Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.
Non-hematopoietic cells, with extensive dendritic processes, found in the primary and secondary follicles of lymphoid tissue (the B cell zones). They are different from conventional DENDRITIC CELLS associated with T-CELLS. They are derived from MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS and are negative for class II MHC antigen and do not process or present antigen like the conventional dendritic cells do. Instead, follicular dendritic cells have FC RECEPTORS and C3B RECEPTORS that hold antigen in the form of ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES on their surfaces for long periods for recognition by B-CELLS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.
A species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria found in the gastric mucosa that is associated with chronic antral gastritis. This bacterium was first discovered in samples removed at endoscopy from patients investigated for HELICOBACTER PYLORI colonization.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein (PRIONS).
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A heterotrimer complex consisting of one molecule of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and two molecules of the LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA. It is anchored to the cell surface via the transmembrane domains of the lymphotoxin-beta component and has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR. The lymphotoxin alpha1, beta2 heterotrimer plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Enlargement of the thymus. A condition described in the late 1940's and 1950's as pathological thymic hypertrophy was status thymolymphaticus and was treated with radiotherapy. Unnecessary removal of the thymus was also practiced. It later became apparent that the thymus undergoes normal physiological hypertrophy, reaching a maximum at puberty and involuting thereafter. The concept of status thymolymphaticus has been abandoned. Thymus hyperplasia is present in two thirds of all patients with myasthenia gravis. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992; Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1486)
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Macrophages found in the TISSUES, as opposed to those found in the blood (MONOCYTES) or serous cavities (SEROUS MEMBRANE).
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.

Tissue specific expression and chromosomal mapping of a human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. (1/2713)

A human cDNA for UDP- N -acetylglucosamine:alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1,4- N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-IV) was isolated from a liver cDNA library using a probe based on a partial cDNA sequence of the bovine GnT-IV. The cDNA encoded a complete sequence of a type II membrane protein of 535 amino acids which is 96% identical to the bovine GnT-IV. Transient expression of the human cDNA in COS7 cells increased total cellular GnT-IV activity 25-fold, demonstrating that this cDNA encodes a functional human GnT-IV. Northern blot analysis of normal tissues indicated that at least five different sizes of mRNA (9.7, 7.6, 5.1, 3.8, and 2.4 kb) forGnT-IV are expressed in vivo. Furthermore, these mRNAs are expressed at different levels between tissues. Large amounts of mRNA were detected in tissues harboring T lineage cells. Also, the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and the lymphoblastic leukemia cell line MOLT-4 revealed abundant mRNA. Lastly, the gene was mapped at the locus on human chromosome 2, band q12 by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  (+info)

The effects of a t-allele (tAE5) in the mouse on the lymphoid system and reproduction. (2/2713)

Mice homozygous for tAE5, a recessive allele at the complex T-locus, are characterized by their unique short-tailed phenotype as well as by runting and low fertility. Histological and histochemical studies of the lymphoid and reproductive systems disclosed structural changes in the mutant spleen resembling those found in autoimmune conditions. Involution of the mutant thymus was greatly accelerated compared to normal. Necrotic changes occurred during spermiogenesis whereas ovarian structure was normal in mutants. The possible mechanisms of the mutant effects are discussed in the framework of other similar syndromes and the mode of action of alleles at the complex T-locus.  (+info)

Cytotoxicity is mandatory for CD8(+) T cell-mediated contact hypersensitivity. (3/2713)

Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a T cell-mediated skin inflammation induced by epicutaneous exposure to haptens in sensitized individuals. We have previously reported that CHS to dinitrofluorobenzene in mice is mediated by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we show that CD8(+) T cells mediate the skin inflammation through their cytotoxic activity. The contribution of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to the CHS reaction was examined both in vivo and in vitro, using mice deficient in perforin and/or Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathways involved in cytotoxicity. Mice double deficient in perforin and FasL were able to develop hapten-specific CD8(+) T cells in the lymphoid organs but did not show CHS reaction. However, they did not generate hapten-specific CTLs, demonstrating that the CHS reaction is dependent on cytotoxic activity. In contrast, Fas-deficient lpr mice, FasL-deficient gld mice, and perforin-deficient mice developed a normal CHS reaction and were able to generate hapten-specific CTLs, suggesting that CHS requires either the Fas/FasL or the perforin pathway. This was confirmed by in vitro studies showing that the hapten-specific CTL activity was exclusively mediated by MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells which could use either the perforin or the Fas/FasL pathway for their lytic activity. Thus, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, commonly implicated in the host defence against tumors and viral infections, could also mediate harmful delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

Glycoconjugate expression in follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in specific pathogen-free and conventional rats. (4/2713)

We examined lectin-histochemically the glycoconjugate expression in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in the rat under specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional (CV) conditions and compared the results for SPF and CV rats as well as for membranous (M) cells and adjacent ciliated respiratory epithelial (CRE) cells in FAE. N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectins, Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Glycine max (SBA) and Vicia villosa (VVA), and alpha-L-fucose-specific lectin, Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), preferentially bound to M cells mainly in the luminal surface compared with CRE cells in SPF rats, whereas DBA and UEA-I showed signs of preferential binding to the apical and basolateral cytoplasm as well as to the luminal surface of M cells in CV rats. In addition, HPA, SBA and VVA more frequently and extensively labeled M cells than CRE cells in CV rats with the same subcellular staining pattern as DBA and UEA-I. On the whole, the changes in lectin binding frequency and strength were more prominent in M cells than in CRE cells in both SPF and CV rats. The present results indicate that DBA and UEA-I are useful as markers of M cells in NALT. Furthermore, the pattern of expression of carbohydrate residues recognized by such lectins in SPF and CV rats suggests that M cells are highly sensitive to environmental changes.  (+info)

Targeted deletion of the IgA constant region in mice leads to IgA deficiency with alterations in expression of other Ig isotypes. (5/2713)

A murine model of IgA deficiency has been established by targeted deletion of the IgA switch and constant regions in embryonic stem cells. B cells from IgA-deficient mice were incapable of producing IgA in vitro in response to TGF-beta. IgA-deficient mice expressed higher levels of IgM and IgG in serum and gastrointestinal secretions and decreased levels of IgE in serum and pulmonary secretions. Expression of IgG subclasses was complex, with the most consistent finding being an increase in IgG2b and a decrease in IgG3 in serum and secretions. No detectable IgA Abs were observed following mucosal immunization against influenza; however, compared with those in wild-type mice, increased levels of IgM Abs were seen in both serum and secretions. Development of lymphoid tissues as well as T and B lymphocyte function appeared normal otherwise. Peyer's patches in IgA-deficient mice were well developed with prominent germinal centers despite the absence of IgA in these germinal centers or intestinal lamina propria. Lymphocytes from IgA-deficient mice responded to T and B cell mitogens comparable to those of wild-type mice, while T cells from IgA-deficient mice produced comparable levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 mRNA and protein. In conclusion, mice with targeted deletion of the IgA switch and constant regions are completely deficient in IgA and exhibit altered expression of other Ig isotypes, notably IgM, IgG2b, IgG3, and IgE, but otherwise have normal lymphocyte development, proliferative responses, and cytokine production.  (+info)

Activation in vivo of retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus, a simian homologue of human herpesvirus-8. (6/2713)

Retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus of rhesus macaques (RFHVMm) is a gammaherpesvirus closely related to human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), which is thought to be a necessary cofactor for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in humans. Here, RFHVMm infection of rhesus macaques exposed to the D-type retrovirus simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) is described. Development of SRV-2 viraemia, infection with simian immunodeficiency virus or administration of cyclosporin A could result in persistent RFHVMm viraemia. From this, it is concluded that productive retrovirus infection or otherwise-induced immune suppression has the ability to activate this herpesvirus in vivo. Elevated levels of circulating interleukin-6, a cytokine that plays a central role in KS, were found in RFHVMm-viraemic animals. In viraemic animals, RFHVMm was found in tissues that are common sites for the development of AIDS-associated KS, especially the oral cavity. Together, these data suggest a common biology between RFHVMm infection of macaques and HHV-8 infection and pathogenesis in humans.  (+info)

Immunological control of a murine gammaherpesvirus independent of CD8+ T cells. (7/2713)

Adult thymectomized C57 BL/6J mice were depleted of T cell subsets by MAb treatment either prior to, or after, respiratory challenge with murine gammaherpesvirus-68. Protection against acute infection was maintained when either the CD4+ or the CD8+ T cell population was greatly diminished, whereas the concurrent removal of both T cell subsets proved invariably fatal. The same depletions had little effect on mice with established infection. The results indicate firstly that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells play a significant part in dealing with the acute infection, and secondly that virus-specific antibody contributes to controlling persistent infection with this gammaherpesvirus.  (+info)

Chronic modulation of the TCR repertoire in the lymphoid periphery. (8/2713)

Using TCR V beta 5 transgenic mice as a model system, we demonstrate that the induction of peripheral tolerance can mold the TCR repertoire throughout adult life. In these mice, three distinct populations of peripheral T cells are affected by chronic selective events in the lymphoid periphery. First, CD4+V beta 5+ T cells are deleted in the lymphoid periphery by superantigens encoded by mouse mammary tumor viruses-8 and -9 in an MHC class II-dependent manner. Second, mature CD8+V beta 5+ T cells transit through a CD8lowV beta 5low deletional intermediate during tolerance induction by a process that depends upon neither mouse mammary tumor virus-encoded superantigens nor MHC class II expression. Third, a population of CD4-CD8-V beta 5+ T cells arises in the lymphoid periphery in an age-dependent manner. We analyzed the TCR V alpha repertoire of each of these cellular compartments in both V beta 5 transgenic and nontransgenic C57BL/6 mice as a function of age. This analysis revealed age-related changes in the expression of V alpha families among different cellular compartments, highlighting the dynamic state of the peripheral immune repertoire. Our work indicates that the chronic processes maintaining peripheral T cell tolerance can dramatically shape the available TCR repertoire.  (+info)

