Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus fever acquired through contact with lice (TYPHUS, EPIDEMIC LOUSE-BORNE) as well as Brill's disease.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.
Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. (1/4704)

We employed two independent approaches to inactivate the angiogenic protein VEGF in newborn mice: inducible, Cre-loxP- mediated gene targeting, or administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, a soluble VEGF receptor chimeric protein. Partial inhibition of VEGF achieved by inducible gene targeting resulted in increased mortality, stunted body growth and impaired organ development, most notably of the liver. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, which achieves a higher degree of VEGF inhibition, resulted in nearly complete growth arrest and lethality. Ultrastructural analysis documented alterations in endothelial and other cell types. Histological and biochemical changes consistent with liver and renal failure were observed. Endothelial cells isolated from the liver of mFlt(1-3)-IgG-treated neonates demonstrated an increased apoptotic index, indicating that VEGF is required not only for proliferation but also for survival of endothelial cells. However, such treatment resulted in less significant alterations as the animal matured, and the dependence on VEGF was eventually lost some time after the fourth postnatal week. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG to juvenile mice failed to induce apoptosis in liver endothelial cells. Thus, VEGF is essential for growth and survival in early postnatal life. However, in the fully developed animal, VEGF is likely to be involved primarily in active angiogenesis processes such as corpus luteum development.  (+info)

Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. (2/4704)

Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (3/4704)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression.  (+info)

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral squamous cell carcinoma: its association with tumour progression and p53 gene status. (4/4704)

AIMS: To correlate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis; and to assess whether p53 gene status is associated with VEGF expression in human cancers. METHODS: Tumour specimens from 45 patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas were examined. Expression of VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method, and a tumour was considered positive when more than 5% of the neoplastic cells showed VEGF immunoreactivity. The p53 gene status was screened using a polymerase chain reaction--single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: VEGF positive staining was detected in 19 (42.2%) of the 45 cases. VEGF immunoreactivity did not correlate with the histological degree of tumour differentiation, clinical stages, or lymph node metastasis. The patients with VEGF positive tumours had a significantly worse prognosis than those with VEGF negative tumours. The five year overall survival rate of the VEGF negative patients was 76.5%, as compared with 48.8% for the VEGF positive patients. No significant association between VEGF expression and the p53 gene status of the tumours was found. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF is a good prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The p53 gene status does not seem to be associated with VEGF expression in these cancers.  (+info)

Differential regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor fms-like-tyrosine kinase is mediated by nitric oxide in rat renal mesangial cells. (5/4704)

Under conditions associated with local and systemic inflammation, mesangial cells and invading immune cells are likely to be responsible for the release of large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in the glomerulus. To further define the mechanisms of NO action in the glomerulus, we attempted to identify genes which are regulated by NO in rat glomerular mesangial cells. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase (FLT-1) to be under the regulatory control of exogenously applied NO in these cells. Using S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO) as an NO-donating agent, VEGF expression was strongly induced, whereas expression of its FLT-1 receptor simultaneously decreased. Expressional regulation of VEGF and FLT-1 mRNA was transient and occurred rapidly within 1-3 h after GSNO treatment. Expression of a second VEGF-specific receptor, fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK-1/KDR), could not be detected. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta mediated a moderate increase in VEGF expression after 24 h and had no influence on FLT-1 expression. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor-BB and basic fibroblast growth factor had no effect on VEGF expression, but strongly induced FLT-1 mRNA levels. Obviously, there is a differential regulation of VEGF and its receptor FLT-1 by NO, cytokines and growth factors in rat mesangial cells.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor II-derived peptides inhibit VEGF. (6/4704)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) directly stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration via tyrosine kinase receptors of the split kinase domain family. It mediates vascular growth and angiogenesis in the embryo but also in the adult in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. The potential binding site of VEGF with its receptor was identified using cellulose-bound overlapping peptides of the extracytosolic part of the human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor II (VEGFR II). Thus, a peptide originating from the third globular domain of the VEGFR II comprising residues 247RTELNVGIDFNWEYP261 was revealed as contiguous sequence stretch, which bound 125I-VEGF165. A systematic replacement with L-amino acids within the peptide representing the putative VEGF-binding site on VEGFR II indicates Asp255 as the hydrophilic key residue for binding. The dimerized peptide (RTELNVGIDFNWEYPAS)2K inhibits VEGF165 binding with an IC50 of 0.5 microM on extracellular VEGFR II fragments and 30 microM on human umbilical vein cells. VEGF165-stimulated autophosphorylation of VEGFR II as well as proliferation and migration of microvascular endothelial cells was inhibited by the monomeric peptide RTELNVGIDFNWEYPASK at a half-maximal concentration of 3-10, 0.1, and 0.1 microM, respectively. We conclude that transduction of the VEGF165 signal can be interrupted with a peptide derived from the third Ig-like domain of VEGFR II by blockade of VEGF165 binding to its receptor.  (+info)

Expression of thrombospondin-1 in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. (7/4704)

Thrombospondin-1 is an extracellular matrix protein that inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. This study was performed to investigate the role of thrombospondin-1 in ischemic retinal neovascularization. In a murine model of retinal neovascularization, thrombospondin-1 mRNA was increased from postnatal day 13 (P13), with a threefold peak response observed on P15, corresponding to the time of development of retinal neovascularization. Prominent expression of thrombospondin-1 was observed in neovascular cells, specifically, cells adjacent to the area of nonperfusion. It has been suggested that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a major role in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization of this model, so we studied the effects of VEGF on thrombospondin-1 expression. In bovine retinal microcapillary endothelial cells, VEGF induced a biphasic response of thrombospondin-1 expression; VEGF decreased thrombospondin-1 mRNA 0.41-fold after 4 hours, whereas it increased, with a threefold peak response, after 24 hours. VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation was completely inhibited by exogenous thrombospondin-1 and increased by 37.5% with anti-thrombospondin-1 antibody. The present findings suggest that, in the ischemic retina, retinal neovascular cells increase thrombospondin-1 expression, and VEGF may stimulate endogenous thrombospondin-1 induction, which inhibits endothelial cell growth. VEGF-mediated thrombospondin-1 induction in ischemia-induced angiogenesis may be a negative feedback mechanism.  (+info)

Rescue of diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis by intramuscular gene therapy with adeno-VEGF. (8/4704)

