The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Solitary or multiple benign hepatic vascular tumors, usually occurring in women of 20-50 years of age. The nodule, poorly encapsulated, consists of a central stellate fibrous scar and normal liver elements such as HEPATOCYTES, small BILE DUCTS, and KUPFFER CELLS among the intervening fibrous septa. The pale colored central scar represents large blood vessels with hyperplastic fibromuscular layer and narrowing lumen.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
The principle underlying the LLNA is that skin sensitizers induce growth of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes draining the site of ... The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an in vivo test for skin sensitisation. LLNA has largely superseded the guinea pig ... The REACH Regulation, Annex VII, paragraph 8.3 states "The Murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the first-choice method for ... The animals are euthanized and their lymph node cells are removed and analyzed. The ratio of tracer incorporation in lymph ...
... bacterial antigens at a muscular injection site however typically do not migrate further than the local draining lymph nodes, ... Effector and memory lymphocytes in turn preferentially home back to the tissue where they were first activated, in this case ... The samples were tested using the enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay according to Åkerlund et al. The mean baseline ... nausea and a swelling of the inguinal lymph nodes. Symptoms usually subside within days after injection and are less pronounced ...
... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.370.750.600 - passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.370.750.610 - patch tests MeSH E01.370. ... lymphocyte count MeSH E01.450.375.107.595.500.150 - cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH E01.450.375.107.595.500.150.160 - cd4-cd8 ratio ... local lymph node assay MeSH E01.450.495.750.600 - passive cutaneous anaphylaxis MeSH E01.450.495.750.610 - patch tests MeSH ... sentinel lymph node biopsy MeSH E01.370.388.250 - endoscopy MeSH E01.370.388.250.035 - angioscopy MeSH E01.370.388.250.070 - ...
This hematogenous transmission can also spread infection to more distant sites, such as peripheral lymph nodes, the kidneys, ... Macrophages, epithelioid cells, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and fibroblasts aggregate to form granulomas, with lymphocytes ... Interferon gamma release assays, on a blood sample, are recommended in those who are positive to the Mantoux test. These are ... The granuloma may prevent dissemination of the mycobacteria and provide a local environment for interaction of cells of the ...
... and carried from that local tissue in the lungs to the local lymph nodes. From there it continues to spread, eventually getting ... aka signaling lymphocyte activation molecule or SLAM, which is found on immune cells like B or T cells, and antigen-presenting ... nasal or urine specimen by using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. This method is particularly useful ... Within days, the measles virus spreads through local tissue and is picked up by dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages, ...
... but subsequently become more invasive and metastasize to the local lymph nodes. Larger tumours may be necrotic and fibromatous ... In vitro assays have found that enJSRV does this by blocking various stages of the viral replication cycle. An example of this ... JSRV is transmitted by the respiratory route and may also infect lymphocytes and myeloid cells, in addition to the lung ... to JSRV antigens due to the expression of closely related endogenous JSRV proteins in the fetal thymus during T lymphocyte ...
... lymphoid follicles and lymph nodes), and present the donor's self peptides to the recipient's lymphocytes (immune cells ... In humans MHC is also called human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Though cytotoxic-crossmatch assay can predict rejection mediated by ... and promote local immune and inflammatory responses to defend against the perceived threat. The T cells can recognize the ... migrate to the recipient's lymph nodes and activate T cells that reside there; or an indirect pathway, in which the recipient's ...
In addition to disease stabilization and regression of metastases in lung and lymph nodes, the severe pain associated with ... Based on this variant, an assay called Neukopanel has been developed to quantify the ADCC of monoclonal antibodies, a ... Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) engineered T-lymphocytes are popular in immuno-oncology[citation needed], having shown that ... for local intra-tumor injection, as effector cells for antibody-mediated killing via CD16 modified cells and as effector cells ...
B lymphocytes start in the bone marrow and move to the lymph nodes. As they progress, they mature and display different ... This assay, the serum free light chain assay, has recently been recommended by the International Myeloma Working Group for the ... Myeloma activity sometimes appears as "lytic lesions" (with local disappearance of normal bone due to resorption). And on the ... Multiple myeloma develops in B lymphocytes after they have left the part of the lymph node known as the germinal center. The ...