Background Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are leukocytes aggregates forming in non-lymphoid tissues in response to chronic inflammation. Salivary glands (SG) of patients with Sjögrens syndrome (SS) develop TLS characterised by B/T cell compartmentalization, specialised vasculature (HEV), functional B cell activation and local differentiation of autoreactive plasma cells. Although TLS presence in SS SG associates with an aggressive disease progression, the mechanisms triggering their formation in SS are largely unknown. We recently developed a model of inducible TLS formation, breach of self-tolerance and salivary hypofunction upon delivery of a replication-deficient adenovirus-5 (AdV5) into C57BL/6 mice SG. In this model, 3 weeks after infection, we observed fully formed and functional TLS, breach of self-tolerance and loss of salivary function.. Here we characterised the presence, function and relevance in TLS formation of the myeloid compartment in the first month post-infection. ...
Age-related changes of the dopamine nerve fibres of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) were investigated in male Wistar rats of 3 months (young), and 24 months (old/aged). Dopamine histofluorescence techniques have been used, associated with image analysis for the detection of dopamine nerve fibres. In young rats, white, fluorescent nerve fibres supply BALT. This tissue is innervated by a delicate network of nerve fibres rich in varicosities. In old rats these fluorescent nerve fibres are strongly reduced. Moreover, dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stained using fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The BALT of young rats possesses a higher number of D1a and D1b receptors, while, in the old rats, these receptors are strongly reduced. The possible significance of reduced dopamine neurotransmission in BALT of aged rats is discussed.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) exert various suppressive mechanisms to dampen the host immune response which can help tumor cells to escape immune surveillance. However, the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating Tregs (Ti-Tregs) is controversial based on the expression of FoxP3 marker in cancer patients. Here, we decipher the phenotype of Tregs infiltrating human lung cancer to determine their role in shaping the immune response against tumor cells. Our aim was to study the differentiation, activation, and immunosuppression status of Ti-Tregs in different areas of human lung tumors. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections for CD3 and FoxP3 stainings, and phenotypic analysis was carried out on fresh human lung cancer specimens (n=50) by flow cytometry. In lung cancer patients, Ti-Tregs localize in the different part of the tumor i.e. tumor nests, stroma, and tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS). Ti-Tregs are CD4+ and show central-memory and effector-memory phenotype. ...
Low-grade, small cell lymphoma/Primary pulmonary lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) (B-cell type). Low-grade, B-cell lymphomas are believed to be derived from cells of the marginal zone of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. These cell spend their lives in BALT, regional lymph nodes, and the blood where they may visit other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue before homing to BALT (see diagram).. ...
The development of lymphoid organs depends on cross talk between hematopoietic cells and mesenchymal stromal cells and on vascularization of the lymphoid primordia. These processes are orchestrated by cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic factors that require tight spatiotemporal regulation. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are molecules designed to specifically bind and regulate the bioactivity of soluble protein ligands. Their binding capacity and specificity are controlled by modification of the HS side chain by HS-modifying enzymes. Although HS proteoglycans have been implicated in the morphogenesis of several organ systems, their role in controlling lymphoid organ development has thus far remained unexplored. In this study, we report that modification of HS by the HS-modifying enzyme glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Glce), which controls HS chain flexibility, is required for proper lymphoid organ development. Glce(-/-) mice show a strongly reduced size of the fetal spleen as well as a spectrum of ...
Lymphocytes from LN and spleen of 3-4-mo-old NOD mice were labeled by incubating 2 × 107 cells/ml with 0.8 μg/ml TRITC in labeling medium (50% RPMI 1640, 48.5% HBSS, and 1.5% BCS) at 37°C for 15 min (19). Similarly, rat LN and spleen lymphocytes were labeled with 4 μM CFSE as described previously for TRITC (20). The cells were centrifuged through BCS, washed, and resuspended in transfer medium (DMEM with 10 mM Hepes, and 1% BCS).. To block endothelial adhesion molecules, each host mouse received 500 μg intravenously of anti-endothelial adhesion molecule or control mAb, followed 30 min later by 5 × 107 TRITC-labeled mouse cells intravenously. To block lymphocyte adhesion molecules, TRITC-labeled mouse cells were treated with 10 μg/ml anti-lymphocyte adhesion molecule or control mAb on ice for 10 min; 5 × 107 mouse cells and 108 CFSE-labeled rat cells were transferred intravenously into each host. The rat cells, which do not react with the anti-mouse lymphocyte adhesion molecule mAbs used ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organized lymphatic tissue (BALT) in lungs of rhesus monkeys after air pollutant exposure. AU - Pabst, Reinhard. AU - Miller, Lisa A.. AU - Schelegle, Edward. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - The presence of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and its size in humans largely depends upon age. It is detected in 35% of children less than 2 years of age, but absent in the healthy adult lung. Environmental gases or allergens may have an effect on the number of BALT. Lungs of rhesus macaque monkeys were screened by histology for the presence, size, and location of BALT after exposure to filtered air for 2, 6, 12, or 36 months or 12 and 36 months to ozone or 2, 12, or 36 months of house dust mite or a combination of ozone and house dust mite for 12 months. In the lungs of monkeys housed in filtered air for 2 months, no BALT was identified. After 6, 12, or 36 months, the number of BALT showed a significantly increased correlation with age in monkeys housed in ...
In this study, we found that PNAd plays an essential role in lymphocyte recruitment to a mucosal lymphoid tissue, NALT, and in the allergic immune responses after intranasal immunization. Previous studies from our laboratory and others indicated that PNAd plays an essential role in lymphocyte trafficking to PLNs but not to the PP mucosal lymphoid tissue (Kawashima et al., 2005; Uchimura et al., 2005). We also found that PNAd is involved in the regulation of lymphocyte subpopulations and the cytokine environment, both of which are critical for balancing immune responses in NALT.. Csencsits et al. (1999) showed that NALT HEVs of BALB/c mice were reactive with both MECA-79 and MECA-367 antibodies and that binding of lymphocytes to NALT HEVs was significantly inhibited by MEL-14, but not by MECA-367, in a Stamper-Woodruff ex vivo cell binding assay. Although the latter finding is consistent with our in vivo results, the former is not consistent with our results showing that the NALT HEVs of C57BL/6 ...
Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes influence colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, lymphocyte infiltration comes in different flavours and evidence has been provided that the spatial distribution of immune cells within the tumour tissue is an important immunological feature. The aim of this thesis was to investigate how the dual localization of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can affect their function in the tumour microenvironment. The project started with the analysis of the CD3 compartment, as CD3+ T cell infiltration (CD3-TILs) is a recognized positive prognostic factor for CRC patients. Results here presented show that CD3+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes are present both interspersed in the tumour tissue or scattered throughout the stroma (CD3-TILs) and also aggregated in lymphoid structures showing features of tertiary lymphoid tissue (CD3-TLT). Tumour-associated TLT had a peculiar compartmentalization, with CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B lymphocytes holding complementary positions ...
View Notes - Lecture 9b from ANT 511 at Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine. «I Llil ot a lymphoid nodule in the paletlne tonsil. Linde the stratified souamous epithelium iEpl that covers
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a principal cause of acute and chronic failure of lung allografts. However, mechanisms mediating this oftentimes fatal complication are poorly understood. Here, we show that Foxp3+ T cells formed aggregates in rejection-free human lung grafts and accumulated within induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of tolerant mouse lungs. Using a retransplantation model, we show that selective depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in the generation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and AMR, which was associated with complement deposition and destruction of airway epithelium. AMR was dependent on graft infiltration by B and T cells. Depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in prolonged interactions between B and CD4+ T cells within transplanted lungs, which was dependent on CXCR5-CXCL13. Blockade of CXCL13 as well as inhibition of the CD40 ligand and the ICOS ligand suppressed DSA production and prevented AMR. Thus, we ...
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a principal cause of acute and chronic failure of lung allografts. However, mechanisms mediating this oftentimes fatal complication are poorly understood. Here, we show that Foxp3+ T cells formed aggregates in rejection-free human lung grafts and accumulated within induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of tolerant mouse lungs. Using a retransplantation model, we show that selective depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in the generation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and AMR, which was associated with complement deposition and destruction of airway epithelium. AMR was dependent on graft infiltration by B and T cells. Depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in prolonged interactions between B and CD4+ T cells within transplanted lungs, which was dependent on CXCR5-CXCL13. Blockade of CXCL13 as well as inhibition of the CD40 ligand and the ICOS ligand suppressed DSA production and prevented AMR. Thus, we ...
Complete response: Absence lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly or splenomegaly & constitutional symptoms; Normal complete blood count (CBC) exhibited by polymorphonuclear leukocytes,1500/µL, platelets,100,000/µL, hemoglobin,11.0 g/dL (untransfused); lymphocyte count ,5,000/µL; Bone marrow aspirate & biopsy normocellular for age with ,30% nucleated cells lymphocytes; Absence Lymphoid nodules. Fulfillment CR criteria after induction with exception of treatment related persistent cytopenia & bone marrow lymphoid nodules both considered partial response; Partial response: Requires 50% decrease in peripheral lymphocytes from pre-treatment, 50% reduction in lymphadenopathy, &/or 50% reduction in splenomegaly/hepatomegaly for 2+ months from therapy completion. Additionally one following from pre-treatment: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes 1,500/µL or 50% improvement; Platelets,100,000/µL or 50% improvement; Hemoglobin,11.0 g/dL (untransfused) or 50% improvement ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Primary skin malignancy with features suggestive of dendritic reticulum cell differentiation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Innate lymphocytes (ILCs) are a recently described population of immune cells that produce cytokines like those associated with T helper cells but lack the recombined antigen receptors characteristic of T cells. Again, like some T helper cell lineages, a proportion of ILCs express the transcription factor RORγt. These include lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells required for fetal lymphoid tissue organogenesis and a population of natural killer (NK)-like cells that function in gut immune responses. Sawa et al. (see the Perspective by Veldhoen and Withers) wondered whether the RORγt-expressing ILCs all develop from the same progenitor population. Indeed, they found a fetal liver progenitor that gave rise to several phenotypically distinct populations. However, the LTi cells were not progenitors for the NK-like cells. It seems the trajectory of different ILC populations is developmentally regulated, and postnatally ILCs are favored that play a role in intestinal defense before the gut is fully ...
The tonsils and mucosa associated lymphoid tissues are not structurally organs; however, they function as secondary lymphoid organs because they are sites of…
GALT is a primary lymphoid tissue and a part of mucosal lymphoid system. This system acts as the first line of immune defense against ingested pathogen. Numerous reports are explained that there are considerable differences in GALT structure and distribution among various fish species and also in different parts of the gut.. This study was made on the 20 normal, mature and same size Barbus sharpeyi. For microscopical study, the samples were taken from anterior, middle and posterior parts of intestinal bulb and main intestine with maximum 0.5 cm thickness. The samples were fixed in Bouins fixative and the serial sections were made on by routine paraffin embedding and stained by H&E and PAS.. The results showed that the lymphoid tissue is present in two different types and in two areas of intestinal bulb and main intestine of Barbus sharpeyi. In the first type, the lymphoid cells were scattered in the mucosal epithelium and in the second type, the lymphoid cells were present as an aggregated ...
Immunology is a science that deals with the study of protection of the body from invasion by disease producing microorganisms. This state of protection of the body is called immunity. It is result of normally functioning immune system which is highly efficient but complex. This chapter covers the historical perspectives, structure and functions of immune system, lymphoid system, cells of immune system, macrophages, major histocompatibility, immune response, immunity, antigen, antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, lens proteins, human leukocyte antigens, and specialized proteins. Lymphoid system consists of lymphoid organs and lymphoid cells. Lymphoid organs are classified based on their function into central (primary) lymphoid organs and peripheral (secondary) lymphoid organs. Major histocompatibility (MHC) is also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. It is a collection of genes arrayed within a long continuous stretch of DNA on chromosome 6 in humans ...
The density-distribution patterns of various enzymes and of labeled materials have been determined by isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose-0.2 M KCl gradient on homogenates of lymphoid tissues from rats injected with Triton WR-1339, 14C-labeled dextran, 51Cr-labeled erythrocytes, and cortisol. The results confirm and extend the conclusion, derived from previous investigations on normal animals, that the lysosomes of lymphoid tissues form two and possibly three, distinct populations. The evidence indicates that the L19 population belongs to macrophages and the L15 group to lymphocytes. The L30 population appears to be associated with a special type of phagocyte with a high capacity for dextran storage. All three populations seem to contribute to the activities found in soluble form in homogenates of normal lymphoid tissues.. ...
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have a strong prognostic and predictive significance, particularly in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). One important source of TILs in breast cancer is tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs). Here, we performed histologic analysis of surgically resected TNBC to identify the location of TLSs, the relationship between TLSs and TILs, and their prognostic significance in TNBC. We retrospectively analyzed 769 patients with TNBC. TILs were defined as the percentage of stroma of invasive carcinoma infiltrated by lymphocytes. TLSs were mainly present within adjacent terminal duct lobular units and around in situ components. TNBC with higher levels of TILs showed a higher nuclear grade, lower lymphovascular invasion rate, less accompanying in situ component, a homogeneous growth pattern, necrosis in invasive areas, low levels of tumor stroma, high levels of peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration, and moderate to abundant TLSs in adjacent tissue. TILs, degree of ...
Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a promising therapeutic approach in different solid tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nonetheless, little is known about the immune-component of HCC or potential biomarkers of response to these therapies.. Aims: To perform comprehensive characterization of the HCC immunological profile and to identify biomarkers to select immunotherapy candidates.. Methods: We performed gene expression array deconvolution through non-negative matrix factorization in 228 resected HCCs. Characterization of the transcriptional landscape was conducted using ,1,000 signatures representing distinct immune cells by gene set enrichment and nearest template prediction analyses. Presence of immune infiltration, tertiary lymphoid structure (TLS), PD-1 and PD-L1 immunostainings was investigated using immunohistochemistry. DNA methylation profile of 450K CpG sites was analyzed to identify those with significant differences for each group. Extensive ...
Helmink BA, Reddy SM, Gao J, Zhang S, Basar R, Thakur R, Yizhak K, Sade-Feldman M, Blando J, Han G, Gopalakrishnan V, Xi Y, Zhao H, Amaria RN, Tawbi HA, Cogdill AP, Liu W, LeBleu VS, Kugeratski FG, Patel S, Davies MA, Hwu P, Lee JE, Gershenwald JE, Lucci A, Arora R, Woodman S, Keung EZ, Gaudreau PO, Reuben A, Spencer CN, Burton EM, Haydu LE, Lazar AJ, Zapassodi R, Hudgens CW, Ledesma DA, Ong S, Bailey M, Warren S, Rao D, Krijgsman O, Rozeman EA, Peeper D, Blank CU, Schumacher TN, Butterfield LH, Zelazowska MA, McBride KM, Kalluri R, Allison J, Petitprez F, Fridman WH, Sautès-Fridman C, Hacohen N, Rezvani K, Sharma P, Tetzlaff MT, Wang L, Wargo JA. B cells and tertiary lymphoid structures promote immunotherapy response. Nature. 2020 01; 577(7791):549-555 ...
CR is defined by at least 8 weeks of: 1)Absence of lymphadenopathy 2)No hepatomegaly or splenomegaly 3)Absence of B-symptoms 4)Normal blood count 5)Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy 8 weeks after the clinical and laboratory results demonstrated that a CR was achieved. A marrow sample had to be normocellular for age with less than 30% lymphocytes. Lymphoid nodules had to be absent. If marrow was hypocellular,a repeat biopsy was taken 4 weeks later and samples were re-reviewed in conjunction with the prior pathology. Partial response is defined as a decrease in the size of a tumor, or in the extent of cancer in the body, in response to treatment ...
The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act at different layers of defense to accomplish a collection of biological processes that aim at protecting us against dangers including infections as well as tumors. Within peripheral tissues (that are exposed to the outside world: skin, lungs, gut, mucosa, etc…) there is a range of specialize phagocytic cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells. These dendritic cells act as sentinels patrolling the body to detect any pathogens as soon as they enter, regardless of the location. They trap the pathogens, such as bacteria or viruses or molecules derived from these, and migrate to sites called secondary lymphoid organs to present these molecules (called antigens) to the specific cells of the immune system; the T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. These secondary lymphoid organs are disseminated throughout the body and can be assimilated as headquarters where the decision about the strategy that has to be developed to fight the pathogens ...
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Mouse CD45 MicroBeads were developed for the positive selection or depletion of leukocytes from lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. The CD45 antigen is expressed on all cells of hematopoietic origin except for erythrocytes and platelets. - Belgique
Study XII - The Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Systems flashcards from Chris Aquino's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Study XII - The Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Systems flashcards from Michelle Supapo's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
In order to study spleen cells (e.g. lymphocytes, granulocytes, other immune cells), it helps to make single-cell suspensions so that the cells can be manipulated ex vivo easily. This protocol suggests ways in which you can do this without a lot of equipment or expensive supplies. This protocol can also be used to make cell suspensions from other lymphoid organs, such as the thymus or lymph nodes (see Current Protocols in Immunology, Unit 1.9 [1]). ...
Drugs used to treat HIV penetrate poorly into lymphatic tissues where most HIV replication takes place and there is persistent low-level virus replication in these tissues according to research...
Introduction Available evidence suggests that the lymphoid system consists of two compartments, as shown in Figure 1: A central compartment in which
The IL-27 Receptor complex includes WSX-1 and gp130. IL-27R (WSX-1) is 65-70 kDa protein and is highly expressed in lymphoid tissues such as spleen,…
Looking for online definition of lymphoid nodule in the Medical Dictionary? lymphoid nodule explanation free. What is lymphoid nodule? Meaning of lymphoid nodule medical term. What does lymphoid nodule mean?
The immune system has evolved to use sophisticated mechanisms to recruit lymphocytes to sites of pathogen exposure. Trafficking pathways are precise. For example, lymphocytes that are primed by gut pathogens can, in some cases, be imprinted with CCR9 membrane receptors, which can influence migration to the small intestine. Currently, little is known about T cell trafficking to the upper respiratory tract or the relationship between effectors that migrate to the diffuse nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (d-NALT), the lower airways, and the lung. To determine whether a T cell primed by Ag from a respiratory pathogen is imprinted for exclusive trafficking to the upper or lower respiratory tract or whether descendents from that cell have the capacity to migrate to both sites, we inoculated mice by the intranasal route with Sendai virus and conducted single-cell-sequencing analyses of CD8+ T lymphocytes responsive to a Kb-restricted immunodominant peptide, FAPGNYPAL (Tet+). Cells from the d-NALT, lung ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - α4β7/MAdCAM-1 interactions play an essential role in transitioning cryptopatches into isolated lymphoid follicles and a nonessential role in cryptopatch formation. AU - Wang, Caihong. AU - McDonough, Jacquelyn S.. AU - McDonald, Keely G.. AU - Huang, Conway. AU - Newberry, Rodney D.. PY - 2008/9/15. Y1 - 2008/9/15. N2 - The α4 integrins α4β7 and α4β1, and their ligands mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) and VCAM-1, have diverse functions, including roles in the formation of secondary lymphoid tissues at early time points during the colonization and clustering of the fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and at later time points during the recruitment of lymphocytes. In this study, we evaluated the role of α4 integrins in the development of a recently appreciated class of intestinal lymphoid tissues, isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). We observed that diverse ILF cellular populations express α4β7 and α4β1, including the LTi-like cells ...
Tfh Cells in Chronic Inflammation Lymphocytes migrating into chronically inflamed tissue form ectopic lymphoid structures with functional GCs, also known as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS). T cells that interact with B cells in these sites, named Tfh-like cells, produce factors associated with B cell help, including IL-21 and the B cell chemoattractant CXCL13, yet vary dramatically in their resemblance to Tfh cells found in secondary lymphoid organs, e.g., surface phenotype, migratory capacity, and transcriptional regulation (10). The review article by Rao discusses observations from multiple diseases and models in which tissue-infiltrating T cells play a significant role in TLS formation. Hutloff also summarize findings on this topic discovered by studies on experimental animal models as well as some autoimmune and malignant diseases. Both reviews provide an interesting insight into a deeper understanding of these mechanisms in chronically swollen tissues and recommend approaches to focus on ...
Lümfoidkoe arengut mõjutavad rakud (lüh LTi, inglise lymphoid tissue inducer cells) on paljude selgroogsete loomade lümfoid(-immuun)süsteemi lümfirakkude tüüp. Lümfoidkoe arengut mõjutavad rakud kuuluvad ILC- (inglise innate lymphoid cells) rakkude perekonda. LTi-sid kirjeldati ligi 17 aastat tagasi ja neid seostatakse peamiselt kaasasündinud, aga ka omandatud immuunsusega. Lümfoidkoe arengut mõjutavate rakkude olemasolu, areng, anatoomia, morfoloogia, histoloogia, mutatsioonid, rakud ja molekulid ning apoptoos ja patoloogia võivad erineda nii liigiti, indiviiditi kui ka arenguastmeti. Fetaalsete lümfoidkoe arengut mõjutavate rakkude funktsiooniks on lümfoidkudede, sh lümfisõlmede ja Peyeri naastude, arengu tagamine pinnal paiknevate oluliste molekulide ekspressiooni läbi. Hiirtel tuvastatud fetaalsed lümfoidkoe arengut mõjutavad rakud võivad, olenevalt molekulidest, diferentseeruda antigeene esitlevateks rakkudeks (APC-deks), loomulikeks tappurrakkudeks, thyrocytus ...
Protein kinases play important jobs in the legislation of cellular actions. in the Abl category of proteins kinases as well as the proteins kinase governed by RNA in attacks. attacks are initiated with the deposition of promastigotes types of by fine sand flies at the website of their bloodstream food. Current understanding is certainly that phagocytes especially neutrophils that are recruited first towards the bite site turn into a sanctuary for the promastigotes (1). Once within mammalian cells commence to change Mouse monoclonal to CD62L.4AE56 reacts with L-selectin, an 80 kDa?leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (LECAM-1).?CD62L is expressed on most peripheral blood B cells, T cells,?some NK cells, monocytes and granulocytes. CD62L mediates lymphocyte homing to high endothelial venules of peripheral lymphoid tissue and leukocyte rolling?on activated endothelium at inflammatory sites. their gene expression profile which culminates with their transformation into amastigote forms. By ...
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.
Recent reports using both particulate and soluble antigens have demonstrated lymphatic tissue germinal centers as structures involved in localization of antigen ( Ada et al. 1965, Nossalet al. 1964,...
During murine embryogenesis, the formation of Peyers patches (PPs) is initiated by CD45(+)CD4(+)CD3(-) lymphoid tissue inducers that trigger adhesion molecule expression and specific chemokine production from an organizing stromal cell population through ligation of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, Authors: Antonio Cuneo, Gianluigi Castoldi. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Several different cytokines trigger the development of determined cell subsets in BALT of growing Wistar rats. Early appearance (4 days post partum) of γδT cells in BALT has been shown, as well as its role in up-regulating TNF-α production. In the present report, we studied in the BALT: (1) the profile of the cytokines, TNF-α, INF-γ and IL-10 and (2) in TCR γδ+ cells, the existence of a colocalization with TNF-α as well as with INF-γ. All the cytokines studied were observed at an early stage of BALT development by immunohistochemistry and in bronchoalveolar cells (BAL cells) by flow cytometry and western blot. (1) The principal cytokine found at 4 days of age in BALT cells was TNF-α that increases along BALT development. The same behavior was found for cells containing IL-10 and INF-γ. (2) TCR γδ+ cells colocalize mainly with
Provender appropriate anticipatory guidance for vulgar developmental issues that arise in the toddler period. At some sites the lymphoid nodules may be surrounded by a utter or unaccomplished connective pack capsule, such as in the tonsils. Nutr mortal ,a href=https://www.brookechase.com/wp-content/respon se/edition5/section3/,generic avanafil 200mg line,/a, erectile dysfunction causes natural treatment. During this premature period of electrophysiological review of the discernment, there were a host of studies describing instinctive vocation (Beck 1890; Pravdich-Neminsky 1913), evoked sense enterprise using electri- cal stimulation (Danilevsky 1891) and studies on deviant electrical discharges in experimentally induced epilepsy (Kaufman 1912; Cybulski and Jelenska-Maciezyna 1914). PLoS Only 6:e18013 Urbina JA (2010) Specific chemotherapy of Chagas complaint: relevance, in circulation limitations and revitalized approaches. The standing of eudaemonia viewing continues done immatureness ,a ...
Non-hematopoietic stromal cells play important roles in many tissues, constructing tissue microenvironments, contributing to tissue repair, defense and immune responses. Within lymphoid organs, stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, stromal cells support the migration and interactions between antigen presenting cells and naïve T and B cells during the initiation of immune responses and influence the outcome between tolerance and immunity. Stromal cells also play instrumental roles in coordinating immune responses in non-lymphoid tissues, in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and in chronic infection. For instance, stromal cell dysregulation has been seen in HIV infection and in cancer patients. Furthermore, stromal cells are being harnessed for therapeutic applications in several diseases, an area that holds great promise for improving human ...
SARS pathology in the gut, kidney, and brain. (A) Depletion of mucosal lymphoid tissue of the small intestine of a patient who had SARS, showing decreased number of lymphocytes and depletion of germinal center. Bar, 200 μm. (B) EM image of a portion of mucosal cell in the small intestine of a SARS autopsy. M, microvilli; N, nucleus. The area indicated by the white arrow is enlarged in C. Bar, 2 μm. (C) Higher magnification of a SARS virus-containing vesicle (white arrow) in the same cell as shown in B. Bar, 0.2 μm. (D) In situ hybridization detected SARS sequence positive signal (arrows) in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes in the submucosal lymphoid tissue. Bar, 30 μm. (E) Negative control for in situ hybridization of SARS genomic sequence of the lymphocytes in the submucosal lymphoid tissue, in which an unrelated probe was used. No positive signal was detected. Bar, 30 μm. (F) In situ hybridization of SARS genomic sequence of lymphocytes in the submucosal lymphoid tissue of a patient who did ...
Its been shown that eating materials get excited about immune legislation in the intestine. and VCAM-1) on stromal cells as well as the appearance is controlled by NFB-inducing kinase (NIK). As a result, NIK-mutant aly/aly mice present decreased awareness to FTY720 in the legislation of peritoneal B-cell trafficking because of the impaired appearance of adhesion substances although peritoneal B1 cells in aly/aly mice portrayed comparable degrees of S1P1. 5. Distinct S1P Dependency of Trafficking of Intraepithelial T-Lymphocytes in the Gut Many lymphocytes may also be within the intestinal epithelium and known as as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) [42]. IELs are T cells KU-60019 mainly, but unlike in typical T cells seen in the systemic compartments (e.g., spleen) which mostly exhibit the T-cell receptor (TCR), in the IEL subset now there is an plethora of T cells expressing the T cell receptor (TCR) furthermore to TCR+ T cells [42]. TCR identifies peptide antigen provided via main ...
When compared to GF and conventional (CV) males (prevalence of 0 and ~20%, respectively), high incidence (~20%) of ANKENT has been revealed in mice associated with a cocktail of bacteria isolated from the intestine of an ANKENT-afflicted CV male. In the cocktail, no strong pathogens and Enterobacteriae like E.coli or Salmonella were present. The first ANKENT case has also been observed in mice colonized with a more restricted cocktail containing two selected gram-positive microbial strains. Surface phenotype of lymphocytes isolated from systemic lymphatic tissues, MALT and diseased joint were characterized. No significant differences in lymphatic tissues were detected between individual experimental groups. However, the prevalence of CD4+ cells among joint-infiltrating lymphocytes was recorded. ...
This image revisits one of 4 illustrations created to highlight the connections between breast cancer and the axillary lymph nodes. CLIENT - VIV Mag, A Smart Digital Magazine for Women
The Anti-CLA MicroBead Kit was developed for the positive selection or depletion of human CLA+ cells from PBMCs, lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissue for phenotypical and functional characterization. - 대한민국
Secondary lymphoid organs are dispensable for the development of T-cell-mediated immunity during tuberculosis (pages 1663-1673). Tracey A. Day, Markus Koch, Geraldine Nouailles, Marc Jacobsen, George A. Kosmiadi, Delia Miekley, Stefanie Kuhlmann, Sabine Jörg, Pia Gamradt, Hans-Joachim Mollenkopf, Robert Hurwitz, Stephen T. Reece, Stefan H. E. Kaufmann and Mischo Kursar. Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2010 , DOI: 10.1002/eji.201040299. ...