Diabetes is a major risk factor for coronary and peripheral artery diseases. Although diabetic patients often present with advanced forms of these diseases, it is not known whether the compensatory mechanisms to vascular ischemia are affected in this condition. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether diabetes could: 1) impair the development of new collateral vessel formation in response to tissue ischemia and 2) inhibit cytokine-induced therapeutic neovascularization. Hindlimb ischemia was created by femoral artery ligation in nonobese diabetic mice (NOD mice, n = 20) and in control C57 mice (n = 20). Hindlimb perfusion was evaluated by serial laser Doppler studies after the surgery. In NOD mice, measurement of the Doppler flow ratio between the ischemic and the normal limb indicated that restoration of perfusion in the ischemic hindlimb was significantly impaired. At day 14 after surgery, Doppler flow ratio in the NOD mice was 0.49+/-0.04 versus 0.73+/-0.06 for the C57 mice (P< or =0.005). This impairment in blood flow recovery persisted throughout the duration of the study with Doppler flow ratio values at day 35 of 0.50+/-0.05 versus 0.90+/-0.07 in the NOD and C57 mice, respectively (P< or =0.001). CD31 immunostaining confirmed the laser Doppler data by showing a significant reduction in capillary density in the NOD mice at 35 days after surgery (302+/-4 capillaries/mm2 versus 782+/-78 in C57 mice (P< or =0.005). The reduction in neovascularization in the NOD mice was the result of a lower level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ischemic tissues, as assessed by Northern blot, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The central role of VEGF was confirmed by showing that normal levels of neovascularization (compared with C57) could be achieved in NOD mice that had been supplemented for this growth factor via intramuscular injection of an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF. We conclude that 1) diabetes impairs endogenous neovascularization of ischemic tissues; 2) the impairment in new blood vessel formation results from reduced expression of VEGF; and 3) cytokine supplementation achieved by intramuscular adeno-VEGF gene transfer restores neovascularization in a mouse model of diabetes.  (+info)

A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished. Type 1 T helper cells (TH1) produced IL 2, interferon-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL 3 in response to antigen + presenting cells or to Con A, whereas type 2 helper T cells (TH2) produced IL 3, BSF1, and two other activities unique to the TH2 subset, a mast cell growth factor distinct from IL 3 and a T cell growth factor distinct from IL 2. Clones representing each type of T cell were characterized, and the pattern of lymphokine activities was consistent within each set. The secreted proteins induced by Con A were analyzed by biosynthetic labeling and SDS gel electrophoresis, and significant differences were seen between the two groups of T cell line. Both types of T cell grew in response to alternating cycles of antigen stimulation, followed by growth in IL 2-containing medium. Examples of both types of T cell were also specific for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloned neoplastic B cells release a growth factor which augments lymphokine-mediated proliferation of normal B cells.. AU - Brooks, K. H.. AU - Kuziel, W. A.. AU - Tucker, P. W.. AU - Uhr, J. W.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021185473&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021185473&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6332721. AN - SCOPUS:0021185473. VL - 113. SP - 69. EP - 71. JO - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. JF - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. SN - 0070-217X. ER - ...
A simple in vitro experimental system was devised to reflect the in vivo generation of a T cell anamnestic response so that T cell differentiation could be examined at the level of lymphokine gene expression. Comparison of neonatal and adult T cells revealed that both populations expressed the genes for interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor, but only adult T cells were capable of transcribing mRNAs for IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, interferon gamma, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. However, neonatal T cells could be induced to undergo functional differentiation in vitro, thereby acquiring the capacity to express the lymphokine gene repertoire characteristic for adult T cells. These data suggest that the T cells generated from neonatal blood by a primary stimulation in vitro are functionally indistinguishable from the T cells in adult blood that presumably have undergone primary stimulation in vivo. Therefore, we propose that the term memory cell be applied to those T cells that ...
Interleukin 21 and its receptor are involved in NK cell expansion and regulation of lymphocyte function. Nature (2000) 5.86 EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: definition, classification and diagnosis of urticaria. Allergy (2009) 4.10 EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: management of urticaria. Allergy (2009) 3.86 CENP-C, an autoantigen in scleroderma, is a component of the human inner kinetochore plate. Cell (1992) 3.70 The EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO Guideline for the definition, classification, diagnosis, and management of urticaria: the 2013 revision and update. Allergy (2014) 3.10 A comprehensive guide for the recognition and classification of distinct stages of hair follicle morphogenesis. J Invest Dermatol (1999) 2.92 Synthesis, storage, and release of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF) by human mast cells: implications for the biological significance of VEGF206. Mol Biol Cell (1998) 2.24 Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA): achievements in 10 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of lymphokines in immunogenic uveitis. AU - Liu, S. H.. AU - Prendergast, R. A.. AU - Silverstein, A. M.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Lymphokines were prepared from rabbit lymph node cells specifically activated in vitro with the insoluble antigen ovalbumin or nonspecifically activated with the insoluble mitogen concanavalin A. Intravitreal injection of either lymphokine caused uveitis in the normal rabbit eye, more severe and more prolonged with the concanavalin A-activated supernatants than with the ovalbumin-activated supernatants. The most striking difference between the two lymphokine preparations was in their ability to induce a secondary intraocular antibody response in the trinitrophenyl bovine gamma globulin-primed recipient. Concanavalin A supernatants stimulated polyclonal B cell activation with appreciable anti-TNP responses in animals primed either systemically or locally. In contrast, ovalbumin supernatants stimulated an intraocular anti-TNP response only in ...
Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2] ...
Based on their function, cell of secretion, or target of action, cytokines can be divided into three groups: interleukins, chemokines, and lymphokines. Interleukin is a protein which is produced by one type of lymphocyte or macrophage and act on other leukocytes. Chemokine is a specific class of cytokines that mediates chemoattraction (chemotaxis) between cells. Lymphokines are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. Lymphokines direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. Lymphokines play important roles, such as the attraction of other immune cells, like macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation prepare them to attack the invaders. ...
XCL1 / Lymphotactin Protein LS-G5664 is a Recombinant Mouse XCL1 / Lymphotactin aa 22-114 produced in E. coli. It is biologically active.
High-quality LIF proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of LIF proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
An electrically conductive coating composition which comprises (a) a dispersion of carbon black or a mixture of carbon black and graphite in an organic solvent and (b) a solution of a polymer in an organic solvent, the viscosity of the composition being higher than those of the dispersion (a) and the solution (b) being homogeneous and stable, a coating film formed therefrom having a low volume resistivity.
