms (fever, night sweats, and weight loss) and abnormal blood tests.
4. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL): EATL is a rare but aggressive subtype that primarily affects the intestines, particularly in individuals with a history of celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.
5. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL): ATLL is caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and primarily affects adults from regions where HTLV-1 is endemic, such as Japan, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa.

Treatment for PTCL depends on the specific subtype, stage, and individual patient factors. Common treatment options include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Clinical trials are also available for eligible patients to test new therapies and combinations.

AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system and is associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by the infection of the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which weakens the immune system and makes individuals more susceptible to developing lymphoma.

There are two main types of AIDS-related lymphomas: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL). DLBCL is the most common type and tends to grow rapidly, while BL is a more aggressive form that can also spread quickly.

Symptoms of AIDS-related lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and decreased appetite. Diagnosis typically involves a biopsy of the affected lymph node or other tissue, followed by various imaging tests to determine the extent of the disease.

Treatment for AIDS-related lymphoma usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, along with antiretroviral therapy (ART) to manage HIV infection. The prognosis for ARL varies depending on several factors, including the type and stage of the disease, the patient's overall health, and their response to treatment.

Large cell anaplastic lymphoma is a type of cancer that starts in white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body's immune system. It is classified as a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a subtype of NHL characterized by the presence of large cancer cells that look abnormal under a microscope. These cells are called "anaplastic" because they lack many of the usual features of mature lymphocytes.

ALCL can occur in many different parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, skin, lungs, and soft tissues. It is typically an aggressive form of NHL that grows and spreads quickly.

ALCL is further divided into two main subtypes based on the presence or absence of a genetic abnormality involving a protein called ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase). ALK-positive ALCL tends to occur in younger patients and has a better prognosis than ALK-negative ALCL.

Treatment for large cell anaplastic lymphoma typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. In some cases, stem cell transplantation may also be recommended.

Hodgkin disease, also known as Hodgkin lymphoma, is a type of cancer that originates in the white blood cells called lymphocytes. It typically affects the lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels and glands spread throughout the body. The disease is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal cell, known as a Reed-Sternberg cell, within the affected lymph nodes.

The symptoms of Hodgkin disease may include painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin; fever; night sweats; weight loss; and fatigue. The exact cause of Hodgkin disease is unknown, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and infectious factors.

Hodgkin disease is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the stage and extent of the disease. With appropriate treatment, the prognosis for Hodgkin disease is generally very good, with a high cure rate. However, long-term side effects of treatment may include an increased risk of secondary cancers and other health problems.

Large B-cell lymphoma, immunoblastic variant, is a type of cancer that starts in the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body's immune system. It is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which is an aggressive (fast-growing) lymphoma.

Immunoblastic large B-cell lymphoma is characterized by the presence of large, immunoblastic cells that have a specific appearance under the microscope. These cells are typically found in the lymph nodes or other lymphoid tissues, such as the spleen or bone marrow.

This type of lymphoma can be aggressive and may require prompt treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or stem cell transplantation. The prognosis for immunoblastic large B-cell lymphoma varies depending on several factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, and the specific features of the tumor.

It is important to note that a medical definition may vary based on different medical sources or guidelines, and it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

Monoclonal murine-derived antibodies are a type of laboratory-produced antibody that is identical in structure, having been derived from a single clone of cells. These antibodies are created using mouse cells and are therefore composed entirely of mouse immune proteins. They are designed to bind specifically to a particular target protein or antigen, making them useful tools for research, diagnostic testing, and therapeutic applications.

Monoclonal antibodies offer several advantages over polyclonal antibodies (which are derived from multiple clones of cells and can recognize multiple epitopes on an antigen). Monoclonal antibodies have a consistent and uniform structure, making them more reliable for research and diagnostic purposes. They also have higher specificity and affinity for their target antigens, allowing for more sensitive detection and measurement.

However, there are some limitations to using monoclonal murine-derived antibodies in therapeutic applications. Because they are composed entirely of mouse proteins, they can elicit an immune response in humans, leading to the production of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) that can neutralize their effectiveness. To overcome this limitation, researchers have developed chimeric and humanized monoclonal antibodies that incorporate human protein sequences, reducing the risk of an immune response.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

CD20 is not a medical definition of an antigen, but rather it is a cell surface marker that helps identify a specific type of white blood cell called B-lymphocytes or B-cells. These cells are part of the adaptive immune system and play a crucial role in producing antibodies to fight off infections.

CD20 is a protein found on the surface of mature B-cells, and it is used as a target for monoclonal antibody therapies in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Rituximab is an example of a monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 and is used to treat conditions such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and rheumatoid arthritis.

While CD20 itself is not an antigen, it can be recognized by the immune system as a foreign substance when a monoclonal antibody such as rituximab binds to it. This binding can trigger an immune response, leading to the destruction of the B-cells that express CD20 on their surface.

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

Extranodal NK-T-cell lymphoma is a rare and aggressive type of lymphoma that typically involves the nasal area and other extranodal sites. It is characterized by the proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells or T-cells, specifically those that express the CD56 surface antigen and are positive for cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon.

The tumor cells in this type of lymphoma often produce large amounts of cytokines, leading to extensive tissue destruction and necrosis at the site of involvement. The disease can also involve the skin, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and other organs.

Extranodal NK-T-cell lymphoma is more prevalent in Asians and Latin Americans than in other populations. It tends to affect middle-aged adults and has a poor prognosis, with a high rate of relapse and a low survival rate. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and sometimes stem cell transplantation.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Human chromosome pair 14 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of human cells, which contain genetic material in the form of DNA and proteins. Each member of the pair contains a single very long DNA molecule that carries an identical set of genes and other genetic elements, totaling approximately 105 million base pairs. These chromosomes play a crucial role in the development, functioning, and reproduction of human beings.

Chromosome 14 is one of the autosomal chromosomes, meaning it is not involved in determining the sex of an individual. It contains around 800-1,000 genes that provide instructions for producing various proteins responsible for numerous cellular functions and processes. Some notable genes located on chromosome 14 include those associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, cancer susceptibility, and immune system regulation.

Human cells typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, including 22 autosomal pairs (numbered 1-22) and one pair of sex chromosomes (XX for females or XY for males). Chromosome pair 14 is the eighth largest autosomal pair in terms of its total length.

It's important to note that genetic information on chromosome 14, like all human chromosomes, can vary between individuals due to genetic variations and mutations. These differences contribute to the unique characteristics and traits found among humans.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

CD30 is a type of protein found on the surface of some cells in the human body, including certain immune cells like T-cells and B-cells. It is also known as Ki-1 antigen. CD30 plays a role in the regulation of the immune response and can be activated during an immune reaction.

CD30 is often used as a marker to identify certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. These cancers are characterized by the presence of cells that express CD30 on their surface.

CD30 antigens can be targeted with immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibodies, to treat these types of cancer. For example, brentuximab vedotin is a monoclonal antibody that targets CD30 and has been approved for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 4, Human" (Epstein-Barr Virus)

"Herpesvirus 4, Human," also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a member of the Herpesviridae family and is one of the most common human viruses. It is primarily transmitted through saliva and is often referred to as the "kissing disease."

EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which is characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. The virus can also cause other diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Once a person becomes infected with EBV, the virus remains in the body for the rest of their life, residing in certain white blood cells called B lymphocytes. In most people, the virus remains dormant and does not cause any further symptoms. However, in some individuals, the virus may reactivate, leading to recurrent or persistent symptoms.

EBV infection is diagnosed through various tests, including blood tests that detect antibodies against the virus or direct detection of the virus itself through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. There is no cure for EBV infection, and treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and not sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or drinking glasses.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

Immunophenotyping is a medical laboratory technique used to identify and classify cells, usually in the context of hematologic (blood) disorders and malignancies (cancers), based on their surface or intracellular expression of various proteins and antigens. This technique utilizes specific antibodies tagged with fluorochromes, which bind to the target antigens on the cell surface or within the cells. The labeled cells are then analyzed using flow cytometry, allowing for the detection and quantification of multiple antigenic markers simultaneously.

Immunophenotyping helps in understanding the distribution of different cell types, their subsets, and activation status, which can be crucial in diagnosing various hematological disorders, immunodeficiencies, and distinguishing between different types of leukemias, lymphomas, and other malignancies. Additionally, it can also be used to monitor the progression of diseases, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments, and detect minimal residual disease (MRD) during follow-up care.

Human chromosome pair 18 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, protein, and RNA, and they carry genetic information that determines an individual's physical characteristics, biochemical processes, and susceptibility to disease.

Chromosome pair 18 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that make up the human genome. Each member of chromosome pair 18 has a length of about 75 million base pairs and contains around 600 genes. Chromosome pair 18 is also known as the "smart chromosome" because it contains many genes involved in brain development, function, and cognition.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 18 can lead to genetic disorders such as Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18), in which there is an extra copy of chromosome 18, or deletion of a portion of the chromosome, leading to various developmental and cognitive impairments.

"Gene rearrangement" is a process that involves the alteration of the order, orientation, or copy number of genes or gene segments within an organism's genome. This natural mechanism plays a crucial role in generating diversity and specificity in the immune system, particularly in vertebrates.

In the context of the immune system, gene rearrangement occurs during the development of B-cells and T-cells, which are responsible for adaptive immunity. The process involves breaking and rejoining DNA segments that encode antigen recognition sites, resulting in a unique combination of gene segments and creating a vast array of possible antigen receptors.

There are two main types of gene rearrangement:

1. V(D)J recombination: This process occurs in both B-cells and T-cells. It involves the recombination of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments to form a functional antigen receptor gene. In humans, there are multiple copies of V, D, and J segments for each antigen receptor gene, allowing for a vast number of possible combinations.
2. Class switch recombination: This process occurs only in mature B-cells after antigen exposure. It involves the replacement of the constant (C) region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene with another C region, resulting in the production of different isotypes of antibodies (IgG, IgA, or IgE) that have distinct effector functions while maintaining the same antigen specificity.

These processes contribute to the generation of a diverse repertoire of antigen receptors, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond effectively to a wide range of pathogens.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-BCL-6, also known as B-cell lymphoma 6 protein, are normal cellular proteins that play a role in regulating gene expression and controlling cell growth and differentiation. They function as transcriptional repressors, which means they bind to DNA and inhibit the transcription of specific genes.

The c-BCL-6 proto-oncogene is located on chromosome 3 (3q27) and encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that contains several functional domains, including a zinc finger domain, a BTB/POZ domain, and a C-terminal activation domain. These domains allow c-BCL-6 to interact with other proteins and regulate gene expression.

In normal cells, c-BCL-6 is involved in the development and differentiation of B cells, a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies. However, when the c-BCL-6 gene is mutated or its expression is deregulated, it can contribute to the development of cancer. In particular, c-BCL-6 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of B-cell lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and Burkitt lymphoma (BL).

In these cancers, c-BCL-6 can act as an oncogene by inhibiting the transcription of tumor suppressor genes and promoting cell survival and proliferation. Overexpression of c-BCL-6 has been associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with DLBCL and FL, making it a potential target for cancer therapy.

Thymus neoplasms are abnormal growths in the thymus gland that result from uncontrolled cell division. The term "neoplasm" refers to any new and abnormal growth of tissue, also known as a tumor. Thymus neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant thymus neoplasms are called thymomas or thymic carcinomas. Thymomas are the most common type and tend to grow slowly, invading nearby tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Thymic carcinomas are rarer and more aggressive, growing and spreading more quickly than thymomas.

Symptoms of thymus neoplasms may include coughing, chest pain, difficulty breathing, or swelling in the neck or upper chest. Treatment options for thymus neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms refer to a group of abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the brain or spinal cord. These tumors can be benign or malignant, and their growth can compress or disrupt the normal functioning of surrounding brain or spinal cord tissue.

Benign CNS neoplasms are slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause significant problems if they grow large enough to put pressure on vital structures within the brain or spinal cord. Malignant CNS neoplasms, on the other hand, are aggressive tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue. They may also spread to other parts of the CNS or, rarely, to other organs in the body.

CNS neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain or spinal cord, including nerve cells, glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), and supportive tissues such as blood vessels. The specific type of CNS neoplasm is often used to help guide treatment decisions and determine prognosis.

Symptoms of CNS neoplasms can vary widely depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis, vision or hearing changes, balance problems, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality. Treatment options for CNS neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Reed-Sternberg cells are a type of large, abnormal cell that are present in Hodgkin lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphatic system. These cells are typically characterized by the presence of two or more nuclei, one of which is often larger and irregularly shaped, giving them a "owl's eye" appearance. Reed-Sternberg cells are important in the diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma as they are present in all cases of this type of cancer. However, it is worth noting that Reed-Sternberg-like cells can also be found in other conditions, such as some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and certain inflammatory disorders, so their presence alone is not enough to make a definitive diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Eye neoplasms, also known as ocular tumors or eye cancer, refer to abnormal growths of tissue in the eye. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Eye neoplasms can develop in various parts of the eye, including the eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina, and optic nerve.

Benign eye neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, or a noticeable mass in the eye. Treatment options for benign eye neoplasms include monitoring, surgical removal, or radiation therapy.

Malignant eye neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow and spread rapidly to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, floaters, or flashes of light. Treatment options for malignant eye neoplasms depend on the type and stage of cancer but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of eye neoplasms can improve outcomes and prevent complications. Regular eye exams with an ophthalmologist are recommended for early detection and prevention of eye diseases, including eye neoplasms.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer that starts from cells that become certain white blood cells (called lymphocytes) in the bone marrow. The cancer (leukemia) cells start in the bone marrow but then go into the blood.

In CLL, the leukemia cells often build up slowly. Many people don't have any symptoms for at least a few years. But over time, the cells can spread to other parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen.

The "B-cell" part of the name refers to the fact that the cancer starts in a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell. The "chronic" part means that this leukemia usually progresses more slowly than other types of leukemia.

It's important to note that chronic lymphocytic leukemia is different from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Although both are cancers of the white blood cells, they start in different types of white blood cells and progress differently.

Pseudolymphoma is a term used to describe a benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia that mimics the clinical and histopathological features of malignant lymphomas. It is also known as pseudolymphomatous cutis or reactive lymphoid hyperplasia.

Pseudolymphoma can occur in various organs, but it is most commonly found in the skin. It is usually caused by a localized immune response to an antigenic stimulus such as insect bites, tattoos, radiation therapy, or certain medications. The condition presents as a solitary or multiple nodular lesions that may resemble lymphoma both clinically and histologically.

Histologically, pseudolymphoma is characterized by a dense infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and other immune cells, which can mimic the appearance of malignant lymphoma. However, unlike malignant lymphomas, pseudolymphomas lack cytological atypia, mitotic activity, and clonal proliferation of lymphoid cells.

Pseudolymphoma is usually a self-limiting condition that resolves spontaneously or with the removal of the antigenic stimulus. However, in some cases, it may persist or recur, requiring further evaluation and treatment to exclude malignant lymphoma.

Nose neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and have the potential to metastasize.

Nose neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as nasal congestion, nosebleeds, difficulty breathing through the nose, loss of smell, facial pain or numbness, and visual changes if they affect the eye. The diagnosis of nose neoplasms usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the growth. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, also known as infectious mononucleosis or "mono," is a viral infection that most commonly affects adolescents and young adults. The virus is transmitted through saliva and other bodily fluids, and can cause a variety of symptoms including fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, and skin rash.

EBV is a member of the herpesvirus family and establishes lifelong latency in infected individuals. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the body and can reactivate later in life, causing symptoms such as fatigue and swollen lymph nodes. In some cases, EBV infection has been associated with the development of certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

The diagnosis of EBV infections is typically made based on a combination of clinical symptoms and laboratory tests, such as blood tests that detect the presence of EBV antibodies or viral DNA. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at alleviating symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral therapy for EBV infections.

Mycosis fungoides is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a rare cancer that affects the skin's immune system. It is characterized by the infiltration of malignant CD4+ T-lymphocytes into the skin, leading to the formation of patches, plaques, and tumors. The disease typically progresses slowly over many years, often starting with scaly, itchy rashes that can be mistaken for eczema or psoriasis. As the disease advances, tumors may form, and the lymphoma may spread to other organs, such as the lymph nodes, lungs, or spleen. Mycosis fungoides is not contagious and cannot be spread from person to person. The exact cause of mycosis fungoides is unknown, but it is thought to result from a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains are proteins that make up the framework of antibodies, which are Y-shaped immune proteins. These heavy chains, along with light chains, form the antigen-binding sites of an antibody, which recognize and bind to specific foreign substances (antigens) in order to neutralize or remove them from the body.

The heavy chain is composed of a variable region, which contains the antigen-binding site, and constant regions that determine the class and function of the antibody. There are five classes of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) that differ in their heavy chain constant regions and therefore have different functions in the immune response.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains are synthesized by B cells, a type of white blood cell involved in the adaptive immune response. The genetic rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes during B cell development results in the production of a vast array of different antibodies with unique antigen-binding sites, allowing for the recognition and elimination of a wide variety of pathogens.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Autologous transplantation is a medical procedure where cells, tissues, or organs are removed from a person, stored and then returned back to the same individual at a later time. This is different from allogeneic transplantation where the tissue or organ is obtained from another donor. The term "autologous" is derived from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "logos" meaning study.

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own cells or tissues are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased ones. This reduces the risk of rejection and eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are required in allogeneic transplants to prevent the body from attacking the foreign tissue.

Examples of autologous transplantation include:

* Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, where stem cells are removed from the patient's blood or bone marrow, stored and then reinfused back into the same individual after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat cancer.
* Autologous skin grafting, where a piece of skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another area on the same person.
* Autologous chondrocyte implantation, where cartilage cells are harvested from the patient's own knee, cultured in a laboratory and then implanted back into the knee to repair damaged cartilage.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A germinal center is a microanatomical structure found within the secondary lymphoid organs, such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. It is a transient structure that forms during the humoral immune response, specifically during the activation of B cells by antigens.

Germinal centers are the sites where activated B cells undergo rapid proliferation, somatic hypermutation, and class switch recombination to generate high-affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. These processes help to refine the immune response and provide long-lasting immunity against pathogens.

The germinal center is composed of two main regions: the dark zone (or proliferation center) and the light zone (or selection area). The dark zone contains rapidly dividing B cells, while the light zone contains follicular dendritic cells that present antigens to the B cells. Through a process called affinity maturation, B cells with higher-affinity antibodies are selected for survival and further differentiation into plasma cells or memory B cells.