In tissues such as lymph nodes or spleen, or in peripheral blood preparations, cells with Fc receptors (macrophages, monocytes ... In some assays, it is preferable to use only the antigen-binding (Fab) portion of the antibody. For these applications, ... B lymphocytes, and natural killer cells) are present which can bind the Fc region of intact antibodies, causing background ... pepsin would be inactive but could be reactivated upon subsequent acid reflux events resulting in damage to local tissues. ...
TNM classification of the primary tumor, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis is performed. Mesothelioma is staged Ia ... Doctors have begun testing the Mesomark assay, which measures levels of soluble mesothelin-related proteins (SMRPs) released by ... Newall where local residents who contracted mesothelioma demanded compensation because of the asbestos pollution from the ... fibres have been shown to depress the in vitro proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, ...
Then, they found out that the direct injection of naked IVT mRNA into lymph nodes was the most effective way to induce T cell ... There is an antisense-based discovery strategy, rationale and design of screening assays, and the application of such assays ... Local delivery benefits from simple formulation and drug delivery and high bioavailability of the drug. Systemic delivery is ... Then, the PD-1 targeted sd-rxRNA helped increasing the anti-tumor activity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) against ...
The systemic reactions include: fever and malaise; enlarged lymph nodes, liver, and/or spleen; liver dysfunction; hematuria; ... The diagnosis can be supported by the detection, using for example an ELISA assay), IgE directed against mosquito saliva ... Individuals with systemic mosquito bite allergies respond to mosquito bites with intense local skin reactions (e.g. blisters, ... a type of lymphocyte) that react against parts of the inducing proteins that are displayed on the surface of cells at the bite ...
From there, it spreads to the salivary glands and lymph nodes. Infection of the lymph nodes leads to presence of the virus in ... It has been proposed that symptomatic infections in the vaccinated may be because memory T lymphocytes generated as a result of ... Parotitis is usually preceded by local tenderness and occasionally earache. Other salivary glands, namely the submaxillary, ... Antibody titers can also be measured with complement fixation tests, hemagglutination assays, and neutralization tests. In ...
After day 8, isolation was accomplished by cocultivating lymph node fragments with fetal porcine kidney cells (Mengeling, ... In addition, there were perivascular cuffs of plasma cells and lymphocytes in the brain, spinal cord, and choroid of the eye. ... A titration procedure wherein infected cells are made evident by IF microscopy and a plaque assay also have been described. ... The zona pellucida could protect the early embryo while local immunity is developing. Conversely, the virus may cause uterine ...
... axillary lymph node dissection - axillary nerve - axillary vein - azacitidine - azoxymethane - AZQ - AZT B cell - B lymphocyte ... local cancer - local therapy - localized gallbladder cancer - locally advanced cancer - lometrexol - lomustine - lonafarnib - ... CA 19-9 assay - CA-125 - CA-125 test - cachexia - calcitonin - calcitriol - CAM - Campath-1H - camptothecin - camptothecin ... lymph gland - lymph node - lymph node dissection - lymph node drainage - lymph node mapping - lymph vessel - lymphadenectomy - ...
Pancytopenia, rashes, swollen lymph nodes and enlargement of the liver and spleen are commonly seen in such individuals. ... Suppressor population or Regulatory T cell theory, wherein regulatory T-lymphocytes (commonly CD4+FoxP3+ cells, among others) ... Local syndromes which affect a specific organ or tissue: *Endocrinologic: Diabetes mellitus type 1, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, ... serological assays which can detect specific autoantibodies can be employed. Localised disorders are best diagnosed by ...
Pancytopenia, rashes, swollen lymph nodes and enlargement of the liver and spleen are commonly seen in such individuals. ... Local syndromes which affect a specific organ or tissue: Endocrinologic: diabetes mellitus type 1, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, ... In this form of the disease, the absence of lymphocytes can accelerate organ damage, and intravenous IgG administration can be ... serological assays which can detect specific autoantibodies can be employed.[citation needed] Localised disorders are best ...
periodontal abscess with lymph node enlargement. Radiographic Features[edit]. Radiographically, the periodontal lesion often ... It has also been found that a low T-helper to T-suppressor ratio is found in aggressive periodontitis which may alter local ... An impaired ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to react to chemotactic stimuli is found in the majority of patients ... "Use and interpretation of microbiological assays in periodontal diseases". Oral Microbiology and Immunology. 1 (1): 73-81. ...