Table of Contents. Table of Contents 2. List of Tables 5. List of Figures 5. Introduction 6. Global Markets Direct Report Coverage 6. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF) Overview 7. Therapeutics Development 8. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF)-Products under Development by Stage of Development 8. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF)-Products under Development by Therapy Area 9. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF)-Products under Development by Indication 10. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF)-Pipeline Products Glance 11. Late Stage Products 11. Early Stage Products 12. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related Protein or PGF)-Products under Development by Companies 13. Placenta Growth Factor (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Related ...
Prognostic significance of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9480.
Background: The development of biomarkers predictive of response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies in advanced melanoma is an area of great interest in oncology. Our study evaluated the potential role of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a predictive biomarker of clinical benefit and response to treatment with ICIs.Methods: Pre-treatment peripheral blood samples were obtained from advanced melanoma patients undergoing ICI therapy as monotherapy or in combination at two tertiary care hospitals in Western Australia. Serum VEGF levels were correlated with response to therapy and survival outcomes.Results: Serum VEGF samples were collected from a total of 130 patients treated with ICI therapy (pembrolizumab 73, ipilimumab 15, and ipilimumab/nivolumab combination 42). Median serum VEGF level was significantly higher in the non-responders (82.15 pg/mL) vs. responders (60.40 pg/mL) in the ipilimumab monotherapy cohort (P Conclusions: The results of our study confirm previous
Can serial monitoring of serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Nitric Oxide (NO), and Angiotensin II (ANGII) levels have predictive role during Bevacizumab treatment? - Add Comment #889945
Looking for online definition of B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 in the Medical Dictionary? B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 explanation free. What is B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1? Meaning of B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 medical term. What does B-Cell Stimulatory Factor 1 mean?
Regulation by hypoxia may underlie the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in bladder cancer. We have compared the distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA with a hypoxia marker, carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA IX). vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA was analysed by in situ hybridisation and CA IX by immunochemistry in 22 cases of bladder cancer. The relationship of microvessels to the distribution of CA IX was determined. In a separate series of 49 superficial tumours, CA IX immunostaining was compared with clinico-pathological outcome. In superficial and invasive disease there was overlap in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CA IX, CA IX being more widespread. Both were expressed predominantly on the luminal surface, and surrounding areas of necrosis (invasive tumours). Expression of both factors was greater in superficial disease. Expression was absent within approximately 80 microm of microvessels. Unlike vascular endothelial growth factor, CA IX did
Definition of macrophage-activating factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is macrophage-activating factor? Meaning of macrophage-activating factor as a legal term. What does macrophage-activating factor mean in law?
Vascular permeability factor (VPF), a tumor-secreted heparin-binding protein (Mr approximately 38,000), is responsible for increased vessel permeability and fluid accumulation associated with tumor growth. Vascular permeability factor also promotes the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cell …
Vascular permeability factor (VPF) is a 40-kilodalton disulfide-linked dimeric glycoprotein that is active in increasing blood vessel permeability, endothelial cell growth, and angiogenesis. These properties suggest that the expression of VPF by tumor cells could contribute to the increased neovascularization and vessel permeability that are associated with tumor vasculature. The cDNA sequence of VPF from human U937 cells was shown to code for a 189-amino acid polypeptide that is similar in structure to the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-B) and other PDGF-B-related proteins. The overall identity with PDGF-B is 18%. However, all eight of the cysteines in PDGF-B were found to be conserved in human VPF, an indication that the folding of the two proteins is probably similar. Clusters of basic amino acids in the COOH-terminal halves of human VPF and PDGF-B are also prevalent. Thus, VPF appears to be related to the PDGF/v-sis family of proteins.
Title:Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Neuroblastoma. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Danielle Hsu, Jason M. Shohet and Eugene S. Kim. Affiliation:Division of Pediatric Surgery, Texas Childrens Hospital, CCC Building, Suite 1210, 6701 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77030, USA.. Keywords:Vascular endothelial growth factor, angiogenesis, clinical trials, neuroblastoma.. Abstract:Angiogenesis is critical to tumor growth and metastasis and is dependent on growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The most characterized angiogenic factor, VEGF is an endothelial cell mitogen and permeability factor that has been found to be overexpressed in almost all human cancers. In a number of tumor model systems, antagonism of the VEGF pathway results in inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Specifically, VEGF inhibition has been shown to suppress tumor growth, decrease microvasculature, and induce apoptosis of endothelial cells. This close relationship between hypoxia, ...
Angiogenesis, the growth of blood vessel from the existing vasculature, depends on the expression of various growth factors but Vascular Endothelial Growth factor (VEGF) ranks as the key inducer and the central mediator that promotes vascular permeability.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as tumor angiogenesis factor and vascular permeability factor. Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced ...
Placental villous vascular endothelial growth factor expression and vascularization after estrogen suppression during the last two-thirds of baboon pregnancy Article ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in major depression. AU - Lee, Bun Hee. AU - Kim, Yong Ku. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor under physiological and pathological conditions, including tumor angiogenesis. Recently, the effects of VEGF on neurons have been reported. VEGF and its high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, are expressed in specific brain regions. In addition, VEGF has been suggested to play an important role in the cross-talk between endothelial cells and neuronal progenitors in the hippocampus, indicating that VEGF may stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Neurotrophic factors and neurogenesis are associated with the development of major depression and play essential roles in mediating the therapeutic response to antidepressants. Several animal studies have shown that chronic stress decreased the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 in granular cells. There is also evidence ...
Метою дослідження було визначення рівня васкулоендотеліального фактора росту у хворих на первинний гіпотиреоз. При обстеженні 133 пацієнтів з маніф...
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a homodimeric 34 to 45 kilodalton, heparin-binding glycoprotein. VEGF has potent angiogenic, mitogenic, and vascular permeability-enhancing activities specific for endothelial cells.1 VEGF is thought to play an important role in several physiologic processes, including wound healing, ovulation, menstruation, maintenance of blood pressure, and pregnancy.1 VEGF has also been associated with a number of pathologic processes that involve angiogenesis, including arthritis, psoriasis, macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.1 In general, the growth and spread of tumors has been shown to be dependent on the development of increased vascularization in the tumor vicinity in order to maintain sufficient oxygenation.1 Tumor expression of proangiogenic factors, including VEGF, has been associated with advanced tumor progression in a number of human cancers.2,3 Increased expression of VEGF has been ...