Overall, germinal centers play a critical role in the adaptive immune response by generating high-affinity antibodies and providing long-term immunity against pathogens.

Bleomycin is a type of chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma, testicular cancer, and lymphomas. It works by causing DNA damage in rapidly dividing cells, which can inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells.

Bleomycin is an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces verticillus and is often administered intravenously or intramuscularly. While it can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, it can also have serious side effects, including lung toxicity, which can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Therefore, bleomycin should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional who is experienced in administering chemotherapy drugs.

Leukemia is a type of cancer that originates from the bone marrow - the soft, inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. It is characterized by an abnormal production of white blood cells, known as leukocytes or blasts. These abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are several types of leukemia, classified based on the specific type of white blood cell affected and the speed at which the disease progresses:

1. Acute Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress rapidly, with symptoms developing over a few weeks or months. They involve the rapid growth and accumulation of immature, nonfunctional white blood cells (blasts) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) - Originates from lymphoid progenitor cells, primarily affecting children but can also occur in adults.
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) - Develops from myeloid progenitor cells and is more common in older adults.

2. Chronic Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress slowly, with symptoms developing over a period of months to years. They involve the production of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells that can accumulate in large numbers in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Affects B-lymphocytes and is more common in older adults.
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) - Originates from myeloid progenitor cells, characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome. It can occur at any age but is more common in middle-aged and older adults.

Treatment options for leukemia depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors. Treatments may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a group of diseases characterized by the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells, which are crucial components of the immune system. These disorders can arise from both B-cells and T-cells, leading to various clinical manifestations ranging from benign to malignant conditions.

LPDs can be broadly classified into reactive and neoplastic categories:

1. Reactive Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency states. They involve an exaggerated response of the immune system leading to the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells. Examples include:
* Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
* Lymph node enlargement due to various infections or autoimmune disorders
* Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which occurs in the context of immunosuppression following organ transplantation
2. Neoplastic Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are malignant conditions characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal lymphoid cells, leading to the formation of tumors. They can be further classified into Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Examples include:
* Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL
* Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Various subtypes, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma

It is important to note that the distinction between reactive and neoplastic LPDs can sometimes be challenging, requiring careful clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular evaluations. Proper diagnosis and classification of LPDs are crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies and predicting patient outcomes.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Mediastinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the mediastinum, which is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity that lies between the lungs and contains various vital structures such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and nerves. Mediastinal neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from any of the tissues or organs within the mediastinum.

Benign mediastinal neoplasms may include thymomas, lipomas, neurofibromas, or teratomas, among others. These tumors are typically slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause symptoms or complications by compressing adjacent structures within the mediastinum, such as the airways, blood vessels, or nerves.

Malignant mediastinal neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Common types of malignant mediastinal neoplasms include thymic carcinomas, lymphomas, germ cell tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors often require aggressive treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, to control their growth and spread.

It is important to note that mediastinal neoplasms can present with various symptoms depending on their location, size, and type. Some patients may be asymptomatic, while others may experience cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, hoarseness, or swallowing difficulties. A thorough diagnostic workup, including imaging studies and biopsies, is necessary to confirm the diagnosis and determine the best course of treatment for mediastinal neoplasms.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize foreign substances such as pathogens or toxins. They are composed of four polypeptide chains: two heavy chains and two light chains, which are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains contain loops that form the antigen-binding site, allowing each Ig molecule to recognize a specific epitope (antigenic determinant) on an antigen.

Genes encoding immunoglobulins are located on chromosome 14 (light chain genes) and chromosomes 22 and 2 (heavy chain genes). The diversity of the immune system is generated through a process called V(D)J recombination, where variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments are randomly selected and assembled to form the variable regions of the heavy and light chains. This results in an enormous number of possible combinations, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond to a vast array of potential threats.

There are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with distinct functions and structures. For example, IgG is the most abundant class in serum and provides long-term protection against pathogens, while IgA is found on mucosal surfaces and helps prevent the entry of pathogens into the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Genes, myc" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation. It seems like there might be a misunderstanding or a missing word in the request. "Myc" could refer to the Myc family of transcription factors that are involved in cell growth and division, and are often deregulated in cancer. However, without more context, it's difficult to provide an accurate definition. If you could provide more information or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further!

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a medical treatment that combines the specificity of antibodies and the therapeutic effects of radiation to target and destroy cancer cells. It involves the use of radioactive isotopes, which are attached to monoclonal antibodies, that recognize and bind to antigens expressed on the surface of cancer cells. Once bound, the radioactivity emitted from the isotope irradiates the cancer cells, causing damage to their DNA and leading to cell death. This targeted approach helps minimize radiation exposure to healthy tissues and reduces side effects compared to conventional radiotherapy techniques. RIT has been used in the treatment of various hematological malignancies, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and is being investigated for solid tumors as well.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 are a group of proteins that play a role in regulating cell death (apoptosis). The c-bcl-2 gene produces one of these proteins, which helps to prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis. This protein is located on the membrane of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and it can inhibit the release of cytochrome c, a key player in the activation of caspases, which are enzymes that trigger apoptosis.

In normal cells, the regulation of c-bcl-2 protein helps to maintain a balance between cell proliferation and cell death, ensuring proper tissue homeostasis. However, when the c-bcl-2 gene is mutated or its expression is dysregulated, it can contribute to cancer development by allowing cancer cells to survive and proliferate. High levels of c-bcl-2 protein have been found in many types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and carcinomas, and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

Leukemia, B-cell is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by an overproduction of abnormal B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. These abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to anemia, infection, and bleeding.

B-cells are a type of lymphocyte that plays a crucial role in the immune system by producing antibodies to help fight off infections. In B-cell leukemia, the cancerous B-cells do not mature properly and accumulate in the bone marrow, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

There are several types of B-cell leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). ALL is more common in children and young adults, while CLL is more common in older adults. Treatment options for B-cell leukemia depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapies.

Bcl-2 is a family of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating cell death (apoptosis), which is a normal process that eliminates damaged or unnecessary cells from the body. Specifically, Bcl-2 proteins are involved in controlling the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

The bcl-2 gene provides instructions for making one member of this protein family, called B-cell lymphoma 2 protein. This protein is located primarily on the outer membrane of mitochondria and helps to prevent apoptosis by inhibiting the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm.

In healthy cells, the balance between pro-apoptotic (promoting cell death) and anti-apoptotic (inhibiting cell death) proteins is critical for maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. However, in some cancers, including certain types of leukemia and lymphoma, the bcl-2 gene is abnormally overexpressed, leading to an excess of Bcl-2 protein that disrupts this balance and allows cancer cells to survive and proliferate.

Therefore, understanding the role of bcl-2 in apoptosis has important implications for developing new therapies for cancer and other diseases associated with abnormal cell death regulation.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Leukemia L5178" is not a recognized medical term or classification for leukemia. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations have established specific classifications for different types of leukemias based on factors such as cell type, genetic mutations, and other characteristics. However, "L5178" does not appear in these classifications.

It's possible that "L5178" might refer to a specific research cell line used in scientific studies, but without more context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition. If you have more information about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide a more accurate response.

Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare type of lymphoma that is associated with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine triggered by gluten ingestion. EATL is a form of intestinal T-cell lymphoma and typically affects older adults, with a median age at diagnosis in the sixth to seventh decade of life.

EATL is characterized by the malignant transformation of T-cells, a type of white blood cell, that are present in the intestinal wall. The exact cause of EATL is not fully understood, but it is strongly associated with celiac disease and its complications, such as chronic inflammation and malabsorption.

Symptoms of EATL may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and intestinal obstruction or perforation. The diagnosis of EATL is typically made through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, endoscopy with biopsy, and laboratory tests.

Treatment for EATL usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery to remove the affected portion of the intestine. The prognosis for patients with EATL is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of less than 20%. However, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment may improve outcomes in some cases.

Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare and aggressive type of cancer that affects the circulating white blood cells called T-lymphocytes or T-cells. It is caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which infects CD4+ T-cells and leads to their malignant transformation. The disease can present as either acute or chronic leukemia, or as lymphoma, depending on the clinical features and laboratory findings.

The acute form of ATLL is characterized by the rapid proliferation of abnormal T-cells in the blood, bone marrow, and other organs. Patients with acute ATLL typically have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of only a few months. Symptoms may include skin rashes, lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood).

The chronic form of ATLL is less aggressive than the acute form, but it can still lead to serious complications. Chronic ATLL is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal T-cells in the blood and lymph nodes, as well as skin lesions and hypercalcemia. The median survival for patients with chronic ATLL is around two years.

ATLL can also present as a lymphoma, which is characterized by the proliferation of abnormal T-cells in the lymph nodes, spleen, and other organs. Lymphoma may occur in isolation or in combination with leukemic features.

The diagnosis of ATLL is based on clinical findings, laboratory tests, and the detection of HTLV-1 antibodies or proviral DNA in the blood or tissue samples. Treatment options for ATLL include chemotherapy, antiretroviral therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the stage and type of ATLL.

B-lymphocyte gene rearrangement is a fundamental biological process that occurs during the development of B-lymphocytes (also known as B cells), which are a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies to help fight infections. This process involves the rearrangement of genetic material within the B-lymphocyte's immunoglobulin genes, specifically the heavy chain (IgH) and light chain (IgL) genes, to create a diverse repertoire of antibodies with unique specificities.

During B-lymphocyte gene rearrangement, large segments of DNA are cut, deleted, or inverted, and then rejoined to form a functional IgH or IgL gene that encodes an antigen-binding site on the antibody molecule. The process occurs in two main steps:

1. Variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments are rearranged to form the heavy chain gene, which is located on chromosome 14. This results in a vast array of possible combinations, allowing for the generation of a diverse set of antibody molecules.
2. A separate variable (V) and joining (J) gene segment rearrangement occurs to form the light chain gene, which can be either kappa or lambda type, located on chromosomes 2 and 22, respectively.

Once the heavy and light chain genes are successfully rearranged, they are transcribed into mRNA and translated into immunoglobulin proteins, forming a functional antibody molecule. If the initial gene rearrangement fails to produce a functional antibody, additional attempts at rearrangement can occur, involving different combinations of V, D, and J segments or the use of alternative reading frames.

Errors in B-lymphocyte gene rearrangement can lead to various genetic disorders, such as lymphomas and leukemias, due to the production of aberrant antibodies or uncontrolled cell growth.

Composite lymphoma is a very rare condition in which two or more different types of lymphoma occur simultaneously in the same patient. It is also known as "mixed-cellularity lymphoma" or "biphenotypic lymphoma." The most common combination is B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, but other combinations can also occur.

Composite lymphoma can present a challenge in diagnosis and treatment, as the different types of lymphoma may require different approaches to therapy. A correct diagnosis is important for determining the best course of treatment and for predicting the patient's prognosis. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the specific types of lymphoma present and the stage of the disease.

It is worth noting that composite lymphoma should not be confused with "composite tissue allograft," which refers to a surgical procedure in which multiple types of tissues (such as skin, muscle, bone, and nerve) are transplanted from one individual to another.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

'Gene rearrangement in B-lymphocytes, heavy chain' refers to the biological process that occurs during the development of B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow. This process involves the rearrangement of genetic material on chromosome 14, specifically within the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus.

During B-cell maturation, the variable region of the heavy chain gene is assembled from several gene segments, including the variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments. Through a series of genetic recombination events, these segments are randomly selected and joined together to form a unique V(D)J exon that encodes the variable region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain protein.

This gene rearrangement process allows for the generation of a diverse repertoire of antibodies with different specificities, enabling B-lymphocytes to recognize and respond to a wide range of foreign antigens. However, if errors occur during this process, it can lead to the production of autoantibodies that target the body's own cells and tissues, contributing to the development of certain immune disorders such as autoimmune diseases.

Methotrexate is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, essential components of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, methotrexate interferes with cell division and growth, making it effective in treating rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, methotrexate is also used to manage autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In these conditions, methotrexate modulates the immune system and reduces inflammation.

It's important to note that methotrexate can have significant side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function, and kidney function is necessary during treatment with methotrexate.

Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemias and lymphomas. Its chemical name is cytosine arabinoside, and it works by interfering with the DNA synthesis of cancer cells, which ultimately leads to their death.

Cytarabine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and may be administered through various routes, such as intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous injection, or orally. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health status.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, cytarabine can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It may also cause more serious side effects, such as damage to the liver, kidneys, or nervous system, and it is important for patients to be closely monitored during treatment to minimize these risks.

It's important to note that medical treatments should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, and this information should not be used as a substitute for medical advice.

Neprilysin (NEP), also known as membrane metallo-endopeptidase or CD10, is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a zinc-dependent metalloprotease. It is widely expressed in various tissues, including the kidney, brain, heart, and vasculature. Neprilysin plays a crucial role in the breakdown and regulation of several endogenous bioactive peptides, such as natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and angiotensin II. By degrading these peptides, neprilysin helps maintain cardiovascular homeostasis, modulate inflammation, and regulate neurotransmission. In the context of heart failure, neprilysin inhibitors have been developed to increase natriuretic peptide levels, promoting diuresis and vasodilation, ultimately improving cardiac function.

Human chromosome pair 11 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and together they contain the genetic material that is inherited from both parents. They are located on the eleventh position in the standard karyotype, which is a visual representation of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes.

Chromosome 11 is one of the largest human chromosomes and contains an estimated 135 million base pairs. It contains approximately 1,400 genes that provide instructions for making proteins, as well as many non-coding RNA molecules that play a role in regulating gene expression.

Chromosome 11 is known to contain several important genes and genetic regions associated with various human diseases and conditions. For example, it contains the Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) gene, which is associated with kidney cancer in children, and the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene, which is associated with a genetic disorder that causes benign tumors to grow on nerves throughout the body. Additionally, chromosome 11 contains the region where the ABO blood group genes are located, which determine a person's blood type.

It's worth noting that human chromosomes come in pairs because they contain two copies of each gene, one inherited from the mother and one from the father. This redundancy allows for genetic diversity and provides a backup copy of essential genes, ensuring their proper function and maintaining the stability of the genome.

Salvage therapy, in the context of medical oncology, refers to the use of treatments that are typically considered less desirable or more aggressive, often due to greater side effects or lower efficacy, when standard treatment options have failed. These therapies are used to attempt to salvage a response or delay disease progression in patients with refractory or relapsed cancers.

In other words, salvage therapy is a last-resort treatment approach for patients who have not responded to first-line or subsequent lines of therapy. It may involve the use of different drug combinations, higher doses of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. The goal of salvage therapy is to extend survival, improve quality of life, or achieve disease stabilization in patients with limited treatment options.

Orbital neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the orbit, which is the bony cavity that contains the eyeball, muscles, nerves, fat, and blood vessels. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of cells within the orbit.

Orbital neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include protrusion or displacement of the eyeball, double vision, limited eye movement, pain, swelling, and numbness in the face. In some cases, orbital neoplasms may not cause any noticeable symptoms, especially if they are small and slow-growing.

There are many different types of orbital neoplasms, including:

1. Optic nerve glioma: a rare tumor that arises from the optic nerve's supportive tissue.
2. Orbital meningioma: a tumor that originates from the membranes covering the brain and extends into the orbit.
3. Lacrimal gland tumors: benign or malignant growths that develop in the lacrimal gland, which produces tears.
4. Orbital lymphangioma: a non-cancerous tumor that arises from the lymphatic vessels in the orbit.
5. Rhabdomyosarcoma: a malignant tumor that develops from the skeletal muscle cells in the orbit.
6. Metastatic tumors: cancerous growths that spread to the orbit from other parts of the body, such as the breast, lung, or prostate.

The diagnosis and treatment of orbital neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor. Imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRI, are often used to visualize the tumor and determine its extent. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the tumor's type and grade. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

CD5 is a type of protein found on the surface of certain cells in the human body, including some immune cells like T cells and B cells. It is also known as a cell marker or identifier. Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system, triggering an immune response.

In the context of CD5, antigens refer to foreign substances that can bind to the CD5 protein and stimulate an immune response. However, it's important to note that CD5 itself is not typically considered an antigen in the medical community. Instead, it is a marker used to identify certain types of cells and monitor their behavior in health and disease states.

In some cases, abnormal expression or regulation of CD5 has been associated with various diseases, including certain types of cancer. For example, some B-cell lymphomas may overexpress CD5, which can help doctors diagnose and monitor the progression of the disease. However, in these contexts, CD5 is not considered an antigen in the traditional sense.

Procarbazine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically an alkylating agent, used in the treatment of certain types of cancer such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and brain tumors. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Procarbazine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to increase its effectiveness.

It is important to note that procarbazine can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weakness. It can also suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of infection. Additionally, it can cause damage to cells outside of the cancerous tissue, which can result in side effects such as hair loss and mouth sores.

Procarbazine is a prescription medication that should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to report any side effects or concerns promptly.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Immunoglobulin heavy chains (IgH) are proteins that make up the framework of antibodies, which are crucial components of the adaptive immune system. These heavy chains are produced by B cells and plasma cells, and they contain variable regions that can bind to specific antigens, as well as constant regions that determine the effector functions of the antibody.

The genes that encode for immunoglobulin heavy chains are located on chromosome 14 in humans, within a region known as the IgH locus. These genes undergo a complex process of rearrangement during B cell development, whereby different gene segments (V, D, and J) are joined together to create a unique variable region that can recognize a specific antigen. This process of gene rearrangement is critical for the diversity and specificity of the antibody response.

Therefore, the medical definition of 'Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain' refers to the set of genetic elements that encode for the immunoglobulin heavy chain proteins, and their complex process of rearrangement during B cell development.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a variety of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling cascade or changing the cell's metabolism. Receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes, including communication between cells, regulation of immune responses, and perception of senses.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the adaptive immune system, specifically by B-cells and T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as microorganisms (like bacteria, viruses, or fungi), pollen, dust mites, or even components of our own cells (for instance, in autoimmune diseases). An antigen's ability to stimulate an immune response is determined by its molecular structure and whether it can be recognized by the receptors on immune cells.

3. B-Cell: B-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the adaptive immune system, particularly in humoral immunity. They originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens. Each B-cell has receptors on its surface called B-cell receptors (BCRs) that can recognize a unique antigen. When a B-cell encounters its specific antigen, it becomes activated, undergoes proliferation, and differentiates into plasma cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies to neutralize or eliminate the antigen.

Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract, which can be benign or malignant. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They can sometimes be removed completely and may not cause any further health problems.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These types of neoplasms can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

GI neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The specific symptoms may depend on the location and size of the neoplasm.

There are many types of GI neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), lymphomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of GI neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 8, Human" (HHV-8):

Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV), is a DNA virus from the family of Herpesviridae. It is the causative agent of several malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). HHV-8 is primarily transmitted through saliva, sexual contact, or organ transplantation. In immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, the risk of HHV-8-associated malignancies significantly increases. The virus establishes latency in infected cells and can periodically reactivate, causing inflammation and potentially leading to the development of cancer.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical changes in the chromosomes that can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. These changes can affect the genetic material encoded in the chromosomes, leading to various consequences such as developmental abnormalities, cancer, or infertility.

Structural aberrations include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, which result from breaks and rearrangements of chromosome segments. Numerical aberrations involve changes in the number of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (extra or missing chromosomes) or polyploidy (multiples of a complete set of chromosomes).

Chromosome aberrations can be detected and analyzed using various cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These methods allow for the identification and characterization of chromosomal changes at the molecular level, providing valuable information for genetic counseling, diagnosis, and research.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-Myc, are crucial regulators of normal cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). When proto-oncogenes undergo mutations or alterations in their regulation, they can become overactive or overexpressed, leading to the formation of oncogenes. Oncogenic forms of c-Myc contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which can ultimately result in cancer development.

The c-Myc protein is a transcription factor that binds to specific DNA sequences, influencing the expression of target genes involved in various cellular processes, such as:

1. Cell cycle progression: c-Myc promotes the expression of genes required for the G1 to S phase transition, driving cells into the DNA synthesis and division phase.
2. Metabolism: c-Myc regulates genes associated with glucose metabolism, glycolysis, and mitochondrial function, enhancing energy production in rapidly dividing cells.
3. Apoptosis: c-Myc can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the cellular context and the presence of other regulatory factors.
4. Differentiation: c-Myc generally inhibits differentiation by repressing genes that are necessary for specialized cell functions.
5. Angiogenesis: c-Myc can induce the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, promoting the formation of new blood vessels to support tumor growth.

Dysregulation of c-Myc is frequently observed in various types of cancer, making it an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

Lymphatic diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the lymphatic system, which is an important part of the immune and circulatory systems. The lymphatic system consists of a network of vessels, organs, and tissues that help to transport lymph fluid throughout the body, fight infection, and remove waste products.

Lymphatic diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. Some common types of lymphatic diseases include:

1. Lymphedema: A condition that causes swelling in the arms or legs due to a blockage or damage in the lymphatic vessels.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
3. Infections: Certain bacterial and viral infections can affect the lymphatic system, such as tuberculosis, cat-scratch disease, and HIV/AIDS.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and scleroderma can cause inflammation and damage to the lymphatic system.
5. Congenital abnormalities: Some people are born with abnormalities in their lymphatic system, such as malformations or missing lymph nodes.

Symptoms of lymphatic diseases may vary depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or radiation therapy. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of a lymphatic disease, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Siglec-2, also known as CD22, is a type of cell surface protein that belongs to the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) family. It is primarily expressed on mature B cells and plays a crucial role in regulating B cell activation and function. Siglec-2 recognizes and binds to sialic acid residues on glycoproteins and gangliosides, which are sugars that are attached to proteins and lipids on the surface of cells. This binding can lead to inhibitory signals that dampen B cell activation and help prevent autoimmunity. Siglec-2 has also been implicated in the regulation of B cell migration and adhesion.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Leukemia, lymphoid is a type of cancer that affects the lymphoid cells, which are a vital part of the body's immune system. It is characterized by the uncontrolled production of abnormal white blood cells (leukocytes or WBCs) in the bone marrow, specifically the lymphocytes. These abnormal lymphocytes accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are two main types of lymphoid leukemia: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia progresses rapidly, while chronic lymphocytic leukemia has a slower onset and progression.

Symptoms of lymphoid leukemia may include fatigue, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors but often involve chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are a type of transmembrane receptors found on the cell surface that play a crucial role in signal transduction and regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and survival. They are called "tyrosine kinases" because they possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to tyrosine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their function.

RTKs are composed of three main domains: an extracellular domain that binds to specific ligands (growth factors, hormones, or cytokines), a transmembrane domain that spans the cell membrane, and an intracellular domain with tyrosine kinase activity. Upon ligand binding, RTKs undergo conformational changes that lead to their dimerization or oligomerization, which in turn activates their tyrosine kinase activity. Activated RTKs then phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues on downstream signaling proteins, initiating a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in the appropriate cellular response.

Dysregulation of RTK signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and developmental disorders. As such, RTKs are important targets for therapeutic intervention in these conditions.

CD79 is a type of protein that is found on the surface of B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system. CD79 combines with another protein called CD19 to form a complex that helps to activate B cells and initiate an immune response when the body encounters an antigen.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules found on the surface of viruses, bacteria, or other foreign substances. When a B cell encounters an antigen, it engulfs and processes the antigen, then displays a portion of it on its surface along with CD79 and CD19. This helps to activate the B cell and stimulate it to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies that recognize and bind to the antigen.

CD79 is an important marker for identifying and studying B cells, and it has been implicated in various B-cell malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure where hematopoietic stem cells (immature cells that give rise to all blood cell types) are transplanted into a patient. This procedure is often used to treat various malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, inherited immune deficiency diseases, and certain genetic metabolic disorders.

The transplantation can be autologous (using the patient's own stem cells), allogeneic (using stem cells from a genetically matched donor, usually a sibling or unrelated volunteer), or syngeneic (using stem cells from an identical twin).

The process involves collecting hematopoietic stem cells, most commonly from the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The collected cells are then infused into the patient after the recipient's own hematopoietic system has been ablated (or destroyed) using high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This allows the donor's stem cells to engraft, reconstitute, and restore the patient's hematopoietic system.

HSCT is a complex and potentially risky procedure with various complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infections, and organ damage. However, it offers the potential for cure or long-term remission in many patients with otherwise fatal diseases.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

SCID mice is an acronym for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency mice. These are genetically modified mice that lack a functional immune system due to the mutation or knockout of several key genes required for immunity. This makes them ideal for studying the human immune system, infectious diseases, and cancer, as well as testing new therapies and treatments in a controlled environment without the risk of interference from the mouse's own immune system. SCID mice are often used in xenotransplantation studies, where human cells or tissues are transplanted into the mouse to study their behavior and interactions with the human immune system.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

A clone is a group of cells that are genetically identical to each other because they are derived from a common ancestor cell through processes such as mitosis or asexual reproduction. Therefore, the term "clone cells" refers to a population of cells that are genetic copies of a single parent cell.

In the context of laboratory research, cells can be cloned by isolating a single cell and allowing it to divide in culture, creating a population of genetically identical cells. This is useful for studying the behavior and characteristics of individual cell types, as well as for generating large quantities of cells for use in experiments.

It's important to note that while clone cells are genetically identical, they may still exhibit differences in their phenotype (physical traits) due to epigenetic factors or environmental influences.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Gallium radioisotopes refer to specific types of gallium atoms that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay towards a more stable state. These isotopes are commonly used in medical imaging, such as in gallium scans, to help diagnose conditions like inflammation, infection, or cancer.

Gallium-67 (^67^Ga) is one of the most commonly used radioisotopes for medical purposes. It has a half-life of about 3.26 days and decays by emitting gamma rays. When administered to a patient, gallium-67 binds to transferrin, a protein that carries iron in the blood, and is taken up by cells with increased metabolic activity, such as cancer cells or immune cells responding to infection or inflammation. The distribution of gallium-67 in the body can then be visualized using a gamma camera, providing valuable diagnostic information.

'Inbred AKR mice' is a strain of laboratory mice used in biomedical research. The 'AKR' designation stands for "Akita Radioactive," referring to the location where this strain was first developed in Akita, Japan. These mice are inbred, meaning that they have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a genetically homogeneous population with minimal genetic variation.

Inbred AKR mice are known for their susceptibility to certain types of leukemia and lymphoma, making them valuable models for studying these diseases and testing potential therapies. They also develop age-related cataracts and have a higher incidence of diabetes than some other strains.

It is important to note that while inbred AKR mice are widely used in research, their genetic uniformity may limit the applicability of findings to more genetically diverse human populations.

Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens (EBV NA) are proteins found inside the nucleus of cells that have been infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a type of herpesvirus that is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis (also known as "mono" or "the kissing disease").

There are two main types of EBV NA: EBNA-1 and EBNA-2. These proteins play a role in the replication and survival of the virus within infected cells. They can be detected using laboratory tests, such as immunofluorescence assays or Western blotting, to help diagnose EBV infection or detect the presence of EBV-associated diseases, such as certain types of lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

EBNA-1 is essential for the maintenance and replication of the EBV genome within infected cells, while EBNA-2 activates viral gene expression and modulates the host cell's immune response to promote virus survival. Both proteins are considered potential targets for the development of antiviral therapies and vaccines against EBV infection.

Mechlorethamine is an antineoplastic agent, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent, which is a class of drugs that work by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Mechlorethamine is used in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as some other types of cancer. It can be administered intravenously or topically (as a cream) to treat skin lesions caused by certain types of cancer.

Mechlorethamine is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection due to suppression of the immune system. It can also cause damage to the heart, lungs, and reproductive system with long-term use. As with all chemotherapy drugs, mechlorethamine should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called a radiotracer, to produce detailed, three-dimensional images. This technique measures metabolic activity within the body, such as sugar metabolism, to help distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue, identify cancerous cells, or examine the function of organs.

During a PET scan, the patient is injected with a radiotracer, typically a sugar-based compound labeled with a positron-emitting radioisotope, such as fluorine-18 (^18^F). The radiotracer accumulates in cells that are metabolically active, like cancer cells. As the radiotracer decays, it emits positrons, which then collide with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays. A special camera, called a PET scanner, detects these gamma rays and uses this information to create detailed images of the body's internal structures and processes.

PET is often used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide both functional and anatomical information, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Common applications include detecting cancer recurrence, staging and monitoring cancer, evaluating heart function, and assessing brain function in conditions like dementia and epilepsy.

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a type of rare cancer called a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. It is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of malignant white blood cells, specifically B lymphocytes or plasma cells, in the bone marrow and sometimes in other organs. These abnormal cells produce an excessive amount of a protein called macroglobulin, which can lead to the thickening of the blood and various symptoms associated with this condition.

The signs and symptoms of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia may include fatigue, weakness, bruising or bleeding, frequent infections, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, visual disturbances, and confusion or difficulty thinking. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, imaging studies, and sometimes genetic testing to confirm the presence of the disease and determine its extent.

Treatment options for Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia depend on the severity of the symptoms and the stage of the disease. They may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the progression of the disease and adjust treatment plans as needed.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Gamma-chain T-cell antigen receptor gene rearrangement refers to the genetic process that occurs during the development of T-cells in the thymus. The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) is a protein complex found on the surface of T-cells, which plays a critical role in adaptive immunity by recognizing and binding to specific peptide antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.

The TCR is composed of two types of polypeptide chains: alpha and beta chains or gamma and delta chains, which are encoded by separate genes. The gene rearrangement process involves the somatic recombination of variable (V), diversity (D), joining (J), and constant (C) gene segments to generate a diverse repertoire of TCRs capable of recognizing a wide range of antigens.

Gamma-chain TCR gene rearrangement specifically refers to the genetic rearrangement that occurs in the genes encoding the gamma chain of the TCR. This process involves the recombination of V, J, and C gene segments to form a functional gamma chain gene. The resulting gamma chain protein pairs with the delta chain to form the gamma-delta TCR, which is expressed on a subset of T-cells that have distinct functions in immune surveillance and defense against infections and cancer.

Abnormalities in gamma-chain TCR gene rearrangement can lead to the development of various immunodeficiency disorders or malignancies, such as T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or gamma-delta T-cell lymphomas.

Histiocytes are a type of immune cell that are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. They originate from monocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Histiocytes play an important role in the immune system by engulfing and destroying foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses, as well as removing dead cells and other debris from the body. They can be found in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver.

Histiocytes include several different types of cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells. These cells have different functions but all play a role in the immune response. For example, macrophages are involved in inflammation and tissue repair, while dendritic cells are important for presenting antigens to T cells and initiating an immune response.

Abnormal accumulations or dysfunction of histiocytes can lead to various diseases, such as histiocytosis, which is a group of disorders characterized by the abnormal proliferation and accumulation of histiocytes in various tissues.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Lymphoid tissue is a specialized type of connective tissue that is involved in the immune function of the body. It is composed of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying infected or cancerous cells. Lymphoid tissue can be found throughout the body, but it is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches in the small intestine.

Lymphoid tissue provides a site for the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes, which are critical components of the adaptive immune response. It also serves as a filter for foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, that may enter the body through various routes. The lymphatic system, which includes lymphoid tissue, helps to maintain the health and integrity of the body by protecting it from infection and disease.

"T-lymphocyte gene rearrangement" refers to the process that occurs during the development of T-cells (a type of white blood cell) in which the genes that code for their antigen receptors are rearranged to create a unique receptor that can recognize and bind to specific foreign molecules, such as viruses or tumor cells.

The T-cell receptor (TCR) is made up of two chains, alpha and beta, which are composed of variable and constant regions. During gene rearrangement, the variable region genes are rearranged through a process called V(D)J recombination, in which specific segments of DNA are cut and joined together to form a unique combination that encodes for a diverse range of antigen receptors.

This allows T-cells to recognize and respond to a wide variety of foreign molecules, contributing to the adaptive immune response. However, this process can also lead to errors and the generation of T-cells with self-reactive receptors, which can contribute to autoimmune diseases if not properly regulated.

Intraocular lymphoma, also known as ocular lymphoma or primary vitreoretinal lymphoma, is a rare type of malignancy that primarily affects the eye and surrounding tissues. It is a form of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, which originates from the B-lymphocytes in the eye's immune system.

Intraocular lymphoma can be divided into two types:

1. Vitreoretinal lymphoma: This type of intraocular lymphoma involves the vitreous humor (the gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina) and the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye).
2. Uveal lymphoma: This type of intraocular lymphoma affects the uvea, which is made up of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.

The symptoms of intraocular lymphoma may include blurred vision, floaters, decreased vision, and eye pain or discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies (such as optical coherence tomography or OCT), and sometimes vitreous or retinal biopsy to confirm the presence of malignant cells.

Treatment for intraocular lymphoma may include systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. In some cases, local treatments such as intravitreal chemotherapy or rituximab injections may be used to target the cancer cells within the eye. Regular follow-up and monitoring are essential to manage any potential recurrence or complications associated with the disease.

Yttrium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element Yttrium, which is a rare earth metal. These radioisotopes are artificially produced and have unstable nuclei that emit radiation in the form of gamma rays or high-speed particles. Examples of yttrium radioisotopes include Yttrium-90 and Yttrium-86, which are used in medical applications such as radiotherapy for cancer treatment and molecular imaging for diagnostic purposes.

Yttrium-90 is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 64.1 hours, making it useful for targeted radionuclide therapy. It can be used to treat liver tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma by attaching it to monoclonal antibodies or other targeting agents that selectively bind to cancer cells.

Yttrium-86 is a positron emitter with a half-life of 14.7 hours, making it useful for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It can be used to label radiopharmaceuticals and track their distribution in the body, providing information on the location and extent of disease.

It is important to note that handling and use of radioisotopes require specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

Southern blotting is a type of membrane-based blotting technique that is used in molecular biology to detect and locate specific DNA sequences within a DNA sample. This technique is named after its inventor, Edward M. Southern.

In Southern blotting, the DNA sample is first digested with one or more restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific recognition sites. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated based on their size by gel electrophoresis. After separation, the DNA fragments are denatured to convert them into single-stranded DNA and transferred onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane.

Once the DNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is hybridized with a labeled probe that is complementary to the sequence of interest. The probe can be labeled with radioactive isotopes, fluorescent dyes, or chemiluminescent compounds. After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove any unbound probe and then exposed to X-ray film (in the case of radioactive probes) or scanned (in the case of non-radioactive probes) to detect the location of the labeled probe on the membrane.

The position of the labeled probe on the membrane corresponds to the location of the specific DNA sequence within the original DNA sample. Southern blotting is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing specific DNA sequences, such as those associated with genetic diseases or gene regulation.

Radiation-induced neoplasms are a type of cancer or tumor that develops as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the formation of ions. This type of radiation can damage DNA and other cellular structures, which can lead to mutations and uncontrolled cell growth, resulting in the development of a neoplasm.

Radiation-induced neoplasms can occur after exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation, such as that received during radiation therapy for cancer treatment or from nuclear accidents. The risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm depends on several factors, including the dose and duration of radiation exposure, the type of radiation, and the individual's genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced damage.

Radiation-induced neoplasms can take many years to develop after initial exposure to ionizing radiation, and they often occur at the site of previous radiation therapy. Common types of radiation-induced neoplasms include sarcomas, carcinomas, and thyroid cancer. It is important to note that while ionizing radiation can increase the risk of developing cancer, the overall risk is still relatively low, especially when compared to other well-established cancer risk factors such as smoking and exposure to certain chemicals.

Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (FDG-18) is not a medical condition, but a radiopharmaceutical used in medical imaging. It is a type of glucose (a simple sugar) that has been chemically combined with a small amount of a radioactive isotope called fluorine-18.

FDG-18 is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to help identify areas of the body where cells are using more energy than normal, such as cancerous tumors. The FDG-18 is injected into the patient's vein and travels throughout the body. Because cancer cells often use more glucose than normal cells, they tend to absorb more FDG-18.

Once inside the body, the FDG-18 emits positrons, which interact with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays that can be detected by a PET scanner. The resulting images can help doctors locate and assess the size and activity of cancerous tumors, as well as monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Human chromosome pair 2 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Each member of the pair contains thousands of genes and other genetic material, encoded in the form of DNA molecules. Chromosomes are the physical carriers of inheritance, and human cells typically contain 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosome pair 2 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning that it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y). Each member of chromosome pair 2 is approximately 247 million base pairs in length and contains an estimated 1,000-1,300 genes. These genes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stimuli.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 2 can lead to genetic disorders, such as cat-eye syndrome (CES), which is characterized by iris abnormalities, anal atresia, hearing loss, and intellectual disability. This disorder arises from the presence of an extra copy of a small region on chromosome 2, resulting in partial trisomy of this region. Other genetic conditions associated with chromosome pair 2 include proximal 2q13.3 microdeletion syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS).