LCs are members in a family of tissue DCs, and almost every tissue contains sentinel DCs (3). Although differences between immature tissue DCs in different locations have been reported, most tissue DCs have in common the propensity to emigrate to draining lymphoid tissues in response to LPS, TNF, or IL-1 (3). All the DC types so far tested upregulate CCR7 upon stimulation, making it likely that they all use this receptor in order to migrate to lymphoid T zones (4, 6-9). It remains to be investigated whether the same directional cues are also involved in the homeostatic flux of DCs from tissues to LNs that occurs in the absence of stimulation (3). A subset of DCs in peripheral lymphoid tissues, including lymphoid lineage DCs (27), may not derive from peripheral tissues but instead may enter directly from the blood (3). Some insight into the behavior of these cells in plt mice is provided by findings in the spleen. Wild-type mouse spleen contains a population of DCs in the T zone that express high ...
Experimental procedures for the subsequent extraction of lymphatic tissues to test lymphoid dendritic cell activation are described...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anatomy of the immune system. T2 - facts and problems.. AU - Grossi, C. E.. AU - Ciccone, E.. AU - Tacchetti, C.. AU - Santoro, G.. AU - Anastasi, G.. PY - 2000/10. Y1 - 2000/10. N2 - In the introductory section of this report, the anatomy of the immune system, from organs and tissues to molecules, will be reviewed briefly. Cell proliferation and differentiation in the central lymphoid organs (thymus and bone marrow) yield a repertoire of T- and B-cell clones that seed into peripheral lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue, MALT), where humoral and cell-mediated antigen-specific immune responses occur. The stringent process of clonal selection in the central lymphoid organs implies deletion of inappropriate cells via apoptosis. In the peripheral lymphoid organs, the potential of unlimited activation and expansion of lymphocytes in response to antigens is primarily regulated by apoptosis and anergy. These events, on the one hand, are relevant to ...
What Is Peyers Patches Is A Prion An Intelligent Protein What Is Peyers Patches The Peyers Patches Anatomy Of The Peyers Patches Anatomy, Medpics Ucsd School Of Medicine What Is Peyers Patches, What Is Peyers Patches Peyers Patches, What Is Peyers Patches Is A Prion An Intelligent Protein, ...
Tolerance induction to self antigens in the peripheral lymphoid tissues: blood, lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues.
Your immunity system includes both primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Your bone marrow and thymus (primary lymphoid organs) produce and increase your number of white blood cells. ...
A hematopathologist is usually board-certified in both anatomical and clinical pathology and has additional years of training in hematopathology. Hematopathology is not only the study of disease of the blood and bone marrow. It is also the study of the organs and tissues that use blood cells to perform their physiologic functions. These include the lymph nodes, the spleen, thymus, and other lymphoid tissue. The hematopathologist focuses on the diagnosis of conditions of the hematopoietic and lymphocyte-rich tissues. This is usually done by direct exam of tissue and blood in the lab. ...
Pathogens associated molecular patterns Another MOS effect is the improvement of cellular, humoral and mucosal immunities. In the intestine are present a variety of macrophages as components of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), that recognise pathogens by a unique type of molecules that are only on microbes, called pathogens asso- ciated molecular patterns (PAMP), present in MOS and others yeast cell wall components. Consequently, MOS bind with the PAMP receptors present on defence cells of GALT and then triggers the immune system. A study was carried out to investigate the impact that HyperGen had on gut health and performance in weaned piglets challenged with E. coli K88 and supplemented with 0.1% of HyperGen for 11 days (Table 1). Piglets challenged and supplemented with the second generation MOS had a greater final body weight and ADG than challenged and non- supplemented animals. The supplementation improved the FCR of piglets and enhanced the number of proliferating cells in the ...
Germinal centre-like structures can form in nonlymphoid tissues following infection, but the requirements for their formation and function are not well characterized; in particular how peripheral tissues are remodeled by infection to facilitate the recruitment of lymphocytes and establish de novo a stromal network. This seminar will focus on how influenza-induced lung germinal centres are formed, and whether these structures follow the same rules as their counterparts in secondary lymphoid tissues ...
Thought to be antigen-free, the thymus is a primary lymphoid organ with two major functions: differentiation of T cells; and recognition of self from non-self. The thymus differs from lymph nodes and bone marrow in that no immune reactions occur, except in certain diseases. Pre-thymocytes arrive into the thymus via blood, move into subcapsular space and begin differentiating immediately. Differentiation markers expressed are CD3, TcR and CD4, CD8. TcR gene fragments are rearranged, as in B cells, and then the T cells begin migrating toward the medulla.. ...
Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the bodys lymphatic tissue. Its a common type of cancer in children, but most recover from it.
Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the bodys lymphatic tissue. Its a common type of cancer in children, but most recover from it.
The Lymph Nodes In dogs, the primordial structure of the largest lymph nodes is present at 35 to 38 days of gestation, and lymphocytic colonization of the
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What does tonsil mean? A small oral mass of lymphoid tissue, especially either of two such masses embedded in the lateral walls of the opening ...
Naive T cells slowly circulate among the secondary lymphoid organs as a means of encountering antigens. Immature dendritic cells, meanwhile, reside in
Furthermore, the tonsils filter tissue fluid whereas lymph nodes filter lymph. The appendix contains lymphoid tissue and is ... A lymph node contains lymphoid tissue, i.e., a meshwork or fibers called reticulum with white blood cells enmeshed in it. The ... 2016). "Lymphoid tissues". Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice (41st ed.). Philadelphia. pp. 73-4. ISBN ... These trabecular spaces formed by the interlacing trabeculae contain the proper lymph node substance or lymphoid tissue. The ...
1990). "Peripheral Innervation of Lymphoid Tissue". The Neuroendocrine-immune network. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4625-5. ...
In the GI tract, they are components of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Based on expression of either an αβ T-cell ... McGhee, Jerry R. (1998-01-01). "Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)". In Delves, Peter J. (ed.). Encyclopedia of ... Alternatively, elevated IEL populations can be a marker for developing neoplasia in the tissue such as found in cervical and ...
Fu YX, Chaplin DD (1999-01-01). "Development and maturation of secondary lymphoid tissues". Annual Review of Immunology. 17: ... Lymphoid Tissues and Organs". In Paul W (ed.). Fundamental Immunology (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ... This intestinal lymphoid follicle plays an important role in the immune system of the digestive tract. Peyer's patches are ... LT-α is also involved in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs during development and plays a role in apoptosis. In LT-α ...
941-949.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Thompson, H. Gordon (1 January 1938). "The Lymphoid Tissue Of The ... "The Lymphoid Tissue Of The Alimentary Canal". The China Inland Mission (C.I.M.) asked Thompson to edit a "Health Manual for ...
Mueller CG, Hess E (2012). "Emerging Functions of RANKL in Lymphoid Tissues". Front Immunol. 3: 261. doi:10.3389/fimmu. ... RANKL is expressed in several tissues and organs including: skeletal muscle, thymus, liver, colon, small intestine, adrenal ... Variation in concentration levels of RANKL throughout several organs reconfirms the importance of RANKL in tissue growth ( ...
Ozanimod causes lymphocyte retention in lymphoid tissues. The mechanism by which ozanimod exerts therapeutic effects in ... which is developing technology for the recovery of stem cells from placental tissues following the completion of full-term ...
Thorbecke GJ, Amin AR, Tsiagbe VK (August 1994). "Biology of germinal centers in lymphoid tissue". FASEB Journal. 8 (11): 832- ...
Thorbecke GJ, Amin AR, Tsiagbe VK (1994). "Biology of germinal centres in lymphoid tissue". FASEB Journal. 8 (11): 832-840. doi ... UIUC Histology Subject 563 Histology image: 07103loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Lymphoid Tissues and ... also known as lymphoid follicles). After several rounds of cellular division, the B cells go through somatic hypermutation, a ... in secondary lymphoid organs - lymph nodes, ileal Peyer's patches, and the spleen - where mature B cells proliferate, ...
The involved lymphoid tissues in EBV+ B cell cases contain proliferating Immunoblasts (i.e. activated B cells), plasma cells, ... Involved tissues contain rapidly proliferating small or, less commonly, somewhat larger lymphoid cells. These cells are EBV+ ... The freed virus then invades naïve B cells located in submucosal lymphoid tissue e.g. tonsils or adenoids. Here, it establishes ... The disorder is based on histologic findings that occur in the lymphoid tissue of mainly older individuals who were infected ...
Cancers of the oropharynx primarily arise in lingual and palatine tonsil lymphoid tissue that is lined by respiratory squamous ... The submucosa contains aggregates of lymphoid tissue. Cancers arising in the tonsillar fossa spread to the cervical lymph nodes ... which may be invaginated within the lymphoid tissue. Therefore, the tumour first arises in hidden crypts. OPC is graded on the ... Between the arches lies a triangular space, the tonsillar fossa in which lies the palatine tonsil, another lymphoid organ. The ...
Avilés A, Nambo MJ, Neri N, Talavera A, Cleto S (2005). "Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach: ... MALT lymphoma (MALToma) is a form of lymphoma involving the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), frequently of the stomach ... Schechter NR, Portlock CS, Yahalom J (May 1998). "Treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach with ... Source: Modified from WHO Blue Book on Tumour of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 2001, p. 2001.). ...
Edwards NL, Gelfand EW, Burk L, Dosch HM, Fox IH (July 1979). "Distribution of 5'-nucleotidase in human lymphoid tissues". ... and is widely distributed in vertebrate tissue. In mammalian cells the enzyme is predominantly located in the plasma membrane ...
... was identified by its translocation in a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The protein encoded ... "BCL10 expression in normal and neoplastic lymphoid tissue. Nuclear localization in MALT lymphoma". Am. J. Pathol. 157 (4): 1147 ...
The latter is understood to be organized into clumps of lymphoid follicles as well as diffuse lymphoid tissues. In the ... Furthermore, the tissue is not vascularized, and does not contain lymphoid cells or other defense mechanisms, apart from some ... Diffuse lymphoid tissues, on the other hand, is composed mainly of interspersed effector cells. Generally, both pathways lead ... Hein, W.R., Organization of mucosal lymphoid tissue. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 1999. 236: p. 1-15. Knop, E. and N. Knop, The ...
Antigen presentation may occur in peripheral lymphoid tissues. The Langerhans cells, once they are activated, rapidly migrate ... Skin microbiota plays an important role in tissue homeostasis and local immunity. Skin microbial communities are highly diverse ... and presentation of antigens to T lymphocytes in local lymphoid organs. As a result, T lymphocytes express the cutaneous ... communication between the specific site of the skin and the lymph cells found inside the lymph node and the systematic tissues ...
In normal lymphoid tissue recirculating resting B cells migrate through the FDC networks, whereas antigen-activated B cells are ... These sarcomas often involve lymphoid tissues, but in a number of cases the tumor has been found in the liver, bile duct, ... Factor Mfge produced in lymphoid tissues mainly by FDCs is known to enhance engulfment of apoptotic cells. Deficit of this ... precursors in primary lymphoid tissues". The Journal of Immunology. 160 (3): 1078-84. PMID 9570519. Wang Y, Wang J, Sun Y, Wu Q ...
18 September 2017). WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. ISBN 978-92-832-4494-3. OCLC ... aggressive lymphomas that develop from mature white blood cells and originate from lymphoid tissues outside of the bone marrow ... "WHO Classification Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues", published in 2008. A revision was made in 2016 to update ... After extraction, the tissue is processed and viewed under a microscope to examine the presence of lymphoma cells. Some of the ...
Source: Modified from WHO Blue Book on Tumour of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 2001, p. 2001.)CS1 maint: uses authors ... 2011 May;52(5):930-3. WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Swerdlow, Steven H.,, World Health ... Porter DL, Levine BL, Kalos M, Bagg A, June CH (August 2011). "Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in chronic lymphoid ... Choi SM, O'Malley DP (December 2018). "Diagnostically relevant updates to the 2017 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms". ...
WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. World Health Organization classification of tumours. 2 ( ... "The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms". Blood. 127 (20): 2375-90. doi:10.1182 ...
In the cortex, lymphoid tissue is organized into nodules. In the nodules, T lymphocytes are located in the T cell zone. B ... Crosstalk LEC, lymphoid tissue inducer cells and mesenchymal stromal organizer cells initiate the formation of lymph nodes. ... FRCs produce collagen alpha-1(III) rich reticular fibers that form a dense network within the lymphoid tissue. These are ... Afferent lymphatic vessels bring lymph fluid from the peripheral tissues to the lymph nodes. The lymph tissue in the lymph ...
WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. World Health Organization classification of tumours. 2 ( ...
WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. World Health Organization classification of tumours. 2 ( ...
WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Swerdlow, Steven H.,, World Health Organization,, ... Tissue specimens from Hodgkin's seven cases were preserved at Guy's Hospital. Nearly 100 years after Hodgkin's initial ... PET scans are also useful in functional imaging (by using a radiolabeled glucose to image tissues of high metabolism). In some ... Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018). "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoid proliferations, a 2018 update". Human ...
WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. IARC WHO Classification of Tumours. 2 (4th ed.). IARC. ... Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018). "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoid proliferations, a 2018 update". Human ...
WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. World Health Organization classification of tumours. 2 ( ...
Source: Modified from WHO Blue Book on Tumour of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 2001, p. 2001.) Pannone, Giuseppe; ... WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. World Health Organization classification of tumours. Lyon ... The tumor consists of sheets of a monotonous (i.e., similar in size and morphology) population of medium-sized lymphoid cells ... Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018). "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoid proliferations, a 2018 update". Human ...
... s and leukemias are a part of the broader group of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Risk factors for ... Thus, neoplasms that arise from precursor lymphoid cells are distinguished from those that arise from mature lymphoid cells. ... since these often involve lymphoid tissue. Lymphoma can also spread to the central nervous system, often around the brain in ... WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. World Health Organization classification of tumours. 2 ( ...
It is characterized by a proliferation of lymphoid tissue. There are two main classes of lymphomas that affect the skin:[ ...
Lymphoma Swerdlow, Steven H. (2008). WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. 2 (4th ed.). ...
Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph ... Connective tissue cells. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from ...
The PAX gene family has an important role in the formation of tissues and organs during embryonic development and maintaining ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ... Expression of PAX8 is increased in neoplastic renal tissues, Wilms tumors, ovarian cancer and Müllerian carcinomas. For this ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). *Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3) ... lymphoid: CD20 (Ibritumomab. *Obinutuzumab. *Ofatumumab. *Rituximab. *Tositumomab), CD30 (Brentuximab), CD52 (Alemtuzumab). * ...
