Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.
Non-hematopoietic cells, with extensive dendritic processes, found in the primary and secondary follicles of lymphoid tissue (the B cell zones). They are different from conventional DENDRITIC CELLS associated with T-CELLS. They are derived from MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS and are negative for class II MHC antigen and do not process or present antigen like the conventional dendritic cells do. Instead, follicular dendritic cells have FC RECEPTORS and C3B RECEPTORS that hold antigen in the form of ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES on their surfaces for long periods for recognition by B-CELLS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.
A species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria found in the gastric mucosa that is associated with chronic antral gastritis. This bacterium was first discovered in samples removed at endoscopy from patients investigated for HELICOBACTER PYLORI colonization.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein (PRIONS).
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A heterotrimer complex consisting of one molecule of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and two molecules of the LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA. It is anchored to the cell surface via the transmembrane domains of the lymphotoxin-beta component and has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR. The lymphotoxin alpha1, beta2 heterotrimer plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Enlargement of the thymus. A condition described in the late 1940's and 1950's as pathological thymic hypertrophy was status thymolymphaticus and was treated with radiotherapy. Unnecessary removal of the thymus was also practiced. It later became apparent that the thymus undergoes normal physiological hypertrophy, reaching a maximum at puberty and involuting thereafter. The concept of status thymolymphaticus has been abandoned. Thymus hyperplasia is present in two thirds of all patients with myasthenia gravis. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992; Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1486)
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Macrophages found in the TISSUES, as opposed to those found in the blood (MONOCYTES) or serous cavities (SEROUS MEMBRANE).
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.

Tissue specific expression and chromosomal mapping of a human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. (1/2713)

A human cDNA for UDP- N -acetylglucosamine:alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1,4- N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-IV) was isolated from a liver cDNA library using a probe based on a partial cDNA sequence of the bovine GnT-IV. The cDNA encoded a complete sequence of a type II membrane protein of 535 amino acids which is 96% identical to the bovine GnT-IV. Transient expression of the human cDNA in COS7 cells increased total cellular GnT-IV activity 25-fold, demonstrating that this cDNA encodes a functional human GnT-IV. Northern blot analysis of normal tissues indicated that at least five different sizes of mRNA (9.7, 7.6, 5.1, 3.8, and 2.4 kb) forGnT-IV are expressed in vivo. Furthermore, these mRNAs are expressed at different levels between tissues. Large amounts of mRNA were detected in tissues harboring T lineage cells. Also, the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and the lymphoblastic leukemia cell line MOLT-4 revealed abundant mRNA. Lastly, the gene was mapped at the locus on human chromosome 2, band q12 by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  (+info)

The effects of a t-allele (tAE5) in the mouse on the lymphoid system and reproduction. (2/2713)

Mice homozygous for tAE5, a recessive allele at the complex T-locus, are characterized by their unique short-tailed phenotype as well as by runting and low fertility. Histological and histochemical studies of the lymphoid and reproductive systems disclosed structural changes in the mutant spleen resembling those found in autoimmune conditions. Involution of the mutant thymus was greatly accelerated compared to normal. Necrotic changes occurred during spermiogenesis whereas ovarian structure was normal in mutants. The possible mechanisms of the mutant effects are discussed in the framework of other similar syndromes and the mode of action of alleles at the complex T-locus.  (+info)

Cytotoxicity is mandatory for CD8(+) T cell-mediated contact hypersensitivity. (3/2713)

Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a T cell-mediated skin inflammation induced by epicutaneous exposure to haptens in sensitized individuals. We have previously reported that CHS to dinitrofluorobenzene in mice is mediated by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we show that CD8(+) T cells mediate the skin inflammation through their cytotoxic activity. The contribution of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to the CHS reaction was examined both in vivo and in vitro, using mice deficient in perforin and/or Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathways involved in cytotoxicity. Mice double deficient in perforin and FasL were able to develop hapten-specific CD8(+) T cells in the lymphoid organs but did not show CHS reaction. However, they did not generate hapten-specific CTLs, demonstrating that the CHS reaction is dependent on cytotoxic activity. In contrast, Fas-deficient lpr mice, FasL-deficient gld mice, and perforin-deficient mice developed a normal CHS reaction and were able to generate hapten-specific CTLs, suggesting that CHS requires either the Fas/FasL or the perforin pathway. This was confirmed by in vitro studies showing that the hapten-specific CTL activity was exclusively mediated by MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells which could use either the perforin or the Fas/FasL pathway for their lytic activity. Thus, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, commonly implicated in the host defence against tumors and viral infections, could also mediate harmful delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

Glycoconjugate expression in follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in specific pathogen-free and conventional rats. (4/2713)

We examined lectin-histochemically the glycoconjugate expression in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in the rat under specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional (CV) conditions and compared the results for SPF and CV rats as well as for membranous (M) cells and adjacent ciliated respiratory epithelial (CRE) cells in FAE. N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectins, Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Glycine max (SBA) and Vicia villosa (VVA), and alpha-L-fucose-specific lectin, Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), preferentially bound to M cells mainly in the luminal surface compared with CRE cells in SPF rats, whereas DBA and UEA-I showed signs of preferential binding to the apical and basolateral cytoplasm as well as to the luminal surface of M cells in CV rats. In addition, HPA, SBA and VVA more frequently and extensively labeled M cells than CRE cells in CV rats with the same subcellular staining pattern as DBA and UEA-I. On the whole, the changes in lectin binding frequency and strength were more prominent in M cells than in CRE cells in both SPF and CV rats. The present results indicate that DBA and UEA-I are useful as markers of M cells in NALT. Furthermore, the pattern of expression of carbohydrate residues recognized by such lectins in SPF and CV rats suggests that M cells are highly sensitive to environmental changes.  (+info)

Targeted deletion of the IgA constant region in mice leads to IgA deficiency with alterations in expression of other Ig isotypes. (5/2713)

A murine model of IgA deficiency has been established by targeted deletion of the IgA switch and constant regions in embryonic stem cells. B cells from IgA-deficient mice were incapable of producing IgA in vitro in response to TGF-beta. IgA-deficient mice expressed higher levels of IgM and IgG in serum and gastrointestinal secretions and decreased levels of IgE in serum and pulmonary secretions. Expression of IgG subclasses was complex, with the most consistent finding being an increase in IgG2b and a decrease in IgG3 in serum and secretions. No detectable IgA Abs were observed following mucosal immunization against influenza; however, compared with those in wild-type mice, increased levels of IgM Abs were seen in both serum and secretions. Development of lymphoid tissues as well as T and B lymphocyte function appeared normal otherwise. Peyer's patches in IgA-deficient mice were well developed with prominent germinal centers despite the absence of IgA in these germinal centers or intestinal lamina propria. Lymphocytes from IgA-deficient mice responded to T and B cell mitogens comparable to those of wild-type mice, while T cells from IgA-deficient mice produced comparable levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 mRNA and protein. In conclusion, mice with targeted deletion of the IgA switch and constant regions are completely deficient in IgA and exhibit altered expression of other Ig isotypes, notably IgM, IgG2b, IgG3, and IgE, but otherwise have normal lymphocyte development, proliferative responses, and cytokine production.  (+info)

Activation in vivo of retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus, a simian homologue of human herpesvirus-8. (6/2713)

Retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus of rhesus macaques (RFHVMm) is a gammaherpesvirus closely related to human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), which is thought to be a necessary cofactor for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in humans. Here, RFHVMm infection of rhesus macaques exposed to the D-type retrovirus simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) is described. Development of SRV-2 viraemia, infection with simian immunodeficiency virus or administration of cyclosporin A could result in persistent RFHVMm viraemia. From this, it is concluded that productive retrovirus infection or otherwise-induced immune suppression has the ability to activate this herpesvirus in vivo. Elevated levels of circulating interleukin-6, a cytokine that plays a central role in KS, were found in RFHVMm-viraemic animals. In viraemic animals, RFHVMm was found in tissues that are common sites for the development of AIDS-associated KS, especially the oral cavity. Together, these data suggest a common biology between RFHVMm infection of macaques and HHV-8 infection and pathogenesis in humans.  (+info)

Immunological control of a murine gammaherpesvirus independent of CD8+ T cells. (7/2713)

Adult thymectomized C57 BL/6J mice were depleted of T cell subsets by MAb treatment either prior to, or after, respiratory challenge with murine gammaherpesvirus-68. Protection against acute infection was maintained when either the CD4+ or the CD8+ T cell population was greatly diminished, whereas the concurrent removal of both T cell subsets proved invariably fatal. The same depletions had little effect on mice with established infection. The results indicate firstly that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells play a significant part in dealing with the acute infection, and secondly that virus-specific antibody contributes to controlling persistent infection with this gammaherpesvirus.  (+info)

Chronic modulation of the TCR repertoire in the lymphoid periphery. (8/2713)

Using TCR V beta 5 transgenic mice as a model system, we demonstrate that the induction of peripheral tolerance can mold the TCR repertoire throughout adult life. In these mice, three distinct populations of peripheral T cells are affected by chronic selective events in the lymphoid periphery. First, CD4+V beta 5+ T cells are deleted in the lymphoid periphery by superantigens encoded by mouse mammary tumor viruses-8 and -9 in an MHC class II-dependent manner. Second, mature CD8+V beta 5+ T cells transit through a CD8lowV beta 5low deletional intermediate during tolerance induction by a process that depends upon neither mouse mammary tumor virus-encoded superantigens nor MHC class II expression. Third, a population of CD4-CD8-V beta 5+ T cells arises in the lymphoid periphery in an age-dependent manner. We analyzed the TCR V alpha repertoire of each of these cellular compartments in both V beta 5 transgenic and nontransgenic C57BL/6 mice as a function of age. This analysis revealed age-related changes in the expression of V alpha families among different cellular compartments, highlighting the dynamic state of the peripheral immune repertoire. Our work indicates that the chronic processes maintaining peripheral T cell tolerance can dramatically shape the available TCR repertoire.  (+info)