Chlorambucil is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called alkylating agents. It is an antineoplastic drug, which means it is used to treat cancer. Chlorambucil works by interfering with the DNA in cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. This makes it useful for treating certain types of cancer, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Chlorambucil is available in tablet form and is typically taken once a day. It is important to take chlorambucil exactly as directed by your healthcare provider, as the dosage and schedule will depend on your individual medical condition and response to treatment.

Like all medications, chlorambucil can cause side effects. Common side effects of chlorambucil include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as a decrease in the number of white blood cells (which can increase the risk of infection), anemia (low red blood cell count), and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). Chlorambucil may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and solid tumors.

It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of chlorambucil with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. They can help you understand the potential side effects and how to manage them, as well as any other precautions you should take while taking this medication.

Neoplasm transplantation is not a recognized or established medical procedure in the field of oncology. The term "neoplasm" refers to an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). "Transplantation" typically refers to the surgical transfer of living cells, tissues, or organs from one part of the body to another or between individuals.

The concept of neoplasm transplantation may imply the transfer of cancerous cells or tissues from a donor to a recipient, which is not a standard practice due to ethical considerations and the potential harm it could cause to the recipient. In some rare instances, researchers might use laboratory animals to study the transmission and growth of human cancer cells, but this is done for scientific research purposes only and under strict regulatory guidelines.

In summary, there is no medical definition for 'Neoplasm Transplantation' as it does not represent a standard or ethical medical practice.

Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) are a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in various cellular functions, including signal transduction, cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. They catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residues of proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules.

PTKs can be divided into two main categories: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). RTKs are transmembrane proteins that become activated upon binding to specific ligands, such as growth factors or hormones. NRTKs, on the other hand, are intracellular enzymes that can be activated by various signals, including receptor-mediated signaling and intracellular messengers.

Dysregulation of PTK activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, PTKs are important targets for drug development and therapy.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Leukemia, T-cell is a type of cancer that affects the T-cells or T-lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity. It is characterized by an excessive and uncontrolled production of abnormal T-cells in the bone marrow, leading to the displacement of healthy cells and impairing the body's ability to fight infections and regulate immune responses.

T-cell leukemia can be acute or chronic, depending on the rate at which the disease progresses. Acute T-cell leukemia progresses rapidly, while chronic T-cell leukemia has a slower course of progression. Symptoms may include fatigue, fever, frequent infections, weight loss, easy bruising or bleeding, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapy, depending on the type and stage of the disease.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A tumor virus infection is a condition in which a person's cells become cancerous or transformed due to the integration and disruption of normal cellular functions by a viral pathogen. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses, and they can cause tumors or cancer by altering the host cell's genetic material, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and division, evading immune surveillance, and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of tumor viruses include:

1. DNA tumor viruses: These are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
2. RNA tumor viruses: Also known as retroviruses, these single-stranded RNA viruses can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Tumor virus infections are responsible for approximately 15-20% of all cancer cases worldwide, making them a significant public health concern. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination against HPV and HBV, have been shown to reduce the incidence of associated cancers.

B-cell-specific activator protein, also known as BASP1, is a protein that belongs to the family of intracellular signaling molecules called "activator proteins." It is specifically expressed in B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune system.

BASP1 has been shown to interact with several other proteins involved in signal transduction pathways and regulation of gene expression. It has been implicated in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of BASP1 has been associated with certain diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

In B cells, BASP1 is involved in regulating the activation and differentiation of these cells in response to antigen stimulation. It has been shown to interact with the B-cell receptor (BCR) complex and modulate its signaling pathways. Additionally, BASP1 may play a role in the development and progression of certain B-cell malignancies, such as lymphomas and leukemias.

Overall, while further research is needed to fully understand the functions and mechanisms of BASP1 in B cells, it is clear that this protein plays an important role in regulating immune responses and maintaining homeostasis in the body.

Panniculitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the subcutaneous fat, or the layer of fat located just beneath the skin. This condition can affect people of all ages and genders, although it is more commonly seen in middle-aged women. The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, trauma, and medications.

The symptoms of panniculitis may include:

* Red, painful lumps or nodules under the skin
* Skin lesions that may be tender, warm, or bruised
* Swelling and redness in the affected area
* Fever, fatigue, and malaise (a general feeling of illness)

The diagnosis of panniculitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes a biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the inflammation and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Tonsillar neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tonsils, which are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the back of the throat (oropharynx). These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous), and their symptoms may include difficulty swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck.

Tonsillar neoplasms are relatively rare, but they can occur at any age. The most common type of malignant tonsillar neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which accounts for about 90% of all cases. Other types of malignant tonsillar neoplasms include lymphomas and sarcomas.

The diagnosis of tonsillar neoplasms typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and sometimes a biopsy to confirm the type of tumor. Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Conjunctival neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the conjunctiva, which is the thin, clear mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign conjunctival neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may include lesions such as conjunctival cysts, papillomas, or naevi (moles). These growths can usually be removed through simple surgical procedures with a good prognosis.

Malignant conjunctival neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant conjunctival neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the epithelial cells that line the surface of the conjunctiva. Other less common types include melanoma, lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Malignant conjunctival neoplasms typically require more extensive treatment, such as surgical excision, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. The prognosis for malignant conjunctival neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Early detection and prompt treatment are key to improving outcomes in patients with these conditions.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte, which are large granular innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the host's defense against viral infections and malignant transformations. They do not require prior sensitization to target and destroy abnormal cells, such as virus-infected cells or tumor cells. NK cells recognize their targets through an array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors that detect the alterations in the cell surface molecules of potential targets. Upon activation, NK cells release cytotoxic granules containing perforins and granzymes to induce target cell apoptosis, and they also produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines to modulate immune responses. Overall, natural killer cells serve as a critical component of the innate immune system, providing rapid and effective responses against infected or malignant cells.

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that causes abnormal growths in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs. It is caused by the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). There are several forms of KS, including:

1. Classic KS: This form primarily affects older men of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, or Ashkenazi Jewish descent. It tends to progress slowly and mainly involves the skin.
2. Endemic KS: Found in parts of Africa, this form predominantly affects children and young adults, regardless of their HIV status.
3. Immunosuppression-associated KS: This form is more aggressive and occurs in people with weakened immune systems due to organ transplantation or other causes.
4. Epidemic KS (AIDS-related KS): This is the most common form of KS, seen primarily in people with HIV/AIDS. The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly reduced its incidence.

KS lesions can appear as red, purple, or brown spots on the skin and may also affect internal organs such as the lungs, lymph nodes, or gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms vary depending on the location of the lesions but often include fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swelling in the legs or abdomen. Treatment options depend on the extent and severity of the disease and may involve local therapies (e.g., radiation, topical treatments), systemic therapies (e.g., chemotherapy, immunotherapy), or a combination of these approaches.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Herpesviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Herpesviridae family of double-stranded DNA viruses, which include herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). These viruses can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild skin lesions to severe systemic diseases.

After the initial infection, these viruses typically become latent in various tissues and may reactivate later in life, causing recurrent symptoms. The clinical presentation of Herpesviridae infections depends on the specific virus and the immune status of the host. Common manifestations include oral or genital ulcers (HSV-1 and HSV-2), chickenpox and shingles (VZV), mononucleosis (CMV), roseola (HHV-6), and Kaposi's sarcoma (HHV-8).

Preventive measures include avoiding close contact with infected individuals during the active phase of the infection, practicing safe sex, and avoiding sharing personal items that may come into contact with infectious lesions. Antiviral medications are available to treat Herpesviridae infections and reduce the severity and duration of symptoms.

Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the regulation of immune responses, particularly in the expression of interferons (IFNs) and other genes involved in innate immunity and inflammation. In humans, there are nine known IRF proteins (IRF1-9), each with distinct functions and patterns of expression.

The primary function of IRFs is to regulate the transcription of type I IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β) and other immune response genes in response to various stimuli, such as viral infections, bacterial components, and proinflammatory cytokines. IRFs can either activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences called interferon-stimulated response elements (ISREs) and/or IFN consensus sequences (ICSs) in the promoter regions of target genes.

IRF1, IRF3, and IRF7 are primarily involved in type I IFN regulation, with IRF1 acting as a transcriptional activator for IFN-β and various ISRE-containing genes, while IRF3 and IRF7 function as master regulators of the type I IFN response to viral infections. Upon viral recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), IRF3 and IRF7 are activated through phosphorylation and translocate to the nucleus, where they induce the expression of type I IFNs and other antiviral genes.

IRF2, IRF4, IRF5, and IRF8 have more diverse roles in immune regulation, including the control of T-cell differentiation, B-cell development, and myeloid cell function. For example, IRF4 is essential for the development and function of Th2 cells, while IRF5 and IRF8 are involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells and macrophages.

IRF6 and IRF9 have unique functions compared to other IRFs. IRF6 is primarily involved in epithelial cell development and differentiation, while IRF9 forms a complex with STAT1 and STAT2 to regulate the transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) during the type I IFN response.

In summary, IRFs are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in various aspects of immune regulation, including antiviral responses, T-cell and B-cell development, and myeloid cell function. Dysregulation of IRF activity can lead to the development of autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Immunotherapy is a type of medical treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight against diseases, such as cancer. It involves the use of substances (like vaccines, medications, or immune cells) that stimulate or suppress the immune system to help it recognize and destroy harmful disease-causing cells or agents, like tumor cells.

Immunotherapy can work in several ways:

1. Activating the immune system: Certain immunotherapies boost the body's natural immune responses, helping them recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively.
2. Suppressing immune system inhibitors: Some immunotherapies target and block proteins or molecules that can suppress the immune response, allowing the immune system to work more efficiently against diseases.
3. Replacing or enhancing specific immune cells: Immunotherapy can also involve administering immune cells (like T-cells) that have been genetically engineered or modified to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

Immunotherapies have shown promising results in treating various types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and allergies. However, they can also cause side effects, as an overactive immune system may attack healthy tissues and organs. Therefore, careful monitoring is necessary during immunotherapy treatment.

A needle biopsy is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to remove a small sample of tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area of the body. The tissue sample is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells or other abnormalities. Needle biopsies are often used to diagnose lumps or masses that can be felt through the skin, but they can also be guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to reach areas that cannot be felt. There are several types of needle biopsy procedures, including fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA uses a thin needle and gentle suction to remove fluid and cells from the area, while core needle biopsy uses a larger needle to remove a small piece of tissue. The type of needle biopsy used depends on the location and size of the abnormal area, as well as the reason for the procedure.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is a single-stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA, involved in the process of protein synthesis in the cell. It acts as a messenger carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are produced.

A neoplasm, on the other hand, is an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, however, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites in the body through a process called metastasis.

Therefore, an 'RNA neoplasm' is not a recognized medical term as RNA is not a type of growth or tumor. However, there are certain types of cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses that contain RNA as their genetic material and can cause neoplasms. For example, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are RNA viruses that can cause certain types of cancer in humans.

Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins that play a crucial role in the morphogenesis and life cycle of many viruses. They are often located between the viral envelope and the viral genome, serving as a scaffold for virus assembly and budding. These proteins also interact with other viral components, such as the viral genome, capsid proteins, and envelope proteins, to form an infectious virion. Additionally, matrix proteins can have regulatory functions, influencing viral transcription, replication, and host cell responses. The specific functions of viral matrix proteins vary among different virus families.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma (previously known as Precursor T-lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma) is a type of cancer that affects the early stages of T-cell development. It is a subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterized by the overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs.

In Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, these abnormal lymphoblasts accumulate primarily in the lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes, leading to the enlargement of these organs. This subtype is more aggressive than other forms of ALL and has a higher risk of spreading to the central nervous system (CNS).

The medical definition of Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma includes:

1. A malignant neoplasm of immature T-cell precursors, also known as lymphoblasts.
2. Characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of these abnormal cells in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes.
3. Often associated with chromosomal abnormalities, genetic mutations, or aberrant gene expression that contribute to its aggressive behavior and poor prognosis.
4. Typically presents with symptoms related to bone marrow failure (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and potential CNS involvement.
5. Diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, and molecular genetic testing.
6. Treated with intensive multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, often combined with radiation therapy and/or stem cell transplantation to achieve remission and improve survival outcomes.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Immunoglobulin light chains are the smaller protein subunits of an immunoglobulin, also known as an antibody. They are composed of two polypeptide chains, called kappa (κ) and lambda (λ), which are produced by B cells during the immune response. Each immunoglobulin molecule contains either two kappa or two lambda light chains, in association with two heavy chains.

Light chains play a crucial role in the antigen-binding site of an antibody, where they contribute to the specificity and affinity of the interaction between the antibody and its target antigen. In addition to their role in immune function, abnormal production or accumulation of light chains can lead to various diseases, such as multiple myeloma and amyloidosis.

Experimental leukemia refers to the stage of research or clinical trials where new therapies, treatments, or diagnostic methods are being studied for leukemia. Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells.

In the experimental stage, researchers investigate various aspects of leukemia, such as its causes, progression, and potential treatments. They may conduct laboratory studies using cell cultures or animal models to understand the disease better and test new therapeutic approaches. Additionally, clinical trials may be conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of novel treatments in human patients with leukemia.

Experimental research in leukemia is crucial for advancing our understanding of the disease and developing more effective treatment strategies. It involves a rigorous and systematic process that adheres to ethical guidelines and scientific standards to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings.

The Immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region is the antigen-binding part of an antibody, which is highly variable in its amino acid sequence and therefore specific to a particular epitope (the site on an antigen that is recognized by the antigen-binding site of an antibody). This variability is generated during the process of V(D)J recombination in the maturation of B cells, allowing for a diverse repertoire of antibodies to be produced and recognizing a wide range of potential pathogens.

The variable region is composed of several sub-regions including:

1. The heavy chain variable region (VH)
2. The light chain variable region (VL)
3. The heavy chain joining region (JH)
4. The light chain joining region (JL)

These regions are further divided into framework regions and complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). The CDRs, particularly CDR3, contain the most variability and are primarily responsible for antigen recognition.

Oncogenes are genes that have the potential to cause cancer. They can do this by promoting cell growth and division (cellular proliferation), preventing cell death (apoptosis), or enabling cells to invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). Oncogenes can be formed when normal genes, called proto-oncogenes, are mutated or altered in some way. This can happen as a result of exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, or through inherited genetic mutations. When activated, oncogenes can contribute to the development of cancer by causing cells to divide and grow in an uncontrolled manner.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Boronic acids are organic compounds that contain a boron atom bonded to two carbon atoms and a hydroxyl group. The general formula for a boronic acid is RB(OH)2, where R represents a organic group. Boronic acids are important reagents in organic synthesis and have been used in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials science. They can also form stable complexes with many diols and phenols, which is the basis for their use in the detection and quantification of sugars, as well as in the design of boronic acid-based drugs that target diseases such as cancer and diabetes.

Radiotherapy, also known as radiation therapy, is a medical treatment that uses ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells, shrink tumors, and prevent the growth and spread of cancer. The radiation can be delivered externally using machines or internally via radioactive substances placed in or near the tumor. Radiotherapy works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Normal cells are also affected by radiation, but they have a greater ability to repair themselves compared to cancer cells. The goal of radiotherapy is to destroy as many cancer cells as possible while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

Carmustine is a chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancer, including brain tumors, multiple myeloma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. It belongs to a class of drugs called alkylating agents, which work by damaging the DNA in cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing.

Carmustine is available as an injectable solution that is administered intravenously (into a vein) or as implantable wafers that are placed directly into the brain during surgery. The drug can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and low blood cell counts, among others. It may also increase the risk of certain infections and bleeding complications.

As with all chemotherapy drugs, carmustine can have serious and potentially life-threatening side effects, and it should only be administered under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare professional. Patients receiving carmustine treatment should be closely monitored for signs of toxicity and other adverse reactions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pyrazines" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Pyrazines are actually a class of organic compounds that contain a ring made up of two nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. They are found in various foods and contribute to their flavors. If you have any questions about organic chemistry or food science, I'd be happy to try to help!

Hematologic neoplasms, also known as hematological malignancies, are a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal blood cells or bone marrow cells. These disorders can originate from the myeloid or lymphoid cell lines, which give rise to various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Hematologic neoplasms can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Leukemias: These are cancers that primarily affect the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues. They result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, which interfere with the normal functioning of the blood and immune system. There are several types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers that develop from the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system responsible for fighting infections. Lymphomas can affect lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
3. Myelomas: These are cancers that arise from the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. Multiple myeloma is the most common type of myeloma, characterized by an excessive proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the production of abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins) and bone destruction.

Hematologic neoplasms can have various symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by the immune system's B cells in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. These Y-shaped proteins play a crucial role in identifying and neutralizing pathogens and other antigens, thereby protecting the body against infection and disease.

Immunoglobulins are composed of four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of these chains form the antigen-binding sites, which recognize and bind to specific epitopes on antigens. Based on their heavy chain type, immunoglobulins are classified into five main isotypes or classes: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has distinct functions in the immune response, such as providing protection in different body fluids and tissues, mediating hypersensitivity reactions, and aiding in the development of immunological memory.

In medical settings, immunoglobulins can be administered therapeutically to provide passive immunity against certain diseases or to treat immune deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions that may benefit from immunomodulation.

An oncogene protein fusion is a result of a genetic alteration in which parts of two different genes combine to create a hybrid gene that can contribute to the development of cancer. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that promotes uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in a malignant tumor. Oncogene protein fusions are often caused by chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, inversions, or deletions and are commonly found in various types of cancer, including leukemia and sarcoma. These genetic alterations can serve as potential targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Vinblastine is an alkaloid derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) and is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy. It is classified as a vinca alkaloid, along with vincristine, vinorelbine, and others.

Medically, vinblastine is an antimicrotubule agent that binds to tubulin, a protein involved in the formation of microtubules during cell division. By binding to tubulin, vinblastine prevents the assembly of microtubules, which are essential for mitosis (cell division). This leads to the inhibition of cell division and ultimately results in the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Vinblastine is used to treat various types of cancers, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, breast cancer, and others. It is often administered intravenously in a healthcare setting and may be given as part of a combination chemotherapy regimen with other anticancer drugs.

As with any medication, vinblastine can have side effects, including bone marrow suppression (leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding), neurotoxicity (resulting in peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and jaw pain), nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and mouth sores. Regular monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary during vinblastine treatment to manage side effects and ensure the safe and effective use of this medication.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that primarily involve the skin. The primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is a rare type of primary cutaneous lymphoma, accounting for less than 1% of all cutaneous lymphomas.