Dendritic cells: suppresses their migration to lymph nodes as well as their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and ... Lymphocytes: Inhibit the infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes into inflamed sites and inhibits production of the pro- ... MaR1n-3 and MaRn-3 have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro assays of human neutrophil function. These ... These agents functioned as pro-inflammatory signals by increasing the permeability of local blood vessels; activating tissue- ...
... of cases with enlargement of lymph nodes, spleen, and/or liver; b) localized lymphoma (~25% of cases) with lymphoma limited to ... Solitary plasmacytomas typically present with local symptoms due to the growing mass of plasma cells such as the bone pain or ... Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes (i.e. B cells) which are stimulated to undergo this maturational development by T ... more sensitive methods of detecting urinary and serum light chain myeloma proteins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays ...
... then spread to the lymph nodes, then to the rest of the body. This has given rise to the popularity of local-only treatments ... The cell based immunotherapy in which the patients own Natural Killer cells(NK) and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes(CTL) are used has ... Enzyme linked lectin specific assay or ELLSA has been proven to directly detect melanoma derived exosomes from fluid samples. ... When getting to this stage, Surgery is conducted on the colon and lymph nodes, then the doctor orders Chemotherapy (FOLFOX or ...
... reflecting leukocyte redistribution to lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin). Rapid administration of corticosterone (the ... Serum cortisol assays measures total cortisol, and its results may be misleading for patients with altered serum protein ... Palacios R, Sugawara I (January 1982). "Hydrocortisone abrogates proliferation of T cells in autologous mixed lymphocyte ... the net effect is that 11-beta HSD1 serves to increase the local concentrations of biologically active cortisol in a given ...
Possible symptoms include high fever, headache, chills, excessive sweating, weakness, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, drowsiness ... California Department of Public Health Tutorial for Local Agencies to Safely Collect Dead Birds Oral Swab Samples on RNAse ... Wasserman HA, Singh S, Champagne DE (2004). "Saliva of the Yellow Fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, modulates murine lymphocyte ... or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dead birds, after necropsy, or their oral swab samples collected on specific RNA- ...
August 2019). "Sentinel Lymph Node-Targeted Therapy by Oncolytic Sendai Virus Suppresses Micrometastasis of Head and Neck ... This assay evaluates the final dilution that may cause a viral infection in 50% of inoculated eggs. This EID50 assay is used to ... Removal of sialic acid residues from the surface of tumor cells makes them available to NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes ... However, it is the F protein (one of many membrane fusion proteins) that, when triggered by local dehydration and a ...
... cancers of the lymphatic system and lymph nodes) were given the drug by vein, rather than by breathing the irritating gas.[141] ... Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is given prior to a local treatment such as surgery, and is designed to shrink the primary tumor.[3]: ... especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the ... "ARK™ Methotrexate Assay". Ark Diagnostics.. *^ "Customizing Chemotherapy for Better Cancer Care". My Care Diagnostics.. ...
Therefore, in December 1942, several people with advanced lymphomas (cancers of the lymphatic system and lymph nodes) were ... Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is given prior to a local treatment such as surgery, and is designed to shrink the primary tumor. It ... "ARK Methotrexate Assay". Ark Diagnostics. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014. "Customizing ... especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the ...
... immune cells carry the virus to nearby lymph nodes where further reproduction of the virus takes place.[48] From there the ... such as lymphocytes, also undergo programmed cell death leading to an abnormally low concentration of lymphocytes in the blood. ... The probable cause of the outbreak was tainted bush meat hunted by local villagers around the towns of Isiro and Viadana.[1][ ... and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are methods best used in the early stages of the disease ...
... this data is based on preclinical assays, based on in vitro cultured tumor cell lines, which suggest that the effects of mTOR ... Sentinel lymph node. Topography. *Head/Neck (Oral, Nasopharyngeal). *Digestive system. *Respiratory system ...
... immune cells carry the virus to nearby lymph nodes where further reproduction of the virus takes place.[54] From there the ... such as lymphocytes, also undergo programmed cell death leading to an abnormally low concentration of lymphocytes in the blood. ... The probable cause of the outbreak was tainted bush meat hunted by local villagers around the towns of Isiro and Viadana.[1][ ... and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are methods best used in the early stages of the disease ...