Background Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are leukocytes aggregates forming in non-lymphoid tissues in response to chronic inflammation. Salivary glands (SG) of patients with Sjögrens syndrome (SS) develop TLS characterised by B/T cell compartmentalization, specialised vasculature (HEV), functional B cell activation and local differentiation of autoreactive plasma cells. Although TLS presence in SS SG associates with an aggressive disease progression, the mechanisms triggering their formation in SS are largely unknown. We recently developed a model of inducible TLS formation, breach of self-tolerance and salivary hypofunction upon delivery of a replication-deficient adenovirus-5 (AdV5) into C57BL/6 mice SG. In this model, 3 weeks after infection, we observed fully formed and functional TLS, breach of self-tolerance and loss of salivary function.. Here we characterised the presence, function and relevance in TLS formation of the myeloid compartment in the first month post-infection. ...
Age-related changes of the dopamine nerve fibres of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) were investigated in male Wistar rats of 3 months (young), and 24 months (old/aged). Dopamine histofluorescence techniques have been used, associated with image analysis for the detection of dopamine nerve fibres. In young rats, white, fluorescent nerve fibres supply BALT. This tissue is innervated by a delicate network of nerve fibres rich in varicosities. In old rats these fluorescent nerve fibres are strongly reduced. Moreover, dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stained using fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The BALT of young rats possesses a higher number of D1a and D1b receptors, while, in the old rats, these receptors are strongly reduced. The possible significance of reduced dopamine neurotransmission in BALT of aged rats is discussed.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) exert various suppressive mechanisms to dampen the host immune response which can help tumor cells to escape immune surveillance. However, the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating Tregs (Ti-Tregs) is controversial based on the expression of FoxP3 marker in cancer patients. Here, we decipher the phenotype of Tregs infiltrating human lung cancer to determine their role in shaping the immune response against tumor cells. Our aim was to study the differentiation, activation, and immunosuppression status of Ti-Tregs in different areas of human lung tumors. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections for CD3 and FoxP3 stainings, and phenotypic analysis was carried out on fresh human lung cancer specimens (n=50) by flow cytometry. In lung cancer patients, Ti-Tregs localize in the different part of the tumor i.e. tumor nests, stroma, and tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS). Ti-Tregs are CD4+ and show central-memory and effector-memory phenotype. ...
|jats:p|Resident fibroblasts at sites of infection, chronic inflammation, or cancer undergo phenotypic and functional changes to support leukocyte migration and, in some cases, aggregation into tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS). The molecular programming that shapes these changes and the functional requirements of this population in TLS development are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that external triggers at mucosal sites are able to induce the progressive differentiation of a population of podoplanin (pdpn)-positive stromal cells into a network of immunofibroblasts that are able to support the earliest phases of TLS establishment. This program of events, that precedes lymphocyte infiltration in the tissue, is mediated by paracrine and autocrine signals mainly regulated by IL13. This initial fibroblast network is expanded and stabilized, once lymphocytes are recruited, by the local production of the cytokines IL22 and lymphotoxin. Interfering with this regulated program of events or depleting the
Low-grade, small cell lymphoma/Primary pulmonary lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) (B-cell type). Low-grade, B-cell lymphomas are believed to be derived from cells of the marginal zone of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. These cell spend their lives in BALT, regional lymph nodes, and the blood where they may visit other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue before homing to BALT (see diagram).. ...
The development of lymphoid organs depends on cross talk between hematopoietic cells and mesenchymal stromal cells and on vascularization of the lymphoid primordia. These processes are orchestrated by cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic factors that require tight spatiotemporal regulation. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are molecules designed to specifically bind and regulate the bioactivity of soluble protein ligands. Their binding capacity and specificity are controlled by modification of the HS side chain by HS-modifying enzymes. Although HS proteoglycans have been implicated in the morphogenesis of several organ systems, their role in controlling lymphoid organ development has thus far remained unexplored. In this study, we report that modification of HS by the HS-modifying enzyme glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Glce), which controls HS chain flexibility, is required for proper lymphoid organ development. Glce(-/-) mice show a strongly reduced size of the fetal spleen as well as a spectrum of ...
Lymphocytes from LN and spleen of 3-4-mo-old NOD mice were labeled by incubating 2 × 107 cells/ml with 0.8 μg/ml TRITC in labeling medium (50% RPMI 1640, 48.5% HBSS, and 1.5% BCS) at 37°C for 15 min (19). Similarly, rat LN and spleen lymphocytes were labeled with 4 μM CFSE as described previously for TRITC (20). The cells were centrifuged through BCS, washed, and resuspended in transfer medium (DMEM with 10 mM Hepes, and 1% BCS).. To block endothelial adhesion molecules, each host mouse received 500 μg intravenously of anti-endothelial adhesion molecule or control mAb, followed 30 min later by 5 × 107 TRITC-labeled mouse cells intravenously. To block lymphocyte adhesion molecules, TRITC-labeled mouse cells were treated with 10 μg/ml anti-lymphocyte adhesion molecule or control mAb on ice for 10 min; 5 × 107 mouse cells and 108 CFSE-labeled rat cells were transferred intravenously into each host. The rat cells, which do not react with the anti-mouse lymphocyte adhesion molecule mAbs used ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organized lymphatic tissue (BALT) in lungs of rhesus monkeys after air pollutant exposure. AU - Pabst, Reinhard. AU - Miller, Lisa A.. AU - Schelegle, Edward. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - The presence of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and its size in humans largely depends upon age. It is detected in 35% of children less than 2 years of age, but absent in the healthy adult lung. Environmental gases or allergens may have an effect on the number of BALT. Lungs of rhesus macaque monkeys were screened by histology for the presence, size, and location of BALT after exposure to filtered air for 2, 6, 12, or 36 months or 12 and 36 months to ozone or 2, 12, or 36 months of house dust mite or a combination of ozone and house dust mite for 12 months. In the lungs of monkeys housed in filtered air for 2 months, no BALT was identified. After 6, 12, or 36 months, the number of BALT showed a significantly increased correlation with age in monkeys housed in ...
In this study, we found that PNAd plays an essential role in lymphocyte recruitment to a mucosal lymphoid tissue, NALT, and in the allergic immune responses after intranasal immunization. Previous studies from our laboratory and others indicated that PNAd plays an essential role in lymphocyte trafficking to PLNs but not to the PP mucosal lymphoid tissue (Kawashima et al., 2005; Uchimura et al., 2005). We also found that PNAd is involved in the regulation of lymphocyte subpopulations and the cytokine environment, both of which are critical for balancing immune responses in NALT.. Csencsits et al. (1999) showed that NALT HEVs of BALB/c mice were reactive with both MECA-79 and MECA-367 antibodies and that binding of lymphocytes to NALT HEVs was significantly inhibited by MEL-14, but not by MECA-367, in a Stamper-Woodruff ex vivo cell binding assay. Although the latter finding is consistent with our in vivo results, the former is not consistent with our results showing that the NALT HEVs of C57BL/6 ...
Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes influence colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, lymphocyte infiltration comes in different flavours and evidence has been provided that the spatial distribution of immune cells within the tumour tissue is an important immunological feature. The aim of this thesis was to investigate how the dual localization of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can affect their function in the tumour microenvironment. The project started with the analysis of the CD3 compartment, as CD3+ T cell infiltration (CD3-TILs) is a recognized positive prognostic factor for CRC patients. Results here presented show that CD3+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes are present both interspersed in the tumour tissue or scattered throughout the stroma (CD3-TILs) and also aggregated in lymphoid structures showing features of tertiary lymphoid tissue (CD3-TLT). Tumour-associated TLT had a peculiar compartmentalization, with CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B lymphocytes holding complementary positions ...
View Notes - Lecture 9b from ANT 511 at Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine. «I Llil ot a lymphoid nodule in the paletlne tonsil. Linde the stratified souamous epithelium iEpl that covers
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a principal cause of acute and chronic failure of lung allografts. However, mechanisms mediating this oftentimes fatal complication are poorly understood. Here, we show that Foxp3+ T cells formed aggregates in rejection-free human lung grafts and accumulated within induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of tolerant mouse lungs. Using a retransplantation model, we show that selective depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in the generation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and AMR, which was associated with complement deposition and destruction of airway epithelium. AMR was dependent on graft infiltration by B and T cells. Depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in prolonged interactions between B and CD4+ T cells within transplanted lungs, which was dependent on CXCR5-CXCL13. Blockade of CXCL13 as well as inhibition of the CD40 ligand and the ICOS ligand suppressed DSA production and prevented AMR. Thus, we ...
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a principal cause of acute and chronic failure of lung allografts. However, mechanisms mediating this oftentimes fatal complication are poorly understood. Here, we show that Foxp3+ T cells formed aggregates in rejection-free human lung grafts and accumulated within induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of tolerant mouse lungs. Using a retransplantation model, we show that selective depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in the generation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and AMR, which was associated with complement deposition and destruction of airway epithelium. AMR was dependent on graft infiltration by B and T cells. Depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in prolonged interactions between B and CD4+ T cells within transplanted lungs, which was dependent on CXCR5-CXCL13. Blockade of CXCL13 as well as inhibition of the CD40 ligand and the ICOS ligand suppressed DSA production and prevented AMR. Thus, we ...
Complete response: Absence lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly or splenomegaly & constitutional symptoms; Normal complete blood count (CBC) exhibited by polymorphonuclear leukocytes,1500/µL, platelets,100,000/µL, hemoglobin,11.0 g/dL (untransfused); lymphocyte count ,5,000/µL; Bone marrow aspirate & biopsy normocellular for age with ,30% nucleated cells lymphocytes; Absence Lymphoid nodules. Fulfillment CR criteria after induction with exception of treatment related persistent cytopenia & bone marrow lymphoid nodules both considered partial response; Partial response: Requires 50% decrease in peripheral lymphocytes from pre-treatment, 50% reduction in lymphadenopathy, &/or 50% reduction in splenomegaly/hepatomegaly for 2+ months from therapy completion. Additionally one following from pre-treatment: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes 1,500/µL or 50% improvement; Platelets,100,000/µL or 50% improvement; Hemoglobin,11.0 g/dL (untransfused) or 50% improvement ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Primary skin malignancy with features suggestive of dendritic reticulum cell differentiation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Innate lymphocytes (ILCs) are a recently described population of immune cells that produce cytokines like those associated with T helper cells but lack the recombined antigen receptors characteristic of T cells. Again, like some T helper cell lineages, a proportion of ILCs express the transcription factor RORγt. These include lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells required for fetal lymphoid tissue organogenesis and a population of natural killer (NK)-like cells that function in gut immune responses. Sawa et al. (see the Perspective by Veldhoen and Withers) wondered whether the RORγt-expressing ILCs all develop from the same progenitor population. Indeed, they found a fetal liver progenitor that gave rise to several phenotypically distinct populations. However, the LTi cells were not progenitors for the NK-like cells. It seems the trajectory of different ILC populations is developmentally regulated, and postnatally ILCs are favored that play a role in intestinal defense before the gut is fully ...
The tonsils and mucosa associated lymphoid tissues are not structurally organs; however, they function as secondary lymphoid organs because they are sites of…