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), also known as Vascular Permeability Factor or VEGF165, is a potent mitogenic and angiogenic disulfide-linked homodimer responsible for angiogenesis in several organs including the CNS. VEGF-A has been shown to increase extravasation of proteins from tumor associated capillaries, thus the monicker Vascular Permeability Factor. VEGF-A is part of the VEGF family of proteins which includes VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and placental growth factor. VEGF-A expression is increased by reduced blood flow and ischemia, and is involved in the growth and expansion of tumors in a cycle where tumor growth results in ischemia, which increases VEGF-A expression resulting in angiogenesis and further tumor growth. Furthermore, VEGF-A is secreted from tumors, which has made it a primary objective for development of the VEGF-A antagonist bevacizumab (Avastin, Roche). Bevacizumab is used as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer, ...
RPA143Mu01, Recombinant Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA), 血管内皮生长因子A(VEGFA)重组蛋白, VEGF; VEGF-A; VPF; Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor A; Vascular Permeability Factor | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
Abramovich D, Irusta G, Parborell F and Tesone M (2010). Intrabursal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor trap in eCG-treated prepubertal rats inhibits proliferation and increases apoptosis of follicular cells involving the PI3K/ AKT signaling pathway. Fertil. Steril. 93: 1369-1377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.01.127 PMid:19328472 Accili D and Arden KC (2004). FoxOs at the crossroads of cellular metabolism, differentiation, and transformation. Cell 117: 421-426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00452-0 Barboni B, Turriani M, Galeati G, Spinaci M, et al. (2000). Vascular endothelial growth factor production in growing pig antral follicles. Biol. Reprod. 63: 858-864. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod63.3.858 PMid:10952932 Brummelkamp TR, Bernards R and Agami R (2002). A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Science 296: 550-553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1068999 PMid:11910072 Bruno JB, Celestino JJ, Lima-Verde IB, ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Permeability Factors 90's. When intact, the lining of the intestines provides a secure mucosal barrier against improperly digested food and toxins. When the intestinal lining is compromised, these undesirable substances can "leak through". Permeability Factors is a formula designed to support the integrity of the gut lining.
Bevacizumab is a recombinant Human IgG;κ monoclonal antibody specific for all human vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) isoforms.
Bevacizumab is a recombinant Human IgG;κ monoclonal antibody specific for all human vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) isoforms.
Epithelial ovarian cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a generally poor outcome. To improve survival, novel therapeutic strategies for this disease are needed and require elucidation of the biological events that underlie transformation and tumor growth. Vascular permeability factor (VPF), also known as vascular endothelial growth factor, is a homodimeric glycoprotein that acts on vascular endothelium as a potent permeability-inducing agent and mitogen. The present study demonstrates for the first time the constitutive gene expression of VPF in normal and neoplastic human ovaries. Abundant levels of VPF have been identified by an immunoassay in the ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (K-T. Yeo et al., Cancer Res., 53: 2912-2918, 1993). We have identified the malignant epithelium as one source of VPF in the ascites. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction has demonstrated the expression of the two secreted isoforms, VPF121 and VPF165, in normal and neoplastic ovaries. ...
It is well known that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1 play important roles in monocyte activation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (27-29,36). In the present studies, we performed DNA array analyses to demonstrate for the first time that HG treatment of THP-1 monocytes induced changes in the expression levels of multiple cytokines, chemokines, and related molecules. Subsequently, we confirmed the expression of key genes by RT-PCR and ELISA analyses. We noted marked increases (two- to fivefold) in mRNA expression of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, their receptors (TNFR and IL-1R), CD27L, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and the potent inflammatory and chemotactic gene IP-10. There were also clear increases in the expression of the angiogenic and vascular permeability factors (vascular endothelial growth factors), inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2 and -4), and the metalloproteinase MMP-13. The expression of β2-integrin was also upregulated. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid calcium-dependent reduction of intraendothelial cAMP. T2 - A trigger to increase vascular permeability?. AU - Adamson, Roger H.. AU - Curry, Fitz Roy E. PY - 2009/8/15. Y1 - 2009/8/15. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=68949098205&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=68949098205&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.177816. DO - 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.177816. M3 - Article. C2 - 19684224. AN - SCOPUS:68949098205. VL - 587. SP - 3975. JO - Journal of Physiology. JF - Journal of Physiology. SN - 0022-3751. IS - 16. ER - ...
2017 Ghana Tumor Marker Testing Market: Emerging Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Immunohistochemical Stains-Test Volume and Sales Forecasts, Competitive Strategies, Opportunities for Suppliers - Market research report and industry analysis - 10596807
Results After a mean follow-up of 8.8 (±2.8) years, 527 individuals experienced a first CVD event. Compared with participants in the first VEGF quartile, individuals in the second VEGF quartile had a 34% increased risk for future CVD (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.74; p value=0.03) and individuals in third quartile had a 59% higher risk (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.05, p value=0.0003). Individuals in the highest VEGF quartile had a similar cardiovascular risk as compared with those in the lowest VEGF quartile (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.53, p value=0.21). Evaluation of restricted cubic splines confirmed the nonlinear, inverted U-shaped relation of serum VEGF and CVD events (p,0.0001 for model fit, p=0.006 for non-linearity). ...
Baggiolini M (2001). Chemokines in pathology and medicine. J. Intern. Med. 250: 91-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2796.2001.00867.x PMid:11489059 Baggiolini M, Dewald B and Moser B (1994). Interleukin-8 and related chemotactic cytokines - CXC and CC chemokines. Adv. Immunol. 55: 97-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60509-X Bek EL, McMillen MA, Scott P, Angus LD, et al. (2002). The effect of diabetes on endothelin, interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in rats. Clin. Sci. 103 (Suppl 48): 424S-429S. PMid:12193137 Ben-Baruch A, Michiel DF and Oppenheim JJ (1995). Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 11703-11706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.270.20.11703 PMid:7744810 Bruun JM, Verdich C, Toubro S, Astrup A, et al. (2003). Association between measures of insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of interleukin-8, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Effect of weight loss in obese ...
J:161912 van den Akker NM, Caolo V, Wisse LJ, Peters PP, Poelmann RE, Carmeliet P, Molin DG, Gittenberger-de Groot AC, Developmental coronary maturation is disturbed by aberrant cardiac vascular endothelial growth factor expression and Notch signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2008 May 1;78(2):366-75 ...
