Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Cell Migration Inhibition
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.
Suppressor Factors, Immunologic
Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors
Receptors, Complement 3b
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Interferon Type I
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Killer Cells, Natural
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Gene Expression Regulation
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Tumor Cells, Cultured
VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. (1/4704)We employed two independent approaches to inactivate the angiogenic protein VEGF in newborn mice: inducible, Cre-loxP- mediated gene targeting, or administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, a soluble VEGF receptor chimeric protein. Partial inhibition of VEGF achieved by inducible gene targeting resulted in increased mortality, stunted body growth and impaired organ development, most notably of the liver. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, which achieves a higher degree of VEGF inhibition, resulted in nearly complete growth arrest and lethality. Ultrastructural analysis documented alterations in endothelial and other cell types. Histological and biochemical changes consistent with liver and renal failure were observed. Endothelial cells isolated from the liver of mFlt(1-3)-IgG-treated neonates demonstrated an increased apoptotic index, indicating that VEGF is required not only for proliferation but also for survival of endothelial cells. However, such treatment resulted in less significant alterations as the animal matured, and the dependence on VEGF was eventually lost some time after the fourth postnatal week. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG to juvenile mice failed to induce apoptosis in liver endothelial cells. Thus, VEGF is essential for growth and survival in early postnatal life. However, in the fully developed animal, VEGF is likely to be involved primarily in active angiogenesis processes such as corpus luteum development. (+info)
Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. (2/4704)Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration. (+info)
Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (3/4704)Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression. (+info)
Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral squamous cell carcinoma: its association with tumour progression and p53 gene status. (4/4704)AIMS: To correlate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis; and to assess whether p53 gene status is associated with VEGF expression in human cancers. METHODS: Tumour specimens from 45 patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas were examined. Expression of VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method, and a tumour was considered positive when more than 5% of the neoplastic cells showed VEGF immunoreactivity. The p53 gene status was screened using a polymerase chain reaction--single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: VEGF positive staining was detected in 19 (42.2%) of the 45 cases. VEGF immunoreactivity did not correlate with the histological degree of tumour differentiation, clinical stages, or lymph node metastasis. The patients with VEGF positive tumours had a significantly worse prognosis than those with VEGF negative tumours. The five year overall survival rate of the VEGF negative patients was 76.5%, as compared with 48.8% for the VEGF positive patients. No significant association between VEGF expression and the p53 gene status of the tumours was found. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF is a good prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The p53 gene status does not seem to be associated with VEGF expression in these cancers. (+info)
Differential regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor fms-like-tyrosine kinase is mediated by nitric oxide in rat renal mesangial cells. (5/4704)Under conditions associated with local and systemic inflammation, mesangial cells and invading immune cells are likely to be responsible for the release of large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in the glomerulus. To further define the mechanisms of NO action in the glomerulus, we attempted to identify genes which are regulated by NO in rat glomerular mesangial cells. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase (FLT-1) to be under the regulatory control of exogenously applied NO in these cells. Using S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO) as an NO-donating agent, VEGF expression was strongly induced, whereas expression of its FLT-1 receptor simultaneously decreased. Expressional regulation of VEGF and FLT-1 mRNA was transient and occurred rapidly within 1-3 h after GSNO treatment. Expression of a second VEGF-specific receptor, fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK-1/KDR), could not be detected. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta mediated a moderate increase in VEGF expression after 24 h and had no influence on FLT-1 expression. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor-BB and basic fibroblast growth factor had no effect on VEGF expression, but strongly induced FLT-1 mRNA levels. Obviously, there is a differential regulation of VEGF and its receptor FLT-1 by NO, cytokines and growth factors in rat mesangial cells. (+info)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor II-derived peptides inhibit VEGF. (6/4704)Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) directly stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration via tyrosine kinase receptors of the split kinase domain family. It mediates vascular growth and angiogenesis in the embryo but also in the adult in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. The potential binding site of VEGF with its receptor was identified using cellulose-bound overlapping peptides of the extracytosolic part of the human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor II (VEGFR II). Thus, a peptide originating from the third globular domain of the VEGFR II comprising residues 247RTELNVGIDFNWEYP261 was revealed as contiguous sequence stretch, which bound 125I-VEGF165. A systematic replacement with L-amino acids within the peptide representing the putative VEGF-binding site on VEGFR II indicates Asp255 as the hydrophilic key residue for binding. The dimerized peptide (RTELNVGIDFNWEYPAS)2K inhibits VEGF165 binding with an IC50 of 0.5 microM on extracellular VEGFR II fragments and 30 microM on human umbilical vein cells. VEGF165-stimulated autophosphorylation of VEGFR II as well as proliferation and migration of microvascular endothelial cells was inhibited by the monomeric peptide RTELNVGIDFNWEYPASK at a half-maximal concentration of 3-10, 0.1, and 0.1 microM, respectively. We conclude that transduction of the VEGF165 signal can be interrupted with a peptide derived from the third Ig-like domain of VEGFR II by blockade of VEGF165 binding to its receptor. (+info)