GALT is a primary lymphoid tissue and a part of mucosal lymphoid system. This system acts as the first line of immune defense against ingested pathogen. Numerous reports are explained that there are considerable differences in GALT structure and distribution among various fish species and also in different parts of the gut.. This study was made on the 20 normal, mature and same size Barbus sharpeyi. For microscopical study, the samples were taken from anterior, middle and posterior parts of intestinal bulb and main intestine with maximum 0.5 cm thickness. The samples were fixed in Bouins fixative and the serial sections were made on by routine paraffin embedding and stained by H&E and PAS.. The results showed that the lymphoid tissue is present in two different types and in two areas of intestinal bulb and main intestine of Barbus sharpeyi. In the first type, the lymphoid cells were scattered in the mucosal epithelium and in the second type, the lymphoid cells were present as an aggregated ...
Immunology is a science that deals with the study of protection of the body from invasion by disease producing microorganisms. This state of protection of the body is called immunity. It is result of normally functioning immune system which is highly efficient but complex. This chapter covers the historical perspectives, structure and functions of immune system, lymphoid system, cells of immune system, macrophages, major histocompatibility, immune response, immunity, antigen, antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, lens proteins, human leukocyte antigens, and specialized proteins. Lymphoid system consists of lymphoid organs and lymphoid cells. Lymphoid organs are classified based on their function into central (primary) lymphoid organs and peripheral (secondary) lymphoid organs. Major histocompatibility (MHC) is also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. It is a collection of genes arrayed within a long continuous stretch of DNA on chromosome 6 in humans ...
The density-distribution patterns of various enzymes and of labeled materials have been determined by isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose-0.2 M KCl gradient on homogenates of lymphoid tissues from rats injected with Triton WR-1339, 14C-labeled dextran, 51Cr-labeled erythrocytes, and cortisol. The results confirm and extend the conclusion, derived from previous investigations on normal animals, that the lysosomes of lymphoid tissues form two and possibly three, distinct populations. The evidence indicates that the L19 population belongs to macrophages and the L15 group to lymphocytes. The L30 population appears to be associated with a special type of phagocyte with a high capacity for dextran storage. All three populations seem to contribute to the activities found in soluble form in homogenates of normal lymphoid tissues.. ...
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have a strong prognostic and predictive significance, particularly in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). One important source of TILs in breast cancer is tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs). Here, we performed histologic analysis of surgically resected TNBC to identify the location of TLSs, the relationship between TLSs and TILs, and their prognostic significance in TNBC. We retrospectively analyzed 769 patients with TNBC. TILs were defined as the percentage of stroma of invasive carcinoma infiltrated by lymphocytes. TLSs were mainly present within adjacent terminal duct lobular units and around in situ components. TNBC with higher levels of TILs showed a higher nuclear grade, lower lymphovascular invasion rate, less accompanying in situ component, a homogeneous growth pattern, necrosis in invasive areas, low levels of tumor stroma, high levels of peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration, and moderate to abundant TLSs in adjacent tissue. TILs, degree of ...
Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a promising therapeutic approach in different solid tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nonetheless, little is known about the immune-component of HCC or potential biomarkers of response to these therapies.. Aims: To perform comprehensive characterization of the HCC immunological profile and to identify biomarkers to select immunotherapy candidates.. Methods: We performed gene expression array deconvolution through non-negative matrix factorization in 228 resected HCCs. Characterization of the transcriptional landscape was conducted using ,1,000 signatures representing distinct immune cells by gene set enrichment and nearest template prediction analyses. Presence of immune infiltration, tertiary lymphoid structure (TLS), PD-1 and PD-L1 immunostainings was investigated using immunohistochemistry. DNA methylation profile of 450K CpG sites was analyzed to identify those with significant differences for each group. Extensive ...
Helmink BA, Reddy SM, Gao J, Zhang S, Basar R, Thakur R, Yizhak K, Sade-Feldman M, Blando J, Han G, Gopalakrishnan V, Xi Y, Zhao H, Amaria RN, Tawbi HA, Cogdill AP, Liu W, LeBleu VS, Kugeratski FG, Patel S, Davies MA, Hwu P, Lee JE, Gershenwald JE, Lucci A, Arora R, Woodman S, Keung EZ, Gaudreau PO, Reuben A, Spencer CN, Burton EM, Haydu LE, Lazar AJ, Zapassodi R, Hudgens CW, Ledesma DA, Ong S, Bailey M, Warren S, Rao D, Krijgsman O, Rozeman EA, Peeper D, Blank CU, Schumacher TN, Butterfield LH, Zelazowska MA, McBride KM, Kalluri R, Allison J, Petitprez F, Fridman WH, Sautès-Fridman C, Hacohen N, Rezvani K, Sharma P, Tetzlaff MT, Wang L, Wargo JA. B cells and tertiary lymphoid structures promote immunotherapy response. Nature. 2020 01; 577(7791):549-555 ...
CR is defined by at least 8 weeks of: 1)Absence of lymphadenopathy 2)No hepatomegaly or splenomegaly 3)Absence of B-symptoms 4)Normal blood count 5)Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy 8 weeks after the clinical and laboratory results demonstrated that a CR was achieved. A marrow sample had to be normocellular for age with less than 30% lymphocytes. Lymphoid nodules had to be absent. If marrow was hypocellular,a repeat biopsy was taken 4 weeks later and samples were re-reviewed in conjunction with the prior pathology. Partial response is defined as a decrease in the size of a tumor, or in the extent of cancer in the body, in response to treatment ...
The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act at different layers of defense to accomplish a collection of biological processes that aim at protecting us against dangers including infections as well as tumors. Within peripheral tissues (that are exposed to the outside world: skin, lungs, gut, mucosa, etc…) there is a range of specialize phagocytic cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells. These dendritic cells act as sentinels patrolling the body to detect any pathogens as soon as they enter, regardless of the location. They trap the pathogens, such as bacteria or viruses or molecules derived from these, and migrate to sites called secondary lymphoid organs to present these molecules (called antigens) to the specific cells of the immune system; the T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. These secondary lymphoid organs are disseminated throughout the body and can be assimilated as headquarters where the decision about the strategy that has to be developed to fight the pathogens ...
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Mouse CD45 MicroBeads were developed for the positive selection or depletion of leukocytes from lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. The CD45 antigen is expressed on all cells of hematopoietic origin except for erythrocytes and platelets. - Belgique
Study XII - The Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Systems flashcards from Chris Aquino's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Study XII - The Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Systems flashcards from Michelle Supapo's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
In order to study spleen cells (e.g. lymphocytes, granulocytes, other immune cells), it helps to make single-cell suspensions so that the cells can be manipulated ex vivo easily. This protocol suggests ways in which you can do this without a lot of equipment or expensive supplies. This protocol can also be used to make cell suspensions from other lymphoid organs, such as the thymus or lymph nodes (see Current Protocols in Immunology, Unit 1.9 [1]). ...
As the weather turns bleaker here in the southern hemisphere, we find ourselves feeling a little more vulnerable to the winter lurgie. So what do we do?. Sure, vitamin C is good. And reaching for a Codral is common place. But what if the key to heightened immune resilience lay in somewhere almost completely unexpected. Yes - you know what we are talking about. Somewhere like the gut.. The ultimate defense 70% of our immune system lies in your gastrointestinal tract - whoa!. Lining the gut is the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT); our gut-immune system. It exists to block external toxins, microbes and contaminants from entering the blood. It is the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body, communicating with the rest of the immune system and our initial line of defence to decide if something entering our mouths is friendly to our human body or not.5. GALT and the microbes of our gut work together to keep us safe.. This means that the health of your gut can have a great impact on the health ...
Drugs used to treat HIV penetrate poorly into lymphatic tissues where most HIV replication takes place and there is persistent low-level virus replication in these tissues according to research...
Introduction Available evidence suggests that the lymphoid system consists of two compartments, as shown in Figure 1: A central compartment in which
The IL-27 Receptor complex includes WSX-1 and gp130. IL-27R (WSX-1) is 65-70 kDa protein and is highly expressed in lymphoid tissues such as spleen,…
Looking for online definition of lymphoid nodule in the Medical Dictionary? lymphoid nodule explanation free. What is lymphoid nodule? Meaning of lymphoid nodule medical term. What does lymphoid nodule mean?
The immune system has evolved to use sophisticated mechanisms to recruit lymphocytes to sites of pathogen exposure. Trafficking pathways are precise. For example, lymphocytes that are primed by gut pathogens can, in some cases, be imprinted with CCR9 membrane receptors, which can influence migration to the small intestine. Currently, little is known about T cell trafficking to the upper respiratory tract or the relationship between effectors that migrate to the diffuse nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (d-NALT), the lower airways, and the lung. To determine whether a T cell primed by Ag from a respiratory pathogen is imprinted for exclusive trafficking to the upper or lower respiratory tract or whether descendents from that cell have the capacity to migrate to both sites, we inoculated mice by the intranasal route with Sendai virus and conducted single-cell-sequencing analyses of CD8+ T lymphocytes responsive to a Kb-restricted immunodominant peptide, FAPGNYPAL (Tet+). Cells from the d-NALT, lung ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - α4β7/MAdCAM-1 interactions play an essential role in transitioning cryptopatches into isolated lymphoid follicles and a nonessential role in cryptopatch formation. AU - Wang, Caihong. AU - McDonough, Jacquelyn S.. AU - McDonald, Keely G.. AU - Huang, Conway. AU - Newberry, Rodney D.. PY - 2008/9/15. Y1 - 2008/9/15. N2 - The α4 integrins α4β7 and α4β1, and their ligands mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) and VCAM-1, have diverse functions, including roles in the formation of secondary lymphoid tissues at early time points during the colonization and clustering of the fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and at later time points during the recruitment of lymphocytes. In this study, we evaluated the role of α4 integrins in the development of a recently appreciated class of intestinal lymphoid tissues, isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). We observed that diverse ILF cellular populations express α4β7 and α4β1, including the LTi-like cells ...
Tfh Cells in Chronic Inflammation Lymphocytes migrating into chronically inflamed tissue form ectopic lymphoid structures with functional GCs, also known as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS). T cells that interact with B cells in these sites, named Tfh-like cells, produce factors associated with B cell help, including IL-21 and the B cell chemoattractant CXCL13, yet vary dramatically in their resemblance to Tfh cells found in secondary lymphoid organs, e.g., surface phenotype, migratory capacity, and transcriptional regulation (10). The review article by Rao discusses observations from multiple diseases and models in which tissue-infiltrating T cells play a significant role in TLS formation. Hutloff also summarize findings on this topic discovered by studies on experimental animal models as well as some autoimmune and malignant diseases. Both reviews provide an interesting insight into a deeper understanding of these mechanisms in chronically swollen tissues and recommend approaches to focus on ...
Lümfoidkoe arengut mõjutavad rakud (lüh LTi, inglise lymphoid tissue inducer cells) on paljude selgroogsete loomade lümfoid(-immuun)süsteemi lümfirakkude tüüp. Lümfoidkoe arengut mõjutavad rakud kuuluvad ILC- (inglise innate lymphoid cells) rakkude perekonda. LTi-sid kirjeldati ligi 17 aastat tagasi ja neid seostatakse peamiselt kaasasündinud, aga ka omandatud immuunsusega. Lümfoidkoe arengut mõjutavate rakkude olemasolu, areng, anatoomia, morfoloogia, histoloogia, mutatsioonid, rakud ja molekulid ning apoptoos ja patoloogia võivad erineda nii liigiti, indiviiditi kui ka arenguastmeti. Fetaalsete lümfoidkoe arengut mõjutavate rakkude funktsiooniks on lümfoidkudede, sh lümfisõlmede ja Peyeri naastude, arengu tagamine pinnal paiknevate oluliste molekulide ekspressiooni läbi. Hiirtel tuvastatud fetaalsed lümfoidkoe arengut mõjutavad rakud võivad, olenevalt molekulidest, diferentseeruda antigeene esitlevateks rakkudeks (APC-deks), loomulikeks tappurrakkudeks, thyrocytus ...
Protein kinases play important jobs in the legislation of cellular actions. in the Abl category of proteins kinases as well as the proteins kinase governed by RNA in attacks. attacks are initiated with the deposition of promastigotes types of by fine sand flies at the website of their bloodstream food. Current understanding is certainly that phagocytes especially neutrophils that are recruited first towards the bite site turn into a sanctuary for the promastigotes (1). Once within mammalian cells commence to change Mouse monoclonal to CD62L.4AE56 reacts with L-selectin, an 80 kDa?leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (LECAM-1).?CD62L is expressed on most peripheral blood B cells, T cells,?some NK cells, monocytes and granulocytes. CD62L mediates lymphocyte homing to high endothelial venules of peripheral lymphoid tissue and leukocyte rolling?on activated endothelium at inflammatory sites. their gene expression profile which culminates with their transformation into amastigote forms. By ...