PCALCL is characterized by the presence of large, atypical cells called Reed-Sternberg cells or their variants, which are typically found in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. However, in PCALCL, these cells are primarily found in the skin without evidence of systemic involvement at the time of diagnosis.

PCALCL usually presents as one or more reddish-purple nodules or tumors on the skin that may ulcerate and can be tender or pruritic. The most common sites of involvement include the head, neck, trunk, and upper extremities.

The etiology of PCALCL is unknown, but it has been associated with immune suppression, including organ transplantation and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

PCALCL is generally an indolent disease with a good prognosis, and most cases can be managed with local therapies such as surgical excision, radiation therapy, or intralesional injections of chemotherapy or corticosteroids. However, some cases may progress or recur, requiring systemic therapy with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted agents.

Overall, PCALCL is a rare and distinct type of primary cutaneous lymphoma that requires careful clinical evaluation and management by a multidisciplinary team of dermatologists, pathologists, and oncologists.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately 50% of the global population. It is closely associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated. The bacterium's spiral shape and flagella allow it to penetrate the mucus layer and adhere to the gastric epithelium, where it releases virulence factors that cause inflammation and tissue damage. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection can be made through various tests, including urea breath test, stool antigen test, or histological examination of a gastric biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and promote healing of the stomach lining.

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare, slow-growing type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many B cells (a type of white blood cell). These excess B cells are often referred to as "hairy cells" because they look abnormal under the microscope, with fine projections or "hair-like" cytoplasmic protrusions.

In HCL, these abnormal B cells can build up in the bone marrow and spleen, causing both of them to enlarge. The accumulation of hairy cells in the bone marrow can crowd out healthy blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia). This can result in fatigue, increased risk of infection, and easy bruising or bleeding.

HCL is typically an indolent disease, meaning that it progresses slowly over time. However, some cases may require treatment to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options for HCL include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplantation. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to monitor the disease's progression and adjust treatment plans as needed.

'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a medical term that refers to abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which are cells that have undergone uncontrolled division and form a tumor or malignancy. These antibodies can be produced in large quantities and may have altered structures or functions compared to normal antibodies.

Neoplastic antibodies can arise from various types of malignancies, including leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. In some cases, these abnormal antibodies can interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and contribute to the progression of the disease.

In addition, neoplastic antibodies can also be used as tumor markers for diagnostic purposes. For example, certain types of monoclonal gammopathy, such as multiple myeloma, are characterized by the overproduction of a single type of immunoglobulin, which can be detected in the blood or urine and used to monitor the disease.

Overall, 'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a term that encompasses a wide range of abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which can have significant implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies.

Cyclin D1 is a type of cyclin protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle, which is the process by which cells divide and grow. Specifically, Cyclin D1 is involved in the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. It does this by forming a complex with and acting as a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) or CDK6, which phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). This allows the E2F transcription factors to be released and activate the transcription of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression.

Overexpression of Cyclin D1 has been implicated in the development of various types of cancer, as it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Therefore, Cyclin D1 is an important target for cancer therapy, and inhibitors of CDK4/6 have been developed to treat certain types of cancer that overexpress Cyclin D1.

Stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure where stem cells, which are immature and unspecialized cells with the ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types, are introduced into a patient. The main purpose of this procedure is to restore the function of damaged or destroyed tissues or organs, particularly in conditions that affect the blood and immune systems, such as leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, and inherited metabolic disorders.

There are two primary types of stem cell transplantation: autologous and allogeneic. In autologous transplantation, the patient's own stem cells are collected, stored, and then reinfused back into their body after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy the diseased cells. In allogeneic transplantation, stem cells are obtained from a donor (related or unrelated) whose human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type closely matches that of the recipient.

The process involves several steps: first, the patient undergoes conditioning therapy to suppress their immune system and make space for the new stem cells. Then, the harvested stem cells are infused into the patient's bloodstream, where they migrate to the bone marrow and begin to differentiate and produce new blood cells. This procedure requires close monitoring and supportive care to manage potential complications such as infections, graft-versus-host disease, and organ damage.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Abdominal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the abdomen that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can occur in any of the organs within the abdominal cavity, including the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys.

Abdominal neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, changes in bowel habits, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and fever. In some cases, abdominal neoplasms may not cause any symptoms until they have grown quite large or spread to other parts of the body.

The diagnosis of abdominal neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical exam, medical history, imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, and sometimes biopsy to confirm the type of tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Vascular neoplasms are a type of tumor that develops from cells that line the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign vascular neoplasms, such as hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, are usually harmless and may not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or complications. Malignant vascular neoplasms, on the other hand, are known as angiosarcomas and can be aggressive, spreading to other parts of the body and potentially causing serious health problems.

Angiosarcomas can develop in any part of the body but are most commonly found in the skin, particularly in areas exposed to radiation or chronic lymph edema. They can also occur in the breast, liver, spleen, and heart. Treatment for vascular neoplasms depends on the type, location, size, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations that contain radioactive isotopes and are used for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. These compounds are designed to interact specifically with certain biological targets, such as cells, tissues, or organs, and emit radiation that can be detected and measured to provide diagnostic information or used to destroy abnormal cells or tissue in therapeutic applications.

The radioactive isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals have carefully controlled half-lives, which determine how long they remain radioactive and how long the pharmaceutical preparation remains effective. The choice of radioisotope depends on the intended use of the radiopharmaceutical, as well as factors such as its energy, range of emission, and chemical properties.

Radiopharmaceuticals are used in a wide range of medical applications, including imaging, cancer therapy, and treatment of other diseases and conditions. Examples of radiopharmaceuticals include technetium-99m for imaging the heart, lungs, and bones; iodine-131 for treating thyroid cancer; and samarium-153 for palliative treatment of bone metastases.

The use of radiopharmaceuticals requires specialized training and expertise in nuclear medicine, as well as strict adherence to safety protocols to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare workers.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own moisture-producing glands, particularly the tear and salivary glands. This can lead to symptoms such as dry eyes, dry mouth, and dryness in other areas of the body. In some cases, it may also affect other organs, leading to a variety of complications.

There are two types of Sjögren's syndrome: primary and secondary. Primary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when the condition develops on its own, while secondary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when it develops in conjunction with another autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.

The exact cause of Sjögren's syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment typically focuses on relieving symptoms and may include artificial tears, saliva substitutes, medications to stimulate saliva production, and immunosuppressive drugs in more severe cases.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that are present in all cells and play crucial roles in regulating cell growth, division, and death. They code for proteins that are involved in signal transduction pathways that control various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. When these genes undergo mutations or are activated abnormally, they can become oncogenes, which have the potential to cause uncontrolled cell growth and lead to cancer. Oncogenes can contribute to tumor formation through various mechanisms, including promoting cell division, inhibiting programmed cell death (apoptosis), and stimulating blood vessel growth (angiogenesis).

Mitoxantrone is a synthetic antineoplastic anthracenedione drug, which means it is used to treat cancer. Its medical definition can be found in various authoritative sources such as the Merck Manual or Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Here's a brief version of the definition from MedlinePlus, a service of the US National Library of Medicine:

"Mitoxantrone is used to treat certain types of cancer (e.g., breast cancer, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. Mitoxantrone belongs to a class of drugs known as antitumor antibiotics."

Please note that this is a simplified definition meant for general information purposes and does not include all the details that might be present in a comprehensive medical definition. Always consult a healthcare professional or refer to authoritative resources for accurate, detailed, and up-to-date information.

Actuarial analysis is a process used in the field of actuarial science to evaluate and manage risk, typically for financial or insurance purposes. It involves the use of statistical modeling, mathematical calculations, and data analysis to estimate the probability and potential financial impact of various events or outcomes.

In a medical context, actuarial analysis may be used to assess the risks and costs associated with different health conditions, treatments, or patient populations. For example, an actuary might use data on morbidity rates, mortality rates, and healthcare utilization patterns to estimate the expected costs of providing coverage to a group of patients with a particular medical condition.

Actuarial analysis can help healthcare organizations, insurers, and policymakers make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing, and risk management. It can also be used to develop predictive models that identify high-risk populations or forecast future trends in healthcare utilization and costs.

Medical Definition:

Murine leukemia virus (MLV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily infects and causes various types of malignancies such as leukemias and lymphomas in mice. It is a complex genus of viruses, with many strains showing different pathogenic properties.

MLV contains two identical single-stranded RNA genomes and has the ability to reverse transcribe its RNA into DNA upon infection, integrating this proviral DNA into the host cell's genome. This is facilitated by an enzyme called reverse transcriptase, which MLV carries within its viral particle.

The virus can be horizontally transmitted between mice through close contact with infected saliva, urine, or milk. Vertical transmission from mother to offspring can also occur either in-utero or through the ingestion of infected breast milk.

MLV has been extensively studied as a model system for retroviral pathogenesis and tumorigenesis, contributing significantly to our understanding of oncogenes and their role in cancer development. It's important to note that Murine Leukemia Virus does not infect humans.

Helicobacter infections are caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which colonizes the stomach lining and is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases. The infection can lead to chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer.

The spiral-shaped H. pylori bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes gastric acid in their immediate vicinity. This allows them to adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the stomach, where they can cause inflammation (gastritis) and disrupt the normal functioning of the stomach.

Transmission of H. pylori typically occurs through oral-oral or fecal-oral routes, and infection is more common in developing countries and in populations with lower socioeconomic status. The diagnosis of Helicobacter infections can be confirmed through various tests, including urea breath tests, stool antigen tests, or gastric biopsy with histology and culture. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and reduce stomach acidity.

Antigens are substances that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies by B-lymphocytes. Differentiation refers to the process by which cells mature and become more specialized in their functions. In the context of B-lymphocytes, differentiation involves the maturation of naive B-cells into plasma cells that are capable of producing large amounts of antibodies in response to an antigenic stimulus.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the adaptive immune system. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters an antigen, it becomes activated and begins to differentiate into a plasma cell. During this process, the B-cell undergoes several changes, including an increase in size, the expression of new surface receptors, and the production of large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigen. These antibodies are then released into the bloodstream, where they can bind to the antigen and help to neutralize or eliminate it.

Overall, the differentiation of B-lymphocytes in response to antigens is a critical component of the adaptive immune system, allowing the body to mount targeted responses to specific pathogens and other foreign substances.

Tumor suppressor protein p53, also known as p53 or tumor protein p53, is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer development and maintaining genomic stability. It does so by regulating the cell cycle and acting as a transcription factor for various genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and cell senescence (permanent cell growth arrest).

In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation, p53 becomes activated and accumulates in the nucleus. Activated p53 can then bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of target genes that help prevent the proliferation of potentially cancerous cells. These targets include genes involved in cell cycle arrest (e.g., CDKN1A/p21), apoptosis (e.g., BAX, PUMA), and DNA repair (e.g., GADD45).

Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes p53, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations often lead to a loss or reduction of p53's tumor suppressive functions, allowing cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and evade apoptosis. As a result, p53 has been referred to as "the guardian of the genome" due to its essential role in preventing tumorigenesis.

Vidarabine is an antiviral medication used to treat herpes simplex infections, particularly severe cases such as herpes encephalitis (inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus). It works by interfering with the DNA replication of the virus.

In medical terms, vidarabine is a nucleoside analogue that is phosphorylated intracellularly to the active form, vidarabine triphosphate. This compound inhibits viral DNA polymerase and incorporates into viral DNA, causing termination of viral DNA synthesis.

Vidarabine was previously used as an injectable medication but has largely been replaced by more modern antiviral drugs such as acyclovir due to its greater efficacy and lower toxicity.

Dacarbazine is a medical term that refers to a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer. It is an alkylating agent, which means it works by modifying the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Dacarbazine is often used to treat malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and soft tissue sarcomas.

The drug is typically administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, and the dosage and schedule may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health and response to treatment. Common side effects of dacarbazine include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weakness or fatigue. More serious side effects, such as low white blood cell counts, anemia, and liver damage, may also occur.

It is important for patients receiving dacarbazine to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly. Regular monitoring of blood counts and other laboratory tests may be necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

Human chromosome pair 3 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and together they contain the genetic material that is inherited from both parents. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, which contains the instructions for the development and function of all living organisms.

Human chromosomes are numbered from 1 to 22, with an additional two sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine biological sex. Chromosome pair 3 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it contains genes that are not related to sex determination. Each member of chromosome pair 3 is identical in size and shape and contains a single long DNA molecule that is coiled tightly around histone proteins to form a compact structure.

Chromosome pair 3 is associated with several genetic disorders, including Waardenburg syndrome, which affects pigmentation and hearing; Marfan syndrome, which affects the connective tissue; and some forms of retinoblastoma, a rare eye cancer that typically affects young children.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Ifosfamide is used to treat various types of cancers, such as testicular cancer, small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and certain types of sarcomas.

The medical definition of Ifosfamide is:

Ifosfamide is a synthetic antineoplastic agent, an oxazaphosphorine derivative, with the chemical formula C6H15Cl2N2O2P. It is used in the treatment of various malignancies, including germ cell tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, and testicular cancer. The drug is administered intravenously and exerts its cytotoxic effects through the alkylation and cross-linking of DNA, leading to the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. Ifosfamide can cause significant myelosuppression and has been associated with urotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and secondary malignancies. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

The Ki-67 antigen is a cellular protein that is expressed in all active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and M), but not in the resting phase (G0). It is often used as a marker for cell proliferation and can be found in high concentrations in rapidly dividing cells. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 can help to determine the growth fraction of a group of cells, which can be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of various malignancies, including cancer. The level of Ki-67 expression is often associated with the aggressiveness of the tumor and its response to treatment.

Gallium is not a medical term, but it's a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is a soft, silvery-blue metal that melts at a temperature just above room temperature. In medicine, gallium compounds such as gallium nitrate and gallium citrate are used as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine imaging studies, particularly in the detection of inflammation, infection, and some types of cancer.

For example, Gallium-67 is a radioactive isotope that can be injected into the body to produce images of various diseases such as abscesses, osteomyelitis (bone infection), and tumors using a gamma camera. The way gallium distributes in the body can provide valuable information about the presence and extent of disease.

Therefore, while gallium is not a medical term itself, it has important medical applications as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Marek's disease is a highly contagious viral infection that primarily affects chickens and other members of the Galliformes order (which includes turkeys, quails, and pheasants). The disease is caused by the alphaherpesvirus known as Gallid herpesvirus 2 or Marek's disease virus (MDV).

The infection primarily targets the chicken's immune system, leading to various clinical manifestations such as:

1. T-cell lymphomas (cancerous growths) in the peripheral nerves, visceral organs, and skin. These tumors can cause paralysis, especially in the legs, and affect the bird's mobility and overall health.
2. Enlarged, pale, or discolored spleens and livers due to the proliferation of infected lymphocytes.
3. Lesions on the feather follicles, skin, and eyes (such as iritis, conjunctivitis, and blindness) caused by viral replication in these areas.
4. Immunosuppression, which makes affected birds more susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections, leading to a decline in overall health and production.

Marek's disease is primarily transmitted through the inhalation of dust particles containing infected dander or feather follicle epithelium. The virus can also be spread via contaminated equipment, clothing, and transportation vehicles.

Vaccination is an effective method to control Marek's disease in commercial poultry operations. However, the continuous evolution of more virulent strains poses a challenge for long-term protection and eradication efforts.

Tissue Microarray (TMA) analysis is a surgical pathology technique that allows for the simultaneous analysis of multiple tissue samples (known as "cores") from different patients or even different regions of the same tumor, on a single microscope slide. This technique involves the extraction of small cylindrical samples of tissue, which are then arrayed in a grid-like pattern on a recipient paraffin block. Once the TMA is created, sections can be cut and stained with various histochemical or immunohistochemical stains to evaluate the expression of specific proteins or other molecules of interest.

Tissue Array Analysis has become an important tool in biomedical research, enabling high-throughput analysis of tissue samples for molecular markers, gene expression patterns, and other features that can help inform clinical decision making, drug development, and our understanding of disease processes. It's widely used in cancer research to study the heterogeneity of tumors, identify new therapeutic targets, and evaluate patient prognosis.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Bone marrow purging is a procedure that involves the removal of cancerous or damaged cells from bone marrow before it is transplanted into a patient. This process is often used in the treatment of blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma, as well as other diseases that affect the bone marrow.

The purging process typically involves collecting bone marrow from the patient or a donor, then treating it with chemicals or medications to eliminate any cancerous or damaged cells. The purged bone marrow is then transplanted back into the patient's body, where it can help to produce healthy new blood cells.

There are several methods that can be used for bone marrow purging, including physical separation techniques, chemical treatments, and immunological approaches using antibodies or other immune system components. The choice of method depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the disease being treated, as well as the patient's individual medical history and condition.

It is important to note that bone marrow purging is a complex procedure that carries some risks and potential complications, such as damage to healthy cells, delayed recovery, and increased risk of infection. As with any medical treatment, it should be carefully evaluated and discussed with a healthcare provider to determine whether it is appropriate for a given patient's situation.

Prednimustine is not a standalone medication, but rather a combination of two active ingredients: prednisone, a corticosteroid, and chlorambucil, an alkylating agent used in chemotherapy. Prednimustine is a sterile lyophilized powder that is reconstituted with sterile water for injection before use. It is primarily used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

The combination of prednisone and chlorambucil in Prednimustine provides a synergistic effect in suppressing the immune system and damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which can lead to cell death and reduced tumor growth. The corticosteroid component, prednisone, helps to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response, while chlorambucil directly damages the DNA of cancer cells, leading to their destruction.

It is important to note that Prednimustine should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as it can have serious side effects, including bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal disturbances, and increased risk of infections.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

T-cell receptor (TCR) genes are a set of genes that encode the proteins found on the surface of T-cells, a type of white blood cell involved in the adaptive immune response. The TCR gamma chain is one component of the TCR complex, which also includes the TCR alpha, beta, and delta chains.

The TCR gamma gene is located on human chromosome 7 and is composed of variable (V), diversity (D), joining (J), and constant (C) regions. During the development of T-cells in the thymus, the V, D, and J segments recombine to form a unique TCR gamma chain that can recognize specific antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of infected or damaged cells.

The TCR gamma chain is typically expressed in a subset of T-cells called gamma delta T-cells, which are involved in the early stages of immune responses and can be found in various tissues throughout the body. Mutations or abnormalities in the TCR gamma gene can lead to immunodeficiency disorders or cancer, such as T-cell leukemia or lymphoma.