Expression of thrombospondin-1 in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. (7/4704)Thrombospondin-1 is an extracellular matrix protein that inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. This study was performed to investigate the role of thrombospondin-1 in ischemic retinal neovascularization. In a murine model of retinal neovascularization, thrombospondin-1 mRNA was increased from postnatal day 13 (P13), with a threefold peak response observed on P15, corresponding to the time of development of retinal neovascularization. Prominent expression of thrombospondin-1 was observed in neovascular cells, specifically, cells adjacent to the area of nonperfusion. It has been suggested that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a major role in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization of this model, so we studied the effects of VEGF on thrombospondin-1 expression. In bovine retinal microcapillary endothelial cells, VEGF induced a biphasic response of thrombospondin-1 expression; VEGF decreased thrombospondin-1 mRNA 0.41-fold after 4 hours, whereas it increased, with a threefold peak response, after 24 hours. VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation was completely inhibited by exogenous thrombospondin-1 and increased by 37.5% with anti-thrombospondin-1 antibody. The present findings suggest that, in the ischemic retina, retinal neovascular cells increase thrombospondin-1 expression, and VEGF may stimulate endogenous thrombospondin-1 induction, which inhibits endothelial cell growth. VEGF-mediated thrombospondin-1 induction in ischemia-induced angiogenesis may be a negative feedback mechanism. (+info)
Rescue of diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis by intramuscular gene therapy with adeno-VEGF. (8/4704)Diabetes is a major risk factor for coronary and peripheral artery diseases. Although diabetic patients often present with advanced forms of these diseases, it is not known whether the compensatory mechanisms to vascular ischemia are affected in this condition. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether diabetes could: 1) impair the development of new collateral vessel formation in response to tissue ischemia and 2) inhibit cytokine-induced therapeutic neovascularization. Hindlimb ischemia was created by femoral artery ligation in nonobese diabetic mice (NOD mice, n = 20) and in control C57 mice (n = 20). Hindlimb perfusion was evaluated by serial laser Doppler studies after the surgery. In NOD mice, measurement of the Doppler flow ratio between the ischemic and the normal limb indicated that restoration of perfusion in the ischemic hindlimb was significantly impaired. At day 14 after surgery, Doppler flow ratio in the NOD mice was 0.49+/-0.04 versus 0.73+/-0.06 for the C57 mice (P< or =0.005). This impairment in blood flow recovery persisted throughout the duration of the study with Doppler flow ratio values at day 35 of 0.50+/-0.05 versus 0.90+/-0.07 in the NOD and C57 mice, respectively (P< or =0.001). CD31 immunostaining confirmed the laser Doppler data by showing a significant reduction in capillary density in the NOD mice at 35 days after surgery (302+/-4 capillaries/mm2 versus 782+/-78 in C57 mice (P< or =0.005). The reduction in neovascularization in the NOD mice was the result of a lower level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ischemic tissues, as assessed by Northern blot, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The central role of VEGF was confirmed by showing that normal levels of neovascularization (compared with C57) could be achieved in NOD mice that had been supplemented for this growth factor via intramuscular injection of an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF. We conclude that 1) diabetes impairs endogenous neovascularization of ischemic tissues; 2) the impairment in new blood vessel formation results from reduced expression of VEGF; and 3) cytokine supplementation achieved by intramuscular adeno-VEGF gene transfer restores neovascularization in a mouse model of diabetes. (+info)
Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. |...
A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished. Type 1 T helper cells (TH1) produced IL 2, interferon-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL 3 in response to antigen + presenting cells or to Con A, whereas type 2 helper T cells (TH2) produced IL 3, BSF1, and two other activities unique to the TH2 subset, a mast cell growth factor distinct from IL 3 and a T cell growth factor distinct from IL 2. Clones representing each type of T cell were characterized, and the pattern of lymphokine activities was consistent within each set. The secreted proteins induced by Con A were analyzed by biosynthetic labeling and SDS gel electrophoresis, and significant differences were seen between the two groups of T cell line. Both types of T cell grew in response to alternating cycles of antigen stimulation, followed by growth in IL 2-containing medium. Examples of both types of T cell were also specific for ...
Cloned neoplastic B cells release a growth factor which augments lymphokine-mediated proliferation of normal B cells. -...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloned neoplastic B cells release a growth factor which augments lymphokine-mediated proliferation of normal B cells.. AU - Brooks, K. H.. AU - Kuziel, W. A.. AU - Tucker, P. W.. AU - Uhr, J. W.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021185473&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021185473&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6332721. AN - SCOPUS:0021185473. VL - 113. SP - 69. EP - 71. JO - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. JF - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. SN - 0070-217X. ER - ...
Differentiation of T cell lymphokine gene expression: the in vitro acquisition of T cell memory. | JEM
A simple in vitro experimental system was devised to reflect the in vivo generation of a T cell anamnestic response so that T cell differentiation could be examined at the level of lymphokine gene expression. Comparison of neonatal and adult T cells revealed that both populations expressed the genes for interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor, but only adult T cells were capable of transcribing mRNAs for IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, interferon gamma, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. However, neonatal T cells could be induced to undergo functional differentiation in vitro, thereby acquiring the capacity to express the lymphokine gene repertoire characteristic for adult T cells. These data suggest that the T cells generated from neonatal blood by a primary stimulation in vitro are functionally indistinguishable from the T cells in adult blood that presumably have undergone primary stimulation in vivo. Therefore, we propose that the term memory cell be applied to those T cells that ...
Hair growth control by immunosuppression. | PMID 8818191 | Arch Dermatol Res June 01, 1996 | PubRank
Interleukin 21 and its receptor are involved in NK cell expansion and regulation of lymphocyte function. Nature (2000) 5.86 EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: definition, classification and diagnosis of urticaria. Allergy (2009) 4.10 EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: management of urticaria. Allergy (2009) 3.86 CENP-C, an autoantigen in scleroderma, is a component of the human inner kinetochore plate. Cell (1992) 3.70 The EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO Guideline for the definition, classification, diagnosis, and management of urticaria: the 2013 revision and update. Allergy (2014) 3.10 A comprehensive guide for the recognition and classification of distinct stages of hair follicle morphogenesis. J Invest Dermatol (1999) 2.92 Synthesis, storage, and release of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF) by human mast cells: implications for the biological significance of VEGF206. Mol Biol Cell (1998) 2.24 Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA): achievements in 10 ...