... in LC trafficking from the epidermis or alteration of their antigen presenting capabilities to T cells in the draining lymph ... T lymphocyte proliferation was examined using the local lymph node assay. To evaluate the effects of restraint on LC, mice were ... to decreased LC migration to the local lymph nodes. ... Lymph-nodes; Stress; Cell-migration; Sensitization; In-vivo- ... We found that restraint significantly decreased DNFB-induced cellular proliferation in lymph nodes by 50%. We also determined ...
Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ... ranging from 0.0625% to 2%. A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with a calculated EC3 ... and dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes (DLNs) following 4 and 14 days of dermal exposure with significant increases in ... Our results consolidate historical accounts of pandemic cholera with data to show the importance of local lineages, presenting ...
As a specific example, to test for the sensitization potential of topical products, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) often is ... The second compartment includes microfluidic channels, and the third is a lymph node compartment made up of lymphocytes such as ... Then, the local lymph node is excised and the T cells are measured to determine if they have been activated. ... To replicate the LLNAs mechanism of action, cells must migrate from the artificial skin to the lymph node compartment when ...
Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ... Lymph nodes; Lymphocytes; Dose response; Disinfectants; Antimicrobials; Author Keywords: DDAC; hypersensitivity; allergic ... T-cells and dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, along with significant increases in the percentage of B-cells (0.25% ... Dermal exposure to DDAC did not induce increased production of IgE as evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node B ...
Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ... Lymph nodes; Lymphocytes; Dose response; Disinfectants; Antimicrobials; Bromides; Ammonium compounds; Hypersensitivity; ... and dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes (DLNs) following 4 and 14 days of dermal exposure with significant increases in ... Immune cell phenotyping along with local and systemic IgE levels were evaluated following 4 and 14 days of dermal application. ...
442A: Skin Sensitization - Local Lymph Node Assay: DA The Local Lymph Node Assay: DA (LLNA: DA) is a non-radioactive ... skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The ... The procedure from excision of lymph nodes to ATP measurement should be kept uniform for each animal and completed within 20 ... reviews SME and entrepreneurship issues and policies at national and local levels, and provides observations and ...
Local Lymph Node Assay). Deviations:. no. GLP compliance:. yes. Type of study:. mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). Species:. ... A Preliminary Evaluation of in situ Measurements of Lymphocyte Proliferation. Contact Dermatitis 21:215-20.. Basketter DA & ... In a skin sensitization study using the Local Lymph Node Assay, three groups of 4 (CBA/CaCruBR) female mice were administered ... Kimber I, Hilton J & Weisenberger C (1998). The Murine Local Lymph Node Assay for Identification of Contact Allergens: ...
Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ... ranging from 0.0625-1%. A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with a calculated EC3 value ... T-cells and dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, along with significant increases in the percentage of B-cells (0.25% ... Dermal exposure to DDAC did not induce increased production of IgE as evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node B ...
For local s.c. or i.d. injections the draining lymph nodes were removed, and lymphocytes were isolated and tested for lysis of ... Mice were sacrificed 24 h after the last vaccination, and lymphocytes were isolated from the draining lymph nodes. CTL assays ... and lymphocytes were isolated from the draining lymph nodes and tested for CTL activity in a conventional 51Cr release assay ... We did not detect significant CTL activity from mesenteric lymph nodes or lymph nodes isolated from the base of the tail after ...
The basic principle underlying the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) in mouse is that sensitizers induce a primary proliferation of ... in mouse is that sensitizers induce a primary proliferation of lymphocytes in the auricular lymph nodes draining the site of ... The basic principle underlying the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) ... lymphocytes in the auricular lymph nodes draining the site of ...
Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ... ranging from 0.75% to 2.5%. A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with EC3 values of ... Following 3 days of dermal exposure, a significant increase in IL-4 mRNA in the draining lymph nodes was observed only in the ... IgE-inclucing potential was evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells and measurement of total serum IgE ...
Combined Local Lymph Node and Irritancy Assay. To determine the irritancy and sensitization potential of PCBTF, a combined ... Analysis of Cytokine Production by Draining Lymph Node Cells. To determine cytokine protein production by lymphocytes, DLNs of ... M. R. Woolhiser, A. E. Munson, and B. J. Meade, "Comparison of mouse strains using the local lymph node assay," Toxicology, vol ... NIEHS, "National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; the murine local lymph node assay: a test method for assessing the ...