... and lymphoid connective tissues.[9] Fibroareolar tissue is a mix of fibrous and areolar tissue.[10] New vascularised connective ... Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and ... and special connective tissue.[5][6] Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue ( ... Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood.[8] Other kinds ...
... the palatine tonsils are viewed in some classifications as belonging to both the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and the ... The tonsils are a set of lymphoid organs facing into the aerodigestive tract, which is known as Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and ... mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Other viewpoints treat them (and the spleen and thymus) as large lymphatic organs ... The palatine tonsils and the adenoid tonsil are organs consisting of lymphoepithelial tissue located near the oropharynx and ...
"Chromosomal instability in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: A fluorescent in situ hybridization study using ... First, an infected tissue sample is taken from the patient. Then an oligonucleotide complementary to the suspected pathogen's ... The tissue sample is chemically treated in order to make the cell membranes permeable to the fluorescently tagged ... If a patient is infected with a suspected pathogen, bacteria, from the patient's tissues or fluids, are typically grown on agar ...
It should be further noted that changes in the lymphoid compartment is not solely responsible for the malfunctioning of the ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ...
... balloon-like lesions that may be filled with air or pus or scar tissue) and very high concentrations of the serum antibody IgE ... Immune disorders: Lymphoid and complement immunodeficiency (D80-D85, 279.0-4). Primary. Antibody/humoral. (B). ...
... within the Peyer's patches physically transport the insoluble whole glucan particles into the gut-associated lymphoid tissue.[ ...
Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. U. *Ureteral cancer. *Urethral cancer ...
... lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) - lymphoid organs - lymphoid tissue - lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) - ... tissue - titer - toxicity - toxoplasmic encephalitis - toxoplasmosis - transaminase - transcription - transfusion - translation ...
Monocytes migrate from the bloodstream to other tissues and differentiate into tissue resident macrophages, Kupffer cells in ... myeloid cells or lymphoid cells). These broadest categories can be further divided into the five main types: neutrophils, ... Some leucocytes migrate into the tissues of the body to take up a permanent residence at that location rather than remaining in ... Often these cells have specific names depending upon which tissue they settle in, such as fixed macrophages in the liver, which ...
The Epstein-Barr virus, for example, is known to be able to dramatically increase the size of lymphoid tissue during acute ... The targeted tissue, such as tongue or palate, is usually approached through the mouth without the need for incisions, although ... Obstructive sleep apnea: As soft tissue falls to the back of the throat, it impedes the passage of air (blue arrows) through ... Obese adults show an increase in pharyngeal tissue which cause respiratory obstruction during sleep.[6] Adults with normal body ...
... the healthy tissue formed by mitotic recombination can outcompete the original, surrounding mutant cells in tissues like blood ... Lymphoid. *Burkitt's lymphoma t(8 MYC;14 IGH). *Follicular lymphoma t(14 IGH;18 BCL2) ... The amount of tissue which is mosaic depends on where in the tree of cell division the exchange takes place. A phenotypic ... De, S. (2011). "Somatic mosaicism in healthy human tissues". Trends in Genetics. 27 (6): 217-223. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2011.03.002 ...
swelling of affected tissues, such as the upper throat during the common cold or joints affected by rheumatoid arthritis; ... Innate lymphoid cell. *NOD-like receptor. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f Janeway C, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik M (2001 ... Most leukocytes differ from other cells of the body in that they are not tightly associated with a particular organ or tissue; ... Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in the mucous membranes. They are intimately ...
... egg white and proteins from transplanted tissues and organs or on the surface of transfused blood cells. ...
On other tissues: increasing insulin resistance. TNF phosphorylates insulin receptor serine residues, blocking signal ... but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including lymphoid cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, cardiac ... "Shock and tissue injury induced by recombinant human cachectin". Science. 234 (4775): 470-74. Bibcode:1986Sci...234..470T. doi: ... TNFR1 is expressed in most tissues, and can be fully activated by both the membrane-bound and soluble trimeric forms of TNF, ...
Though most attention is focused on PrP's presence in the nervous system, it is also abundant in immune system tissue. PrP ... immune cells include hematopoietic stem cells, mature lymphoid and myeloid compartments, and certain lymphocytes; also, it has ... Kardos J, Kovács I, Hajós F, Kálmán M, Simonyi M (August 1989). "Nerve endings from rat brain tissue release copper upon ... Aging mice with an overexpression of PRNP showed significant degradation of muscle tissue. ...
They are made of a bone-like material called dentin, which is covered by the hardest tissue in the body-enamel.[8] Teeth have ... The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body but has other functions.[23] It breaks down both red and white blood cells ... Underlying the mucous membrane in the mouth is a thin layer of smooth muscle tissue and the loose connection to the membrane ... The muscular layer of the body is of smooth muscle tissue that helps the gallbladder contract, so that it can discharge its ...
... which both help the mast cells survive and accumulate in tissue, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 as well as IL-33 which in turn activate ... to allow other immune cells to gain access to tissues, but which can lead to a potentially fatal drop in blood pressure as in ...
... lymphoid tissue, and blood lymphocytes. The latency sites of APV-1 is similar to other herpesviruses. Vaccination for duck ... The means of infection influences which tissues will be affected first and the incubation time before symptoms show. Typically ... Diagnosis can also be confirmed with presence of virus inclusion bodies in tissues or a positive immunohistochemical staining ...
... and lymphoid connective tissues.[7] New vascularised connective tissue that forms in the process of wound healing is termed ... Connective tissue atlas at uiowa.edu. *Questions and Answers about Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue - US National ... "Granulation Tissue Definition". Memidex. பார்த்த நாள் 7 May 2016. *↑ Di Lullo; G. A. (2002). "Mapping the Ligand-binding Sites ... "Connective Tissues". பார்த்த நாள் 9 December 2012. *↑ Carol Mattson Porth; Glenn Matfin (1 October 2010). Essentials of ...
Lymphoid. Lymphoid immune system. general anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial ...
Remarkably, the IgA1 that accumulates in the kidney does not appear to originate from the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ( ... Aberrant glycosylation of IgA appears to lead to polymerisation of the IgA molecules in tissues, especially the glomerular ...
... is specifically expressed in lymphoid tissue.". Genomics. 53 (2): 164-9. PMID 9790765. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5491.. ... Kyi CS, Key SJ, Lloyd TW (2003). „Use of a nasogastric catheter to prevent soft tissue entanglement of the externally ported ...
... is an area of swelling of the lower layer of skin and tissue just under the skin or mucous membranes.[1][3] The ... Immune disorders: Lymphoid and complement immunodeficiency (D80-D85, 279.0-4). Primary. Antibody/humoral. (B). ... This is most obvious in the face, where the skin has relatively little supporting connective tissue, and edema develops easily ...
... particularly numerous lymphoid follicles on the tarsal conjunctiva, and sometimes a punctate keratitis are seen. ...
positive regulation of tissue remodeling. • cellular response to vitamin D. • lymph node development. • natural killer cell ... Lodolce JP, Burkett PR, Koka RM, Boone DL, Ma A (December 2002). "Regulation of lymphoid homeostasis by interleukin-15". ... Although IL-15 mRNA can be found in many cells and tissues including mast cells, cancer cells or fibroblasts, this cytokine is ... IL-15 is constitutively expressed by a large number of cell types and tissues, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic ...
B21.3) HIV disease resulting in other malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissue ...
In the nineteenth century, a condition was identified as status thymicolymphaticus defined by an increase in lymphoid tissue ... Thymic tissue containing cysts is rarely described in the literature, ectopic glandular tissue included in the wall of cystic ... Thymic tissue sometimes be found scattered on or around the gland. The thyomocytes and the epithelium of the thymus have ... When used as food for humans, animal thymic tissue is known as (one of the kinds of) sweetbread. The thymus was known to the ...
Lymphoid tissues. Definition. Lymphoid tissues are organized structures that support immune responses. The bone marrow and ... The lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils and Peyers patches are examples of secondary lymphoid tissue. Chronic inflammation can lead ... IL-17 instructs lymphoid stromal cells The cytokine IL-17 augments metabolism in fibroblastic reticular cells in lymph nodes, ... In this Review, the authors discuss 2D and 3D approaches to recreate key cell-level, tissue-level and organ-level immune ...
Remarkably, lymphoid tissues were found to be more susceptible to cross-species prion transmission than nerve tissues (15). ... the lymphoid tissues display a higher capacity than nerve tissues to replicate prions after low-dose infection (59). The ... Sialylation of prions in lymphoid tissues. Saurabh Srivastava, Natallia Makarava, Elizaveta Katorcha, Regina Savtchenko, ... Sialylation of prions in lymphoid tissues. Saurabh Srivastava, Natallia Makarava, Elizaveta Katorcha, Regina Savtchenko, ...
CCR6 identifies lymphoid tissue inducer cells within cryptopatches.. Lügering A1, Ross M, Sieker M, Heidemann J, Williams IR, ... CCR6 characterizes lymphoid tissue inducer (Lti) cells within cryptopatches. Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis ... Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of lymphoid tissue inducer (Lti) cells. Lamina propria cells were isolated ... analysis revealed a similar expression of Notch receptors by CCR6-deficient lymphoid tissue inducer (Lti) cells (a). In ...
... is scattered along mucosal linings in the human body and constitutes the most extensive component of human lymphoid tissue. ... encoded search term (Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas (MALTomas)) and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas ( ... Hamzaoui N, Pringault E. Interaction of microorganisms, epithelium, and lymphoid cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ... Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach: long term outcome after local treatment. Cancer. 1999 Jan 1. 85(1):9 ...
... skin-associated lymphoid tissue) VALT (vulvo-vaginal-associated lymphoid tissue) TALT (testis-associated lymphoid tissue) It ... nasal-associated lymphoid tissue) CALT (conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue) LALT (larynx-associated lymphoid tissue) SALT ... which sample antigen from the lumen and deliver it to the lymphoid tissue. MALT constitute about 50% of the lymphoid tissue in ... The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), also called mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue, is a diffuse system of small ...
... associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) represents immune system of nasal mucosa and is a part of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ( ... "Induction of antibody-secreting cells and T-helper and memory cells in murine nasal lymphoid tissue". Immunology. 88 (4): 493- ... "Induction of antibody-secreting cells and T-helper and memory cells in murine nasal lymphoid tissue". Immunology. 88 (4): 493- ... "Isolation and characterization of mouse nasal-associated lymphoid tissue". Journal of Immunological Methods. 202 (2): 123-131. ...
27 issue of Nature, the study reports that even in undetectable patients, HIV is still replicating in the lymphoid tissues-a ... will require a method of eradicating the virus both in the blood and in the cells and tissues that make up this hidden ...
Raltegravir Activity In Lymphoid Tissues. This study has been withdrawn prior to enrollment. ... Rate of HIV mRNA Expression Decline Measured in Lymphatic Tissues [ Time Frame: 1 year ]. *CD4+ T Cell Number Increase in ... The study will evaluate rates of HIV elimination in peripheral blood in comparison to secondary lymphatic tissues, including ... CD4+ T Cell Increase Quantified in Lymphatic Tissues Over Time [ Time Frame: 1 year ]. ...
Buy Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues by Tasuku Honjo, Fritz Melchers from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local ... Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 308 (Hardback). Tasuku Honjo (editor), Fritz ... Below these epithelial cells the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), organized in Peyers patches, cryptopatches, and ...
... is scattered along mucosal linings in the human body and constitutes the most extensive component of human lymphoid tissue. ... encoded search term (Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas (MALTomas)) and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas ( ... nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), and vulvovaginal-associated lymphoid tissue (VALT). Additional MALT exists within the ... MALT is understood to include gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), bronchial/tracheal-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), ...
Lymphoid tissue fibrosis is associated with impaired vaccine responses. Cissy Kityo,1 Krystelle Nganou Makamdop,2 Meghan ... Cumulative mechanisms of lymphoid tissue fibrosis and T cell depletion in HIV-1 and SIV infections. J Clin Invest. 2011;121(3): ... Lymphoid tissue damage in HIV-1 infection depletes naïve T cells and limits T cell reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy ... LN tissues from the Ugandan participants in Group 1 have a similar amount of collagen as LN tissues from HIV- people from the U ...
NGF modulates sympathetic innervation of lymphoid tissues. SL Carlson, KM Albers, DJ Beiting, M Parish, JM Conner and BM Davis ... NGF modulates sympathetic innervation of lymphoid tissues Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ... RT-PCR showed that the NGF transgene was not being expressed in the immune tissues, suggesting that immune tissues can ... Immune tissues are known to be innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, but little is known of what directs the ...
Development and Maintenance of the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (Galt): the Roles of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses, John J. ... 12th International Conference on Lymphoid Tissues and Germinal Centres in Immune Reactions. Guest Editors: Richard Boyd and ...
All three populations seem to contribute to the activities found in soluble form in homogenates of normal lymphoid tissues. ... that the lysosomes of lymphoid tissues form two and possibly three, distinct populations. The evidence indicates that the L19 ... materials have been determined by isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose-0.2 M KCl gradient on homogenates of lymphoid tissues ...
... is principally a disease of lymphoid tissues (LTs), due to the fact that the main target cell of human immunodeficiency virus ( ... Pathobiology of HIV/SIV-associated changes in secondary lymphoid tissues Immunol Rev. 2013 Jul;254(1):65-77. doi: 10.1111/imr. ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is principally a disease of lymphoid tissues (LTs), due to the fact that the main ...
Early reduction of immune activation in lymphoid tissue following highly active HIV therapy.. Andersson J1, Fehniger TE, ... To evaluate immune reconstitution within HIV-infected lymphoid tissue during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). ... HIV-infected tonsil tissue was characterized by extensive pro-inflammatory and type 1 cytokine expression. A five- to 15-fold ... of the tissue compartment. This was reduced by 20-90% in all individuals after 4 weeks of HAART. In contrast, type 2 cytokine ...