The role of lymphokines in immunogenic uveitis<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of lymphokines in immunogenic uveitis. AU - Liu, S. H.. AU - Prendergast, R. A.. AU - Silverstein, A. M.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Lymphokines were prepared from rabbit lymph node cells specifically activated in vitro with the insoluble antigen ovalbumin or nonspecifically activated with the insoluble mitogen concanavalin A. Intravitreal injection of either lymphokine caused uveitis in the normal rabbit eye, more severe and more prolonged with the concanavalin A-activated supernatants than with the ovalbumin-activated supernatants. The most striking difference between the two lymphokine preparations was in their ability to induce a secondary intraocular antibody response in the trinitrophenyl bovine gamma globulin-primed recipient. Concanavalin A supernatants stimulated polyclonal B cell activation with appreciable anti-TNP responses in animals primed either systemically or locally. In contrast, ovalbumin supernatants stimulated an intraocular anti-TNP response only in ...
Lymphokine - Wikipedia
Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include: ...
Based on their function, cell of secretion, or target of action, cytokines can be divided into three groups: interleukins, chemokines, and lymphokines. Interleukin is a protein which is produced by one type of lymphocyte or macrophage and act on other leukocytes. Chemokine is a specific class of cytokines that mediates chemoattraction (chemotaxis) between cells. Lymphokines are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. Lymphokines direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines play important roles, such as the attraction of other immune cells, like macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation prepare them to attack the invaders. ...
Mouse XCL1 / Lymphotactin Protein | Recombinant aa 22-114 () | LSBio
XCL1 / Lymphotactin Protein LS-G5664 is a Recombinant Mouse XCL1 / Lymphotactin aa 22-114 produced in E. coli. It is biologically active.
LIF Protein - ACROBiosystems
High-quality LIF proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of LIF proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
Patent US4547311 - Electrically conductive coating composition - Google Patents
An electrically conductive coating composition which comprises (a) a dispersion of carbon black or a mixture of carbon black and graphite in an organic solvent and (b) a solution of a polymer in an organic solvent, the viscosity of the composition being higher than those of the dispersion (a) and the solution (b) being homogeneous and stable, a coating film formed therefrom having a low volume resistivity.
Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF), Pipeline Review, H2 2016: Ken Research
Table of Contents. Table of Contents 2. List of Tables 5. List of Figures 5. Introduction 6. Global Markets Direct Report Coverage 6. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF) Overview 7. Therapeutics Development 8. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF)-Products under Development by Stage of Development 8. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF)-Products under Development by Therapy Area 9. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF)-Products under Development by Indication 10. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF)-Pipeline Products Glance 11. Late Stage Products 11. Early Stage Products 12. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF)-Products under Development by Companies 13. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related ...
Prognostic significance of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer...
Prognostic significance of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9480.
Frontiers | Role of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) as a Potential Biomarker of Response to Immune Checkpoint...
Background: The development of biomarkers predictive of response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies in advanced melanoma is an area of great interest in oncology. Our study evaluated the potential role of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a predictive biomarker of clinical benefit and response to treatment with ICIs.Methods: Pre-treatment peripheral blood samples were obtained from advanced melanoma patients undergoing ICI therapy as monotherapy or in combination at two tertiary care hospitals in Western Australia. Serum VEGF levels were correlated with response to therapy and survival outcomes.Results: Serum VEGF samples were collected from a total of 130 patients treated with ICI therapy (pembrolizumab 73, ipilimumab 15, and ipilimumab/nivolumab combination 42). Median serum VEGF level was significantly higher in the non-responders (82.15 pg/mL) vs. responders (60.40 pg/mL) in the ipilimumab monotherapy cohort (P Conclusions: The results of our study confirm previous
Can serial monitoring of serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Nitric Oxide (NO), and Angiotensin II (ANGII) levels...
Can serial monitoring of serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Nitric Oxide (NO), and Angiotensin II (ANGII) levels have predictive role during Bevacizumab treatment? - Add Comment #889945
B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 | definition of B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 in the Medical Dictionary? B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 explanation free. What is B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1? Meaning of B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 medical term. What does B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 mean?
The hypoxia-inducible genes VEGF and CA9 are differentially regulated in superficial vs invasive bladder cancer. - Department...
Regulation by hypoxia may underlie the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in bladder cancer. We have compared the distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA with a hypoxia marker, carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA IX). vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA was analysed by in situ hybridisation and CA IX by immunochemistry in 22 cases of bladder cancer. The relationship of microvessels to the distribution of CA IX was determined. In a separate series of 49 superficial tumours, CA IX immunostaining was compared with clinico-pathological outcome. In superficial and invasive disease there was overlap in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CA IX, CA IX being more widespread. Both were expressed predominantly on the luminal surface, and surrounding areas of necrosis (invasive tumours). Expression of both factors was greater in superficial disease. Expression was absent within approximately 80 microm of microvessels. Unlike vascular endothelial growth factor, CA IX did
Macrophage-activating factor legal definition of macrophage-activating factor
Definition of macrophage-activating factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is macrophage-activating factor? Meaning of macrophage-activating factor as a legal term. What does macrophage-activating factor mean in law?
Tumor-secreted vascular permeability factor increases cytosolic Ca2+ and von Willebrand factor release in human endothelial...
Vascular permeability factor (VPF), a tumor-secreted heparin-binding protein (Mr approximately 38,000), is responsible for increased vessel permeability and fluid accumulation associated with tumor growth. Vascular permeability factor also promotes the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cell …
Vascular permeability factor, an endothelial cell mitogen related to PDGF.
Vascular permeability factor (VPF) is a 40-kilodalton disulfide-linked dimeric glycoprotein that is active in increasing blood vessel permeability, endothelial cell growth, and angiogenesis. These properties suggest that the expression of VPF by tumor cells could contribute to the increased neovascularization and vessel permeability that are associated with tumor vasculature. The cDNA sequence of VPF from human U937 cells was shown to code for a 189-amino acid polypeptide that is similar in structure to the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-B) and other PDGF-B-related proteins. The overall identity with PDGF-B is 18%. However, all eight of the cysteines in PDGF-B were found to be conserved in human VPF, an indication that the folding of the two proteins is probably similar. Clusters of basic amino acids in the COOH-terminal halves of human VPF and PDGF-B are also prevalent. Thus, VPF appears to be related to the PDGF/v-sis family of proteins.
Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Neuroblastoma | Bentham Science
Title:Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Neuroblastoma. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Danielle Hsu, Jason M. Shohet and Eugene S. Kim. Affiliation:Division of Pediatric Surgery, Texas Childrens Hospital, CCC Building, Suite 1210, 6701 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77030, USA.. Keywords:Vascular endothelial growth factor, angiogenesis, clinical trials, neuroblastoma.. Abstract:Angiogenesis is critical to tumor growth and metastasis and is dependent on growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The most characterized angiogenic factor, VEGF is an endothelial cell mitogen and permeability factor that has been found to be overexpressed in almost all human cancers. In a number of tumor model systems, antagonism of the VEGF pathway results in inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Specifically, VEGF inhibition has been shown to suppress tumor growth, decrease microvasculature, and induce apoptosis of endothelial cells. This close relationship between hypoxia, ...
Expression, purification and functionality of bioactive recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF165 in E. coli...
Angiogenesis, the growth of blood vessel from the existing vasculature, depends on the expression of various growth factors but Vascular Endothelial Growth factor (VEGF) ranks as the key inducer and the central mediator that promotes vascular permeability.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A | Profiles RNS
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as tumor angiogenesis factor and vascular permeability factor. Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced ...
Placental villous vascular endothelial growth factor expression and vascularization after estrogen suppression during the last...
Placental villous vascular endothelial growth factor expression and vascularization after estrogen suppression during the last two-thirds of baboon pregnancy Article ...
The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in major depression - Korea University
TY - CHAP. T1 - The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in major depression. AU - Lee, Bun Hee. AU - Kim, Yong Ku. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor under physiological and pathological conditions, including tumor angiogenesis. Recently, the effects of VEGF on neurons have been reported. VEGF and its high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, are expressed in specific brain regions. In addition, VEGF has been suggested to play an important role in the cross-talk between endothelial cells and neuronal progenitors in the hippocampus, indicating that VEGF may stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Neurotrophic factors and neurogenesis are associated with the development of major depression and play essential roles in mediating the therapeutic response to antidepressants. Several animal studies have shown that chronic stress decreased the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 in granular cells. There is also evidence ...
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Patients with Hypothyroidism | Интернет-издание Новости медицины и фармации
Метою дослідження було визначення рівня васкулоендотеліального фактора росту у хворих на первинний гіпотиреоз. При обстеженні 133 пацієнтів з маніф...
117006: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Plasma | LabCorp
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a homodimeric 34 to 45 kilodalton, heparin-binding glycoprotein. VEGF has potent angiogenic, mitogenic, and vascular permeability-enhancing activities specific for endothelial cells.1 VEGF is thought to play an important role in several physiologic processes, including wound healing, ovulation, menstruation, maintenance of blood pressure, and pregnancy.1 VEGF has also been associated with a number of pathologic processes that involve angiogenesis, including arthritis, psoriasis, macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.1 In general, the growth and spread of tumors has been shown to be dependent on the development of increased vascularization in the tumor vicinity in order to maintain sufficient oxygenation.1 Tumor expression of proangiogenic factors, including VEGF, has been associated with advanced tumor progression in a number of human cancers.2,3 Increased expression of VEGF has been ...
vascular endothelial growth factor [Operative Neurosurgery]
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), also known as Vascular Permeability Factor or VEGF165, is a potent mitogenic and angiogenic disulfide-linked homodimer responsible for angiogenesis in several organs including the CNS. VEGF-A has been shown to increase extravasation of proteins from tumor associated capillaries, thus the monicker Vascular Permeability Factor. VEGF-A is part of the VEGF family of proteins which includes VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and placental growth factor. VEGF-A expression is increased by reduced blood flow and ischemia, and is involved in the growth and expansion of tumors in a cycle where tumor growth results in ischemia, which increases VEGF-A expression resulting in angiogenesis and further tumor growth. Furthermore, VEGF-A is secreted from tumors, which has made it a primary objective for development of the VEGF-A antagonist bevacizumab (Avastin, Roche). Bevacizumab is used as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer, ...
RPA143Mu01 | 血管内皮生长因子A(VEGFA)重组蛋白 | Mus musculus (Mouse，小鼠) USCN(武汉优尔生商贸有限公司)
RPA143Mu01, Recombinant Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA), 血管内皮生长因子A(VEGFA)重组蛋白, VEGF; VEGF-A; VPF; Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor A; Vascular Permeability Factor | 仅供体外研究使用，不用于临床诊断！请索取进口关税税单及报关单！
Publications | GMR | Genetics and Molecular Research | The Original by FUNPEC-RP
Abramovich D, Irusta G, Parborell F and Tesone M (2010). Intrabursal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor trap in eCG-treated prepubertal rats inhibits proliferation and increases apoptosis of follicular cells involving the PI3K/ AKT signaling pathway. Fertil. Steril. 93: 1369-1377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.01.127 PMid:19328472 Accili D and Arden KC (2004). FoxOs at the crossroads of cellular metabolism, differentiation, and transformation. Cell 117: 421-426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00452-0 Barboni B, Turriani M, Galeati G, Spinaci M, et al. (2000). Vascular endothelial growth factor production in growing pig antral follicles. Biol. Reprod. 63: 858-864. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod63.3.858 PMid:10952932 Brummelkamp TR, Bernards R and Agami R (2002). A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Science 296: 550-553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1068999 PMid:11910072 Bruno JB, Celestino JJ, Lima-Verde IB, ...
Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor expression and neovascularization in colorectal carcinoma. -...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Microvascular Research | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Microvascular Research. Kinetics of Placenta Growth Factor/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Synergy in Endothelial Hydraulic Conductivity and Proliferation. 2001; 61:203-210 ...
Nutri Advanced Permeability Factors 90s - Nutri Advanced from Turmeric & Honey UK
Permeability Factors 90's. When intact, the lining of the intestines provides a secure mucosal barrier against improperly digested food and toxins. When the intestinal lining is compromised, these undesirable substances can "leak through". Permeability Factors is a formula designed to support the integrity of the gut lining.