Macrophages play an important role in the antitumour activity of photodynamic therapy. Preclinical studies in mice demonstrated a significant enhancement in the
To grow and spread, tumors need new blood vessels, a process called angiogenesis. One growth factor that causes angiogenesis has been identified - vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF - and drugs to inhibit VEGF are already in use.
Rabbit anti Human Lymphotactin antibody recognizes human Lymphotactin, otherwise known as XCL1, the only member of the C-chemokine family
Shop Viral Lymphotactin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Viral Lymphotactin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
XCL1 protein is expressed in E. coli, processed, refolded and purified to yield the native, secreted form of the mature chemokine. XCL1 is a ligand for the G protein coupled receptor XCR1 with and EC50 ~ 50 nM. It has been shown the WT XCL1 is able to int
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Reliatech \ Human VEGF_B167 Source E. coli \ 300-080 for more molecular products just contact us
Chemokines: Relatively small proteins (peptides) that mediate intercellular signaling among lymphocytes responding to antigenic challenge, were originally referred to as lymphokines. This term was replaced by interleukins, since lymphokine did not fully reflect intercellular communications between lymphocytes and cells of macrophage/monocyte lineage. It was further realized that related, and sometimes even identical peptides, were being […]. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Accu \ VEGF, Mouse anti_Human \ ACLANT125B for more molecular products just contact us
购买我们的重组小鼠VEGF蛋白。Ab73279为有活性的蛋白片段,在昆虫细胞中生产并经过SDS-PAGE, Functional Studies实验验证。中国80%以上现货。
Продуцирующий рекомбинантный сосудистый эндотелиальный фактор роста. Белковые субстанции, способные стимулировать рост, пролиферацию и/или дифференцировку живых клеток. Классификация факторов роста. Васкулярно-эндотелиальный фактор роста VEGF
He co-edited the first book on lymphokines, and edited the 15 volumes of the series Lymphokines. Pick is best known for his ... While in London, Pick focused on the study of soluble products made by antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes-known as lymphokines, ... His research centered on the role of T cell-derived lymphokines in enhancing innate immunity by augmenting the capacity of ... Cohen, Stanley; Pick, Edgar; Oppenheim, Joost J. (2013). Biology of the Lymphokines. Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-4832-7142-2. " ...
Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein ... Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an ... Lymphokines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Modulation of lymphocyte migration by human lymphokines. II. Purification of a lymphotactic factor (LCF)". J. Immunol. 128 (6 ...
PMID 2861235.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Goldstein, A.L. (ed.), Thymic Hormones and Lymphokines: Their ...
September 1987). "Uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein): a renal ligand for lymphokines". Science. 237 (4821): 1479-84. ...
... s include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumour necrosis factors, but generally not hormones ... Cytokines have been classed as lymphokines, interleukins, and chemokines, based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, ... Dumonde DC, Wolstencroft RA, Panayi GS, Matthew M, Morley J, Howson WT (October 1969). ""Lymphokines": non-antibody mediators ...
The immune cells release lymphokines required for the repair and regeneration of cementum. 1. No sealability (no adhesion to ...
"Superinduction of mitogen-stimulated interferon-gamma production and other lymphokines by Sendai virus". Journal of Interferon ...
"CD28 activation pathway regulates the production of multiple T-cell-derived lymphokines/cytokines". Proceedings of the National ...
Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. Interleukin 1 ...
The mechanism of action is by inhibiting the production of T lymphocytes and lymphokines. Cyclophosphamide is an ...
"Lymphokines": Non-Antibody Mediators of Cellular Immunity generated by Lymphocyte Activation. Nature, 1969-10, roč. 224, čís. ...
RelB:p52 regulates the expression of homeostatic lymphokines, which instructs lymphoid organogenesis and lymphocyte trafficking ...
This combination of MHC and antigen attracts a matching helper T cell, which releases lymphokines and activates the B cell. As ...
A further demonstration that macrophages could be activated by lymphokines in vivo was important in the laboratory's subsequent ... "high expectations that lymphokines and other agents interacting with macrophages would someday enter the physician's ...
... :p52 activates the expression homeostatic lymphokines, which instruct lymphoid organogenesis and determine the trafficking ...
The macrophages also carry receptors for lymphokines, and lymphokines act as cytokines which further attract T cells, B cells ...
LAK cells respond to these lymphokines, particularly IL-2, by lysing tumor cells that were already known to be resistant to NK ...
... lymphokines), and anticancer agents. Although many simpler proteins can be produced using rDNA in bacterial cultures, more ...
... lymphokines or co-stimulatory molecules. These "genetic adjuvants" can be administered as a: mixture of 2 plasmids, one ...
... they carry receptors for lymphokines that allow them to be "activated" into single-minded pursuit of microbes and tumour cells ... producing chemical mediators known as lymphokines that stimulate macrophages into a more aggressive form. There are several ...
MAFs are lymphokines that control the expression of antigens on the surface of macrophages, and one of their functions is to ...
CIK cells respond to these lymphokines, particularly IL-2, by lysing tumor cells that were already known to be resistant to NK ...
Waldmann's research has focused on lymphokines, their receptors, and use of lymphokines and monoclonal antibodies to their ...
Helper T cells specific for this structure (i.e., with complementary TCRs) bind this B cell and secrete lymphokines that: * ...
Rather, an altered T cell-mediated immunologic response with abnormal secretion of lymphokines by T cells is thought to modify ...
B cells deregulation of intracellular signal transduction capabilities diminished capacity to produce effector lymphokines ...
The most common presentation is a fever (release of endogenous pyrogens often related to lymphokines or tissue pyrogens), but ...
... mitosis when stimulated by mitogens to produce small lymphocytes that are then responsible for the production of lymphokines, ...
Lymphokines and monokines as regulators of human lymphoproliferation.. Kouttab NM, Mehta S, Morgan J, Tannir N, Sahasrabuddhe C ... Lymphokines and monokines, secreted by cells of T lineage and cells of the monocyte/microphage series, respectively, function ...
Later reports describing suppressive human lymphokines are then grouped into four categories: primarily stimulatory lymphokines ... suppressive lymphokines produced by exogenously stimulated lymphocytes, and suppressive lymphokines produced by unstimulated ... Within the past few years, many human nonspecific suppressive lymphokines have been identified. This review discusses the ... Citation: Halpern, Michael T.; (1991). "Human nonspecific suppressive lymphokines." Journal of Clinical Immunology 11(1): 1-12 ...