Radiation-induced leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood-forming tissues of the body, such as the bone marrow. It is caused by exposure to high levels of radiation, which can damage the DNA of cells and lead to their uncontrolled growth and division.

There are several types of radiation-induced leukemia, depending on the specific type of blood cell that becomes cancerous. The most common types are acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These forms of leukemia tend to progress quickly and require prompt treatment.

Radiation-induced leukemia is a rare complication of radiation therapy, which is used to treat many types of cancer. The risk of developing this type of leukemia increases with the dose and duration of radiation exposure. It is important to note that the benefits of radiation therapy in treating cancer generally outweigh the small increased risk of developing radiation-induced leukemia.

Symptoms of radiation-induced leukemia may include fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss. If you have been exposed to high levels of radiation and are experiencing these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly. A diagnosis of radiation-induced leukemia is typically made through a combination of physical exam, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood counts and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.

Somatic hypermutation is a process that occurs in the immune system, specifically within B cells, which are a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. This process involves the introduction of point mutations into the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, which encode for the variable regions of antibodies.

Somatic hypermutation occurs in the germinal centers of lymphoid follicles in response to antigen stimulation. The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) enzyme is responsible for initiating this process by deaminating cytosines to uracils in the Ig genes. This leads to the introduction of point mutations during DNA replication and repair, which can result in changes to the antibody's binding affinity for the antigen.

The somatic hypermutation process allows for the selection of B cells with higher affinity antibodies that can better recognize and neutralize pathogens. This is an important mechanism for the development of humoral immunity and the generation of long-lived memory B cells. However, excessive or aberrant somatic hypermutation can also contribute to the development of certain types of B cell malignancies, such as lymphomas and leukemias.

Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell that are derived from B cells (another type of white blood cell) and are responsible for producing antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that help the body to fight against infections by recognizing and binding to specific antigens, such as bacteria or viruses. Plasma cells are found in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes, and they play a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection.

Plasma cells are characterized by their large size, eccentric nucleus, and abundant cytoplasm filled with rough endoplasmic reticulum, which is where antibody proteins are synthesized and stored. When activated, plasma cells can produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies into the bloodstream and lymphatic system, where they can help to neutralize or eliminate pathogens.

It's worth noting that while plasma cells play an important role in the immune response, abnormal accumulations of these cells can also be a sign of certain diseases, such as multiple myeloma, a type of cancer that affects plasma cells.

Transplantation conditioning, also known as preparative regimen or immunoablative therapy, refers to the use of various treatments prior to transplantation of cells, tissues or organs. The main goal of transplantation conditioning is to suppress the recipient's immune system, allowing for successful engraftment and minimizing the risk of rejection of the donor tissue.

There are two primary types of transplantation conditioning: myeloablative and non-myeloablative.

1. Myeloablative conditioning is a more intensive regimen that involves the use of high-dose chemotherapy, radiation therapy or both. This approach eliminates not only immune cells but also stem cells in the bone marrow, requiring the recipient to receive a hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from the donor to reconstitute their blood and immune system.
2. Non-myeloablative conditioning is a less intensive regimen that primarily targets immune cells while sparing the stem cells in the bone marrow. This approach allows for mixed chimerism, where both recipient and donor immune cells coexist, reducing the risk of severe complications associated with myeloablative conditioning.

The choice between these two types of transplantation conditioning depends on various factors, including the type of transplant, patient's age, overall health, and comorbidities. Both approaches carry risks and benefits, and the decision should be made carefully by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals in consultation with the patient.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

SOXC transcription factors are a subgroup of the SOX (SRY-related HMG box) family of proteins, which are involved in various developmental processes. The SOXC group includes SOX4, SOX11, and SOX12, which share similar structures and functions. These transcription factors play crucial roles in regulating gene expression during embryonic development and in adult tissues. They are particularly known for their involvement in neural crest cell development, neurogenesis, and oncogenesis.

SOXC proteins contain a highly conserved HMG (High Mobility Group) box DNA-binding domain that allows them to recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby influencing the transcription of target genes. Dysregulation of SOXC transcription factors has been implicated in several human diseases, including various types of cancer.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Human chromosome pair 5 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of human cells, which contain genetic material in the form of DNA and proteins. Each member of chromosome pair 5 is a single chromosome, and humans typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes in every cell of their body (except gametes or sex cells, which contain 23 chromosomes).

Chromosome pair 5 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome. Each member of chromosome pair 5 is approximately 197 million base pairs in length and contains around 800-900 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Chromosome pair 5 is associated with several genetic disorders, including cri du chat syndrome (resulting from a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 5), Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome (both resulting from abnormalities in gene expression on the long arm of chromosome 5).

CD56 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain cells in the human body. It is also known as neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM-1) and is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD56 antigens are primarily expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, a type of immune cell that plays a role in the body's defense against viruses and cancer.

CD56 antigens help NK cells recognize and bind to other cells in the body, such as infected or abnormal cells. This binding can trigger the NK cells to release chemicals that can kill the target cells. CD56 antigens also play a role in the development and function of NK cells, including their ability to communicate with other immune cells and coordinate an effective response to threats.

In addition to NK cells, CD56 antigens are also found on some subsets of T cells, another type of immune cell. In these cells, CD56 antigens help regulate the activation and function of the T cells.

Abnormalities in the expression of CD56 antigens have been associated with various diseases, including certain types of cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Nitrogen mustard compounds are a group of chemical agents that have been used historically as chemotherapy drugs and also have potential as military chemical warfare agents. They are alkylating agents, which means they work by modifying DNA in such a way that it can no longer replicate properly, leading to cell death.

In the medical context, nitrogen mustard compounds are used to treat certain types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. They may also be used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and other cancers.

The most common nitrogen mustard compounds used in medicine are mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and melphalan. These drugs are typically administered intravenously or orally, and their use is carefully monitored to minimize side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and suppression of the immune system.

It's worth noting that nitrogen mustard compounds can also be highly toxic and dangerous if used as chemical warfare agents. They can cause severe respiratory, skin, and eye damage, as well as potentially fatal systemic effects.

Leukemic infiltration is the abnormal spread and accumulation of malignant white blood cells (leukemia cells) in various tissues and organs outside the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are normally produced. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces large numbers of abnormal white blood cells that do not function properly. These abnormal cells can sometimes spill into the bloodstream and infiltrate other organs, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Leukemic infiltration can cause damage to these organs and lead to various symptoms. The pattern of organ involvement and the severity of infiltration depend on the type and stage of leukemia.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help your body fight infection by producing antibodies. In multiple myeloma, cancerous plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than producing useful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications such as kidney damage, bone pain and fractures.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer called a plasma cell neoplasm. Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which there is an overproduction of a single clone of plasma cells. In multiple myeloma, this results in the crowding out of normal plasma cells, red and white blood cells and platelets, leading to many of the complications associated with the disease.

The abnormal proteins produced by the cancer cells can also cause damage to organs and tissues in the body. These abnormal proteins can be detected in the blood or urine and are often used to monitor the progression of multiple myeloma.

Multiple myeloma is a relatively uncommon cancer, but it is the second most common blood cancer after non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It typically occurs in people over the age of 65, and men are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than women. While there is no cure for multiple myeloma, treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation can help manage the disease and its symptoms, and improve quality of life.

A bone marrow examination is a medical procedure in which a sample of bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced, is removed and examined. This test is used to diagnose or monitor various conditions affecting blood cell production, such as infections, leukemia, anemia, and other disorders of the bone marrow.

The sample is typically taken from the hipbone (iliac crest) or breastbone (sternum) using a special needle. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia or with sedation to minimize discomfort. Once the sample is obtained, it is examined under a microscope for the presence of abnormal cells, changes in cell size and shape, and other characteristics that can help diagnose specific conditions. Various stains, cultures, and other tests may also be performed on the sample to provide additional information.

Bone marrow examination is an important diagnostic tool in hematology and oncology, as it allows for a detailed assessment of blood cell production and can help guide treatment decisions for patients with various blood disorders.

Immunoglobulin lambda-chains (Igλ) are one type of light chain found in the immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system's response to foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses.

Immunoglobulins are composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, which are interconnected by disulfide bonds. There are two types of light chains: kappa (κ) and lambda (λ). Igλ chains are one type of light chain that can be found in association with heavy chains to form functional antibodies.

Igλ chains contain a variable region, which is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, and a constant region, which determines the class of the immunoglobulin (e.g., IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, or IgM).

In humans, approximately 60% of all antibodies contain Igλ chains, while the remaining 40% contain Igκ chains. The ratio of Igλ to Igκ chains can vary depending on the type of immunoglobulin and its function in the immune response.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are a type of immune protein that recognizes and binds to the unique identifying region (idiotype) of another antibody. These antibodies are produced by the immune system as part of a regulatory feedback mechanism, where they can modulate or inhibit the activity of the original antibody. They have been studied for their potential use in immunotherapy and vaccine development.

Giant lymph node hyperplasia, also known as Castlemans disease, is a rare benign condition characterized by the abnormal enlargement of lymph nodes due to an overgrowth of cells. It can affect people of any age but is more commonly seen in young adults and children.

The enlarged lymph nodes caused by this condition are typically round, firm, and mobile, and they may be found in various locations throughout the body, including the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. In some cases, the enlarged lymph nodes may cause symptoms such as pain, pressure, or difficulty swallowing, depending on their location.

Giant lymph node hyperplasia can be classified into two main types: unicentric and multicentric. Unicentric Castleman's disease affects a single group of lymph nodes, while multicentric Castleman's disease affects multiple groups of lymph nodes throughout the body.

The exact cause of giant lymph node hyperplasia is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an overactive immune response. In some cases, it may be associated with viral infections such as HIV or HHV-8. Treatment for this condition typically involves surgical removal of the affected lymph nodes, along with medications to manage any associated symptoms and prevent recurrence.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Cytogenetic analysis is a laboratory technique used to identify and study the structure and function of chromosomes, which are the structures in the cell that contain genetic material. This type of analysis involves examining the number, size, shape, and banding pattern of chromosomes in cells, typically during metaphase when they are at their most condensed state.

There are several methods used for cytogenetic analysis, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Karyotyping involves staining the chromosomes with a dye to visualize their banding patterns and then arranging them in pairs based on their size and shape. FISH uses fluorescent probes to label specific DNA sequences, allowing for the detection of genetic abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, or translocations. CGH compares the DNA content of two samples to identify differences in copy number, which can be used to detect chromosomal imbalances.

Cytogenetic analysis is an important tool in medical genetics and is used for a variety of purposes, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the identification of genetic disorders.

Immunoglobulin kappa-chains are one of the two types of light chains (the other being lambda-chains) that make up an immunoglobulin molecule, also known as an antibody. These light chains combine with heavy chains to form the antigen-binding site of an antibody, which is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens or foreign substances in the body.

Kappa-chains contain a variable region that differs between different antibodies and contributes to the diversity of the immune system's response to various antigens. They also have a constant region, which is consistent across all kappa-chains. Approximately 60% of all human antibodies contain kappa-chains, while the remaining 40% contain lambda-chains. The relative proportions of kappa and lambda chains can be used in diagnostic tests to identify clonal expansions of B cells, which may indicate a malignancy such as multiple myeloma or lymphoma.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

CD3 antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The CD3 antigens are composed of several different subunits (ε, δ, γ, and α) that associate to form the CD3 complex, which is involved in T-cell activation and signal transduction.

The CD3 complex is associated with the T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells. When the TCR binds to an antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to T-cell activation and the initiation of an immune response.

CD3 antigens are important targets for immunotherapy in some diseases, such as certain types of cancer. For example, monoclonal antibodies that target CD3 have been developed to activate T-cells and enhance their ability to recognize and destroy tumor cells. However, CD3-targeted therapies can also cause side effects, such as cytokine release syndrome, which can be serious or life-threatening in some cases.

p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a protein responsible for controlling cell growth and division. The p53 protein plays a crucial role in preventing the development of cancer by regulating the cell cycle and activating DNA repair processes when genetic damage is detected. If the damage is too severe to be repaired, p53 can trigger apoptosis, or programmed cell death, to prevent the propagation of potentially cancerous cells. Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes the p53 protein, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