Anti Bevacizumab ELISA - Krishgen Biosystems India
Bevacizumab is a recombinant Human IgG;κ monoclonal antibody specific for all human vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) isoforms.
Anti Bevacizumab ELISA - Krishgen Biosystems India
Bevacizumab is a recombinant Human IgG;κ monoclonal antibody specific for all human vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) isoforms.
Epithelial ovarian cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a generally poor outcome. To improve survival, novel therapeutic strategies for this disease are needed and require elucidation of the biological events that underlie transformation and tumor growth. Vascular permeability factor (VPF), also known as vascular endothelial growth factor, is a homodimeric glycoprotein that acts on vascular endothelium as a potent permeability-inducing agent and mitogen. The present study demonstrates for the first time the constitutive gene expression of VPF in normal and neoplastic human ovaries. Abundant levels of VPF have been identified by an immunoassay in the ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (K-T. Yeo et al., Cancer Res., 53: 2912-2918, 1993). We have identified the malignant epithelium as one source of VPF in the ascites. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction has demonstrated the expression of the two secreted isoforms, VPF121 and VPF165, in normal and neoplastic ovaries. ...
It is well known that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1 play important roles in monocyte activation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (27-29,36). In the present studies, we performed DNA array analyses to demonstrate for the first time that HG treatment of THP-1 monocytes induced changes in the expression levels of multiple cytokines, chemokines, and related molecules. Subsequently, we confirmed the expression of key genes by RT-PCR and ELISA analyses. We noted marked increases (two- to fivefold) in mRNA expression of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, their receptors (TNFR and IL-1R), CD27L, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and the potent inflammatory and chemotactic gene IP-10. There were also clear increases in the expression of the angiogenic and vascular permeability factors (vascular endothelial growth factors), inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2 and -4), and the metalloproteinase MMP-13. The expression of β2-integrin was also upregulated. ...
Rapid calcium-dependent reduction of intraendothelial cAMP: A trigger to increase vascular permeability?<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid calcium-dependent reduction of intraendothelial cAMP. T2 - A trigger to increase vascular permeability?. AU - Adamson, Roger H.. AU - Curry, Fitz Roy E. PY - 2009/8/15. Y1 - 2009/8/15. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=68949098205&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=68949098205&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.177816. DO - 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.177816. M3 - Article. C2 - 19684224. AN - SCOPUS:68949098205. VL - 587. SP - 3975. JO - Journal of Physiology. JF - Journal of Physiology. SN - 0022-3751. IS - 16. ER - ...
2017 Ghana Tumor Marker Testing Market: Emerging Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones,...
2017 Ghana Tumor Marker Testing Market: Emerging Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Immunohistochemical Stains-Test Volume and Sales Forecasts, Competitive Strategies, Opportunities for Suppliers - Market research report and industry analysis - 10596807
Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor and the risk of cardiovascular events | Heart
Results After a mean follow-up of 8.8 (±2.8) years, 527 individuals experienced a first CVD event. Compared with participants in the first VEGF quartile, individuals in the second VEGF quartile had a 34% increased risk for future CVD (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.74; p value=0.03) and individuals in third quartile had a 59% higher risk (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.05, p value=0.0003). Individuals in the highest VEGF quartile had a similar cardiovascular risk as compared with those in the lowest VEGF quartile (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.53, p value=0.21). Evaluation of restricted cubic splines confirmed the nonlinear, inverted U-shaped relation of serum VEGF and CVD events (p,0.0001 for model fit, p=0.006 for non-linearity). ...
Publications | GMR | Genetics and Molecular Research | The Original by FUNPEC-RP
Baggiolini M (2001). Chemokines in pathology and medicine. J. Intern. Med. 250: 91-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2796.2001.00867.x PMid:11489059 Baggiolini M, Dewald B and Moser B (1994). Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines - CXC and CC chemokines. Adv. Immunol. 55: 97-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60509-X Bek EL, McMillen MA, Scott P, Angus LD, et al. (2002). The effect of diabetes on endothelin, interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in rats. Clin. Sci. 103 (Suppl 48): 424S-429S. PMid:12193137 Ben-Baruch A, Michiel DF and Oppenheim JJ (1995). Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 11703-11706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.270.20.11703 PMid:7744810 Bruun JM, Verdich C, Toubro S, Astrup A, et al. (2003). Association between measures of insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of interleukin-8, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Effect of weight loss in obese ...
Gene Expression Literature Detail
J:161912 van den Akker NM, Caolo V, Wisse LJ, Peters PP, Poelmann RE, Carmeliet P, Molin DG, Gittenberger-de Groot AC, Developmental coronary maturation is disturbed by aberrant cardiac vascular endothelial growth factor expression and Notch signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2008 May 1;78(2):366-75 ...
Vitamin D3-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor - AdisInsight
Macrophages play an important role in the antitumour activity of photodynamic therapy. Preclinical studies in mice demonstrated a significant enhancement in the
UNC scientists identify growth factor as possible cancer drug target - News Room - UNC Health Care
To grow and spread, tumors need new blood vessels, a process called angiogenesis. One growth factor that causes angiogenesis has been identified - vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF - and drugs to inhibit VEGF are already in use.