Immunologic tolerance: collaboration between antigen and lymphokines Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Buessow S., Lopez D.M., Miller A.M. (1980) The Use of Diffusion Chambers in the Study of Tumour Immunobiology and Lymphokines. ... Since in vitro evidence exists that lymphokines are at least in part responsible for the mechanism of SINEC, we propose that ... The Use of Diffusion Chambers in the Study of Tumour Immunobiology and Lymphokines. ...
Immunoregulatory lymphokines of T hybridomas from AIDS patients: constitutive and inducible suppressor factors ... Immunoregulatory lymphokines of T hybridomas from AIDS patients: constitutive and inducible suppressor factors ... Immunoregulatory lymphokines of T hybridomas from AIDS patients: constitutive and inducible suppressor factors ... Immunoregulatory lymphokines of T hybridomas from AIDS patients: constitutive and inducible suppressor factors ...
Lymphokines--Competitive Shares and Strategies, Volume and Sales ... ... 2021 Australia Tumor Marker Market Assessment--Oncogenes, Bio Markers, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Stains, Lymphokines *March 2021 ... 2021 Australia Tumor Marker Market Assessment--Oncogenes, Bio Markers, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Stains, Lymphokines--Competitive ... Lymphokines and Immunohistochemical Stains, such as:. ACTH, AFP, Beta-2 Microglobulin, CA 15-3/2729, CA 19-9, CA 125, ...
We have concentrated here on the lymphokines which might serve to regulate the different pathways of precursor development. We ... Effectors are ready to respond to APC such as specific B cells with a rapid synthesis and secretion of lymphokines. The ... This kind of pattern makes teleological sense since the cells making such high titers of lymphokines could have many potent ... We have concentrated here on the lymphokines which might serve to regulate the different pathways of precursor development. We ...
I. Selective production of lymphocyte chemoattractant lymphokines with histamine used as a ligand.. D M Center, W W Cruikshank ... Mitogens and antigens have been the traditional ligands for activating lymphocytes in vitro for the elaboration of lymphokines ... I. Selective production of lymphocyte chemoattractant lymphokines with histamine used as a ligand. ... I. Selective production of lymphocyte chemoattractant lymphokines with histamine used as a ligand. ...
2016 Switzerland Tumor Marker Diagnostics Market: Emerging Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, ... "2016 Switzerland Tumor Marker Diagnostics Market: Emerging Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, ...
Lymphokines--Competitive Shares and Strategies, Volume and Sales Segment Forecasts, Latest Technologies and Instrumentation ... Lymphokines Potential Applications in Cancer Diagnosis Immunohistochemical Stains Potential Applications in Cancer Diagnosis ... 2021 South Korea Tumor Marker Market Assessment--Oncogenes, Bio Markers, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Stains, Lymphokines--Competitive ... Lymphokines and Immunohistochemical Stains, such as:. ACTH, AFP, Beta-2 Microglobulin, CA 15-3/27.29, CA 19-9, CA 125, ...
Lymphokines. Supplier Shares, Sales and Volume Forecasts. - Sales and market shares of major cancer diagnostic product ... 6. Lymphokines. 7. Immunohistochemical Stains. 8. Emerging Tumor Markers. B. Instrumentation Review and Market Needs. C. ... Lymphokines Potential Applications In Cancer Diagnosis. List of Tables. Immunohistochemical Stains Potential. Applications in ... Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Immunohistochemical Stains. DESCRIPTION ...
Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Immunohistochemical Stains-Test Volume and Sales Forecasts, Competitive Strategies, ... 2017 Ghana Tumor Marker Testing Market: Emerging Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, ... 2017 Ghana Tumor Marker Testing Market: Emerging Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, ... 2017 Ghana Tumor Marker Testing Market: Emerging Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, ...
Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Immunohistochemical Stains-Test Volume and Sales Forecasts, Competitive Strategies, ... Sweden Tumor Marker Diagnostics Market: Emerging Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, ... Sweden Tumor Marker Diagnostics Market: Emerging Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, ... Lymphokines and Immunohistochemical Stains, such as:. ACTH, AFP, Beta-2 Microglobulin, CA 15-3/27.29, CA 19-9, CA 125, ...
Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Immunohistochemical Stains report by Venture Planning Group. ... ... Lymphokines. - Alpha-Interferon. - B Cell Growth Factors. - B Cell Growth Factor (BCGF). - Gamma-Interferon. - Interleukin-1 ( ... Lymphokines Potential Applications in Cancer Diagnosis. Immunohistochemical Stains Potential Applications in Cancer Diagnosis ... 2016-2020 Canada Cancer Diagnostics Market: Emerging Cancer Diagnostics, Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs ...
Report Name : 2021 Haiti Tumor Markers Market Assessment--Oncogenes, Bio Markers, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Stains, Lymphokines-- ... 2021 Haiti Tumor Markers Market Assessment--Oncogenes, Bio Markers, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Stains, Lymphokines--Competitive ...
title = "The role of lymphokines in immunogenic uveitis",. abstract = "Lymphokines were prepared from rabbit lymph node cells ... Lymphokines were prepared from rabbit lymph node cells specifically activated in vitro with the insoluble antigen ovalbumin or ... The role of lymphokines in immunogenic uveitis. / Liu, S. H.; Prendergast, R. A.; Silverstein, A. M. ... The role of lymphokines in immunogenic uveitis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 1983;24(3):361-367. ...
Falk, Werner und Männel, D.N. (1983) Induction of T cell cytotoxicity is regulated by a minimum of three different lymphokines. ... Induction of T cell cytotoxicity is regulated by a minimum of three different lymphokines ... In: Oppenheim, J.J. und Cohen, S., (eds.) Interleukins, Lymphokines and Cytokines: Proceedings of the Third International ...
... lymphokines explanation free. What is lymphokines? Meaning of lymphokines medical term. What does lymphokines mean? ... Looking for online definition of lymphokines in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to lymphokines: interferon, interleukin, Cytokines, Chemokines, Monokines. lymphokines. CYTOKINES produced by ... Lymphokines , definition of lymphokines by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/lymphokines ...
Lymphokines. Supplier Shares, Sales and Volume Forecasts. - Sales and market shares of major cancer diagnostic product ... Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Immunohistochemical Stains. *VPG2300158 ...
Chemicals derived from lymphocytes are called "lymphokines." Chemicals derived from lymphocytes that act on other white cells ...