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... of lymphoma cases can be attributed to Burkitt lymphoma. The peak incidence for endemic Burkitt lymphoma is from ages 4 to 7 ... which are frequently seen in follicular lymphomas and other B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas, do not occur in Burkitt lymphomas. ... Burkitt lymphoma is uncommon in adults, in whom it has a worse prognosis. Burkitt lymphoma can be divided into three main ... Since Burkitt lymphoma and other B-cell lymphomas are a clonal proliferative process, all tumor cells from one patient are ...
Other lymphomas involving the stomach include mantle cell lymphoma and T-cell lymphomas which may be associated with ... of all lymphomas. However, the stomach is a very common extranodal site for lymphomas (lymphomas originate elsewhere and ... Primary gastric lymphoma (lymphoma that originates in the stomach itself) is an uncommon condition, accounting for less than 15 ... An elevated LDH level may be suggestive of lymphoma. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the stomach are primarily treated with ...
... , also known as lymphoma cutis, is when lymphoma involves the skin. It is characterized by a proliferation of ... There are two main classes of lymphomas that affect the skin:[citation needed] Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma Cutaneous B-cell ... lymphoma Paller, Amy S.; Mancini, Anthony J. (2015). Hurwitz Clinical Pediatric Dermatology: A Textbook of Skin Disorders of ...
... intraocular lymphomas and adnexal lymphomas. An intraocular lymphoma occurs within the eye, while an adnexal lymphoma occurs ... Follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, peripheral T- ... Orbital lymphoma is a common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that occurs near or on the eye. Common symptoms include decreased ... Orbital lymphoma is more prevalent in Asia and Europe than in the United States. Although intraocular lymphoma is rare, the ...
"07:36 Lymphoma Association: 2008 winners announced". Live Care News. Lymphoma Association v t e (Articles with short ... Founded by patients in 1986, the Lymphoma Association is a charitable organisation based in the United Kingdom that offers ...
Funds raised by participants support the Society's mission: cure leukemia, lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma, and ... Support for People Living with Adult Leukemia and Lymphoma. The name was changed to The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS) in ... The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society had a four-star rating with Charity Navigator in 2023, scoring 96 points out of 100. Originally ... "The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Canada / Société de leucémie & lymphome du Canada". CanadaHelps - Donate to any charity in ...
... (PEL) is classified as a diffuse large B cell lymphoma. It is a rare malignancy of plasmablastic ... Shin J, Lee JO, Choe JY, Bang SM, Lee JS (January 2017). "Human Herpesvirus 8-Unrelated Primary Effusion Lymphoma-Like Lymphoma ... 2016 as a KSHV/HHV8-positive and KSHV/HHV8-driven large B-cell lymphoma. This lymphoma also belongs to a group of lymphoid ... Human herpes virus 8-negative primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma recurring as a tumor adjacent to the left atrium]". [ ...
Mixed-cell lymphomas are lymphomas that have both large cells and small cells in them.[citation needed] This nomenclature is ... In MeSH, the phrase "mixed-cell lymphoma" is currently classified under non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Pleomorphism (cytology) - cells ... of different sizes and shapes Mixed+cell+lymphoma at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t ...
The B-cell lymphomas are types of lymphoma affecting B cells. Lymphomas are "blood cancers" in the lymph nodes. They develop ... B-cell lymphomas include both Hodgkin's lymphomas and most non-Hodgkin lymphomas. They are typically divided into low and high ... granulomatosis Primary central nervous system lymphoma ALK+ large B-cell lymphoma Plasmablastic lymphoma Large B-cell lymphoma ... diffuse large B-cell lymphoma Primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma Burkitt's lymphoma Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, ...
... (ALK) was originally discovered in 1994 in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) cells. ALCL is ... November 2008). "The anaplastic lymphoma kinase controls cell shape and growth of anaplastic large cell lymphoma through Cdc42 ... February 2004). "Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma recruits, activates, and uses pp60c ... February 2014). "Crizotinib in advanced, chemoresistant anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive lymphoma patients". Journal of the ...
"Mantle cell lymphoma". www.cancerresearchuk.org. Retrieved 8 October 2023. "Lymphoma Action , Mantle cell lymphoma". Lymphoma ... mantle zone lymphoma and in situ mantle cell lymphoma. In the diffuse growth pattern, there is a diffuse growth of lymphoma ... Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, comprising about 6% of cases. It is named for the mantle zone ... The term 'mantle cell lymphoma' was first adopted by Raffeld and Jaffe in 1991. MCL is a subtype of B-cell lymphoma, due to CD5 ...
Am J Surg Pathol 2005 Nov; 29(11):1411-21 Hodgkin's lymphoma and Grey-zone lymphomas v t e (Lymphoma, All stub articles, ... Gray zone lymphoma, often presenting as large tumors in the mediastinum, is a type of lymphoma that is characterized by having ... Traverse-Glehen A, Mediastinal gray zone lymphoma: the missing link between classic Hodgkin's lymphoma and mediastinal large B- ... cellular features of both classic Hodgkin's lymphomas (cHL) and large B-cell lymphomas. ...
Other groups of lymphomas in this system are the small-cell lymphomas and mixed-cell lymphomas. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ... lymphoma Burkitt's lymphoma Follicular large-cell lymphoma Immunoblastic lymphoma Intravascular large-cell lymphoma Primary ... Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is an example of a large-cell lymphoma that involves T cells. Of the large-cell T-cell lymphomas ... MeSH now classifies the phrase "large-cell lymphoma" under "Diffuse large B cell lymphoma". Many other B-cell lymphomas feature ...
If the lymphoma is located in the nose, the cat may have discharge from the nose and facial swelling. Lymphoma of the heart ... Lymphoma of the kidney is the most common kidney tumor in cats, and lymphoma is also the most common heart tumor. ... If lymphoma develops in the kidney, the cat may have increased water consumption and increased urination. Lymphoma of the ... Lymphoma in the mediastinum, spleen, skin, and peripheral lymph nodes has the best prognosis, while lymphoma in the intestine, ...
B-cell lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma Quesenberry, Peter J.; Castillo, Jorge J. (2013). Non-Hodgkin ... T-cell lymphoma is a rare form of cancerous lymphoma affecting T-cells. Lymphoma arises mainly from the uncontrolled ... angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and Peripheral T-cell lymphoma not ... Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL): Aggressive form of T-cell lymphoma.[citation needed] Anaplastic large cell lymphoma ...
Hepatitis C virus: associated with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ... also known as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphomas except Hodgkin lymphomas ... Lymphomas in the skin may also result in lumps, which are commonly itchy, red, or purple. Lymphomas in the brain can cause ... To this day, lymphoma statistics are compiled as Hodgkin's versus non-Hodgkin lymphomas by major cancer agencies, including the ...
B-cell immunoblastic lymphoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma (small non-cleaved cell lymphoma). The symptoms of AIDS-related lymphoma ... AIDS-related lymphoma describes lymphomas occurring in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A lymphoma is a ... Primary cerebral lymphoma (or primary central nervous system lymphoma) is a form of NHL. It is very rare in immunocompetent ... In AIDS, the incidences[spelling?] of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, primary cerebral lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease are all increased ...
"Lymphoma Action , Biopsy". Lymphoma Action. Retrieved 2020-04-08. "Lymphoma Action , Blood tests". Lymphoma Action. Retrieved ... Mature T-cell lymphoma is under the category of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mature T-cell lymphomas account for 10% to 15% of all ... Mature T-cell lymphoma, also called peripheral T-cell lymphoma, is a group of rare, aggressive lymphomas that develop from ... "Lymphoma Action , Tests, diagnosis and staging". Lymphoma Action. Retrieved 2020-04-26. "Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma: Treatment ...
... leg type Primary cutaneous follicular lymphoma Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma ... Cutaneous B-cell lymphomas constitute a group of diseases that occur less commonly than cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and are ... Plasmacytoma Plasmacytosis Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma List of cutaneous conditions James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al ... 740-743 Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, ... Lymphoma, All stub articles, Cutaneous condition stubs). ...
... and guidelines on Hodgkin lymphoma symptoms and Hodgkins disease. Learn about Hodgkins cancer and Hodgkins lymphoma ... Hodgkin Lymphoma : Review in-depth clinical information, latest medical news, ... This is a case of a 40-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with classic Hodgkin lymphoma at age 37. At that time, she had stage ...
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which are defined as being all lymphomas except Hodgkin lymphoma, are more common than Hodgkin lymphoma ... Hodgkin lymphoma Classical Hodgkin lymphomas: Nodular sclerosis form of Hodgkin lymphoma Most common type of Hodgkin lymphoma ... large B-cell lymphoma ALK+ large B-cell lymphoma Plasmablastic lymphoma Primary effusion lymphoma Large B-cell lymphoma arising ... primary effusion lymphoma; plasmablastic lymphoma; extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type; peripheral T cell lymphoma, not ...
... is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... B-cell lymphoma; High-grade B-cell lymphoma; Small noncleaved cell lymphoma; Burkitts lymphoma ... Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/lymphoma/hp/adult-nhl-treatment- ... Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ...
... non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common type of ocular lymphoma. Depending on the site of involvement, ocular lymphoma ... Whereas Hodgkin lymphoma very rarely causes ocular disease, ... What causes ocular lymphoma?. What is intraocular lymphoma (IOL ... Whereas Hodgkin lymphoma rarely causes ocular disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common type of ocular lymphoma. ... Orbital and adnexal lymphoma is associated with systemic lymphoma in 30-35% of cases. Hence, all patients with ocular lymphoma ...
The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society® (LLS) is a global leader in the fight against blood cancer. The LLS mission: Cure leukemia, ... The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society is a 501(c)(3) organization, and all monetary donations are tax deductible to the fullest ... lymphoma, Hodgkin disease and myeloma, and improve the quality of life of patients and their families. LLS funds lifesaving ...
The mission of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS) is: Cure leukemia, lymphoma, Hodgkins disease and myeloma, and improve ... The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS) was founded in 1949 to serve residents who have been touched by one of the blood cancers ... Volunteered at an IHOP in Eldersburg, MD on behalf of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. Raised lots of money for a good cause! ...
Types of lymphoma include Hodgkins lymphoma and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... Cancer that forms in the germ-fighting lymphatic system is called lymphoma. ... Learn more about the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic Lymphoma SPORE.. Publications. See a list of publications about lymphoma by ... Understanding who is more likely to have a relapse of lymphoma and why *Finding ways to improve quality of life after lymphoma ...
Lymphoma. Edited by: Yusuf Tutar. ISBN 978-1-83968-111-0, eISBN 978-1-83968-112-7, PDF ISBN 978-1-83968-117-2, Published 2022- ... Chapters discuss different types of lymphomas, such as follicular lymphoma, gastrointestinal lymphoma, splenic B-cell lymphoma ... Lymphoma and the Microenvironmental Cross-Talk between Sex Hormone Receptors and Epstein-Barr Virus in Predicting Lymphoma ... 5. Testicular Lymphoma: Primary and Secondary Involvement By Alberto Artiles Medina, Javier Lorca Álvaro, Inés Laso García, ...
Help Datcom Charity of the Year raise money to support Lymphoma Action ... Lymphoma Action is the UKs only charity dedicated to lymphoma, the fifth most common cancer. ... Lets go Datcom! Doing this for our dear friend Jim who gave up his fight to Lymphoma this year xxx. £20.00 ... We are the UKs only charity dedicated to supporting people affected by lymphoma ...
In some people with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), treating a single tumor with a mix of cancer therapies can help to shrink, or ... Brody and his colleagues performed a series of experiments in mouse models of lymphoma to test whether the approach worked as ... A Vaccine to Treat Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Advancing in Clinical Trials Subscribe ... "So thats proof of principle that T cells can kill lymphoma cells," he said. ...
... a general term for T-cell lymphomas that involve the skin. ... One of the most common forms of T-cell lymphoma is cutaneous T- ... Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. Home » Understanding Lymphoma » About Lymphoma and Subtypes » Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma » Cutaneous T- ... Home » Understanding Lymphoma » About Lymphoma and Subtypes » Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma » Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma ... Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. One of the most common forms of T-cell lymphoma is cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a general term ...
... and prove that the fight against lymphoma knows no borders. Lori Montgomery, an instructor at Pratt Community College (PCC) in ... 2021 Lymphoma Info. All rights reserved. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of Lymphoma Infos terms & conditions and ... This site was started as Lymphoma Resource Page(s) in 1994. The site was designed to collect lymphoma... ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Lymphoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) is a very rare and aggressive skin cancer that usually develops ...
Lymphoma Case Reported in MS Patient on Aubagio. - First case in medical literature, more found in global surveillance reports ... The woman had no risk factors for lymphoma; indeed, black women in the U.S. have a threefold lower risk of developing the ... By May, she was diagnosed with grade 1-2 follicular B-cell lymphoma. She stopped teriflunomide the next month and started on ... With leflunomide, research has shown an increased incidence of malignant lymphoma in male mice given 15 mg/kg of the drug daily ...
The MD Anderson Davis Laboratory focuses its lymphoma and myeloma research efforts on the development of targeted therapies at ... Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with nearly 20,000 new cases each year ... Associate Professor/Research, Lymphoma/Myeloma. 7455 Fannin St., Unit 903. South Campus Research Bldg. Room SCR1.2915. Houston ... By this and other methods, we hope to identify specific mechanisms that promote resistance to therapy in lymphoma and myeloma, ...
... standard treatment for relapsed/refractory Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma has not been established. ... Home » Understanding Lymphoma » About Lymphoma and Subtypes » Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma » Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma » Adult T- ... Home » Understanding Lymphoma » About Lymphoma and Subtypes » Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma » Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma » Adult T- ... The Lymphoma Research Foundations mission is to eradicate lymphoma and serve those impacted by this blood cancer. ...
Scientists are learning much more about leukemia and lymphoma. This is good news for those with either condition. Heres the ... Research Highlights for Lymphoma. * Researchers have uncovered a new, deadly, and rare intestinal lymphoma that is common in ... cancer , leukemia , breast cancer , general health lifestyle , parkinsons disease , lymphoma , hair loss , allergies , ... Leukemia and lymphoma are not solid tumors, such as those found in the breast or lung, for example, making them difficult to ...
Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia). Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia - January 3, 2024 Category: ... Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia). Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia - January 3, 2024 Category: ... Romidepsin and afatinib abrogate JAK-STAT signaling and elicit synergistic antitumor effects in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. ... Survival analysis and prognostic factors in a case series of 148 cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. CONCLUSIONS: Stage IVA and the ...
... for treating relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in adults ... Pembrolizumab for treating relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma *Technology appraisal guidance ...
... response rate in patients with high-risk follicular lymphoma, a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... Hodgkin Lymphoma, Imaging, Lymphoma, Medicine, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Oncology, Protein, Research, Rituximab ... Loncastuximab alone has also proved to be effective in trials for other lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, an ... response rate in patients with high-risk follicular lymphoma, a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ...
Learn more about leukemia and lymphoma, its risk factors and treatment options offered at BayCare. ... Signs & Symptoms of Leukemia and Lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma. Acute myeloid leukemia. ... Lymphoma of the skin - a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that starts in the skin, primarily categorized as T-cell and B-cell ... Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) - more common than Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related ...
... μ-Myc lymphomas (lanes 2-6). Lysates prepared from Eμ-myc/eIF4E or Pten+/-Eμ-Myc lymphomas from untreated (lanes 1, 2, and 4) ... Treatment studies. The generation of Pten+/-Eμ-Myc, Eμ-Myc/Bcl-2, and Eμ-Myc/eIF4E lymphomas has been described elsewhere (9, ... C) Western blot analysis of Pten+/-Eμ-Myc lymphomas treated as described in A. Tumor cells were extracted and lysed and the ... Silvestrol synergizes with doxorubicin to induce apoptosis in Pten+/-Eμ-Myc lymphoma cells in vivo. (A) Representative ...
After a medical work-up and numerous tests, doctors diagnosed Kansas City Chiefs safety Eric Berry with Hodgkins lymphoma ... Christopher Flowers of the Emory Lymphoma Program said in a statement, via the Chiefs official website. "The goal of Mr. ... Chiefs Safety Eric Berry Diagnosed With Treatable Hodgkins Lymphoma. by Andre Khatchaturian ... Berrys treatment is to cure his lymphoma, and we are beginning that treatment now." ...
Malignancy, specifically lymphoma, is reported to be the predominant cause in Western countries. Previously, the prognosis for ... We present a case of chyloperitoneum and chylothorax due to follicular lymphoma with excellent response to bendamustine and ... A review of the literature indicates that patients with chyloperitoneum associated with lymphoma generally have a favorable ... patients with chyloperitoneum due to lymphoma has been reported as poor. ...
Leukemia and Lymphoma: Molecular and Therapeutic Insights. Book Series: A Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine ... Leukemia and lymphoma are cancers that affect white blood cells. There are several different types, each with different causes ... Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas: Malignancies Arising from Mature B Cells. Jennifer Shingleton, Jie Wang, Carolyn Baloh, Tushar Dave, ... Epidemiology and Etiology of Leukemia and Lymphoma. Jordan A. Baeker Bispo, Paulo S. Pinheiro, and Erin K. Kobetz. Impact of ...
Lymphoma Society and it would be used for the benefit of sufferers/ ... Leukaemia & Lymphoma are deadly diseases that could prove to be fatal for the sufferers. A lot of research is being done and ... Home Mods Ultimate Gaming PC Auctioned Off to Raise Money for Leukaemia & Lymphoma... ... The proceeds from the money would be given to The Silicon Valley & Monterey Chapter of The Leukaemia & Lymphoma Society. ...
Lick Lymphoma. Supporting research to develop a blood test to identify dogs at risk for lymphoma and create solutions to ... Lymphoma is a very complicated disease, and the GRF has previously funded several research studies. With assistance and ... the GRF intends to fund additional lymphoma research up to $500,000 and we seek your support. ...
Mark Epidemiological and clinical aspects of T-cell lymphoma Cederleuf, Henrik LU (2022) In Lund University, Faculty of ... Mark Nationwide Assessment of Patient Trajectories in Mantle Cell Lymphoma : The Swedish MCL complete Project Jerkeman, Mats LU ... Mark Exploring new prognostic biomarkers in Mantle Cell Lymphoma : a comparison of the circSCORE and the MCL35 score Salim, ... Mark Late effects in patients with mantle cell lymphoma treated with or without autologous stem cell transplantation Ekberg, ...
Lymphoma Experts Herald 10 Years of the Magic Bullet ... Lymphoma Experts Herald 10 Years of the Magic Bullet. Lugano ... 10th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma (ICML) newsroom: ✓ ... Keine Story von 10th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma (ICML) mehr verpassen. ... field of malignant lymphoma and the Henry Kaplan Memorial Lecture at the 10th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma ( ...
Key Words: Lymphoma, Follicular lymphoma, Renal pelvis, Imaging, Resection, Case report Core Tip: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is ... Non-Hodgkins lymphoma of the renal pelvis. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2006;6:404-406. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [ ... Follicular lymphoma (FL) accounts for 22% of all non-Hodgkins lymphoma cases worldwide. FL is the most common form of indolent ... Follicular lymphoma (FL) is more common in lymph nodes, while primary extranodal lymphomas are rare. Urinary tract lymphoid ...
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with nearly 20,000 new cases each year in the U.S. DLBCL is currently diagnosed and treated as a single disease, but gene expression profiling shows that most cases belong to two subtypes. (mdanderson.org)
  • This enabled identification of TFs that can be uniquely associated to the tumor cells of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), hairy cell leukemia (HCL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). (lu.se)
  • Chapters discuss different types of lymphomas, such as follicular lymphoma, gastrointestinal lymphoma, splenic B-cell lymphoma, and others, as well as the available treatment options for each. (intechopen.com)
  • Last year, another group of researchers also reported positive results to treat indolent NHL, the most common subtype of which is follicular lymphoma . (cancer.gov)
  • A 54-year-old black woman with MS developed follicular lymphoma after 8 months on teriflunomide -- and the "timing of teriflunomide exposure was consistent with the onset of lymphoma," Anne Landais, MD, of University Hospital of Pointe-a-Pitre in Guadeloupe, France, and colleagues reported online in Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders . (medpagetoday.com)
  • By May, she was diagnosed with grade 1-2 follicular B-cell lymphoma. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Salvage Option to Replace Transplant in RR Hodgkin Lymphoma? (medscape.com)
  • Safely Skip PET2 After Brentuximab in Hodgkin Lymphoma? (medscape.com)
  • This is a case of a 40-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with classic Hodgkin lymphoma at age 37. (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for Hodgkin lymphoma include infection with Epstein-Barr virus and a history of the disease in the family. (wikipedia.org)
  • B symptoms (systemic symptoms) - can be associated with both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hodgkin lymphoma accounts for about 15% of lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Hodgkin lymphoma is marked by the presence of a type of cell called the Reed-Sternberg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which are defined as being all lymphomas except Hodgkin lymphoma, are more common than Hodgkin lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Whereas Hodgkin lymphoma rarely causes ocular disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common type of ocular lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma means the cancer returns after treatment and remission. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a type of cancer that begins in lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that forms part of the lymphatic system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Up to 40% of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) become refractory or relapsed after current standard chemotherapy, among which primary refractory HL confers a particularly poor outcome. (hindawi.com)
  • We report the experience of using a new anti-CD30 immunotoxin, brentuximab vedotin, in salvage treatment of a 30-year-old woman with primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. (hindawi.com)
  • The patient presented with SVC syndrome due to the bulky mediastinal tumor and was confirmed to have classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type, stage IIIA. (hindawi.com)
  • Although durability of the remission needs further observation, this case illustrates the excellent efficacy of brentuximab vedotin in primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite recent improvement of therapy, the outcome of patients with refractory or relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma (RR-HL) remained compromised [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Biopsy of the left neck tumor confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosing type. (hindawi.com)
  • Images showing Hodgkin lymphoma refractory to induction chemotherapy. (hindawi.com)
  • Under diagnosis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, stage IIIA, she received the standard induction chemotherapy with epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (EBVD), with regression of neck tumors and SVC syndrome. (hindawi.com)
  • In some people with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), treating a single tumor with a mix of cancer therapies can help to shrink, or eliminate, tumors in other parts of the body, findings from a small clinical trial suggest. (cancer.gov)
  • In addition, experiments the research team performed in mice suggested that the vaccine may be even more effective when combined with an immune checkpoint inhibitor , a form of immunotherapy that is already used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma and many other cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • For example, checkpoint inhibitors and another form of immunotherapy called CAR T-cell therapy -both of which affect the behavior of T cells, the immune system's primary killer of cancer cells-can shrink tumors in people with Hodgkin lymphoma. (cancer.gov)