Moreover, the serum CXCL13 level was positively correlated with the number of B cells/HP in the renal tissue of LN patients. ... The coexpression patterns of CD3, CD20, and CD21 in the renal tissue of LN patients with different WHO pathological types were ... i,Aims.,/i, To assess the concentrations of serum CXCL13 and intrarenal ectopic lymphoid tissue (ELT) profiles and their ... Local B-cell infiltration and related abnormal expression of ectopic lymphoid tissue (ELT) in the renal tissues of LN mice ...
The balance of power: innate lymphoid cells in tissue inflammation and repair. Jim G. Castellanos and Randy S. Longman Jill ... Over the last ten years, immunologists have recognized the central importance of an emerging group of innate lymphoid cells ( ... Characterization of these cells has provided a molecular definition of ILCs and their tissue-specific functions. Although the ... This Review highlights our recent understanding of tissue-resident ILCs and the signals that regulate their contribution to ...
ILCs promote lymphoid and mucosal tissue restoration. Tissue ILCs are also positioned to promote tissue and organ repair of ... Cutting edge: lymphoid tissue inducer cells maintain memory CD4 T cells within secondary lymphoid tissue. J Immunol. 2012;189(5 ... Restoration of lymphoid organ integrity through the interaction of lymphoid tissue-inducer cells with stroma of the T cell zone ... Tissue residency of innate lymphoid cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. Science. 2015;350(6263):981-985.. View this ...
LTi cells play a critical role in restoring lymphoid tissue following viral infection. AREG, IL-22, and PCTR1 promote tissue ... The balance of power: innate lymphoid cells in tissue inflammation and repair. ... The balance of power: innate lymphoid cells in tissue inflammation and repair. ... Over the last ten years, immunologists have recognized the central importance of an emerging group of innate lymphoid cells ( ...
... J Immunol. 2012 Mar 1;188(5):2156-63. doi: 10.4049/ ...
WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Fourth Edition. Author:. World Health Organization (WHO) ... The WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues is the second volume of the Fourth Edition of the ...
Diet shifted the lymphoid tissue microbiota affecting the presence and/or absence of certain taxa and their abundances. ... The gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ of the body. Although the gut transient and mucosa- ... These two lymphoid organs account for more than 50% of the total lymphoid tissue in the rabbit4. ... The gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ of the body. It is a well-developed component of the ...
B cells located in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), a subtype of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), in the ... IgD class switching is initiated by microbiota and limited to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in mice. Jin Huk Choi, Kuan-wen ... Active IgD CSR in Trp53bp1−/− Mice Occurs in Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue.. Aside from a mevalonate kinase (MvK) or IgH 3 ... Microbiota-dependent IgD CSR also was detected in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue of WT mice. These results identify a pathway ...
... a mucosal-associated lymphoid organ, and quickly spread to other lymphoid tissues. At day 3, there were few infected cells, but ... 4L). By day 23, the infection was active in all lymphoid tissues (Fig. 4M), when SIV was trapped on follicular dendritic cells ... By day 23, virus titres in distal lymphoid tissues reached the levels found in tonsils at day 4-7 (Fig. 2A). Therefore, SIV ... K) Relatively low levels of infection in distal lymphoid tissue at day 7 after atraumatic application of SIV to the tonsil. In ...
The human lymphoid tissue cultures were activated on board station but did not survive in longer-term culture. Early ... Image shows blocks of human lymphoid tissue being cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel system. Image courtesy of NASA.. + View ... Fitzgerald W, Chen S, Walz C, Zimmerberg J, Margolis L, Grivel J. Immune suppression of human lymphoid tissues and cells in ... CBOSS-02-HLT uses human lymphoid tissue to study the effects microgravity has on the human immune response. These studies are ...
Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46+ cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from ... Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46+ cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from ... In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK ... while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to lymphoid tissues. The ...
In lymphoid tissue, where human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is produced and stored, three-drug treatment with viral ... Kinetics of Response in Lymphoid Tissues to Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV-1 Infection ... Kinetics of Response in Lymphoid Tissues to Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV-1 Infection ... Kinetics of Response in Lymphoid Tissues to Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV-1 Infection ...
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a disseminated disease in one third of 158 patients analyzed. Blood 2000; 95:802. ... Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the head and neck area: high rate of disease ... cIAP2 is a ubiquitin protein ligase for BCL10 and is dysregulated in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. J Clin Invest ... Primary intracranial dural lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type: report of one case and review of the ...
HIV INFECTION IS ACTIVE AND PROGRESSIVE IN LYMPHOID TISSUE DURING THE CLINICALLY LATENT STAGE OF DISEASE. Catherine Van ... HIV virus is active in lymphoid tissues even during the asymptomatic stage of the disease. Therefore, a state of true ... HIV INFECTION IS ACTIVE AND PROGRESSIVE IN LYMPHOID TISSUE DURING THE CLINICALLY LATENT STAGE OF DISEASE ... HIV INFECTION IS ACTIVE AND PROGRESSIVE IN LYMPHOID TISSUE DURING THE CLINICALLY LATENT STAGE OF DISEASE ...
  • In the case of intestinal MALT, M cells are also present, which sample antigen from the lumen and deliver it to the lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • MALT constitute about 50% of the lymphoid tissue in human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The components of MALT are sometimes subdivided into the following: GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • MALT that is not organized as a separately macroscopically anatomically identifiable mass, tissue or organ (such as the aforementioned O-MALT) is diffuse MALT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nasal- or nasopharynx- associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) represents immune system of nasal mucosa and is a part of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the setting of a known cancer, failure to diagnose the correct subtype of lymphoma and subsequent use of treatment for a different type of lymphoma or other malignancy that is not optimal therapy for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (MALToma) is a medicolegal hazard. (medscape.com)
  • therefore, MALT is understood to include gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), bronchial/tracheal-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), and vulvovaginal-associated lymphoid tissue (VALT). (medscape.com)
  • MALT may consist of a collection of lymphoid cells, or it may include small solitary lymph nodes. (medscape.com)
  • Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type occur in a number of anatomic sites, but share overlapping morphologic and immunophenotypic features. (nih.gov)
  • To observe early events during the transmission of an immunodeficiency virus, and to establish the role of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) at body surfaces, we applied simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) directly to the surface of the tonsils in macaques. (sciencemag.org)
  • The other tissue is the lymphoid component of the tonsil and is comparable to MALT found in the rectum. (sciencemag.org)
  • A critical feature of MALT is a specialized epithelial covering that contacts the underlying lymphoid tissue and contains membranous or microfold "M" cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hence, the conjunctiva and the lacrimal system form a functional MALT unit known as eye-associated lymphoid tissue . (acronymattic.com)
  • Eradication of Helicobacter pylori may induce remission of low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (1-3) . (annals.org)
  • Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is the third most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype, accounting for around 6-8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the Western hemisphere. (bmj.com)
  • Reported herein is a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the terminal ileum with a large-cell component, which regressed spontaneously. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since Isaacson and Wright first proposed the concept of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in 1983, 1 MALT has become established as a distinct clinical pathologic entity that is characterized histologically by diffuse infiltration of small lymphoid cells (centrocyte-like or monocytoid cells), invasion of lymphoma cells around the epithelium (lymphoepithelial lesions), and proliferation of plasma cells in the lamina propia of the mucosa. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To retrospectively analyze the clinical course of patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma of the parotid gland and associated Sjögren's syndrome (SS). (jrheum.org)
  • Four percent to 7% 1 , 2 of patients with SS develop malignant B cell lymphoma, 48%-75% of which are of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type. (jrheum.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori was not detected and the patient was treated as a case of isolated primary H pylori -negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with H pylori eradication followed by rituximab for eight cycles. (hkmj.org)
  • Histologically, MALT lymphoma is characterised by neoplastic cell infiltration around reactive secondary lymphoid follicles in a marginal zone distribution and centrocyte-like cells that are small-to-medium in size with small irregular nuclei. (hkmj.org)
  • No specific immunohistochemical marker has been identified for MALT lymphoma with different tissues of origin. (hkmj.org)
  • Yoshino T, Omonishi K, Kobayashi K, Mannami T, Okada H, Mizuno M, Yamadori I, Kondo E, Akagi T (2000) Clinicopathological features of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas: high grade transformation and comparison with diffuse large B cell lymphomas without MALT lymphoma features. (springer.com)
  • Bacon CM, Du M-Q, Dogan A (2007) Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma: a practical guide for pathologists. (springer.com)
  • Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gastric extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). (inserm.fr)
  • Neonatal thymectomy in BALB/c mice has been described as a model of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (GML). (inserm.fr)
  • In total, 7%-8% of all B-cell lymphomas are the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, of which up to 50% of primary gastric MALT lymphoma. (tjh.com.tr)
  • B h creli lenfomalar n %7-8 ini mukoza ili kili lenfoid doku (mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue-MALT) tipi lenfomalar, bunlar n da %50 den fazlas n primer gastrik MALT lenfomalar olu turmaktad r. (tjh.com.tr)
  • Burada memede nadir g r len MALT lenfoma zemininde diff z b y k B h creli lenfomaya (DBBHL) d n en bir olgunun sunulmas ama lanm t r. (tjh.com.tr)
  • Extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type (MALT-type) have not been considered to be part of this spectrum. (elsevier.com)
  • Among OALs, a heterogeneous group of malignancies, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type is the most common, accounting for up to 80% of primary OALs [ 1 ]. (kjim.org)
  • Genetic errors of the human caspase recruitment domain-B-cell lymphoma 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (CBM) complex: Molecular, immunologic, and clinical heterogeneity. (medscape.com)
  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach: long term outcome after local treatment. (medscape.com)
  • q21) for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma]. (medscape.com)
  • There is no consensus on the optimal systemic treatment of patients with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Zucca E, et al "Final results of the IELSG-19 randomized trial of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Improved event-free and progression-free survival with rituximab plus chlorambucil versus either chlorambucil or rituximab monotherapy" J Clin Oncol 2017;35 (17):1905-1912. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The vacA genotypes s1,m1 and s1,m2 were detected in 44 and 30% of Helicobacter pylori isolates, respectively, from patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, compared to 26 and 56% of isolates, respectively, from individuals with gastritis. (asm.org)
  • Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is uncommon and most patients have an indolent clinical course. (hkmj.org)
  • We describe herein the case of a 64-year-old woman with Helicobacter pylori -negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma diagnosed by screening magnification endoscopy. (hkmj.org)
  • The use of magnification endoscopy in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and its management are reviewed. (hkmj.org)
  • Primary extranodal low-grade B cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALToma) of stomach is uncommon. (hkmj.org)
  • In this installment, Syed Ali Abutalib, MD , and L. Jeffrey Medeiros, MD , explore the updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue malignancies, focusing on the nodular sclerosis type of classic Hodgkin lymphoma. (ascopost.com)
  • Classic Hodgkin lymphoma is a monoclonal lymphoid neoplasm derived from B cells, composed of mononuclear Hodgkin cells and multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells in a background containing a variable mixture of non-neoplastic reactive immune cells, including small lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, histiocytes, and plasma cells. (ascopost.com)
  • 3 - 6 High grade component is consisted of a proliferation of lymphoid blasts with large, vesicular nuclei with one or more nucleoli, which resembles diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Is Elevated Gastric Tissue NOX2 Associated with Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue? (inserm.fr)
  • In this Review, the authors discuss 2D and 3D approaches to recreate key cell-level, tissue-level and organ-level immune functionalities of primary, secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs. (nature.com)
  • This study found that sialylation of prions is enhanced upon their colonization of secondary lymphoid organs, via extracellular host sialylation machinery. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that the sialylation status of the infectious, disease-associated state of the prion protein (PrP Sc ) changes with colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). (pnas.org)
  • Not only does PrP Sc colonize secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), the germinal centers of spleen and lymph nodes offer suitable environments for replicating PrP Sc autonomously from the CNS ( 8 ⇓ ⇓ - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is principally a disease of lymphoid tissues (LTs), due to the fact that the main target cell of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the CD4(+) T lymphocyte that primarily resides within organs of the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • These two lymphoid organs account for more than 50% of the total lymphoid tissue in the rabbit 4 . (nature.com)
  • In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to lymphoid tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • A small proportion of the sIg+ B lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid organs [22% in spleen and 6% in lymph node (LN)] in rat carries the Thy-1 antigen. (rug.nl)
  • Whether the production of IL-17 and IL-22 influences the architecture of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and contributes to host defense will be important issues to examine in the future. (rupress.org)
  • After antigen or immunostimulatory molecules are phagocytosed by DCs in the peripheral tissues or blood, these cells migrate to lymphoid organs such as the spleen and LNs 4 , 5 . (jove.com)
  • Peripheral lymphoid organs are involved in the initiation of bone marrow antibody formation. (springer.com)
  • These aggregates were precursors of well-structured aorta tertiary lymphoid organs that showed a high degree of organization akin to lymph nodes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 These data provided evidence that aorta tertiary lymphoid organs may organize antigen-dependent T-cell and B-cell (auto)immune responses toward atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Additionally, this study also offers an opportunity to access the T and B cells development in the separate primary lymphoid organs. (iastate.edu)