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.
Recent reports using both particulate and soluble antigens have demonstrated lymphatic tissue germinal centers as structures involved in localization of antigen ( Ada et al. 1965, Nossalet al. 1964,...
During murine embryogenesis, the formation of Peyers patches (PPs) is initiated by CD45(+)CD4(+)CD3(-) lymphoid tissue inducers that trigger adhesion molecule expression and specific chemokine production from an organizing stromal cell population through ligation of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, Authors: Antonio Cuneo, Gianluigi Castoldi. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
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Several different cytokines trigger the development of determined cell subsets in BALT of growing Wistar rats. Early appearance (4 days post partum) of γδT cells in BALT has been shown, as well as its role in up-regulating TNF-α production. In the present report, we studied in the BALT: (1) the profile of the cytokines, TNF-α, INF-γ and IL-10 and (2) in TCR γδ+ cells, the existence of a colocalization with TNF-α as well as with INF-γ. All the cytokines studied were observed at an early stage of BALT development by immunohistochemistry and in bronchoalveolar cells (BAL cells) by flow cytometry and western blot. (1) The principal cytokine found at 4 days of age in BALT cells was TNF-α that increases along BALT development. The same behavior was found for cells containing IL-10 and INF-γ. (2) TCR γδ+ cells colocalize mainly with
Provender appropriate anticipatory guidance for vulgar developmental issues that arise in the toddler period. At some sites the lymphoid nodules may be surrounded by a utter or unaccomplished connective pack capsule, such as in the tonsils. Nutr mortal ,a href=https://www.brookechase.com/wp-content/respon se/edition5/section3/,generic avanafil 200mg line,/a, erectile dysfunction causes natural treatment. During this premature period of electrophysiological review of the discernment, there were a host of studies describing instinctive vocation (Beck 1890; Pravdich-Neminsky 1913), evoked sense enterprise using electri- cal stimulation (Danilevsky 1891) and studies on deviant electrical discharges in experimentally induced epilepsy (Kaufman 1912; Cybulski and Jelenska-Maciezyna 1914). PLoS Only 6:e18013 Urbina JA (2010) Specific chemotherapy of Chagas complaint: relevance, in circulation limitations and revitalized approaches. The standing of eudaemonia viewing continues done immatureness ,a ...
Non-hematopoietic stromal cells play important roles in many tissues, constructing tissue microenvironments, contributing to tissue repair, defense and immune responses. Within lymphoid organs, stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, stromal cells support the migration and interactions between antigen presenting cells and naïve T and B cells during the initiation of immune responses and influence the outcome between tolerance and immunity. Stromal cells also play instrumental roles in coordinating immune responses in non-lymphoid tissues, in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and in chronic infection. For instance, stromal cell dysregulation has been seen in HIV infection and in cancer patients. Furthermore, stromal cells are being harnessed for therapeutic applications in several diseases, an area that holds great promise for improving human ...
SARS pathology in the gut, kidney, and brain. (A) Depletion of mucosal lymphoid tissue of the small intestine of a patient who had SARS, showing decreased number of lymphocytes and depletion of germinal center. Bar, 200 μm. (B) EM image of a portion of mucosal cell in the small intestine of a SARS autopsy. M, microvilli; N, nucleus. The area indicated by the white arrow is enlarged in C. Bar, 2 μm. (C) Higher magnification of a SARS virus-containing vesicle (white arrow) in the same cell as shown in B. Bar, 0.2 μm. (D) In situ hybridization detected SARS sequence positive signal (arrows) in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes in the submucosal lymphoid tissue. Bar, 30 μm. (E) Negative control for in situ hybridization of SARS genomic sequence of the lymphocytes in the submucosal lymphoid tissue, in which an unrelated probe was used. No positive signal was detected. Bar, 30 μm. (F) In situ hybridization of SARS genomic sequence of lymphocytes in the submucosal lymphoid tissue of a patient who did ...
Its been shown that eating materials get excited about immune legislation in the intestine. and VCAM-1) on stromal cells as well as the appearance is controlled by NFB-inducing kinase (NIK). As a result, NIK-mutant aly/aly mice present decreased awareness to FTY720 in the legislation of peritoneal B-cell trafficking because of the impaired appearance of adhesion substances although peritoneal B1 cells in aly/aly mice portrayed comparable degrees of S1P1. 5. Distinct S1P Dependency of Trafficking of Intraepithelial T-Lymphocytes in the Gut Many lymphocytes may also be within the intestinal epithelium and known as as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) [42]. IELs are T cells KU-60019 mainly, but unlike in typical T cells seen in the systemic compartments (e.g., spleen) which mostly exhibit the T-cell receptor (TCR), in the IEL subset now there is an plethora of T cells expressing the T cell receptor (TCR) furthermore to TCR+ T cells [42]. TCR identifies peptide antigen provided via main ...
When compared to GF and conventional (CV) males (prevalence of 0 and ~20%, respectively), high incidence (~20%) of ANKENT has been revealed in mice associated with a cocktail of bacteria isolated from the intestine of an ANKENT-afflicted CV male. In the cocktail, no strong pathogens and Enterobacteriae like E.coli or Salmonella were present. The first ANKENT case has also been observed in mice colonized with a more restricted cocktail containing two selected gram-positive microbial strains. Surface phenotype of lymphocytes isolated from systemic lymphatic tissues, MALT and diseased joint were characterized. No significant differences in lymphatic tissues were detected between individual experimental groups. However, the prevalence of CD4+ cells among joint-infiltrating lymphocytes was recorded. ...
This image revisits one of 4 illustrations created to highlight the connections between breast cancer and the axillary lymph nodes. CLIENT - VIV Mag, A Smart Digital Magazine for Women
The Anti-CLA MicroBead Kit was developed for the positive selection or depletion of human CLA+ cells from PBMCs, lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissue for phenotypical and functional characterization. - 대한민국
Secondary lymphoid organs are dispensable for the development of T-cell-mediated immunity during tuberculosis (pages 1663-1673). Tracey A. Day, Markus Koch, Geraldine Nouailles, Marc Jacobsen, George A. Kosmiadi, Delia Miekley, Stefanie Kuhlmann, Sabine Jörg, Pia Gamradt, Hans-Joachim Mollenkopf, Robert Hurwitz, Stephen T. Reece, Stefan H. E. Kaufmann and Mischo Kursar. Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2010 , DOI: 10.1002/eji.201040299. ...
LCs are members in a family of tissue DCs, and almost every tissue contains sentinel DCs (3). Although differences between immature tissue DCs in different locations have been reported, most tissue DCs have in common the propensity to emigrate to draining lymphoid tissues in response to LPS, TNF, or IL-1 (3). All the DC types so far tested upregulate CCR7 upon stimulation, making it likely that they all use this receptor in order to migrate to lymphoid T zones (4, 6-9). It remains to be investigated whether the same directional cues are also involved in the homeostatic flux of DCs from tissues to LNs that occurs in the absence of stimulation (3). A subset of DCs in peripheral lymphoid tissues, including lymphoid lineage DCs (27), may not derive from peripheral tissues but instead may enter directly from the blood (3). Some insight into the behavior of these cells in plt mice is provided by findings in the spleen. Wild-type mouse spleen contains a population of DCs in the T zone that express high ...
Experimental procedures for the subsequent extraction of lymphatic tissues to test lymphoid dendritic cell activation are described...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anatomy of the immune system. T2 - facts and problems.. AU - Grossi, C. E.. AU - Ciccone, E.. AU - Tacchetti, C.. AU - Santoro, G.. AU - Anastasi, G.. PY - 2000/10. Y1 - 2000/10. N2 - In the introductory section of this report, the anatomy of the immune system, from organs and tissues to molecules, will be reviewed briefly. Cell proliferation and differentiation in the central lymphoid organs (thymus and bone marrow) yield a repertoire of T- and B-cell clones that seed into peripheral lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue, MALT), where humoral and cell-mediated antigen-specific immune responses occur. The stringent process of clonal selection in the central lymphoid organs implies deletion of inappropriate cells via apoptosis. In the peripheral lymphoid organs, the potential of unlimited activation and expansion of lymphocytes in response to antigens is primarily regulated by apoptosis and anergy. These events, on the one hand, are relevant to ...
What Is Peyers Patches Is A Prion An Intelligent Protein What Is Peyers Patches The Peyers Patches Anatomy Of The Peyers Patches Anatomy, Medpics Ucsd School Of Medicine What Is Peyers Patches, What Is Peyers Patches Peyers Patches, What Is Peyers Patches Is A Prion An Intelligent Protein, ...
Tolerance induction to self antigens in the peripheral lymphoid tissues: blood, lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues.
Your immunity system includes both primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Your bone marrow and thymus (primary lymphoid organs) produce and increase your number of white blood cells. ...
A hematopathologist is usually board-certified in both anatomical and clinical pathology and has additional years of training in hematopathology. Hematopathology is not only the study of disease of the blood and bone marrow. It is also the study of the organs and tissues that use blood cells to perform their physiologic functions. These include the lymph nodes, the spleen, thymus, and other lymphoid tissue. The hematopathologist focuses on the diagnosis of conditions of the hematopoietic and lymphocyte-rich tissues. This is usually done by direct exam of tissue and blood in the lab. ...
Pathogens associated molecular patterns Another MOS effect is the improvement of cellular, humoral and mucosal immunities. In the intestine are present a variety of macrophages as components of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), that recognise pathogens by a unique type of molecules that are only on microbes, called pathogens asso- ciated molecular patterns (PAMP), present in MOS and others yeast cell wall components. Consequently, MOS bind with the PAMP receptors present on defence cells of GALT and then triggers the immune system. A study was carried out to investigate the impact that HyperGen had on gut health and performance in weaned piglets challenged with E. coli K88 and supplemented with 0.1% of HyperGen for 11 days (Table 1). Piglets challenged and supplemented with the second generation MOS had a greater final body weight and ADG than challenged and non- supplemented animals. The supplementation improved the FCR of piglets and enhanced the number of proliferating cells in the ...
Germinal centre-like structures can form in nonlymphoid tissues following infection, but the requirements for their formation and function are not well characterized; in particular how peripheral tissues are remodeled by infection to facilitate the recruitment of lymphocytes and establish de novo a stromal network. This seminar will focus on how influenza-induced lung germinal centres are formed, and whether these structures follow the same rules as their counterparts in secondary lymphoid tissues ...
Thought to be antigen-free, the thymus is a primary lymphoid organ with two major functions: differentiation of T cells; and recognition of self from non-self. The thymus differs from lymph nodes and bone marrow in that no immune reactions occur, except in certain diseases. Pre-thymocytes arrive into the thymus via blood, move into subcapsular space and begin differentiating immediately. Differentiation markers expressed are CD3, TcR and CD4, CD8. TcR gene fragments are rearranged, as in B cells, and then the T cells begin migrating toward the medulla.. ...
Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the bodys lymphatic tissue. Its a common type of cancer in children, but most recover from it.
Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the bodys lymphatic tissue. Its a common type of cancer in children, but most recover from it.
The Lymph Nodes In dogs, the primordial structure of the largest lymph nodes is present at 35 to 38 days of gestation, and lymphocytic colonization of the
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What does tonsil mean? A small oral mass of lymphoid tissue, especially either of two such masses embedded in the lateral walls of the opening ...
Naive T cells slowly circulate among the secondary lymphoid organs as a means of encountering antigens. Immature dendritic cells, meanwhile, reside in
1990). "Peripheral Innervation of Lymphoid Tissue". The Neuroendocrine-immune network. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4625-5. ...
In the GI tract, they are components of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Based on expression of either an αβ T-cell ... McGhee JR (1998-01-01). "Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)". In Delves PJ (ed.). Encyclopedia of Immunology (Second ed ... These cells migrate into the intestinal epithelium as effector or tissue-resident memory T cells. In mice, up to 50% of these ... Alternatively, elevated IEL populations can be a marker for developing neoplasia in the tissue such as found in cervical and ...
Furthermore, the tonsils filter tissue fluid whereas lymph nodes filter lymph. The appendix contains lymphoid tissue and is ... A lymph node contains lymphoid tissue, i.e., a meshwork or fibers called reticulum with white blood cells enmeshed in it. The ... 2016). "Lymphoid tissues". Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice (41st ed.). Philadelphia. pp. 73-4. ISBN ... These trabecular spaces formed by the interlacing trabeculae contain the proper lymph node substance or lymphoid tissue. The ...
He also published a paper in the British Medical Journal entitled "The Lymphoid Tissue Of The Alimentary Canal". The China ... "The Lymphoid Tissue Of The Alimentary Canal". British Medical Journal. 1 (4017): 7-11. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4017.7. PMC 2085457. ...