Anti Human Lymphotactin Antibody | Bio-Rad Antibodies (formerly AbD Serotec)
Rabbit anti Human Lymphotactin antibody recognizes human Lymphotactin, otherwise known as XCL1, the only member of the C-chemokine family
Viral Lymphotactin elisa and antibody
Shop Viral Lymphotactin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Viral Lymphotactin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Protein Foundry - Recombinant Human XCL1 /Lymphotactin (Ltn)
XCL1 protein is expressed in E. coli, processed, refolded and purified to yield the native, secreted form of the mature chemokine. XCL1 is a ligand for the G protein coupled receptor XCR1 with and EC50 ~ 50 nM. It has been shown the WT XCL1 is able to int
Gentaur Molecular :Reliatech \ Human VEGF B167 Source E. coli \ 300-080
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Reliatech \ Human VEGF_B167 Source E. coli \ 300-080 for more molecular products just contact us
Chemokines: Relatively small proteins (peptides) that mediate intercellular signaling among lymphocytes responding to antigenic challenge, were originally referred to as lymphokines. This term was replaced by interleukins, since lymphokine did not fully reflect intercellular communications between lymphocytes and cells of macrophage/monocyte lineage. It was further realized that related, and sometimes even identical peptides, were being […]. ...
Gentaur Molecular :Accu \ VEGF, Mouse anti Human \ ACLANT125B
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购买我们的重组小鼠VEGF蛋白。Ab73279为有活性的蛋白片段，在昆虫细胞中生产并经过SDS-PAGE, Functional Studies实验验证。中国80%以上现货。
Получение рекомбинантного сосудистого эндотелиального фактора роста
Продуцирующий рекомбинантный сосудистый эндотелиальный фактор роста. Белковые субстанции, способные стимулировать рост, пролиферацию и/или дифференцировку живых клеток. Классификация факторов роста. Васкулярно-эндотелиальный фактор роста VEGF
He co-edited the first book on lymphokines, and edited the 15 volumes of the series Lymphokines. Pick is best known for his ... While in London, Pick focused on the study of soluble products made by antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes-known as lymphokines, ... His research centered on the role of T cell-derived lymphokines in enhancing innate immunity by augmenting the capacity of ... Cohen, Stanley; Pick, Edgar; Oppenheim, Joost J. (2013). Biology of the Lymphokines. Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-4832-7142-2. " ...
Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include: Interleukin 2 ... Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. They are protein ... Lymphokines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Cytokines, All stub articles, ... Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an ...
"Modulation of lymphocyte migration by human lymphokines. II. Purification of a lymphotactic factor (LCF)". Journal of ...
Allan L. Goldstein
Thymic Hormones and Lymphokines: Their Chemistry and Clinical Applications. Plenum Press, New York, 1984. Goldstein, A.L. (ed) ...
September 1987). "Uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein): a renal ligand for lymphokines". Science. 237 (4821): 1479-84. ...
Lymphokines: produced by lymphocytes Monokines: produced exclusively by monocytes Interferons: involved in antiviral responses ... Dumonde DC, Wolstencroft RA, Panayi GS, Matthew M, Morley J, Howson WT (October 1969). ""Lymphokines": non-antibody mediators ... Cytokines have been classed as lymphokines, interleukins, and chemokines, based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, ... Cytokines include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumour necrosis factors, but generally not hormones ...
The immune cells release lymphokines required for the repair and regeneration of cementum. 1. No sealability (no adhesion to ...
Umbert, Pablo; Belcher, Richard W.; Winkelmann, R. K. (1976). "Lymphokines (MIF) in the serum of patients with sarcoidosis and ... Their data suggests that lymphokines, such as macrophage-inhibiting factor (MIF), leads to sequestration of macrophages and ...
"Superinduction of mitogen-stimulated interferon-gamma production and other lymphokines by Sendai virus". Journal of Interferon ...
Craig B. Thompson
"CD28 activation pathway regulates the production of multiple T-cell-derived lymphokines/cytokines". Proceedings of the National ...
Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. Interleukin 1 ...
The mechanism of action is by inhibiting the production of T lymphocytes and lymphokines. Cyclophosphamide is an ...
B cell growth and differentiation factors
Sherris D, Stohl W, Mayer L (April 1989). "Characterization of lymphokines mediating B cell growth and differentiation from ...
Berkowitz RS, Hill JA, Kurtz CB, Anderson DJ (January 1988). "Effects of products of activated leukocytes (lymphokines and ...
CIK cells respond to lymphokines by lysing tumorous cells that are resistant to NK cells or LAK cell activity. CIK cells show a ...
Fowers KD, Zentner GM, Baudys M, Jurek M, Samlowski W: Formulations of lymphokines and method of use thereof for local or both ... ". "Formulations of lymphokines and method of use thereof for local or both local and systemic control of proliferative cell ...
RelB:p52 regulates the expression of homeostatic lymphokines, which instructs lymphoid organogenesis and lymphocyte trafficking ...
This combination of MHC and antigen attracts a matching helper T cell, which releases lymphokines and activates the B cell. As ...
Zanvil A. Cohn
A further demonstration that macrophages could be activated by lymphokines in vivo was important in the laboratory's subsequent ... "high expectations that lymphokines and other agents interacting with macrophages would someday enter the physician's ...
... :p52 activates the expression homeostatic lymphokines, which instruct lymphoid organogenesis and determine the trafficking ...
The macrophages also carry receptors for lymphokines, and lymphokines act as cytokines which further attract T cells, B cells ...
Lymphokine-activated killer cell
LAK cells respond to these lymphokines, particularly IL-2, by lysing tumor cells that were already known to be resistant to NK ...
... lymphokines), and anticancer agents. Although many simpler proteins can be produced using rDNA in bacterial cultures, more ...
... lymphokines or co-stimulatory molecules. These "genetic adjuvants" can be administered as a: mixture of 2 plasmids, one ...
... they carry receptors for lymphokines that allow them to be "activated" into single-minded pursuit of microbes and tumour cells ... producing chemical mediators known as lymphokines that stimulate macrophages into a more aggressive form. There are several ...
MAFs are lymphokines that control the expression of antigens on the surface of macrophages, and one of their functions is to ...
Thomas A. Waldmann
Waldmann's research has focused on lymphokines, their receptors, and use of lymphokines and monoclonal antibodies to their ...
Cytokine-induced killer cell
CIK cells respond to these lymphokines, particularly IL-2, by lysing tumor cells that were already known to be resistant to NK ...
Minimal change disease
Rather, an altered T cell-mediated immunologic response with abnormal secretion of lymphokines by T cells is thought to modify ...