  • The lymphoid organs are designed to optimize the recognition function of the immune system. (brainscape.com)
  • What is the function of primary lymphoid organs? (brainscape.com)
  • What are the primary lymphoid organs in humans? (brainscape.com)
  • Where are the secondary lymphoid organs? (brainscape.com)
  • The primary lymphoid organs are the anatomical locations in which lymphocytes develop immunecompetence - the ability to specifically recognize foreign antigen, and (just as important) become tolerant (specifically unresponsive) to self structures. (brainscape.com)
  • In humans, the primary lymphoid organs are the thymus and the bone marrow . (brainscape.com)
  • Below these epithelial cells the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), organized in Peyer's patches, cryptopatches, and isolated l- phoid follicles, as well as isolated, dispersed single cells in the epithelial layer (intraepithelial lymphocytes) and lamina propria, are composed of T l- phocytes, B lymphocytes, Ig-secreting plasma cells, and antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells. (waterstones.com)
  • The gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ of the body. (nature.com)
  • In order to evaluate this issue, we measured the levels of neopterin in CSF, and the expression of IDO mRNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), in HIV-1-infected patients on effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), at baseline and after six months of probiotic dietary management. (mdpi.com)
  • GALT is a primary lymphoid tissue and a part of mucosal lymphoid system. (vin.com)
  • The results suggest that location, shape and density of lymphoid cells of GALT in Barbus sharpeyi have considerable species differences. (vin.com)
  • By mass cytometry we demonstrated that CD27 − IgD − B cells were proportionately enriched in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in IBD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) CD4+ T cell depletion and activation persist in the majority of HIV-1 positive individuals studied. (prolekare.cz)
  • Background: HIV infection induces alterations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) that constitutes the most important site for viral replication due to the extensive presence of effector memory T-cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • CCR6-deficient mice exhibit an altered intestinal immune system containing increased amounts of intraepithelial lymphocytes and show smaller Peyer's patches, while progression of cryptopatches to mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) is inhibited. (nih.gov)
  • Its lymphoid follicles are usually characterized by using light microscopy. (acronymattic.com)
  • An Orchestrator of Lymphoid Follicles in Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • The most interesting finding was the lack of lymphoid follicles and payer ' s patches in different parts of the Barbus sharpeyi alimentary canal. (vin.com)
  • B) the interplay between CXCL13-producing stromal cells and increasing numbers of mLTα1β2 and TNF-expressing B lymphocytes, leads to the development of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and subsequent formation of lymphoid follicles. (haematologica.org)
  • 14- 16 The neoplastic cells infiltrate around reactive secondary lymphoid follicles in a marginal zone distribution and spread outwards to form diffuse interfollicular sheets or, in some cases, a vaguely nodular pattern. (bmj.com)
  • In these animals, the gastric lamina propria was infiltrated with lymphoid cells organized in follicles composed of B cells with few infiltrating T cells. (inserm.fr)
  • The bone marrow and thymus are primary lymphoid tissues and the sites of lymphocyte development. (nature.com)
  • This article focuses on identifying and describing genes with an elevated expression in four lymphohematopoietic tissue types (bone marrow, lymph node, spleen and appendix), based on the Human Protein Atlas-strategy that combines high throughput transcriptomics with affinity-based proteomics. (diva-portal.org)
  • Results: An enriched or enhanced expression in one or more of the lymphohematopoietic tissues, compared to other tissue-types, was seen for 693 out of 20,050 genes, and the highest levels of expression were found in bone marrow for neutrophilic and erythrocytic genes. (diva-portal.org)
  • The transcriptomic response of primary lymphoid tissues (bone marrow, thymus, and bursa) each displayed differential expression between different phenotype birds associated with days post-infection (dpi) under systemic APEC infection. (iastate.edu)
  • The lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils and Peyer's patches are examples of secondary lymphoid tissue. (nature.com)
  • Published in the Jan. 27 issue of Nature , the study reports that even in undetectable patients, HIV is still replicating in the lymphoid tissues-a part of the immune system that's spread among structures like the lymph nodes, tonsils, and spleen. (slate.com)
  • Therefore, protocols for INP involving administration of the material 1 in vivo via different routes, and three procedures for harvesting appropriate tissues such as the inguinal lymph node (iLN), mediastinal LN (mLN), and spleen, are described. (jove.com)
  • Following intravenous infection with SIVmac251, memory CD4 + CCR5 + T cells were selectively eliminated within 14 days in all major lymphoid tissues (intestine, spleen, and lymph nodes). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • IDCs are primarily located in the T cell areas of lymphoid tissue (lymph nodes, thymic medulla, and spleen) and are responsible for major histocompatibility complex restricted stimulation of resting T cells. (bmj.com)
  • Chronic autoimmune or pathogen-induced immune reactions resulting in lymphoid neogenesis are associated with development of malignant lymphomas, mostly extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBCLs). (haematologica.org)
  • Pinotti G, Chini C, Capella C. Most Gastric Low-Grade B-Cell Lymphomas of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Persist after Helicobacter pylori Eradication. (annals.org)
  • patches of lymphoid tissues composed mainly of B and T lymphocytes and extending throughout the bronchial airways of the lung. (drugs.com)
  • Abelli, L. Water Oxygen Content Affects Distribution of T and B Lymphocytes in Lymphoid Tissues of Farmed Sea Bass ( Dicentrarchus Labrax ). (mdpi.com)
  • Results here presented show that CD3+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes are present both interspersed in the tumour tissue or scattered throughout the stroma (CD3-TILs) and also aggregated in lymphoid structures showing features of tertiary lymphoid tissue (CD3-TLT). (open.ac.uk)
  • The specimen taken from the right orbital mass showed diffuse atypical lymphoid infiltration consisting of small lymphocytes with irregular nuclei ( Fig. 2A ). (kjim.org)
  • Furthermore, 89Zr-CX-072 uptake by lymphoid tissues of immune-competent mice bearing MC38 tumors was low compared to 89Zr-CX-075, which lacks the Probody design.CONCLUSIONS: 89Zr-CX-072 accumulates specifically in PD-L1-expressing tumors with limited uptake in murine peripheral lymphoid tissues. (rug.nl)
  • In an effort to investigate this issue, we carried out immunohistochemical study on the murine gastrointestinal tract and identified numerous tiny lymphoid tissues (~1,650 tissues/intestine) in the cryptal region of the small and large intestinal mucosa except for the stomach in which clusters of c-kit + IL-7R + Thy1 + lympho-hemopoietic progenitors accumulated (cryptopatches). (springer.com)
  • Kanamori Y, Ishimaru K, Nanno M, Maki K, Ikuta K, Nariuchi H, Ishikawa H: Identification of nov-el lymphoid tissues in murine in-testinal mucosa where clusters of c-kit + IL-7R + Thy1 + lympho-hemopoietic develop. (springer.com)
  • Mechanisms regulating IgA class-specific immunoglobulin production in murine gut-associated lymphoid tissues. (rupress.org)
  • Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can regulate adaptive immunity and eosinophil and alternatively activated macrophage responses, and were recently identified in murine white adipose tissue (WAT) where they may act to limit the development of obesity. (harvard.edu)
  • ICD-9 code 202.91 for Other and unspecified malignant neoplasms of lymphoid and histiocytic tissue involving lymph nodes of head face and neck is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -MALIGNANT NEOPLASM OF LYMPHATIC AND HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE (200-208). (aapc.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is the most widely used pathologic classification system for hematolymphoid neoplasms. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Malignant neoplasms of ectopic tissue are to be coded to the site mentioned, e.g., ectopic pancreatic malignant neoplasms are coded to pancreas, unspecified ( C25.9 ). (icd10data.com)
  • This book remains THE 'must-have' concise reference on haematopoetic and lymphoid neoplasms. (iarc.fr)
  • This will be a two-part presentation, with the first lecture covering lymphoid neoplasms and the second presentation covering myeloid and precursor neoplasms. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • Review pertinent changes involving lymphoid neoplasms in a manner understandable by general pathologists and laboratory staff. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • Recent advances in cellular and molecular immunology have revealed the existence of a broad class of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). (jci.org)
  • Indeed, ocular surface immunology relies on eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT), which includes conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT). (acronymattic.com)
  • Publication » The Eye-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (EALT) - A basis of the anatomy and immunology at the ocular surface. (acronymattic.com)
  • To study the mechanisms of suppression of immune responses in this ex vivo system, we used aldrithiol-2 (AT-2)-inactivated virions that have functional envelope glycoproteins but are not infectious and do not deplete CD4 + T cells in human lymphoid tissues ex vivo. (asm.org)
  • Embryo chicks or newly hatched chickens have a significantly higher ADA activity in bursa tissue and cells than in thymus tissue or cells, regardless of whether ADA activity is expressed per mg of wet tissue, per 10 9 cells or per mg tissue-or cell protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Intraepithelial T-cell cytotoxicity, induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, and proliferation of pneumocytes in experimental mouse models of influenza. (umassmed.edu)
  • Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) has been associated with lung allograft rejection in rat transplant models. (eurekamag.com)
  • Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Elicited by a Protein Ca" by J. A. Wiley, L. E. Richert et al. (usu.edu)
  • Inducible Bronchus- Associated Lymphoid Tissue Elicited by a Protein Cage Nanoparticle Enhances Protection in Mice against Diverse Respiratory Viruses. (usu.edu)
  • Huerre, Michel R. / Outbred mice with long-term Helicobacter felis infection develop both gastric lymphoid tissue and glandular hyperplastic lesions . (monash.edu)
  • Currently, little is known about T cell trafficking to the upper respiratory tract or the relationship between effectors that migrate to the diffuse nasal-associated lymphoid tissue ( d -NALT), the lower airways, and the lung. (jimmunol.org)
  • One candidate includes secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC), which promotes the colocalization of naïve, nonpolarized memory T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) within lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 14 In addition, medial SMC underlying intimal plaques became activated and expressed the lymphorganogenic chemokines CXCL13 (B-lymphocyte chemoattractant) and CCL21 (secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine). (ahajournals.org)
  • Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) plays an important role in ocular surface immunity. (arvojournals.org)
  • To better describe the role of the resident mucosal immune system of the ocular surface, the concept of eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT) was proposed and termed as a new component, including conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) and lachrymal drainage-associated lymphoid tissue. (arvojournals.org)
  • Comparisons of estradiol levels in blood and tissue showed that estradiol concentrations in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches were significantly higher than the level in serum. (vetsci.org)
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that porcine intestinal lymphoid tissues express mRNAs for steroidogenic enzymes ( StAR , 17β-Hsd, 3β-Hsd , Cyp17a1 , and Cyp19a1 ), and immunohistochemical results in ilial tissue showed expression of aromatase (CYP19) in Peyer's patch-localized endothelial cells of HEVs. (vetsci.org)
  • When mesenteric lymph node and Peyer's patch tissues were cultured in vitro , they produced estradiol. (vetsci.org)
  • Lower panels: immunohistochemical stainings on a well-organized lymphoid infiltrate in a minor salivary gland of a Sjögren's syndrome patient. (haematologica.org)
  • To test this hypothesis in human cancer, I performed a whole tissue analysis of the CD3+ infiltrate on CRC sections and found a positive correlation between CD3-TIL and CD3-TLT densities. (open.ac.uk)
  • Demonstration of immunoglobulin light chain restriction is also helpful to exclude reactive lymphoid infiltrate. (hkmj.org)
  • B) Immunohistochemical analysis revealed dense, packed CD20+ B-cell lymphoid infiltrate (×400). (kjim.org)
  • The roles of the M cells include absorption, transport, processing, and presentation of antigens to subepithelial lymphoid cells. (medscape.com)
  • M cells in the intestinal epithelium overlying Peyer patches allow transport of antigens to the lymphoid tissue beneath it. (medscape.com)
  • The first leukocytes arriving on site are granulocytes which combat the microbial invaders, while monocytes/macrophages clean up dead cells, including apoptotic granulocytes and destroyed tissue.3 In parallel, dendritic cells (DCs) take up and process antigens (Ag) from the intruder, mature and migrate to a local lymph node to set off an adaptive immune response. (haematologica.org)
  • Ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of human lymphoid tissue recapitulates some aspects of in vivo HIV-1 infection, including a severe depletion of CD4 + T cells and suppression of humoral immune responses to recall antigens or to polyclonal stimuli. (asm.org)
  • In particular, ex vivo inoculation of blocks of human lymphoid tissue with X4 HIV-1 variants results in productive infection (without a requirement for exogenous activating stimuli), severe depletion of CD4 + T cells, and suppression of humoral immune responses, including the production of antibodies in response to recall antigens or polyclonal stimuli. (asm.org)
  • By assessing CD4 T cell proliferative responses we demonstrate age-related sequestration of Th1 and Th17 CD4 + T cells reactive to pneumococcal protein antigens within mucosal lymphoid tissue. (prolekare.cz)
  • Transrearrangements between antigen receptor genes in normal human lymphoid tissues and in ataxia telangiectasia. (jimmunol.org)
  • World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue, International Agency for Research on Cancer Press, Lyon 2008. (uptodate.com)
  • In this installment, Drs. Abutalib and Medeiros explore the recently updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue malignancies, focusing on polycythemia vera. (ascopost.com)
  • In this installment, Drs. Abutalib and Medeiros explore the recently updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue malignancies, focusing on chronic neutrophilic leukemia. (ascopost.com)
  • Transport of the virus and immune-activating stimuli across this epithelium would allow mucosal lymphoid tissue to function in the atraumatic transmission of immunodeficiency viruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Analyses by virologic assays and in situ hybridization revealed that the infection started locally in the tonsils, a mucosal-associated lymphoid organ, and quickly spread to other lymphoid tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • One tissue is the stratified squamous epithelium that overlies the tonsils. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using human lymphoid tissue cells that have been isolated from human tonsils and derived from five donors for the experiment, the goal of this study was to determine whether microgravity was detrimental to the immune responses of human lymphoid tissue cell suspensions. (nasa.gov)
  • Chin YH, Cai JP, Hieselaar T. Lymphocyte migration into mucosal lymphoid tissues: mechanism and modulation. (medscape.com)
  • The majority of lymphoid cells were lymphocyte and lymphoblast with a few macrophages and plasma cells. (vin.com)