Thorbecke GJ, Amin AR, Tsiagbe VK (August 1994). "Biology of germinal centers in lymphoid tissue". FASEB Journal. 8 (11): 832- ...
... of splenic tissue. White pulp consists entirely of lymphoid tissue. Specifically, the white pulp encompasses several areas with ... Lymph node Marginal zone Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue Spleen This article incorporates text in the public domain from page ... This population of macrophages can be found in all the other T cell zones of the secondary lymphoid organs. It is possible that ... These macrophages are not unique to the spleen but instead make up an integral part of the lymphoid parts of all secondary ...
Isaacson, Peter; Wright, Dennis H. (1983). "Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. A distinctive type of B- ... Isaacson, Peter; Wright, Dennis H. (1984). "Extranodal malignant lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue". ... Flavell, D. J.; Jones, D. B.; Wright, D. H. (1987). "Identification of tissue histiocytes on paraffin sections by a new ... first to describe T-cell lymphomas associated with enteropathy and to describe lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. ...
Thorbecke GJ, Amin AR, Tsiagbe VK (1994). "Biology of germinal centres in lymphoid tissue". FASEB Journal. 8 (11): 832-840. doi ... UIUC Histology Subject 563 Histology image: 07103loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Lymphoid Tissues and ... also known as lymphoid follicles). After several rounds of cellular division, the B cells go through somatic hypermutation, a ... in secondary lymphoid organs - lymph nodes, ileal Peyer's patches, and the spleen - where mature B cells are activated, ...
Cancers of the oropharynx primarily arise in lingual and palatine tonsil lymphoid tissue that is lined by respiratory squamous ... The submucosa contains aggregates of lymphoid tissue. Cancers arising in the tonsillar fossa spread to the cervical lymph nodes ... which may be invaginated within the lymphoid tissue. Therefore, the tumour first arises in hidden crypts. OPC is graded on the ... Between the arches lies a triangular space, the tonsillar fossa in which lies the palatine tonsil, another lymphoid organ. The ...
Boehm, Thomas; Hess, Isabell; Swann, Jeremy B. (2012). "Evolution of lymphoid tissues". Trends in Immunology. Elsevier BV. 33 ( ...
Avilés A, Nambo MJ, Neri N, Talavera A, Cleto S (2005). "Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach: ... MALT lymphoma (MALToma) is a form of lymphoma involving the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), frequently of the stomach ... Schechter NR, Portlock CS, Yahalom J (May 1998). "Treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach with ... Source: Modified from WHO Blue Book on Tumour of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 2001, p. 2001.) (Articles with short ...
... was identified by its translocation in a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The protein encoded ... "BCL10 expression in normal and neoplastic lymphoid tissue. Nuclear localization in MALT lymphoma". Am. J. Pathol. 157 (4): 1147 ...
The latter is understood to be organized into clumps of lymphoid follicles as well as diffuse lymphoid tissues. In the ... Furthermore, the tissue is not vascularized, and does not contain lymphoid cells or other defense mechanisms, apart from some ... Diffuse lymphoid tissues, on the other hand, is composed mainly of interspersed effector cells. Generally, both pathways lead ... Hein, W.R., Organization of mucosal lymphoid tissue. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 1999. 236: p. 1-15. Knop, E. and N. Knop, The ...
In the cortex, lymphoid tissue is organized into nodules. In the nodules, T lymphocytes are located in the T cell zone. B ... Crosstalk LEC, lymphoid tissue inducer cells and mesenchymal stromal organizer cells initiate the formation of lymph nodes. ... FRCs produce collagen alpha-1(III) rich reticular fibers that form a dense network within the lymphoid tissue. These are ... Afferent lymphatic vessels bring lymph fluid from the peripheral tissues to the lymph nodes. The lymph tissue in the lymph ...
It is characterized by a proliferation of lymphoid tissue. There are two main classes of lymphomas that affect the skin:[ ...
In the gut, lymphoid tissue is dispersed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). A large number of immune system cells in the ... The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), provides the organism with an important first line of defense. Along with the ... Innate lymphoid cells are abundant in the mucosa where via rapid cytokine production in response to tissue-derived signals, ... Mörbe UM, Jørgensen PB, Fenton TM, von Burg N, Riis LB, Spencer J, Agace WW (July 2021). "Human gut-associated lymphoid tissues ...
WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Swerdlow, Steven H.,, World Health Organization,, ... TUMORS OF HEMATOPOIETIC AND LYMPHOID TISSUES. The Publishing House of the Romanian Academy. Vockerodt M, Cader FZ, Shannon-Lowe ... Tissue specimens from Hodgkin's seven cases were preserved at Guy's Hospital. Nearly 100 years after Hodgkin's initial ... PET scans are also useful in functional imaging (by using a radiolabeled glucose to image tissues of high metabolism). In some ...
Fu YX, Chaplin DD (1999-01-01). "Development and maturation of secondary lymphoid tissues". Annual Review of Immunology. 17: ... Lymphoid Tissues and Organs". In Paul W (ed.). Fundamental Immunology (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ... This intestinal lymphoid follicle plays an important role in the immune system of the digestive tract. Peyer's patches are ... LT-α is also involved in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs during development and plays a role in apoptosis. In LT-α ...
The involved lymphoid tissues in EBV+ B cell cases contain proliferating Immunoblasts (i.e. activated B cells), plasma cells, ... Involved tissues contain rapidly proliferating small or, less commonly, somewhat larger lymphoid cells. These cells are EBV+ ... The freed virus then invades naïve B cells located in submucosal lymphoid tissue e.g. tonsils or adenoids. Here, it establishes ... The disorder is based on histologic findings that occur in the lymphoid tissue of mainly older individuals who were infected ...
Lymphoid tissue Thy-1 expression is highly variable between species. In humans, Thy-1 expression is restricted to only a small ... McKenzie JL, Fabre JW (1981). "Human thy-1: unusual localization and possible functional significance in lymphoid tissues" ( ... Nervous tissue: Thy-1 expression in the nervous system is predominantly neuronal, but some glial cells also express Thy-1 ... Reif AE, Allen JM (1964). "The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120 (3): ...
Nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT)-Structure, function and species differences". Vaccine. 33: 4406-13. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Mueller CG, Hess E (2012). "Emerging Functions of RANKL in Lymphoid Tissues". Front Immunol. 3: 261. doi:10.3389/fimmu. ... RANKL is expressed in several tissues and organs including: skeletal muscle, thymus, liver, colon, small intestine, adrenal ... Variation in concentration levels of RANKL throughout several organs reconfirms the importance of RANKL in tissue growth ( ...
Ozanimod causes lymphocyte retention in lymphoid tissues. The mechanism by which ozanimod exerts therapeutic effects in ... which is developing technology for the recovery of stem cells from placental tissues following the completion of full-term ...
These lymph nodes are also known as glands or lymphoid tissue. If they detect something foreign passing through them, they ... Due to lymphoproliferation in the intraglandular lymphoid tissue, obstruction within the epithelium results in cystic expansion ... seeps through blood vessel walls into the tissues, where it bathes the body cells and exchanges substances with them. Some of ... parotid gland alterations and nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue enlargement are often frequent comorbidities of Persistent ...
... including lymphoid tissue inducer cells and lymphoid tissue organizer cells. Additionally, there are other mechanisms by which ... Eberl, G.; Lochner, M. (2009-09-09). "The development of intestinal lymphoid tissues at the interface of self and microbiota". ... "Lymphoid tissue genesis induced by commensals through NOD1 regulates intestinal homeostasis". Nature. 456 (7221): 507-510. ... CCL20 and Beta-defensin 3 activate cells which mediate the development of isolated lymphoid tissues, ...
... like all lymphoid tissue, enlarge when infected. Although lymphoid tissue does act to fight infection, sometimes bacteria and ... The mat of lymphoid tissue called adenoids starts to get sizable during the first year of life. Just how big the adenoids ... The lymphoid tissue remains under the mucosa of the nasopharynx, and could be seen under a microscope if the area was biopsied ... Some viruses, such as the Epstein-Barr virus, can cause dramatic enlargement of lymphoid tissue. Primary or reactivation ...
Similar to its role in homing lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid tissues, L-selectin expressed on the surface of monocytes and ... MadCAM-1, found on endothelial cells of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. PSGL-1, binds with low affinity. L-selectin is ... for lymphocytes to enter secondary lymphoid tissues via high endothelial venules. Ligands present on endothelial cells will ... October 2012). "Lymphoid priming in human bone marrow begins before expression of CD10 with upregulation of L-selectin". Nature ...
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MALT1 gene. ... July 1999). "Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the rectum with chromosomal translocation of the t(11;18)(q21 ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9UDY8 (Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma ... "Entrez Gene: MALT1 mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1". Wegener E, Krappmann D (2007). "CARD-Bcl10 ...
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is a diffuse system of small concentrations of lymphoid tissue found in various submucosal ... Xie H, Lv J, Ji Y, Du X, Yang X (March 2019). "Primary hepatic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case report and ... Abbas H, Niazi M, Makker J (May 2017). "Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of the Colon: A Case Report and a ... Ma Q, Zhang C, Fang S, Zhong P, Zhu X, Lin L, Xiao H (March 2017). "Primary esophageal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ...
She studies human tissue immunity in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. She makes use of single cell genome sequencing and ... She studies human tissue immunity. She is a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences and was elected to the European Molecular ... Clatworthy established the Cambridge Tissue Immunity Laboratory. As part of this, she is responsible for the kidney cell atlas ...
Common innate lymphoid progenitors may then be differentiated into a natural killer progenitor (NKp) or a common helper like ... All type 1 cells begin their development from the common lymphoid progenitor (CLp) which then differentiates to become the ... common innate lymphoid progenitor (CILp) and the t-cell progenitor (Tp) through the process of lymphopoiesis.[4][5] ... innate lymphoid progenitor (CHILp). NKp cells may then be induced to differentiate into natural killer cells by IL-15. CHILp ...
Lymphoid cells can be identified in some pre-vertebrate deuterostomes (i.e., sea urchins).[32] These bind antigen with pattern ... Most of the molecules, cells, tissues, and associated mechanisms of this system of defense are found in cartilaginous fishes.[ ... In an adult animal, the peripheral lymphoid organs contain a mixture of B and T cells in at least three stages of ... Dendritic cells engulf exogenous pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites or toxins in the tissues and then migrate, via ...
A neoplasm (/ˈniː.oʊˌplæzəm, ˈniː.ə-/)[1][2] is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue. The process that occurs to ... For lymphoid neoplasms, e.g. lymphoma and leukemia, clonality is proven by the amplification of a single rearrangement of their ... within a breast cancer tissue sample is about 20,000.[58] In an average melanoma tissue sample (where melanomas have a higher ... Volokh KY (September 2006). "Stresses in growing soft tissues". Acta Biomater. 2 (5): 493-504. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2006.04.002 ...
"Development of peripheral lymphoid organs and natural killer cells depends on the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2"، Nature، 397 ... adipose tissue development. • mammary gland alveolus development. • epithelial cell differentiation involved in mammary gland ...
"Comparison of Vibratome and Compresstome sectioning of fresh primate lymphoid and genital tissues for in situ MHC-tetramer and ... tube to hold the tissue.[18] The tissue specimen is completely embedded in agarose (a polysaccharide), and the tissue is slowly ... The tissue is then cut in the microtome at thicknesses varying from 2 to 50 μm. From there the tissue can be mounted on a ... Cryosections can also be used in immunohistochemistry as freezing tissue stops degradation of tissue faster than using a ...
See also: Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. ThymomasEdit. Tumours originating from the thymic epithelial cells ... In the nineteenth century, a condition was identified as status thymicolymphaticus defined by an increase in lymphoid tissue ... These are often associated with cancer of the tissue of the thymus, called thymoma, or tissues arising from immature ... the thymus begins to decrease in size and activity and the tissue of the thymus is gradually replaced by fatty tissue. ...
A neoplasm (/ˈniː.oʊˌplæzəm, ˈniː.ə-/)[1][2] is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue. The process that occurs to ... For lymphoid neoplasms, e.g. lymphoma and leukemia, clonality is proven by the amplification of a single rearrangement of their ... within a breast cancer tissue sample is about 20,000.[58] In an average melanoma tissue sample (where melanomas have a higher ... Volokh KY (September 2006). "Stresses in growing soft tissues". Acta Biomater. 2 (5): 493-504. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2006.04.002 ...
The disparity in mutation rate between the germline and somatic tissues likely reflects the greater importance of genome ... Lymphoid. *Burkitt lymphoma t(8 MYC;14 IGH). *Follicular lymphoma t(14 IGH;18 BCL2) ...