In the local lymph node assay (LLNA) in mice, the concentration of ME-PPD needed to induce lymphocyte proliferation 3-fold ... as defined by the local lymph node assay, were tabulated.. Results: 509 wet workers and 1141 dry workers were tested to the ... A biopsy from day 6 showed focal spongiosis with a mixed perivascular and interstitial infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and ... This presentation reviews (1) a simple direct reading assay for identification of direct acting chemical allergens using p- ...
... for the antigen-specific assays. Finally, PB was collected from healthy individuals. All studies were approved by the local ... Checkpoints in lymphocyte development and autoimmune disease. Nat Immunol 2010;11:14-20pmid:20016505. ... Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope. Nature 2005;435:224-228 ... Expansion of Th17 Cells and Functional Defects in T Regulatory Cells Are Key Features of the Pancreatic Lymph Nodes in Patients ...
... we assayed their auricular lymph nodes for number of lymphocytes, surface antigen expression of B cells, and local cytokine ... FUNCTION OF TISSUE ENZYMES AND LYMPHOCYTE RECEPTORS. ♦ CD 69 - is a lymphocyte activation marker involved in apoptosis of ... IL-10 and IL-13 produced by ex vivo restimulated lymph node cells. DNCB induced a marked increase in Th1 cytokine (IL-2, IFN-γ ... This study suggests that assays of autoantibodies against nervous system proteins may provide a means of assessing the early ...
Using modifications of the local lymph node assay, BALB/c mice (five animals/group) were exposed topically via intact or ... These studies demonstrate the potential for uITO to induce sensitization and using lymphocyte proliferation as a biomarker of ... rats and mice have demonstrated the development of mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia and granulomas of mediastinal lymph nodes ... Phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells following intradermal injection with 5% uITO yielded a profile consistent with ...
The chemicals are considered to be weak skin sensitisers based on the results seen in a single local lymph node assay (LLNA) ... The EC3 value (concentration required to produce a three-fold increase in lymphocyte proliferation compared with controls) for ... The chemical was also non-sensitising in a KeratinoSens™ assay or direct peptide reactivity assay, as it did not induce the ... The chemical a-irone was found to be negative for inducing gene mutations in a bacterial reverse mutation assay carried out ...
mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). Species:. mouse. Strain:. other: CBA/J. Sex:. female. Details on test animals and ... The animals were allowed to rest without dosing on Days 4 and 5. On day 6, the proliferation of lymphocytes in the lymph node ... In a Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) conducted similarly to the OECD test guideline No 429 and in compliance with GLP, groups of ... Name of test method: Local Lymph Node Assay. - Criteria used to consider a positive response: A substance is considered a ...
Local Lymph Node Assay). Deviations:. not applicable. GLP compliance:. yes (incl. certificate). Type of study:. mouse local ... to cause contact sensitization by measuring lymphocyte proliferative responses from auricular lymph nodes following topical ... The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) was conducted to assess the potential of the test substance to cause contact sensitization by ... The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) was conducted to assess the potential of diethylene glycol monohexyl ether (DEGHE) ...
mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). Species:. mouse. Strain:. other: CBA/CaCruBR. Sex:. female. Details on test animals and ... A Preliminary Evaluation of in situ Measurements of Lymphocyte Proliferation", Contact Dermatitis 21,215-220 and Basketter D A ... Name of test method: Kimber I, Hilton J and Weisenberger C (1989) "The Murine Local Lymph Node Assay for Identification of ... Comparison of the Local Lymph Node Assay with the Guinea Pig Maximisation Test for the Detection of a Range of Contact ...
... based on a local lymph node assay (LLNA)-derived EC3 (estimated concentration to produce a three-fold increase in lymphocyte ... Skip to Content Skip to Main Navigation Skip to Local Navigation Skip to Search ...
... based on a local lymph node assay (LLNA)-derived EC3 (estimated concentration to produce a three-fold increase in lymphocyte ...
... mixed lymphocyte reaction in vitro as well as local allogeneic response of popliteal lymph node assay in vivo and mycobacteria- ... popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay was carried out. PLN assay enables quantification of a local allogeneic response mounted ... These SMILS inhibited IL-2 production, mixed lymphocyte reaction in vitro and popliteal lymph node assay in vivo.. Rheumatoid ... a common assay to assess allogeneic responses of T cells in vitro. Lymph node lymphocyte single cell suspensions from C3H and ...