  • However, lymphocyte infiltration comes in different flavours and evidence has been provided that the spatial distribution of immune cells within the tumour tissue is an important immunological feature. (open.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion- SMC may participate in the formation of tertiary lymphoid tissue in atherosclerosis by upregulation of lymphorganogenic chemokines involved in T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and macrophage/dendritic cell attraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • The lecture Secondary Lymphoid Tissues - Lymphocyte Activation by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Adaptive Immune System. (lecturio.com)
  • LTi cells play a critical role in restoring lymphoid tissue following viral infection. (jci.org)
  • Targeting a4ß7 integrin reduces mucosal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus and protects gut-associated lymphoid tissue from infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • Furthermore, when animals in the terminal stages of SIV infection (with AIDS) were examined, virtually no CCR5-expressing CD4 + T cells were found in lymphoid tissues, and all of the remaining CD4 + T cells were naive and coexpressed CXCR4. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed genes from each tissue and treatment group, and integration of data across tissues, gave insight into the large subset (networks) of differentially regulated genes in functional genomics of host immune response to systemic APEC infection. (iastate.edu)
  • To study HIV-1 tissue immunopathogenesis, we have developed a culture system that permits ex vivo HIV-1 infection and analysis of human lymphoid tissues ( 18 - 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Collectively, these studies indicate that, in addition to responding to infection or tissue damage, ILC2s can regulate adipose function and metabolic homeostasis in part via production of enkephalin peptides that elicit beiging. (harvard.edu)
  • This investigation of Human Lymphoid Tissue (HLT) cultures sought better understanding of how cells differentiate in microgravity and, ultimately, of how the human immune system fights disease. (nasa.gov)
  • Finally, these tissues were analyzed for dendritic cell (DC) activation, the most powerful antigen-presenting cells in the immune system. (jove.com)
  • Choice of the primary lymphoid tissues provide novel insight into the earliest developmental changes that occur in the immune system cells, as they are stimulated to commit to pathways of defense. (iastate.edu)
  • The reduction with antiretroviral therapy (ART) of HIV RNA in blood, and HIV RNA in infected cells and in viruses associated with the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in lymphatic tissues, typically follows a two-phase pattern of decline. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate immune reconstitution within HIV-infected lymphoid tissue during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (nih.gov)
  • This observation prompted us to hypothesize that HEVs of intestinal lymphoid tissues are sites of estradiol synthesis across species. (vetsci.org)
  • In this study, we examined whether estradiol is synthesized in the intestinal lymphoid tissues of adolescent piglets. (vetsci.org)
  • Major accumulations of lymphoid tissue are found in the lamina propria of the intestine. (medscape.com)
  • The results showed that the lymphoid tissue is present in two different types and in two areas of intestinal bulb and main intestine of Barbus sharpeyi . (vin.com)
  • The cryptopatch cells isolated from the small intestine, which were c-kit positive (c-kit + ) but lineage marker negative (Lin), gave rise to TCR-αΒ and TCR-γδ IELs following in vivo transfer or tissue engraftment into 2 Gy-irradiated severe combined immunodeficient mice. (springer.com)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR6 is expressed by dendritic cells, B and T cells predominantly within the organized structures of the gut-associated lymphatic tissue. (nih.gov)
  • In this protocol we will test the hypothesis that the rapid decrease in HIV replication associated with raltegravir is due to a more complete suppression of viral replication in lymphatic compartments such as lymph nodes and gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hematoxylin-eosin staining of biopsy specimens from these lesions revealed dense homogenous plasmacytoid cell infiltration to the epithelium, which is different from the normal lymphatic tissue ( Fig. 2A ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In conventional rabbits the cells which produce natural bactericidal antibodies against E. coli 086 appear early after birth in organized intestinal lymphatic tissue. (eurekamag.com)
  • In this study we investigated the kinetic behavior of Thy-1+ and Thy-1- B cells in various lymphoid tissues. (rug.nl)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Site-specific differences in fatty acid composition in normal human mesentery are consistent with local interactions between lymph node lymphoid cells and adjacent adipose tissue. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Histopathology before treatment (a) The atypical lymphoid cells form lymphoepithelial lesions. (hkmj.org)
  • Over the last ten years, immunologists have recognized the central importance of an emerging group of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in health and disease. (jci.org)
  • In mice, NKp46 is also present on rare T cell subsets and on a subset of gut Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs) expressing the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) transcription factor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Early viral replication and profound CD4 + T-cell depletion occur preferentially in intestinal tissues of macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Importantly, SMC acquired features of lymphoid tissue organizers, which control tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in autoimmune diseases through hyperinduction of CCL7, CCL9, CXCL13, CCL19, CXCL16, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • IL-2R alpha and IL-2/IL-15R beta) and their signaling pathways through the use of IL-15 in immunotherapy and monoclonal antibodies to receptors (anti-IL-2R alpha and anti-IL-2/IL-15R beta) in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and lymphoid malignancies. (cancer.gov)
  • Eye-associated lymphoid tissue in dry eye syndrome / Fiedrich Paulsen [and others] - Lacrimal epithelium mediates hormonal influences on antigen-presenting. (acronymattic.com)
  • Our experiments demonstrate that tissues or cells challenged by recall antigen or by polyclonal activator in modeled microgravity lose all their ability to produce antibodies and cytokines and to increase their metabolic activity. (springer.com)
  • During the transition from peripheral tissue to the LN, DCs undergo maturation and become more efficient at presenting antigen to T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CALT) is a part of the eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT) at the ocular surface. (acronymattic.com)
  • This report examines the sympathetic innervation of immune tissues in transgenic mice that overexpress nerve growth factor (NGF) in skin and other epithelial structures. (jneurosci.org)
  • Local B-cell infiltration and related abnormal expression of ectopic lymphoid tissue (ELT) in the renal tissues of LN mice models was related to the severity of renal impairment [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • To study its targeting of PD-L1-expressing tissues, we radiolabeled CX-072 with the positron emission tomography (PET) isotope zirconium-89 (89Zr).EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 89Zr-labeled CX-072, non-specific Probody control molecule (PbCtrl) and CX-072 parental antibody (CX-075) were injected in BALB/c nude mice bearing human MDA-MB-231 tumors or C57BL/6J mice bearing syngeneic MC38 tumors. (rug.nl)
  • Circumstantial evidence has linked the SMC LTβR to tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in hyperlipidemic mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that aged but not young mice developed multiple tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) in the kidney after AKI. (jci.org)
  • In the first type, the lymphoid cells were scattered in the mucosal epithelium and in the second type, the lymphoid cells were present as an aggregated cord-like structure in the lamina propria or as diffuse type in the submucosa. (vin.com)
  • Subset of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue found as lym-phoid nodules in the lamina propria of the bronchus. (flandershealth.us)
  • The 'WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues' is the second volume of the Fourth Edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) series on histological and genetic typing of human tumours. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al. (uptodate.com)
  • Instead, as primarily tissue-resident cells, environmental and organ-specific cues shape their effector functions and spatial location, enabling rapid modulation of host pathophysiology. (jci.org)
  • We then followed the kinetics of virus multiplication and spread within and from a single lymphoid organ. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, it appears that splenic LTi-like cells are a rapid source of IL-17 and IL-22, which might contribute to dynamic organization of secondary lymphoid organ structure or host defense. (rupress.org)
  • We have evaluated whether pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissues of T1D and nondiabetic organ donors differ in the amount and distribution of HA and HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), such as inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), versican, and tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 14,15 Moreover, aorta tertiary lymphoid organ integrity depended on the lymphotoxin β-receptor (LTβR). (ahajournals.org)
  • a) When a person who may or may not be sick encounters the health services for some specific purpose, such as to receive limited care or service for a current condition, to donate an organ or tissue, to receive prophylactic vaccination (immunization), or to discuss a problem which is in itself not a disease or injury. (icd10data.com)
  • Fibroblasts with distinct phenotypes underlie tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) formation in the aged injured kidney. (jci.org)
  • Primary interests of the Branch concern the identification of abnormalities to the regulation of the immune response and the definition of molecular disorders that underlie lymphoid malignancies. (cancer.gov)
  • CCR6 identifies lymphoid tissue inducer cells within cryptopatches. (nih.gov)
  • Ivanov II, Diehl GE, Littman DR. Lymphoid tissue inducer cells in intestinal immunity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Biopsy of the suspicious zone revealed atypical lymphoid cells with lymphoepithelial lesion formation. (hkmj.org)
  • Immunohistochemical stains confirmed that the atypical lymphoid cells were positive for B cell marker CD20 (pan-B-cell marker: L26, Dako, UK), and negative for T cell markers CD3 and CD5 ( Fig 2 ). (hkmj.org)
  • The results constitute lists of genes with enriched or enhanced expression in the four lymphohematopoietic tissues, exemplified also on protein level with immunohistochemical images. (diva-portal.org)
  • Activated CX-072 species in tissue lysates were detected by Western capillary electrophoresis.RESULTS: PET imaging revealed 89Zr-CX-072 accumulation in MDA-MB-231 tumors with 2.1-fold higher tumor-to-blood ratios at 6 days pi compared to 89Zr-PbCtrl. (rug.nl)
  • Repeat fibre-optic bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy revealed respiratory mucosa with diffuse dense lymphoid proliferation in the stroma. (hkmj.org)
  • This report describes a case of IDCS arising in the salivary gland associated lymphoid tissue of the parotid gland of a 51 year woman, presenting with a painless neck swelling. (bmj.com)
  • 3, 4 Here, we report a case of IDCS arising from the salivary gland associated lymphoid tissue of the parotid gland that demonstrates no association with either EBV or HHV-8. (bmj.com)
  • CBOSS-02-HLT uses human lymphoid tissue to study the effects microgravity has on the human immune response. (nasa.gov)
  • Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46 + cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from healthy donors. (frontiersin.org)
  • In lymphoid tissue, where human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is produced and stored, three-drug treatment with viral protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors markedly reduced viral burden. (sciencemag.org)
  • IgA in the eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT) of the normal human ocular surface. (acronymattic.com)
  • Background: The sequencing of the human genome has opened doors for global gene expression profiling, and the immense amount of data will lay an important ground for future studies of normal and diseased tissues. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Human Protein Atlas project aims to systematically map the human gene and protein expression landscape in a multitude of normal healthy tissues as well as cancers, enabling the characterization of both housekeeping genes and genes that display a tissue-specific expression pattern. (diva-portal.org)
  • In situ protein detection in human tissues using antibodies reveals the cellular protein localization, and affinity-based proteomic studies can help to discover proteins involved in the development of diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • The composition of the ECM in human T1D islet tissue and in areas of insulitis matters because the inflammatory milieu is believed to be a driving force in T1D. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The immune responses of human lymphoid tissue explants or cells isolated from this tissue were studied quantitatively under normal gravity and microgravity. (springer.com)
  • Margolis L. B. Noninfectious X4 but not R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions inhibit humoral immune responses in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. (springer.com)
  • Margolis L. B. Differential pathogenesis of primary CCR5-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates in ex vivo human lymphoid tissue. (springer.com)
  • Similarly to CD3+ cells, I showed that, both in human and in preclinical models of CRC, B cells display a dual geographical distribution, either within tertiary lymphoid tissue (CD20-TLT) or dispersed at the tumour invasive margin (CD20-TILs). (open.ac.uk)
  • Nevertheless, AT-2-inactivated X4 (but not R5) HIV-1 virions, even with only a brief exposure, inhibit antibody responses in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo, similarly to infectious virus. (asm.org)
  • Here, we used our ex vivo system to study whether noninfectious virions impair immune responses in human lymphoid tissue, where critical events of HIV-1 disease occur. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that chemically inactivated noninfectious X4, but not R5, HIV-1 virions with functional envelope glycoproteins inhibit humoral immune responses in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. (asm.org)
  • Ex vivo cultures of human lymphoid tissue. (asm.org)
  • Two-compartment mathematical models were developed to simulate the human pharmacokinetics of soluble and lipid-associated forms of IDV in the central compartment and the lymphoid tissue. (ovid.com)
  • However, ILC2s have not been identified in human adipose tissue, and the mechanisms by which ILC2s regulate metabolic homeostasis remain unknown. (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we report on the mechanisms of interactions of HIV-1 with several such microbes in the context of ex vivo infected human lymphoid tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A major goal of the Branch is to translate fundamental biologic insights into novel treatment of human B and T-cell lymphoid malignancies. (cancer.gov)
  • Characterization of these cells has provided a molecular definition of ILCs and their tissue-specific functions. (jci.org)
  • This Review highlights our recent understanding of tissue-resident ILCs and the signals that regulate their contribution to inflammation and tissue repair in health and disease. (jci.org)
  • This Review highlights the regulatory factors that drive tissue homeostasis of ILCs as they balance pathogen defense, tissue repair, and chronic inflammation. (jci.org)
  • Cytolytic ILCs, also referred to as conventional NK (cNK) cells, release cytolytic effector molecules including perforin and granzyme B, which can kill tumor or virus-infected tissue. (jci.org)
  • Tissue ILCs limit inflammation and promote restoration. (jci.org)
  • We found that a major source of IL-17 was CD4 + CD3 − NK1.1 − CD11b − Gr1 − CD11c − B220 − cells, a phenotype that corresponds to lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells (LTi-like cells), which constitutively expressed the IL-23 receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and CCR6. (rupress.org)
  • Experiments with ltbr −/− SMC indicated that LTβR-RelB activation was obligatory to generate the lymphoid tissue organizer phenotype. (ahajournals.org)
  • CCR6 characterizes lymphoid tissue inducer (Lti) cells within cryptopatches. (nih.gov)