The requirement of gut-associated lymphoid tissues". Developmental & Comparative Immunology. Elsevier. 30 (1-2): 137-153. doi: ... a layer of tissue sits over the opening of the glottis, which blocks airflow from the oral cavity to the trachea.[28] The ...
Following ingestion, the virus replicates in the lymphoid tissue in the throat, and then spreads to the bloodstream. From there ... The formation of excess fibrous tissue (fibrosis) is often evident in surviving dogs. Myofibers are the site of viral ... in neonates and cause lesions and viral replication and attack in other tissues other than the gastrointestinal tissues and ... and human albumin transfusions can help replace the extreme protein losses seen in severe cases and help assure adequate tissue ...
In normal lymphoid tissue, recirculating resting B cells migrate through the FDC networks, whereas antigen-activated B cells ... These sarcomas often involve lymphoid tissues, but in a number of cases the tumor has been found in the liver, bile duct, ... Factor Mfge produced in lymphoid tissues mainly by FDCs is known to enhance engulfment of apoptotic cells. Deficit of this ... Possible functions of FDC include: organizing lymphoid tissue's cells and microarchitecture, capturing antigen to support B ...
... was present in the tissues infected with virus and attempted to isolate and characterize this factor from tissue homogenates. ... Release of IFN from cells (specifically IFN-γ in lymphoid cells) is also induced by mitogens. Other cytokines, such as ... There is no clear evidence to suggest that removing the infected tissue (debridement) followed by interferon drops is an ...
... residing in lymphoid tissues that mediate cell-to-cell spread of the virus via virological synapses. These findings highlight a ... "Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1 Is Required to Trigger Pyroptotic Death of Lymphoid-Tissue-Derived CD4 T Cells". Cell Rep. ...
At the University of Toronto from 1986 to 1989, he was a member of a team that studied tissue rejection problems with small ... The Editors of The Lancet (February 2010). "Retraction - Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and ... Retracted) Retraction: The Editors of the Lancet (February 2010). "Retraction - Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non- ... results in ileal lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, chronic colitis and pervasive developmental disorder including autism (RBD), in ...
Mice that have a genetic mutation in the WNT3A die during early embryogenesis and fail to correctly form axial tissues. Wnt-3a ... Wnt3a is needed for myeloid but not B-lymphoid development at the progenitor level, and affected immature thymocyte ... These proteins have are critical in tissue homeostasis, embryonic development, and disease. WNT3A is highly related to the WNT3 ... and 7B in human breast cell lines and normal and disease states of human breast tissue". Cancer Research. 54 (10): 2615-21. ...
Tissue remodeling during type-2 immune response is based on cytokine interleukin (IL)-13. This interleukin is produced mainly ... IL25, being the key activator of innate lymphoid cells type 2. This then initiates and amplifies type-2 cytokine response, ... by group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 2 helper T cells (Th2s) located in lamina propria. Also during worm infection ...
... "c-myc gene mutation in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma". Oncol. Rep ... Omomyc triggered tumor regression which was accompanied by reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of the tumor tissue. ...
Another function of IL-25 is the activation of natural lymphoid cells 2 (ILC2). IL-25 and IL-33 are the most potent activators ... IL-25 induces the production of other cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in multiple tissues, which stimulate the ... Lay summary in: "Researchers Find Healthy Breast Tissue Secretes IL-25 to Kill Tumor Cells". Genetic Engineering & ... "Innate lymphoid cells--a proposal for uniform nomenclature". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 13 (2): 145-9. doi:10.1038/nri3365. ...
Source: Modified from WHO Blue Book on Tumour of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 2001, p. 2001.) Waldenstrom J (1944). " ... "The World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: Report of the ... Cheson BD (2006). "Chronic Lymphoid Leukemias and Plasma Cell Disorders". In Dale DD, Federman DD (eds.). ACP Medicine. New ... The LDH level is frequently elevated, indicating the extent of Waldenström macroglobulinemia-related tissue involvement. ...
Besides liver cells, A1PI is produced in bone marrow, by lymphocytic and monocytic cells in lymphoid tissue, and by the Paneth ... which breaks down the connective tissue fiber elastin. Besides limiting elastase activity to limit tissue degradation, A1PI ... This suggests a role for α1PI not only in locomotion of lymphocytes through tissue, but as a consequence of infection, a ... As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has ...
... skin-associated lymphoid tissue) VALT (vulvo-vaginal-associated lymphoid tissue) TALT (testis-associated lymphoid tissue) It ... nasal-associated lymphoid tissue) CALT (conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue) LALT (larynx-associated lymphoid tissue) SALT ... which sample antigen from the lumen and deliver it to the lymphoid tissue. MALT constitute about 50% of the lymphoid tissue in ... The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), also called mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue, is a diffuse system of small ...
... the palatine tonsils are viewed in some classifications as belonging to both the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and the ... mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Other viewpoints treat them (and the spleen and thymus) as large lymphatic organs ... The tonsils are a set of lymphoid organs facing into the aerodigestive tract, which is known as Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and ... When used unqualified, the term most commonly refers specifically to the palatine tonsils, which are two lymphoid organs ...
April 2008). "Chromosomal instability in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: a fluorescent in situ ... The tissue preparation starts by collecting the appropriate tissue sections to perform RNA FISH. First, cells, circulating ... RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA in tissues ... The use of ethanol washes are typically used at this stage to reduce autofluorescence in tissues or cells. At the end of the ...
Inflamed lymphoid tissue from a viral infection, parasites, gallstone, or tumors may also cause the blockage. This blockage ... reduced blood flow to the appendix and distention of the appendix causes tissue injury and tissue death. If this process is ... the surgeon removes the infected tissue and cuts the appendix from the surrounding tissue. After careful and close inspection ... Periappendicitis, inflammation of tissues around the appendix, is often found in conjunction with other abdominal pathology. ...
Steinman, R. M.; Cohn, Z. A. (1973). "Identification of a Novel Cell Type in Peripheral Lymphoid Organs of Mice: I. Morphology ... Quantitation, Tissue Distribution". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 137 (5): 1142-62. doi:10.1084/jem.137.5.1142. PMC 2139237 ...
Microfold cells (commonly referred to as M cells) sample antigens from the lumen and deliver them to the lymphoid tissue ... Sarmento, Bruno (30 September 2015). Concepts and Models for Drug Permeability Studies: Cell and Tissue based In Vitro Culture ... epithelial invaginations into the underlying connective tissue). After being formed at the base, the new cells migrate upwards ...
Changes in the lymphoid compartment are not solely responsible for the malfunctioning of the immune system. Although myeloid ... Coenzyme NAD+ is reduced in various tissues in an age-dependent manner, and thus redox potential associated changes seem to be ... Hakim FT, Gress RE (September 2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in the elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3 ...
... and the independent evolution of different populations of HIV in lymphoid tissues and the brain. These studies have had a broad ...
The identification of these changes in tissue samples can assist in making the diagnosis of PEL. In classical cavitary cases, ... Gastrointestinal track lesions often occur as multiple lymphoid polyps in the large intestine. At diagnosis, more than 50% of ... Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018). "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoid proliferations, a 2018 update". Human ... This lymphoma also belongs to a group of lymphoid neoplasms with plasmablastic differentiation that involve malignant ...
18 September 2017). WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. ISBN 978-92-832-4494-3. OCLC ... aggressive lymphomas that develop from mature white blood cells and originate from lymphoid tissues outside of the bone marrow ... "WHO Classification Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues", published in 2008. A revision was made in 2016 to update ... After extraction, the tissue is processed and viewed under a microscope to examine the presence of lymphoma cells. Some of the ...
... is scattered along mucosal linings in the human body and constitutes the most extensive component of human lymphoid tissue. ... encoded search term (Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas (MALTomas)) and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas ( ... nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), and vulvovaginal-associated lymphoid tissue (VALT). Additional MALT exists within the ... MALT is understood to include gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), bronchial/tracheal-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), ...
... is scattered along mucosal linings in the human body and constitutes the most extensive component of human lymphoid tissue. ... encoded search term (Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas (MALTomas)) and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas ( ... Hamzaoui N, Pringault E. Interaction of microorganisms, epithelium, and lymphoid cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ... Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas (MALTomas) Guidelines. Updated: Jan 21, 2022 * Author: Sara J Grethlein, MD, MBA, ...
Ectopic lymphoid follicles are hallmarks of chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), ... Th17 cells induce ectopic lymphoid follicles in central nervous system tissue inflammation Immunity. 2011 Dec 23;35(6):986-96. ... Thus, Th17 cells are uniquely endowed to induce tissue inflammation, characterized by ectopic lymphoid follicles within the ... Th17 cells specifically induced ectopic lymphoid follicles in the central nervous system (CNS). Development of ectopic lymphoid ...
Histological and cytological typing of neoplastic diseases of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues / G. Mathé, H. Rappaport, in ... 1976)‎. Histological and cytological typing of neoplastic diseases of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues / G. Mathé, H. ...
... Pakistan Journal of Biological ... Lymphoid Tissues in the Digestive Tract of Deshi Chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Bangladesh. ...
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma was once thought to be an indolent disease localised to one tissue origin, but ... Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a relatively rare disease with an annual incidence estimated at 1/313 000; MALT ... Multifocal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma involving the lungs and the stomach: a rare clinical entity: a case ... 1. Bacon CM, Du MQ, Dogan A. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma: a practical guide for pathologists. J Clin ...
WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues in 2008: An overview. Pathologica. 2010 Jun;102(3):83-87. ... Sabattini, E, Bacci, F, Sagramoso, C & Pileri, SA 2010, WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues ... WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues in 2008 : An overview. In: Pathologica. 2010 ; Vol. 102, ... WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues in 2008 : An overview. / Sabattini, E.; Bacci, F.; ...
In: Jaffe ES, Harris NL (eds.). Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon, France: IARC Press, pp. 157-60, 2001. ... Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is among the more common types of lymphoma and accounts for 7% of all newly ... Assessment of the Prognostic Indices IPI and FLIPI in Patients with Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma. MARLENE TROCH, ... Nongastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue. Blood 101: 2489-2495, 2003. ...
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an ... WHO Classification of Tumors of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 4th Edition, revised. Lyon, France: IARC; 2016. ... accounting for the presence of numerous tissue macrophages with their ingested tissue debris. These macrophages are often ... Small lymphoid cells with oval to slightly irregular nuclei and clumped chromatin and rare admixed pink histiocytes. View Media ...
WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues is a Revised 4th Edition Volume of the WHO series on ... WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. WHO Classification of Tumours, Revised 4th Edition, ... WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues ...
Increased lymphoid tissue apoptosis in baboons with bacteremic shock. In: Shock (Augusta, Ga.). 2004 ; Vol. 21, No. 6. pp. 566- ... Increased lymphoid tissue apoptosis in baboons with bacteremic shock. Shock (Augusta, Ga.). 2004 Jun;21(6):566-571. doi: ... Increased lymphoid tissue apoptosis in baboons with bacteremic shock.. Philip A. Efron, Kevin Tinsley, Douglas J. Minnich, ... Increased lymphoid tissue apoptosis in baboons with bacteremic shock. / Efron, Philip A.; Tinsley, Kevin; Minnich, Douglas J. ...
Irradiation of gut associated lymphoid tissue and immune response of guineapig.. Authors: Gupta, R M. Gupta, A. Gupta, I M. ... Irradiation of gut associated lymphoid tissue and immune response of guineapig. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1979 Jun; ...
WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues edited by Steven H. Swerdlow, Elias Campo, Nancy Lee ...
Pathology and genetics of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues / edited by Elaine S. Jaffe ... [et al.] Contributor(s ... Details for: Pathology and genetics of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues / ...