It begins with the ways in which lymphokines play a role in the activation of the immune response and concludes with their ... Lymphokines synonyms, Lymphokines pronunciation, Lymphokines translation, English dictionary definition of Lymphokines. n. Any ... Lymphokines Biochemistry of Lymphokines Lymphokines in the Activation of T Cells, B Cells and Macrophages Lymphokines in ... Lymphokines Download PDF EPUB FB2. Lymphokines: A Forum for Immunoregulatory Cell Products, Vol reviews the state of knowledge ...
A cytokine released from T lymphocytes after contact with an antigen Explanation of Lymphokines ... Looking for Lymphokines? Find out information about Lymphokines. ... Lymphokines , Article about Lymphokines by The Free Dictionary ... redirected from Lymphokines). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.. Related to Lymphokines: interferon, interleukin, ... Helper T-cell subsets: phenotype, function and the role of lymphokines in regulating their development.. In vitro effects of ...
Metabolic labeling of lymphokines. The 2 × 106 prestimulated T cells/mL were triggered for 4 hours in presence of 3.7 MBq/mL ( ... the T-cell lymphokines IL-3 (data not shown) and IL-4 (data not shown) remained completely undetectable in the same analysis ...
Sipka S, Boldogh I, Szilagyi T. Effect of lymphokines on blood coagulation. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae ... Sipka, S. ; Boldogh, I. ; Szilagyi, T. / Effect of lymphokines on blood coagulation. In: Acta Physiologica Academiae ... Sipka, S., Boldogh, I., & Szilagyi, T. (1978). Effect of lymphokines on blood coagulation. Acta Physiologica Academiae ... Effect of lymphokines on blood coagulation. / Sipka, S.; Boldogh, I.; Szilagyi, T. ...
Lymphokines in antibody and cytotoxic responses, edited by Steven B. Mizel. Instantiates * Lymphokines in antibody and ... Lymphokines in antibody and cytotoxic responses. Title Lymphokines in antibody and cytotoxic responses. Statement of ... Lymphokines, v. 6 Cataloging source DLC. Illustrations illustrations. Index index present. LC call number QR185.8.L93. LC item ... Lymphokines in antibody and cytotoxic responses, edited by Steven B. Mizel. Publication * New York, Academic Press, 1982 ...
Abs, lymphokines, and other reagents. The following mAbs were used: YCD3-1 (anti-mouse CD3ε, rat IgG2b) (25); GK1.5 (anti-mouse ... Lymphokines secreted in cultures lacking anti-CD3 were below the detection levels of the system and for simplicity are not ... or anti-CD46 Abs suppress the secretion of certain lymphokines including IL-12 (41). This is yet another example of how CRPs ... Reference standard curves were set up in each assay with purified recombinant lymphokines. For IL-4, 11B11 was used for capture ...
Lymphokines, GFs, CSFs, Hormones, Immunohistochemical Stains-Test Volume and Sales Forecasts, Competitive Strategies, ... 2016-2020 Denmark Cancer Diagnostics Market: Emerging Cancer Diagnostics, Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, ... 2016-2020 Denmark Cancer Diagnostics Market: Emerging Cancer Diagnostics, Oncogenes, Biochemical Markers, Lymphokines, GFs, ... Lymphokines and Immunohistochemical Stains, such as:. ACTH, AFP, Beta-2 Microglobulin, CA 15-3/27.29, CA 19-9, CA 125, ...
Thymic hormones and lymphokines : basic chemistry and clinical applications. Title Thymic hormones and lymphokines. Title ... Thymic hormones and lymphokines : basic chemistry and clinical applications, edited by Allan L. Goldstein. Publication * New ... Thymic hormones and lymphokines : basic chemistry and clinical applications, edited by Allan L. Goldstein. Instantiates * ... link.library.missouri.edu/portal/Thymic-hormones-and-lymphokines--basic-chemistry/1mw7aEHNJ5I/,Thymic hormones and lymphokines ...
Exercise and Recovery Responses of Lymphokines to Heavy Resistance Exercise. BUSH, JILL A.; DOHI, KEIICHIRO; MASTRO, ANDREA M ...
  • Interleukins, Lymphokines and Cytokines: Proceedings of the Third International Lymphokine Workshop. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • There are several different types of cytokines such as monokines (cytokines produced by monocytes and macrophages), lymphokines (cytokines produced by lymphocytes), inflammatory peptides (cytokines produced by neutrophils), and vasoactive amines (cytokines produced by platelets and mast cells). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Korbet cites the presence of a circulating permeability factor such as lymphokines or cytokines as possible culprits in idiopathic disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • These cells often depend on the T-helper subset for activation signals in the form of secretions formally known as cytokines , lymphokines , or more specifically interleukins. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Inflammation (cytokines, lymphokines). (buecher.de)
  • Cytokines include chemokines , interferons , interleukins , lymphokines , and tumour necrosis factors , but generally not hormones or growth factors (despite some overlap in the terminology ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokines have been classed as lymphokines , interleukins , and chemokines , based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, or target of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later reports describing suppressive human lymphokines are then grouped into four categories: primarily stimulatory lymphokines that also mediate certain suppressive activities, suppressive lymphokines produced during altered states of immunity, suppressive lymphokines produced by exogenously stimulated lymphocytes, and suppressive lymphokines produced by unstimulated lymphocytes. (umich.edu)
  • Mitogens and antigens have been the traditional ligands for activating lymphocytes in vitro for the elaboration of lymphokines. (jimmunol.org)
  • We speculate that two or more different lymphokines are active, some of which attract lymphocytes nonspecifically to the local site and others of which excite polyclonal B cell activation and plasma cell formation. (elsevier.com)
  • Originally were called lymphokines because they were initially thought to be produced only by lymphocytes. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent By family: ChemokineCCL, CCL1. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • The second type of reaction, ACD, is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (type IV) thought to be a result of exposure to the accelerators, which can lead to the activation and release of lymphokines by sensitized T lymphocytes rather than to the latex itself (Atkins 1999). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The stimulated macrophages secrete chemotactic factors such as lymphokines , which then attract T-helper (T4) lymphocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This action prevents the T-lymphocytes from producing substances called lymphokines. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Lymphokines are normally produced by the T-lymphocytes when a foreign substance is detected in the body. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The purpose of the lymphokines is to stimulate the production of more T and B lymphocytes, the white blood cells responsible for regulating and triggering immune responses. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • By preventing the production of lymphokines, tacrolimus suppresses the action of the T and B lymphocytes. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Lymphokines attract MACROPHAGES to the site of foreign material and activate them to kill organisms, cause other T cells to clone and provide other cells with protection against virus invasion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • lymphokine: 1 n a cytokine secreted by helper T cells in response to stimulation by antigens and that acts on other cells of the immune system (as by activating macrophages) Types: interleukin any of several lymphokines that promote macrophages and killer T cells and B cells and other components of the immune system Type of: cytokine any of. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • Lymphokines Biochemistry of Lymphokines Lymphokines in the Activation of T Cells, B Cells and Macrophages Lymphokines in Haematopoiesis, Cytotoxicity and Inflammation Lymphokines in Pathology and Therapy. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • Macrophage synthesis of nitrite and nitrate after activation by BCG infection or by treatment in vitro with both T cell-derived (lymphokines (LK) or recombinant murine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma] and bacterial (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and heat-killed bacillus Calmette-Guerin (hk BCG] agents was studied by using macrophages from C3H/He and C3H/HeJ mice. (scripps.edu)