The extent of the CTL generation can also be monitored, thereby giving insights on the nature of a local (draining lymph node ... either spleen of lymph nodes). The use of enlarged organs with proliferating CD8 T cells will affect the whole assay since most ... Moreover, ADJ1 acts both at the local site of injection (draining lymph nodes) as well as systemically with an increased OT-I ... By this strategy, it is possible to assess the potency of the local immune response in the draining lymph node after ...
The principle underlying the LLNA is that skin sensitizers induce growth of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes draining the site of ... The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an in vivo test for skin sensitisation. LLNA has largely superseded the guinea pig ... The REACH Regulation, Annex VII, paragraph 8.3 states "The Murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the first-choice method for ... The animals are euthanized and their lymph node cells are removed and analyzed. The ratio of tracer incorporation in lymph ...
The Local Lymph Node Assay and Skin Sensitization Testing Ian Kimber, Rebecca J. Dearman ... The Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Assay for Evaluating Cell-Mediated Immune Function Gary R. Burleson, Florence G. Burleson, Rodney R ... The Delayed Type Hypersensitivity Assay Using Protein and Xenogeneic Cell Antigens Rodney R. Dietert, Terry L. Bunn, Ji-Eun Lee ...
... was a slight ocular irritant but not a dermal irritant and it was not a sensitizer using the Local Lymph Node Assay. There were ... and human lymphocyte cultures. No carcinogenicity studies were available, nor were any clinical tests reported. ... assays including multiple strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, ...
... their depletion by local toxin administration led to disease susceptibility. We propose that these regulatory T cells modulate ... their depletion by local toxin administration led to disease susceptibility. We pro... ... allowing immunoregulation to be responsive to local conditions. ... CD8 T cells in the retinas of arrβgal mice on a local basis, ... administration of diphtheria toxin to deplete regulatory T cells showed that the protective activity was dependent on local, ...
In response to local infection or inflammatory insults, the number of DCs in the draining lymph node increases. Five major ... Tissue-specific homing receptor mediates lymphocyte adhesion to cytokine-stimulated lymph node high endothelial venule cells. ... Cytokine production was assayed using RayBio Mouse Cytokine Ab Array III (Norcross, GA) following the manufacturers protocol. ... PGN increases the number of CD8+ DC, CD11b+ DC, and pDC in the draining lymph node. The lymph node is the site of T cell ...
Inguinal lymph nodes from treated and control mice are removed 14 days after the immunization. Lymph node T-cells are prepared ... 0150] Cytokine assay. Release of IL-2 from T lymphocytes was measured using ELISA kits, as suggested by the manufacturer (R&D, ... The topical delivery of statins, for example on skin or eye, is very useful to achieve high local concentrations without side ... immunization, inguinal lympho-nodes is isolated and analysed (T lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-γ production). ...
  • As a specific example, to test for the sensitization potential of topical products, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) often is used. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • According to Yarmush, "The chip mimicks the essential elements of the LLNA assay. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The Local Lymph Node Assay: DA (LLNA: DA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. (oecd.org)
  • The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an in vivo test for skin sensitisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principle underlying the LLNA is that skin sensitizers induce growth of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes draining the site of application. (wikipedia.org)
  • The REACH Regulation, Annex VII, paragraph 8.3 states "The Murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the first-choice method for in vivo testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • function of proliferative responses provoked in the induction cell products favor immediate type hypersensitivity reactions, phase of contact allergy, the murine local lymph node assay serving as growth and differentiation factors for mast cells and (LLNA), has been accepted as a stand-alone method for skin eosinophils, the cellular effectors of the clinical manifestations of sensitization testing (NIH, 1999). (cdc.gov)
  • Under the given test conditions, the test substance does not elicit sensitising response in LLNA assay. (europa.eu)
  • These assays include local lymph node assay (LLNA), guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) for the dermal allergic potential, T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) assay for immunosuppression, and popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) for autoimmune reactions. (hindawi.com)
  • Control mice and DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice were treated with 80% (v/v) TCE using local lymph node assay (LLNA) to establish a TCE-induced CHS model. (chemwatch.net)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitising potential of various disperse dyes using a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and an in vitro loose-fit coculture based sensitisation assay (LCSA). (fu-berlin.de)