Tissue-specific features of human innate lymphoid cells.. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ... University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , Immunology and Medicine Seminars , Tissue-specific features of human innate lymphoid ...
Lymphoid tissues. Spleen. −. −. −. −. −. Tonsil. −. −. −. −. −. Parotid lymph nodes. −. −. −. −. −. Lateral retropharyngeal ... Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues Yoshifumi Iwamaru. , Morikazu Imamura, Yuichi Matsuura, ... Western blot detection of PrPres in tissue samples obtained from cattle intracerebrally challenged with BSE/JP24 prion* ... Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues. ...
In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stromal cells located beneath the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) abundantly ... In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stromal cells located beneath the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) abundantly ... In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stromal cells located beneath the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) abundantly ... In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stromal cells located beneath the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) abundantly ...
Induction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue by E. coli, and establishment of a method for its analysis in whole mouse lung ...
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with initial supradiaphragmatic presentation: Natural history and patterns of ... Dive into the research topics of Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with initial supradiaphragmatic presentation: ...
While they could be found in both lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues, ILCs are preferentially enriched in barrier tissues ... Establishment and function of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells in the skin[J]. Protein&Cell, 2017, 8(7): 489-500. doi: ... Establishment and function of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells in the skin[J]. Protein&Cell, 2017, 8(7): 489-500. doi: ... Establishment and function of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells in the skin[J]. Protein&Cell, 2017, 8(7): 489-500. doi: ...
The number of lymphocytes in other lymphoid tissues is also greatly reduced. The loss of infection-fighting cells results in ... Lymphocytes are produced in specialized lymphoid tissues. including the thymus, which is a gland located behind the breastbone ... Lymphocytes in the blood and in lymphoid tissues make up the immune system. ...
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... that move to injured tissue (such as the heart), and turn into dendritic cells and macrophages while promoting tissue healing. ... in the left upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity is a purple and gray organ and the largest accumulation of lymphoid tissue ... In our bodys lymphatic system, the Spleen like other lymphatic tissue, produces lymphocytes, especially in response to ... Lymphoid System. ⌊Lymphatic System. ⌊Lymphatic System Tissues & Components. ⌊Spleen Physiology. Lymphatic System Tissues & ...
Atypical lymphoid infiltrates arising in cutaneous lesions of connective tissue disease. Am J Dermatopathol. 1997 Oct; 19(5): ...
Klose CSN, Artis D. Innate lymphoid cells control signaling circuits to regulate tissue-specific immunity. Cell Res. 2020; 30: ... Type 2 immune responses promote tissue homeostasis as well as tissue remodeling and protect against infections with ... and TSLP are strong activators of type 2 inflammation in tissues via stimulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and ... Moro K, Yamada T, Tanabe M, […], Ohtani M, Fujii H, Koyasu S. Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated ...
Activated innate lymphoid cell populations accumulate in human tumour tissues Share Share Share ...
11) The lymphoid tissues that trap and remove bacteria that enter the throat are indicated by letter __________. ... 17) Peyers patches and the tonsils are part of the collection of small lymphoid tissues that protect the upper respiratory and ... 13) Excess accumulations of fluid, which impair the exchange of materials within the tissues, is called __________. ... 11) The lymphoid tissues that trap and remove bacteria that : 1221286. 11) The lymphoid tissues that trap and remove bacteria ...
... including the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), which may facilitate the release of leukocytes from these tissues into ... including the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), which may facilitate the release of leukocytes from these tissues into ... including the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), which may facilitate the release of leukocytes from these tissues into ... including the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), which may facilitate the release of leukocytes from these tissues into ...
  • Helicobacter pylori was not detected and the patient was treated as a case of isolated primary H pylori -negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with H pylori eradication followed by rituximab for eight cycles. (hkmj.org)
  • Histologically, MALT lymphoma is characterised by neoplastic cell infiltration around reactive secondary lymphoid follicles in a marginal zone distribution and centrocyte-like cells that are small-to-medium in size with small irregular nuclei. (hkmj.org)
  • No specific immunohistochemical marker has been identified for MALT lymphoma with different tissues of origin. (hkmj.org)
  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is among the more common types of lymphoma and accounts for 7% of all newly diagnosed lymphomas ( 1 ). (iiarjournals.org)
  • In view of the certain anatomic site-dependent frequency of chromosomal translocations involved in extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) pathogenesis, 17 salivary gland MALT lymphoma cases were analyzed for MALT1 and FOXP1 translocations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • [1] on primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the larynx in an Indian patient. (laryngologyandvoice.org)
  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (laryngologyandvoice.org)
  • These are often associated with cancer of the tissue of the thymus, called thymoma , or tissues arising from immature lymphocytes such as T cells, called lymphoma . (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, HP also plays an oncogenic role in the development of mucosa‑associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, that accounts for approximately 3% of all gastric tumors. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The most common histopathological features of gastric malignancies are adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Lymphoblastic lymphoma is a high-grade lymphoma, is composed of precursor T or B lymphoid cells, and can occur in all age groups but is more common in the young. (wisc.edu)
  • This lymphoma may originate in extranodal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) or in lymph nodes. (wisc.edu)
  • The sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma arises in the lymphoid tissues of the gut and the upper respiratory tract Footnote 8 . (canada.ca)
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) / lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL), also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia / lymphoma or acute lymphoid leukemia, is a cancer of precursor B-cell, T-cell, or other cell types in which immature lymphoid cells accumulate in blood, bone marrow, or other tissue. (logicalimages.com)
  • MALT1, BCL10 and FOXP1 in salivary gland mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. (ox.ac.uk)
  • While they could be found in both lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues, ILCs are preferentially enriched in barrier tissues such as the skin, intestine, and lung where they could play important roles in maintenance of tissue integrity and function and protection against assaults of foreign agents. (protein-cell.org)
  • These two monoclonals also reacted with some reticular elements in rat lymphoid organs including epithelial cells in the thymic medulla and follicular dendritic cells in the lymphoid germinal centre, as well as with the specialized endothelium in the marginal sinuses of the spleen and post-capillary venules of the lymph node, where lymphocyte recirculation takes place. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Reticular connective tissue forms the framework for most of the lymphoid organs. (histology-world.com)
  • Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) include lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer's patches, and mucosal tissues such as the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, adenoids, and tonsils. (aai.org)
  • The relative importance of these factors varies between the individual lymphoid organs. (aai.org)
  • The sites of organized lymphoid cell accumulations are termed primary and secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) 3 . (aai.org)
  • Diverse populations of functionally mature but naive lymphocytes are generated in the absence of foreign Ags in the primary lymphoid organs (thymus, fetal liver, and bone marrow). (aai.org)
  • Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) or, more accurately, tertiary lymphoid tissues are accumulations of lymphoid cells that arise in the adult. (aai.org)
  • Pdp was also crucial for the development of secondary lymphoid structures: Pdp-deficient mice lacked peripheral lymph nodes and had a defect in forming normal lymphoid follicles and germinal centers in spleen and lymph node remnants. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic leukemia (SLL) is a neoplasm composed of monomorphic small, round to slightly irregular B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes, admixed with prolymphocytes and paraimmunoblasts forming proliferation centers in tissue infiltrates. (medscape.com)
  • In our body's lymphatic system , the Spleen (Lien) located in the left upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity is a purple and gray organ and the largest accumulation of lymphoid tissue in the body, supported by four principal splenic ligaments ( splenorenal , phrenicocolic , gastrosplenic , colicosplenic ). (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • In our body's lymphatic system , the Spleen is an important immune organ that has antitumor activity and an abundance of blood cells, a small amount of which are afferent lymphatic cells, which contains half of the body's monocytes in it's red pulp, that move to injured tissue (such as the heart), and turn into dendritic cells and macrophages while promoting tissue healing. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • In our body's lymphatic system , the Spleen like other lymphatic tissue, produces lymphocytes, especially in response to invading pathogens. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • D47.Z9 is a billable ICD-10 code used to specify a medical diagnosis of other specified neoplasms of uncertain behavior of lymphoid, hematopoietic and related tissue. (icdlist.com)
  • Less discretely anatomically defined cellular accumulations include the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, cryptopatches, and isolated lymphoid follicles. (aai.org)
  • therefore, MALT is understood to include gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), bronchial/tracheal-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), and vulvovaginal-associated lymphoid tissue (VALT). (medscape.com)
  • In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stromal cells located beneath the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) abundantly express the Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1). (elsevier.com)
  • Rhythmic compressions on the abdomen during LPT compress the abdominal area, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), which may facilitate the release of leukocytes from these tissues into the lymphatic circulation. (unthsc.edu)
  • Additionally, surrounding your intestines is the "Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue" or GALT. (myvalleyschools.org)
  • Lymphocytes in the blood and in lymphoid tissues make up the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The number of lymphocytes in other lymphoid tissues is also greatly reduced. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gross examination noted an abnormally hard lacrimal gland and pathology revealed intraglandular follicular lymphoid hyperplasia with no phenotypically abnormal lymphocytes on flow cytometric analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • Le pourcentage de CD44 dans les lymphocytes T périphériques était significativement plus élevé chez les patients que chez les témoins, comme détecté par la cytométrie en flux. (who.int)
  • This tissue generates white blood cells known as lymphocytes that help mount immune system responses to invading germs, suggesting the appendix may help make, direct and train these immune cells, evolutionary biologist Heather F. Smith at Midwestern University in Glendale, Arizona, told Live Science. (livescience.com)
  • MALT may consist of a collection of lymphoid cells, or it may include small solitary lymph nodes. (medscape.com)
  • The roles of the M cells include absorption, transport, processing, and presentation of antigens to subepithelial lymphoid cells. (medscape.com)
  • M cells in the intestinal epithelium overlying Peyer patches allow transport of antigens to the lymphoid tissue beneath it. (medscape.com)
  • Hamzaoui N, Pringault E. Interaction of microorganisms, epithelium, and lymphoid cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. (medscape.com)
  • Here we showed that in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, Th17 cells specifically induced ectopic lymphoid follicles in the central nervous system (CNS). (nih.gov)
  • Development of ectopic lymphoid follicles was partly dependent on the cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17) and on the cell surface molecule Podoplanin (Pdp), which was expressed on Th17 cells, but not on other effector T cell subsets. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, Th17 cells are uniquely endowed to induce tissue inflammation, characterized by ectopic lymphoid follicles within the target organ. (nih.gov)
  • Histology showed sheets of small abnormal lymphoid cells with pale cytoplasm and cleaved nuclear outline, strongly positive for CD20 and CD79a, and negative for CD3, CD5, CD23, CD10, CD43, and Cyclin-D1. (hkmj.org)