  • The test is approved for use with flow cytometry to diagnose chronic leukemia, acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), according to a press release. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • What's New In Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Research. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a heterogeneous group of malignancies of different biology and prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • Burkitt lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurring in children and adults. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The major types are Hodgkin lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma See table Comparison of Hodgkin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Localized non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the thyroid gland. (medscape.com)
  • International Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Prognostic Factors Project. (medscape.com)
  • Guideline] NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Hodgkin Lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Infectious mononucleosis, childhood social environment, and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Familial aggregation of Hodgkin lymphoma and related tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Mueller NE, Grufferman S. Hodgkin lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • A genome-wide meta-analysis of nodular sclerosing Hodgkin lymphoma identifies risk loci at 6p21.32. (medscape.com)
  • Small lymphocytic lymphoma is a relatively rare B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is considered to be the tissue equivalent of the much more common entity chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • Lymphoma is a group of blood and lymph tumors that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphomas, leukemias and myelomas are a part of the broader group of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of lymphoma represents 1% of NHLs, 1% of intracranial tumors, and less than 1% of intraocular tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Leukemia and lymphoma are not solid tumors, such as those found in the breast or lung, for example, making them difficult to treat. (qualityhealth.com)
  • I would say leukemia and lymphoma are kind of related, like cousins," explains hematologist Aaron Gerds, MD, MS . "The simplest way to think about it is that lymphomas are solid tumors made up of blood cells. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • In lymphoma, cancerous white blood cells form tumors in the lymphatic system and interfere with its ability to fight off invading bacteria and viruses. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • B-cell lymphomas (BCLs) constitute a diverse set of tially identify new functional, diagnostic, and therapeutic tumors, both morphologically and clinically, that are mainly targets. (lu.se)
  • Overview of Lymphoma Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors arising in the reticuloendothelial and lymphatic systems. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The LLS mission: Cure leukemia, lymphoma, Hodgkin disease and myeloma, and improve the quality of life of patients and their families. (lls.org)
  • The Davis Laboratory, established in 2009, wants to make "personalized medicine" a reality for patients with lymphoma or myeloma. (mdanderson.org)
  • By this and other methods, we hope to identify specific mechanisms that promote resistance to therapy in lymphoma and myeloma, which may provide new topics for detailed investigation and improve results of existing therapies in future trials. (mdanderson.org)
  • Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma are some of the most common types of blood cancer which arise from the blood forming bone marrow including the lymphatic system. (lu.se)
  • The Hematologic Malignancies Program conducts research related to lymphoma and other blood and bone marrow cancers. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Oxis Biotech, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Oxis International, Inc., announced today the execution of an exclusive worldwide license agreement to further develop and commercialize DT2219ARL, a novel therapy for the treatment of various human B cell cancers, leukemias and lymphomas. (news-medical.net)
  • Lymphoma is actually the name for many types of lymphatic cancers. (cookchildrens.org)
  • I am a medical oncologist and hematologist who works as a part of a team of experts for people with blood cancers, with a focus on lymphomas and genitourinary cancers. (mskcc.org)
  • There are certain risk factors connected with lymphoma, however, those without the risk factors can also develop these cancers. (acls.net)
  • The incidence of lymphoproliferative ocular diseases, especially malignant lymphoma, has increased over the years. (medscape.com)
  • Lymphoma is a group of malignant diseases caused by the clonal proliferation of lymphocytes. (intechopen.com)
  • With leflunomide, research has shown an increased incidence of malignant lymphoma in male mice given 15 mg/kg of the drug daily. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are mature lymphoid neoplasias resulting from the malignant transformation of skin-resident T cells. (medworm.com)
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of disorders involving malignant monoclonal proliferation of lymphoid cells in lymphoreticular sites, including lymph nodes, bone marrow, the. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Burkitt lymphoma is the most rapidly growing human tumor, and pathology reveals a high mitotic rate, a monoclonal proliferation of B cells, and a "starry-sky" pattern of benign macrophages that have engulfed apoptotic malignant lymphocytes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Revised response criteria for malignant lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Mayo Clinic Minute: How precise diagnosis of lymphoma offers patients best treatment options Jan. 26, 2024, 05:00 p.m. (mayoclinic.org)
  • primary endpoint) and multiple secondary endpoints including overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR) in treatment-naïve patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL, respectively) in the final analysis of the Phase III RESONATE™-2 (PCYC-1115) trial. (news-medical.net)
  • Today, Pharmacyclics LLC announced the results of the Phase III HELIOS trial (CLL3001), which found that patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) who received ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA) in combination with bendamustine and rituximab (BR) experienced an 80% reduction in the risk of progression or death compared to patients receiving placebo in combination with BR. (news-medical.net)
  • Because of the significant benefit found in combining the targeted drug ibrutinib with standard chemotherapy for relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), an interim analysis has closed the international HELIOS phase III clinical trial. (news-medical.net)
  • Cutaneous manifestations of small lymphocytic lymphoma are infrequent and the literature regarding them sparse. (medscape.com)
  • We describe here a case of a patient with a history of small lymphocytic lymphoma who developed perniosis-like features of the digits. (medscape.com)
  • An 86-year old male patient with previously diagnosed small lymphocytic lymphoma developed painful erythematous swelling of the periungual area of his fingers and toes. (medscape.com)
  • In 2014, the International Agency for Research on Cancer updated its classification of trichloroethylene to Group 1, indicating that sufficient evidence exists that it causes cancer of the kidney in humans as well as some evidence of cancer of the liver and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a cancer of special white blood cells called lymphocytes, which help your body fight infections. (webmd.com)
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has cut the rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in HIV-positive people significantly. (webmd.com)
  • You'll need a biopsy to confirm non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (webmd.com)
  • If you're diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, you're also more likely to get another "opportunistic infection" called Pneumocystis pneumonia, or PCP. (webmd.com)
  • This month, the journey to wellness for one Hodgkin's patient will illustrate just how small our world has become in the information age, and prove that the fight against lymphoma knows no borders. (lymphomainfo.net)
  • There are two types of lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (acls.net)
  • These are named Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or NHL. (acls.net)
  • Those suffering from Hodgkin's lymphoma have large cancerous cells named Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells. (acls.net)
  • According to ACS, the American Cancer Society, NHL is more common than Hodgkin's lymphoma. (acls.net)
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma is a type of cancer that attacks the lymphatic system, a part of the body's bacteria-fighting immune system. (acls.net)
  • Owing to the recent advancement in diagnosis and treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma, those with this disorder have a chance for a complete recovery. (acls.net)
  • The prognosis continues its efforts to assist individuals with Hodgkin's lymphoma. (acls.net)
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are classified into four stages. (acls.net)
  • Three cycles of CHOP (CHOP-3) plus radiotherapy (RT) is superior to eight cycles of CHOP (CHOP-8) alone for localized intermediate grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). (medscape.com)
  • An ECOG randomized phase III trial of CHOP vs. CHOP + radiotherapy (XRT) for intermediate grade early stage non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) [abstract]. (medscape.com)
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. (medscape.com)
  • Thomas RK, Re D, Wolf J, Diehl V. Part I: Hodgkin's lymphoma--molecular biology of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. (medscape.com)
  • Re D, Kuppers R, Diehl V. Molecular pathogenesis of Hodgkin's lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis. (medscape.com)
  • A genome-wide association study of Hodgkin's lymphoma identifies new susceptibility loci at 2p16.1 (REL), 8q24.21 and 10p14 (GATA3). (medscape.com)
  • Many subtypes of lymphomas are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Lymphoma Research Foundation (LRF) is committed to funding the most promising lymphoma researchers and advancing the understanding of the more than 100 different subtypes of lymphoma. (lymphoma.org)
  • Over the years, different systems have been used to classify lymphomas, including the Rappaport Classification (used until the 1970s), the Working Formulation, the National Cancer Institute Working Formulation, and the Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification (REAL). (medscape.com)
  • According to the Lymphoma Research Foundation , recurrent HL means the cancer regrows or reappears after a period of remission. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society® (LLS) is a global leader in the fight against blood cancer. (lls.org)
  • Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center is one of a handful of U.S. facilities that received a National Cancer Institute Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) grant for lymphoma research. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Every year, nearly 2,200 children in the U.S. are diagnosed with a type of lymphoma cancer. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Lymphoma Action is the UK's only charity dedicated to lymphoma, the fifth most common cancer. (justgiving.com)
  • LRF's disease-specificity and hyper-focus on finding cures for every type of lymphoma ensure the next generation of cancer researchers dedicate their careers to studying lymphoma, and world-leading lymphoma experts collaborate and accelerate the pace of scientific discovery. (lymphoma.org)
  • The Lymphoma Research Foundation's mission is to eradicate lymphoma and serve those impacted by this blood cancer. (lymphoma.org)
  • Lymphoma denotes cancer that occurs in the lymph system. (acls.net)
  • The state of lymphoma is ascertained by where cancer exists and how far it has or has not spread. (acls.net)
  • If the hematopathologist detects the presence of lymphoma cells, further tests will be taken to ascertain how far cancer has spread. (acls.net)
  • The American Cancer Society also reports progress in understanding DNA changes in lymphomas. (qualityhealth.com)
  • This information will lead to better diagnostic tests, which will help oncologists determine the type of lymphoma, how likely it is to grow and spread, if treatment is likely to be helpful, and if the cancer is destroyed by treatment, how likely a relapse is. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Some types of cancer have similarities and this is especially true of leukemia and lymphoma. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Lymphoma is a cancer that specifically affects your lymphatic system. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Unlike lymphoma, leukemia won't produce any sort of visible lump or bump (a tumor) that you usually associate with cancer. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The National Cancer Institute's Working Formulation, originally proposed in 1982, classified and grouped lymphomas by morphology and clinical behavior (ie, low, intermediate, or high grade) with 10 subgroups labeled A to J. (medscape.com)
  • Anaplastic cancer, lymphoma, and metastases of the thyroid gland. (medscape.com)
  • characterized by the presence of lymphoma cells in the blood, patients with Sézary Syndrome often present with extensive thin, red, itchy rashes that typically appear on the skin. (lymphoma.org)
  • PIOL is mainly a subtype of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). (medscape.com)
  • The test also provides information about the subtype of leukemia or lymphoma, which can help determine treatment approaches, the release noted. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Svika akasiyana emapepa echokwadi uye mabhukwana kuti akubatsire iwe kunzwisisa yako subtype ye lymphoma kana CLL, marapirwo uye inotsigira inotsigira. (lymphoma.org.au)
  • Access a variety of factsheets and booklets to help you understand your subtype of lymphoma or CLL, treatments and supportive care. (lymphoma.org.au)
  • The FDA recently authorized the marketing of the ClearLLab Reagents (T1, T2, B1, B2, M) test, which aids in the detection of leukemias and lymphomas. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • An association between teriflunomide and higher risk of lymphoma can't be ruled out," the team concluded. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Developing certain infections - Certain infections lead to a higher risk of lymphoma. (acls.net)
  • Lymphoma Australia is the only incorporated charity in Australia dedicated to solely providing education, support, awareness and advocacy initiatives for Australians touched by lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (lymphoma.org.au)
  • Lymphoma Australia ndiyo yega yakabatanidzwa rudo muAustralia yakazvipira kupa chete dzidzo, rutsigiro, ruzivo uye kusimudzira zvirongwa zvevaAustralia vanobatwa nelymphoma uye chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (lymphoma.org.au)
  • Lymphoma Australia ndi bungwe lokhalo lophatikizidwa ku Australia lodzipereka popereka maphunziro, chithandizo, chidziwitso ndi njira zolimbikitsira anthu aku Australia omwe akhudzidwa ndi ma lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (lymphoma.org.au)
  • Classic Burkitt lymphoma is endemic in central Africa and constitutes 30% of childhood lymphomas in the US. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In sporadic (non-African) Burkitt lymphoma , abdominal disease predominates, often arising in the region of the ileocecal valve or the mesentery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • See a list of publications about lymphoma by Mayo Clinic doctors on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine. (mayoclinic.org)
  • scientists are making progress in learning how changes in the DNA inside normal lymphocytes can cause them to develop into lymphoma cells. (cancer.org)
  • When white blood cells named lymphocytes develop a genetic mutation and grow abundantly, it leads to the occurrence of lymphoma. (acls.net)
  • Lymphoma starts in lymphocytes, the types of white blood cells that are born in your bone marrow and circulate around in your blood until they mature and become part of your lymphatic system. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Role of image-guided core-needle biopsy in the management of patients with lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Several newer types of skin-directed treatments are now being studied for the treatment of early stage skin lymphomas. (cancer.org)
  • LRF global lymphoma consortia, research initiatives, and scientific workshops help to mobilize the research community, overcome systemic challenges and speed the progress by which new treatments are developed. (lymphoma.org)
  • Orbital and adnexal lymphoma is associated with systemic lymphoma in 30-35% of cases. (medscape.com)
  • Hence, all patients with ocular lymphoma should have a complete workup to rule out systemic lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • This unusual cutaneous manifestation of a lymphoma and the favourable response to systemic therapy may be instructive for the management of other patients who develop similar perniosis-like features. (medscape.com)
  • Learn more about chemotherapy for lymphoma . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Chemotherapy alone compared with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for localized intermediate- and high-grade non-Hodgkin''s lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Nurses provided with specific lymphoma education nationwide. (lymphoma.org.au)
  • If you have leukemia or lymphoma, ask your physician about participating in clinical trials, which are an important step before making new diagnosis and treatment options available to patients. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Primary lymphoma of the thyroid: clinical features, prognostic factors, and results of treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical aspects of primary thyroid lymphoma: diagnosis and treatment based on our experience of 119 cases. (medscape.com)
  • Risk classification as the basis for clinical staging of diffuse large- cell lymphoma derived from 10-year survival data. (medscape.com)
  • The prognosis for ocular lymphoma depends on the tumor's histologic type and stage and the treatment employed. (medscape.com)
  • The test results will help doctors identify if the HL has returned, and if it has, what type and stage the lymphoma is and the best treatment strategy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If your lymphoma is slow-growing or your immune system is strong, your doctor may take a wait-and-see approach, checking on you every few months to see how you're doing without treatment, unless your symptoms change or get worse. (webmd.com)
  • In addition, the discovery of new phytochemical agents used in complementary and alternative medicine adds perspective to the treatment of lymphoma. (intechopen.com)
  • This book highlights recent developments in the treatment of lymphoma. (intechopen.com)
  • Research into the causes , prevention , and treatment of lymphoma of the skin is being done in many medical centers throughout the world. (cancer.org)
  • For example, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive test that can help tell if a lymphoma has been destroyed by treatment or if a relapse is likely. (cancer.org)
  • Our work drives improvements in the diagnosis, treatment, and aftercare of lymphoma. (justgiving.com)
  • The treatment depends on the type of lymphoma and its present stage. (acls.net)
  • This is significant because oncologists are now able to diagnose these lymphoma patients more accurately and tailor effective treatment strategies. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Primary thyroid lymphoma: a review of recent developments in diagnosis and histology-driven treatment. (medscape.com)
  • From diagnosis right throughout treatment, our Lymphoma Care Nurse Team is available to help you and your family. (lymphoma.org.au)
  • This work verified the social representations about health of individuals with leukemia and lymphoma, and social practices adopted upon treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most mature lymphoid neoplasms comprise the non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraocular lymphoma (IOL) is a rare lymphocytic malignancy. (medscape.com)
  • Lymphoma Ostiraliya ita ce kawai haɗin gwiwar haɗin kai a Ostiraliya da aka keɓe don ba da ilimi kawai, tallafi, wayar da kan jama'a da kuma shawarwari ga 'yan Australiya da lymphoma da cutar sankarar lymphocytic na kullum (CLL) suka shafa. (lymphoma.org.au)
  • Lymphoma begins in the cells of the lymphatic system, which plays an important part in warding off disease. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The pediatric oncologists and hematologists at Cook Children's are actively involved in research to find treat and ultimately bring an end to leukemia and lymphoma. (cookchildrens.org)
  • These include: Immunophenotyping Flow cytometry Fluorescence in situ hybridization testing According to the World Health Organization (WHO), lymphoma classification should reflect in which lymphocyte population the neoplasm arises. (wikipedia.org)
  • A division into Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas is used in several of the older classification systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • this represents the first worldwide consensus document on lymphoma classification. (medscape.com)
  • The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society is a 501(c)(3) organization, and all monetary donations are tax deductible to the fullest extent allowed by tax laws. (lls.org)
  • A new serologic staging system for large-cell lymphomas based on initial beta 2-microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase levels. (medscape.com)
  • One of the most common forms of T-cell lymphoma is cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a general term for T-cell lymphomas that involve the skin. (lymphoma.org)
  • To learn more about CTCL, download the Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Fact Sheet . (lymphoma.org)
  • citation needed] Lymphoma is definitively diagnosed by a lymph-node biopsy, meaning a partial or total excision of a lymph node examined under the microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • A doctor will often do a biopsy if he suspects lymphoma. (acls.net)
  • The incidence of ocular lymphoma increases with advancing age. (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for common types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas include autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, infection with human T-lymphotropic virus, immunosuppressant medications, and some pesticides. (wikipedia.org)
  • After lymphoma is diagnosed, a variety of tests may be carried out to look for specific features characteristic of different types of lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • A wide variety of lymphomas are in this class, and the causes, the types of cells involved, and the prognoses vary by type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have classified over 70 types of lymphoma under the above-stated two categories of lymphoma. (acls.net)
  • There are two main types of lymphoma. (acls.net)
  • Each category includes many types of lymphoma. (acls.net)
  • Age - Certain types of lymphoma are more common in young adults, while other types are most often diagnosed in those over 55. (acls.net)
  • It differs from other forms of lymphomas in its prognosis and several pathological characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have uncovered a new, deadly, and rare intestinal lymphoma that is common in Asia. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Researchers Identify New Type Of Intestinal Lymphoma. (qualityhealth.com)
  • The second area of investigation involves one particular mechanism, already discovered, upon which one particular type of lymphoma depends for survival. (mdanderson.org)
  • Only a specialist known as a hematopathologist can examine the cells to determine if lymphoma cells do exist and what type of cells they are. (acls.net)
  • Anamwino Athu Osamalira Lymphoma ali pano chifukwa cha inu. (lymphoma.org.au)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that the combination of romidepsin, a selective class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, with afatinib, an EGFR family inhibitor, induces strongly synergistic antitumor effects in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma models in vitro and in vivo through abrogation of Jak-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling. (medworm.com)
  • Mayo Clinic is an international leader in lymphoma research. (mayoclinic.org)
  • What's New in Skin Lymphoma Research? (cancer.org)
  • More research is needed to help determine their safety and effectiveness, although imiquimod is already available to treat some other skin conditions, so doctors can use it off-label to treat skin lymphomas. (cancer.org)
  • Although it's still too early to say what will become of the vaccine used in this most recent trial, the approach "looks to be very promising," said Benjamin Heyman, M.D., of the University of California, San Diego, whose research focuses on developing immunotherapies for lymphoma but who was not involved in the study. (cancer.gov)
  • The LRF Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) is comprised of 45 world-renowned lymphoma experts, who seek out the most innovative and promising lymphoma research projects to support. (lymphoma.org)
  • 1995 was a significant year for the Lymphoma Research Foundation (LRF) -it was then that LRF realized its dual mission to eradicate lymphoma and to serve those touched by this disease . (lymphoma.org)
  • Through lymphoma-specific research grants and consortia, LRF-supported researchers have been involved in many of the most significant lymphoma breakthroughs witnessed in the past quarter-century. (lymphoma.org)
  • LRF remains dedicated to finding cures for lymphoma through an aggressively-funded program for researchers. (lymphoma.org)
  • Researchers have reported the first published case of lymphoma in a multiple sclerosis (MS) patient taking teriflunomide (Aubagio) -- and they also found 10 other cases in an international pharmacovigilance database. (medpagetoday.com)
  • But the researchers noted that the levothyroxine she was taking for thyroid hormone replacement has never been tied to lymphoma risk. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The researchers also noted that the 82 globally reported lymphoma cases with leflunomide could be of concern, given that teriflunomide is its active metabolite. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Having an impaired immune system - Lymphoma is more often diagnosed in those with immune system diseases or in those who consume drugs that damage their immune system. (acls.net)
  • Lymphomas begin in white blood cells in the immune system. (qualityhealth.com)
  • This procedure involves taking a sample from a lymph node to test for lymphoma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • if the symptoms are persistent, an evaluation to determine their cause, including possible lymphoma, should be undertaken. (wikipedia.org)