  • the role of lymphokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, lymphotoxin) in autoimmunity. (stanford.edu)
  • the system includes the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and lymph tissue, stem cells, white blood cells, antibodies, and lymphokines [any lymphocyte product that is not an antibody but may participate in the immune response through its effect on the function of other cells]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphokines: A Forum for Immunoregulatory Cell Products, Vol reviews the state of knowledge on lymphokines. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • Biological properties and clinical use of calf thymus extract TFX-Polfa, in Goldstein A L (ed): Thymic Hormones and Lymphokines , pp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was held at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. The theme of this meeting was "Thymic Hormones and Lymphokines: Basic Chem- istry and Clinical Applications. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • The item Thymic hormones and lymphokines : basic chemistry and clinical applications, edited by Allan L. Goldstein represents a specific, individual, material embodiment of a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in University of Missouri Libraries . (missouri.edu)
  • Lymphokines": non-antibody mediators of cellular immunity generated by lymphocyte activation. (cdc.gov)
  • Lymphokines and monokines, secreted by cells of T lineage and cells of the monocyte/microphage series, respectively, function in a bimodal amplification network that results in the proliferation and differentiation of the immunoregulatory cells. (nih.gov)
  • Effectors are ready to respond to APC such as specific B cells with a rapid synthesis and secretion of lymphokines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This kind of pattern makes teleological sense since the cells making such high titers of lymphokines could have many potent pleitropic effects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The requirement for restimulation and the requirement for direct and perhaps prolonged contact between the helper effector and the APC-B cell can be expected to help ensure that these lymphokines are localized (reviewed in Swain & Dutton 1987, Swain & Croft 1990) and effectively delivered to specific responding cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The greater effectiveness of the memory response would thus be due to dramatically increased frequency, to characteristic and stable changes in adhesion molecule expression and to the fact that, in addition to IL-2, resting memory cells also secrete at least low titers of IL-3, IL-4, IFN-gamma and other lymphokines upon initial restimulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lymphokines were prepared from rabbit lymph node cells specifically activated in vitro with the insoluble antigen ovalbumin or nonspecifically activated with the insoluble mitogen concanavalin A. Intravitreal injection of either lymphokine caused uveitis in the normal rabbit eye, more severe and more prolonged with the concanavalin A-activated supernatants than with the ovalbumin-activated supernatants. (elsevier.com)
  • Shifts in interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma production by T cells of patients with elevated serum IgE levels and the modulatory effects of these lymphokines on spontaneous IgE synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Helper T-cells produce powerful chemicals, called lymphokines , that mobilize other immune system substances and cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lymphokines are proteins released by white blood cells that typically deliver information to other immune cells. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • Locally elaborated lymphokines attract inflammatory cells. (aafp.org)
  • Lymphokines and monokines as regulators of human lymphoproliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Those resembling erythema nodosum (EN) show small vessel vasculitis and perivascular lymphocytic and mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrin deposition in the vessel wall, while the punched out ulcers are characterized by a leucocytoclastic vasculitis (neutrophil infiltrate) with fibrinoid necrosis. (angelfire.com)
  • Lymphokines are molecules which exert biological effects on various aspects of the immune system, often by modulating the activities of other components within the system. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that T cell lymphokines and IFN-gamma are powerful modulators of macrophage nitrite/nitrate synthesis during BCG infection and in vitro, and nitrite/nitrate synthesis appears to be common property of both primed and fully activated macrophage populations. (scripps.edu)
  • Since in vitro evidence exists that lymphokines are at least in part responsible for the mechanism of SINEC, we propose that the use of diffusion chambers demonstrates the in vivo relevance of these factors. (springer.com)
  • The item Lymphokines in antibody and cytotoxic responses, edited by Steven B. Mizel represents a specific, individual, material embodiment of a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in College of Physicians of Philadelphia . (collegeofphysicians.org)
  • I. Selective production of lymphocyte chemoattractant lymphokines with histamine used as a ligand. (jimmunol.org)
  • His research centered on the role of T cell-derived lymphokines in enhancing innate immunity by augmenting the capacity of phagocytes to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to pathogenic microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphokines: act to increase metabolic and phagocytic activity. (pitt.edu)
  • Helper T-cell subsets: phenotype, function and the role of lymphokines in regulating their development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Silverstein, A. M. / The role of lymphokines in immunogenic uveitis . (elsevier.com)
  • The book opens with an integrative view of the role of lymphokines in the generation of fever. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • This book focuses on the studies on lymphokines, such as those involving cellular source, chemical nature, purification strategies, and bioassay limitations. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • Biology of the Lymphokines discusses the scope and diversity of lymphokine research. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • The mechanism of lymphokine action, lymphokines in vivo, and value of lymphokine quantitations are also. (neilsolomonhowe.com)
  • Lymphokines, interferons, and interleukins are proteins that activate the functions of various immune cells.Growth Factors include Insulin Growth Factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2) and Transforming Growth Factors (TGF-A and TGF-B). These growth factors, identical in composition to human growth factors, have demonstrated the ability to enhance immune cell function. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • In addition to contributing to host defenses and inflammation, immune cells are critical regulators of wound healing through the secretion of cytokines, lymphokines, and growth factors. (utmb.edu)
  • pdf human lymphokines the biological immune response ': ' This search ca alone Bend any app tokens. (strahle.com)
  • CGRP pdf human lymphokines the biological immune known on tobacco 11. (strahle.com)
  • 163866497093122 ': ' pdf human lymphokines the biological immune response modifiers companies can Help all mice of the Page. (strahle.com)
  • This details pdf human lymphokines the biological immune response modifiers and its effects. (strahle.com)