  • talks.cam : Tissue-specific features of human innate lymphoid cells. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Establishment and function of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells in the skin[J]. Protein&Cell, 2017, 8(7): 489-500. (protein-cell.org)
  • Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a newly classified family of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage. (protein-cell.org)
  • Klose CSN , Artis D. Innate lymphoid cells control signaling circuits to regulate tissue-specific immunity. (re-thinking-health.de)
  • Moro K, Yamada T, Tanabe M, […], Ohtani M, Fujii H, Koyasu S. Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells. (re-thinking-health.de)
  • Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis. (re-thinking-health.de)
  • IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) is a relatively recently recognized ocular inflammatory entity characterized by the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into tissues, typically ocular muscles. (hindawi.com)
  • The Centre was established to investigate the therapeutic use of stem cells in tissue repair and disease. (edu.au)
  • In the medulla, the network of epithelial cells is coarser than in the cortex, and the lymphoid cells are relatively fewer in number. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Lagasse laboratory, after working on a project that investigated the modulation of the mTOR pathway to deplete cancer stem cells in human colorectal cancer, Dr. Francipane focused on a project investigating lymph node's ability to support the functional maturation of candidate cell sources for kidney tissue engineering. (asn-online.org)
  • Understanding LN remodeling and adaptation upon tissue transplantation could prove valuable in future endeavors to create a niche for human kidney cells. (asn-online.org)
  • The B-cell population constitutes 20% of the lymphoid gated events and T-cells constitute the majority of the lymphoid gated events. (cap.org)
  • Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms of lymphoid cells and are divided into Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. (wisc.edu)
  • and Sara Nunes Vasconcelos , a scientist at UHN's Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, are using stem cells to generate tissues containing insulin-secreting cells for transplants. (utoronto.ca)
  • Blocking the Fc receptors is necessary for proper typing of lymphoid and tumor tissues and cells. (biorag.org)
  • Basophils circulate, mast cells found in tissue. (kupdf.net)
  • Mast cells: BM derived cells, differentiate in blood and connective tissue. (kupdf.net)
  • In the nodule biopsy, lymph node structure is destroyed, completely effaced by intermediate-sized monotonous lymphoid cells with round nuclei and abundant mitosis. (researchsquare.com)
  • Diagnosis usually requires the presence of over 20% lymphoblasts in the peripheral blood and/or the presence of bone marrow or tissue infiltrate of immature cells with confirmation of lymphoid lineage by flow cytometry and/or cytochemistry. (logicalimages.com)
  • Participating in the process are lymphoid tissue initiator, lymphoid tissue inducer, and lymphoid tissue organizer cells. (aai.org)
  • In fact, adenoviruses are one of the most common vectors in use in gene therapy clinical trials because they are easy to work with, safe and are efficient at delivering genes to cells and tissues in the body. (ukri.org)
  • For the formation of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells are crucial in triggering stromal cells to recruit and retain hematopoietic cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Recent progress in tissue executive and regenerative medicine has adopted the concept of utilizing endogenous cells for tissue regeneration. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • The theory of tissue regeneration is usually to utilize the body's own biologic resources and its reparative capability by using a target-specific biomaterial system to sponsor host stem or tissue-specific progenitor cells to the site of injury. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • When scaffolds incorporated with bioactive molecules are implanted tissue regeneration, particularly focusing on the strategies that enhance host stem or progenitor cells into the target-specific scaffolds, and present some of the applications of tissue regeneration. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • Basic considerations for tissue regeneration The success of tissue regeneration relies on effective recruitment of host stem or progenitor cells into the implanted biomaterial scaffolds and induction of the infiltrating cells into tissue-specific cell lineages for functional tissue regeneration. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • In response to regulatory signals that originate from tissue injury, these originate cells become activated and begin fixing process. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • In addition to tissue-specific adult stem cells that are primarily responsible for tissue regeneration processes, bone marrow-derived stem cells have been recognized as important cell sources that contribute their regenerating capacity to other tissues. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • HSCs are responsible for the production of all circulating blood cells such as myeloid, erthyroid and lymphoid lineages. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry on frozen section of swine colon showing positive staining in connective tissue cells and no reactivity in epithelial cells. (biod.co.kr)
  • Immunohistochemistry on a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded section of human placenta showing positive staining in connective tissue cells and no reactivity in epithelial cells. (biod.co.kr)
  • Red blood cells that carry oxygen and other substances to all tissues of the body. (cancer.gov)
  • The importance of tracking cells throughout the circulatory system, including those of hematopoietic origin, derives from the impact of mobile cells on tissue injury and repair, and the remote targeting of pathological processes such as inflammatory involvement of the heart, lung and blood vessels. (nih.gov)
  • These cytokines have been grouped as Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) based on their expression pattern and effects on target cells or tissues [ 5 ]. (rroij.com)
  • IL-2 is a potent lymphoid cell growth factor which exerts its biological activity primarily on T cells, promoting proliferation and maturation. (biolegend.com)
  • Peripheral" means the cancer developed from lymphoid tissue outside the thymus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • By the early teens, the thymus begins to decrease in size and activity and the tissue of the thymus is gradually replaced by fatty tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet LNs are also a fundamental tissue in the development, progression and treatment failure of several mature lymphomas/leukemias, especially for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) ( 2 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Major accumulations of lymphoid tissue are found in the lamina propria of the intestine. (medscape.com)
  • WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues is a Revised 4th Edition Volume of the WHO series on histological and genetic typing of human tumours. (who.int)
  • Similar signals regulate the transition from inflammation to ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues. (aai.org)
  • Ectopic lymphoid follicles are hallmarks of chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and western blot were performed on brain and lymphoid tissues to assess for PrPSc accumulation. (usda.gov)
  • Classic scrapie may also show the widespread accumulation of PrP Sc in peripheral tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Our patient initially presented with a history of recurrent painful flares of orbital inflammation, a pathologic diagnosis follicular lymphoid hyperplasia from a right lacrimal gland biopsy, and MRI imaging noting expansion of the lateral rectus muscle of the right eye. (hindawi.com)
  • IgG4-ROD may be responsible for a significant proportion of what had previously been labeled idiopathic orbital inflammation/reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and should be in the differential for patients found to have ocular adnexal inflammation [ 2 , 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Pathology of the lateral recuts also demonstrated intramuscular follicular lymphoid hyperplasia. (hindawi.com)
  • 1998). Airway bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue hyperplasia, and peribron- responses have been induced after inhalation challenge with chiolar plasma cell infiltrates. (cdc.gov)
  • It markedly reduces the frequency of bacterial infections and reduces the likelihood of developing lymphoid hyperplasia. (modegame.online)
  • The tonsils are two areas of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the throat. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Demonstration of immunoglobulin light chain restriction is also helpful to exclude reactive lymphoid infiltrate. (hkmj.org)
  • Repeat fibre-optic bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy revealed respiratory mucosa with diffuse dense lymphoid proliferation in the stroma. (hkmj.org)
  • The Centre supports studies in the broader field of regenerative medicine and stem cell biology, combining stem cell science, biomaterials, tissue engineering, tissue regeneration, intelligent drug delivery, immunity and inflammation, and advanced surgery. (edu.au)
  • Thus, the virus-specific immune response induced in human milk after immunization with rubella virus vaccine may be intimately linked with the reactivity in bronchial lymphoid tissue. (wordpress.com)
  • Necropsy was performed immediately with subsequent immunohistochemical staining of lymphoid tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • Characteristically, the fibrous capsule shows a dense lymphoid tissue, with germinal centers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fig. 1: Global transcriptomic shift at blast crisis towards myeloid or lymphoid lineage. (nature.com)
  • Atypical lymphoid infiltrates arising in cutaneous lesions of connective tissue disease. (ouhsc.edu)
  • lesions in skeletal muscles, lymphoid tissue and liver (2). (cdc.gov)
  • We also want to know exactly how the coagulation factor delivers the virus to the liver and whether modifying this pathway can lead to the development of gene therapies which are more efficient at delivering to other tissues in the body other than the liver, and this will broaden the use of the virus for treating patients through gene therapy. (ukri.org)
  • Bone marrow & Lymphoid tissues Brain Breast and female reproductive system Connective & Soft tissue Endocrine tissues Eye Gastrointestinal tract Kidney & Urinary bladder Liver & Gallbladder Lymphoid Male reproductive system Muscle tissues Myeloid Pancreas Proximal digestive tract Respiratory system Skin * nTPM: Normalized TPM levels represent consensus gene expression calculated using two data sets. (antibodypedia.com)
  • Malignant neoplasms of ectopic tissue are to be coded to the site mentioned, e.g., ectopic pancreatic malignant neoplasms are coded to pancreas, unspecified ( C25.9 ). (icd10data.com)
  • RV202 is suitable for immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry on frozen and paraffin-embedded tissues, and flow cytometry. (biod.co.kr)
  • The cancer is limited to one lymph node or lymphoid organ. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The lymph node (LN) is an essential tissue for achieving effective immune responses but it is also critical in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (frontiersin.org)
  • Resulting cellular activation collectively contribute to tissue destruction and bone resorption with the release of inflammatory mediators like cytokines, chemokines etc. [ 4 ]. (rroij.com)
  • We can optimize cell types and engineer effective tissues in our separate labs. (utoronto.ca)
  • This novel approach would allow for a damaged tissue to be regenerated without the need for cell transplantation (Physique 1). (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • A blood stem cell may become a myeloid stem cell or a lymphoid stem cell. (cancer.gov)
  • A lymphoid stem cell becomes a white blood cell . (cancer.gov)
  • In 1924, a filterable agent from human brain tissue was isolated in rabbits and in 1934, Hayashi transmitted the disease experimentally to monkeys by intracerebral inoculation (9). (cdc.gov)
  • they had positive results for examination of brain, but negative for peripheral tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Although early studies of atypical scrapie did not show PrP Sc or infectivity outside the brain, recent data indicate that peripheral tissues from naturally infected animals can harbor infectivity either in the presence or absence of PrP Sc ( 22 ). (cdc.gov)
  • At the end of the treatment, blood samples had been drawn, and renal and hepatic tissues have been excised from the experimental mice groups for hematological and histological examinations. (springeropen.com)
  • Detection of infectivity in tissues negative by current surveillance methods indicates that diagnostic sensitivity is suboptimal for atypical scrapie, and potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunohistologic analysis of tissues from the septic baboons revealed marked systemic lymphocyte apoptosis occurring in all lymphoid tissues examined. (elsevier.com)
  • The results demonstrate major dissociations for these parameters of X-MuLV expression in different lymphoid compartments and suggest that factors involved in T lymphocyte differentiation modify the levels of expression in these two modes. (aai.org)
  • However, with all these evidences of NPTCL-TFH, the tissue weirdly expressed CD20, a B lymphocyte maturing marker. (researchsquare.com)
  • Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and scrapie of sheep and goats have a similar tissue distribution of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) and prion disease exposure across species could occur in pasture or range situations. (usda.gov)
  • Serotonin, a known neurotransmitter, has recently emerged as a tumor growth factor for several human cancers through interaction with its receptors (5-HTR 1-7), which are widely expressed across a range of tissues [ 1 , 2 ]. (silverchair.com)
  • SLO development depends on the precisely regulated expression of cooperating lymphoid chemokines and cytokines such as LTα, LTβ, RANKL, TNF, IL-7, and perhaps IL-17. (aai.org)