... deregulation of intracellular signal transduction capabilities diminished capacity to produce effector lymphokines shrinkage of ...
Development of specific receptors for N-formylated chemotactic peptides in a human monocyte cell line stimulated with...
... of specific receptors for N-formylated chemotactic peptides in a human monocyte cell line stimulated with lymphokines. ... When the cells are stimulated by lymphokines, however, they develop the ability both to migrate directionally and to secrete ... of specific receptors for N-formylated chemotactic peptides in a human monocyte cell line stimulated with lymphokines. Journal ...
Species-restricted effects of human and mouse lymphokines on macrophages<...
title = "Species-restricted effects of human and mouse lymphokines on macrophages",. abstract = "Lymphokines produced by ... Lymphokines produced by antigenic or mitogenic stimulation of human, guinea pig and mouse lymphocytes were tested for their ... Species-restricted effects of human and mouse lymphokines on macrophages. / Tagliabue, A.; Mantovani, A.; Boraschi, D. et al. ... N2 - Lymphokines produced by antigenic or mitogenic stimulation of human, guinea pig and mouse lymphocytes were tested for ...
Download Biology Of The Lymphokines
Prostaglandin E2 inhibits production of Th1 lymphokines but not of Th2 lymphokines. | The Journal of Immunology | American...
Prostaglandin E2 inhibits production of Th1 lymphokines but not of Th2 lymphokines. M Betz; M Betz ... M Betz, B S Fox; Prostaglandin E2 inhibits production of Th1 lymphokines but not of Th2 lymphokines.. J Immunol 1 January 1991 ... First, Th1- and Th2-associated lymphokines may be differentially sensitive to intracellular signals such as cAMP. Second, T ...
Differential immunolocalization of VEGF in rat and human adult lung, and in experimental rat lung fibrosis: light, fluorescence...
Immunologic Aspects of Organ Transplantation
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
Etymologia: Cytokines - Volume 24, Number 7-July 2018 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Eosinophil-lymphocyte interactions in the tumor microenvironment and cancer immunotherapy | Nature Immunology
Granuloma Annulare Medication: Corticosteroids, Retinoids, Psoralen phototherapy agents
Chapter 13 | HuGE 2010 | CDC
Hypoalbuminemia in Patients With Multiple Myeloma, Archives of Internal Medicine | 10.1001/archinte.1990.00390150095018 |...
Molecular biology of acute phase plasma proteins . Lymphokines . 1985;14:123-153. 42. Beutler B, Cerami A. Cachectin: more than ... Molecular biology of acute phase plasma proteins . Lymphokines . 1985;14:123-153. 42. Beutler B, Cerami A. Cachectin: more than ... Molecular biology of acute phase plasma proteins . Lymphokines . 1985;14:123-153. 42. Beutler B, Cerami A. Cachectin: more than ...
Excoriation Disorder Medication: Antidepressants, TCAs, Anxiolytics, Nonbenzodiazepine, Antidepressant, SSRIs, Corticosteroids,...
Biblio | College of Agricultural Sciences
Library of Congress LCCN Permalink sh89004301
Robert Droleskey : USDA ARS
Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari - Research output - [email protected]
MILLIPLEX® Human Cytokine/Chemokine/Growth Factor Panel A - Immunology Multiplex Assay | Sigma-Aldrich
Aspirin and asthma: barking up the right tree? | Thorax
Maier, Lisa | Colorado PROFILES
Disease Process Flashcards
The Role of Cytokines in the Body
Nizar M. Tannir | MD Anderson Cancer Center
Diane F Jelinek - Research output - Mayo Clinic
2021 Canada Cancer Diagnostics Market Assessment
Zovirax (Acyclovir): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning
US Patent for Peg-interferon conjugates Patent (Patent # 5,382,657 issued January 17, 1995) - Justia Patents Search
Mediators of Inflammation - A Potential Source of Biomarkers in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
WikiGenes - Thoracic Wall
- Enhances immune activity through secretion of various factors, cytokines, & lymphokines. (flashcardmachine.com)
- Cytokines include interleukins, lymphokines and cell signal molecules including among others, tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha - necrosis means killing) and interferon. (nsc24.com)
- As part of the innate immune system, inflammasomes play an important role in the induction of inflammatory cascades and coordination of host defenses, via the activation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumor necrosis factors). (dadamo.com)
- It does this by secretion of lymphokines and cytokines, among them interleukin-2 and interferon, which act as 'messengers' to tell specific cells to attack and destroy invading pathogens. (lifeextension.com)
- The cytokine group of proteins includes lymphokines, interferons, colony stimulating factors and chemokines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- 1987) in Lymphokines and Interferons, a Practical Approach. (bio-techne.com)
- Clobetasol affects the production of lymphokines and has inhibitory effects on Langerhans cells. (medscape.com)
- The results indicated that guinea- pig lymphoid cells produced two inhibitory lymphokines along with HRF upon stimulation with antigens or mitogens. (cdc.gov)
- Lymphokines produced by antigenic or mitogenic stimulation of human, guinea pig and mouse lymphocytes were tested for their effects on monocytes or macrophages of the same and heterologous species, to determine whether there is any species restriction in their reactivity. (elsevier.com)
- Other immune cells that battle malignant cells are macrophages, antigen-presenting cells, and substances produced by immune cells called lymphokines. (howstuffworks.com)
- Lymphokines": non-antibody mediators of cellular immunity generated by lymphocyte activation. (cdc.gov)
- Suppressor T cells are sensitive to high concentrations of circulating lymphokine hormones, and release their own lymphokines after an immune response has achieved its goal. (medicinenet.com)
- Prostaglandin E2 inhibits production of Th1 lymphokines but not of Th2 lymphokines. (aai.org)
- It kills cancer cells and caused the production of lymphokines. (ecopolitan.com)
- CsA has been found to inhibit the immune responses mediated by the production and release of T-cells and lymphokines. (siemens-healthineers.com)
- When the cells are stimulated by lymphokines, however, they develop the ability both to migrate directionally and to secrete enzymes in response to several types of chemoattractants. (duke.edu)