  • Our results from the LLNA experiments showed that almost all of the tested textile dyes caused a significant increase in lymph node cell count and lymph node weight except Disperse orange 3. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The in vitro loose-fit-coculture assay also gave comparable results to LLNA, and was found to be robust enough to investigate the sensitisation potential of test substances. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Overall, the results from these studies have demonstrated that HPT at a concentration of 2% produced a significant increase in lymph node cell proliferation in the LLNA in BALB/c mice. (nih.gov)
  • The primary hypothesis is that the heat-treated VZV vaccine will elicit significant VZV-specific immune responses measured by either glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) or VZV gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-ELISPOT) at 28 days post dose vaccination 4 in, HIV-infected participants, participants with STM, and participants with HM. (stanford.edu)
  • Approximately 5 h later, animals were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation and the auricular lymph nodes were excised. (europa.eu)
  • Approximately five hours post administration, the mice were euthanized via CO2 asphyxiation and both auricular lymph nodes located at the bifurcation of the jugular veins were excised and placed in PBS. (europa.eu)
  • A single cell suspension of the auricular lymph nodes from one mouse was prepared by gentle mechanical disaggregation using a tissue homogenizer (Stomacher 80 Lab System, Seward Ltd., London, United Kingdom). (europa.eu)
  • Lymphocyte proliferation can be measured by radiolabeling (quantifying tritiaded thymidine), bioluminescence (quantifying ATP content in lymphocytes) or immunoassay (ELISA utilizing an antibody specific for BrdU). (wikipedia.org)
  • The draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised and the lymphocytes were measure for proliferation by BrdU-ELISA, T-cell phenotype analysis by flow cytometry and signalling pathway activation by western blot. (chemwatch.net)
  • Rose Bengal agglutination test, immunofluorescent assays, and competitive ELISA were designed and used as described ( 8 , 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The Murine Local Lymph Node Assay for Identification of Contact Allergens: A Preliminary Evaluation of in situ Measurements of Lymphocyte Proliferation. (europa.eu)
  • The skin sensitizing potential of the test item (analogue) was assessed in a murine local lymph node assay in mice (OECD 429, GLP). (europa.eu)
  • Additional phenotypic analyses revealed significant and dose-responsive increases in the absolute number of B-cells, CD4+T-cells, CD8+T-cells and dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, along with significant increases in the percentage of B-cells (0.25% and 1% DDAC) at Day 10 following 4 days of dermal exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • We used dendritic cells to migrate from the skin to the lymph node [compartment]," explained Yarmush. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The [potential] sensitizer diffuses through it, and if it is an activator, it will turn on the dendritic cells, which will migrate down to the lymph node compartment. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Dendritic cells subsequently mature and migrate out of the epidermis to the local lymph node where they display major histocompatibility complex molecules, which include part of the hapten-protein complex to naive T-lymphocytes (T-cells). (aopwiki.org)
  • Adaptive cellular immunity is initiated by antigen-specific interactions between T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). (nih.gov)
  • Like other secondary lymphoid tissues such as lymph node (LN) and Peyer's patch (PP), BALT contains T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and HEVs ( 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • We describe an imaging assay that monitors the migration of two unique subsets of immune dendritic cells (DC), interstitial dendritic cells (iDC) and Langerhans cells (LC), found in the dermal and epidermal layers of skin, respectively. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The unique mechanism of tumor destruction by photodynamic therapy (PDT), resulting from apoptotic and necrotic killing of tumor cells accompanied by local inflammatory reaction and induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs), prompted us to investigate the antitumor effectiveness of the combination of PDT with administration of immature dendritic cells (DCs). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Following influenza virus infection, inflammasome activation led to migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the lung to the draining lymph node and T-cell priming. (nih.gov)
  • A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with EC3 values of 0.072% and 0.089% in CBA and BALB/c mice, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings provide novel opportunities for the selective mobilization of specific DC subsets to lymph nodes and demonstrate critical roles for both histamine and IL-6 in this process. (jimmunol.org)