- Immune function is also under the powerful influence of PGE-1, which controls the release of lymphokines known to activate immune system cells. (prohealth.com)
- Interleukin 2 (IL-2), one of the most important lymphokines secreted by activated helper T-cells, plays a pivotal role in the generation and regulation of the immune response. (uottawa.ca)
- Development of specific receptors for N-formylated chemotactic peptides in a human monocyte cell line stimulated with lymphokines. (duke.edu)
- All three lymphokines were detected in most supernatants and the final activity of the supernatant elected the predominant factor present. (cdc.gov)
- In cellular immunity, helper T-lymphocytes play a role via the lymphokines they secrete (interleukins, interferon, and tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF- β )), whereas macrophages play a role via the reactive oxygen metabolites, and nitric oxide plays a role by means of various enzymes and lymphokines such as TNF- α [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Cell lineages especially important to the immune response include two classes of lymphocytes: B-cells, which can produce and secrete immunoglobulins (proteins with the capability of recognizing and binding to foreign matter to effect its removal), and T-cells of various subsets that secrete lymphokines and induce or suppress the B-cells and various other cells (including other T-cells) making up the immune network. (justia.com)
- In addition to increasing the ability of the macrophages to engulf and destroy cancer cells, microbes, and other foreign cells, the beta-glucan binding stimulates production of signalling proteins in the immune system such as interleukin-1, interleukin-2, and lymphokines, which ramp up defences by activating immune cells. (alive.com)
- The function of cells involved in this process is controlled by the cell membrane activation of intracellular translational pathways interacting with the nucleus that produces transcriptional proteins, which control cellular behavior such as secretion of lymphokines or cell proliferation. (novapublishers.com)
- Lymphokines are proteins that communicate with other cells and help to coordinate the immune response. (friendlyfarms.cc)
- These exotoxins act as "superantigens" by stimulating large numbers of T cells to release lymphokines (interleukin 2, tumour necrosis factor). (bmj.com)
- Cyclosporine acts specifically and reversibly on T-lymphocytes and inhibits the antigen-triggered release of lymphokines by activated T-cells. (lambertvetsupply.com)
- Stimulation of B lymphocytes by antigen and the appropriate lymphokines induces the production of a different Ig isotypes while maintaining the same antigen-binding specificity. (nih.gov)
- Arrows on Basal Membrane -- Reaction of the airways to an antigen begins within 15 minutes after exposure, when inflammatory lymphokines and IgE-binding factors are secreted from T-lymphocytes. (uab.edu)
- It is a transmembrane molecule with 7 potential N-glycosylated sites, expressed on resting monocytes and endothelial cells and can be upregulated on many other cells, e.g. with lymphokines, on B- and T-lymphocytes, thymocytes, dendritic cells and also on keratinocytes, chondrocytes, as well as epithelial cells. (exbio.cz)
- Exudative-sensitized lymphocytes in tuberculous pleural fluid reacted to the specific antigen more effectively and produced higher titers of lymphokines including interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) than circulating lymphocytes. (nagoya-u.ac.jp)
- Thus, activated T-lymphocytes involve the production of lymphokines at the morbid site and they effectively exert local cellular immunity through the action of such lymphokines. (nagoya-u.ac.jp)
- If T-lymphocytes recognize foreign or modified-self cell structures they start producing different mediators, so-called lymphokines, such as interferon-γ. (gotomydoctor.com)
- 1987. Lymphokines 13:151. (biolegend.com)
- and , Lymphokines 1984. (crossref.org)
- Throughout the Second Red Scare, the download Thymic Hormones and Lymphokines: Basic Chemistry and Clinical Applications 1984 of the ' administrative area ' run itself as an liberties--to and a subject to the United States in a following philosophical compatibility. (hsunet.com)
- Mg participates in immune responses in numerous ways: as a cofactor for immunoglobulin synthesis, C'3 convertase, immune cell adherence, antibody-dependent cytolysis, IgM lymphocyte binding, macrophage response to lymphokines, T helper-B cell adherence, binding of substance P to lymphoblasts and antigen binding to macrophage RNA. (nih.gov)
- This mixture of MHC and antigen attracts an identical helper T cell, which releases lymphokines and prompts the B cell. (badmintonandalucia.com)
- Thus, intratumor accumulation requires stronger stimulation than for proliferation or the capacity to secrete lymphokines. (aacrjournals.org)
- Lymphokines': molecular mediators of cellular immune responses in animals and man. (nih.gov)
- Among a panel of lymphokines and growth hormones, only human GM-CSF could compete for binding of human 125I-GM-CSF to these cells. (rupress.org)
- Also mediates the secretion of important lymphokines. (nih.gov)
- 17. The role of plasma membrane receptors and the kinetics of macrophage activation by lymphokines encapsulated in liposomes. (nih.gov)
- These changes regulate cellular movements and lead to activation of transcriptional events that induce production of T cell lymphokines and result in differentiative events. (nih.gov)
- Lymphokines apparently mediate cellular activities in a variety of ways. (justia.com)
- The different cellular lineages often respond in a different manner when lymphokines are administered in conjunction with other agents. (justia.com)
- a substantial increase in collagen synthesis is triggered by lymphokines from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (bmj.com)
- This prevents the dephosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), a nuclear component thought to initiate gene transcription for the formation of lymphokines. (aksci.com)
- 3. Intravenous, intralesional and endolymphatic administration of lymphokines in human cancer. (nih.gov)
- Human Lymphokines, "Pre-Clinical and Phase I Clinical Trials with Lymphotoxin," 1982, pages 621 through 629. (ipmall.info)
- Lymphokines in nanomolar to picomolar concentra- tons cause profound enhancing or suppressing effects on the label claim. (themauimiracle.org)