  • The role of mast cells in the migration of tissue-resident Langerhans cells is well established, but their function in the accumulation of lymph node-resident DC subsets during inflammation has not been examined. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results suggest that an adhesion cascade, which includes L-selectin/PNAd, α 4 β 1 integrin/VCAM-1, and LFA-1, targets specific lymphocyte subsets to BALT. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, using adhesion-blocking mAbs in short-term in vivo lymphocyte homing assays, we find that L-selectin/PNAd, α 4 β 1 /VCAM-1, and LFA-1 adhesion pathways are important in homing of specific lymphocyte subsets to mouse BALT. (rupress.org)
  • Mast cells have been implicated in the process of DC mobilization and lymph node activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Activation of these sentinel cells leads to the production of soluble mediators, such as histamine ( 4 ), TNF ( 5 - 8 ), and the β form of pro-IL-1 (IL-1β) ( 9 ), that promote the migration of peripheral DC into the lymph node as well as lymph node hypertrophy. (jimmunol.org)
  • The development of skin sensitization is associated with, and requires, the activation and clonal expansion of allergen responsive T lymphocytes and it is these cells that orchestrate the cutaneous allergic reaction. (cdc.gov)
  • While both i.n. and s.c. vaccination triggered comparable levels of primary immune activation in the spleen and draining lymph nodes, i.n. vaccination led to a greater antigen-specific gamma interferon recall response in splenocytes than s.c. vaccination upon secondary respiratory mycobacterial challenge, accompanied by an increased frequency of antigen-specific lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is a complex process that involves a number of cellular processes and molecular mecha-nisms, such as disorder of lipid metabolism, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative stress, vascular en-dothelial cells injury and activation of smooth muscle cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Much of this migration occurs through high endothelial venules (HEVs) * and is regulated in part by multistep cascades involving sequential lymphocyte/endothelial adhesion and activation events ( 2 - 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • With the goal of developing new and improved options for Ca2+ imaging studies, we have created a transgenic reporter mouse expressing a novel ratiometric genetically encoded Ca+ indicator, and applied it to the study of T lymphocyte motility and activation. (escholarship.org)
  • They then migrate to draining lymph nodes where they display the antigens to naive T cells for subsequent activation and clonal expansion ( 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Intratumoral injection of alpha-gal glycolipids results in local inflammation mediated by anti-Gal binding to the multiple alpha-gal epitopes and activation of complement. (umassmed.edu)
  • To replicate the LLNA's mechanism of action, cells must migrate from the artificial skin to the lymph node compartment when activated by a sensitizer. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The microfluidic channels therefore become a chemokine gradient, and if the cells sense the chemokine, they migrate to the higher concentration, which is near the lymph node. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • These cells reside in the epidermis and dermis, take up Ags, and then migrate into the lymph node. (jimmunol.org)
  • Lymphocytes isolated from blood, tonsils, lung tissue and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were analyzed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for IL-17A, IL-10 and TNF-α production after in vitro stimulation with crude capsular extract (CCE) of the APP inoculation strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Migration appeared to be limited by local administration of recombinant IL-12, a potent immunostimulatory cytokine known to induce DNA repair. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We further describe the migration kinetics of both LC and the minimally studied iDC populations after irradiation and show that local administration of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12), an immunostimulatory cytokine, can prevent the migration triggered by radiation exposure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We hypothesize that these dichotomous effects of restraint would be reflected in changes in LC trafficking from the epidermis or alteration of their antigen presenting capabilities to T cells in the draining lymph nodes. (cdc.gov)
  • Dimitroff CJ, Kupper TS, Sackstein R (2003) Prevention of leukocyte migration to inflamed skin with a novel fluorosugar modifier of cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen. (springer.com)
  • The induction of sensitization and internalize antigen encountered in the skin and to and the elicitation of allergic contact reactions are transport it, via afferent lymphatics, to regional lymph dependent upon, and are orchestrated by, T lympho- nodes. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 R RA Reporter Antigen Popliteal Lymph Node Assay RA-PLNA recognition of infectious non self and initiation of events that induce adaptive immune responses. (docplayer.net)
  • Reporter Antigen Popliteal Lymph Node Assay Rabbit Rabbit Immune System Rabbit Immune System Rose G Mage Molecular Immunogenetics Section Laboratory of Immunology NIAID Building N 11, MSC 1892 NIH, 10 Center Drive Bethesda, MD USA Characteristics An extensive review of the rabbit immune system has been published previously (1). (docplayer.net)
  • 7) Subsequent restimulation of these sensitized lymphocytes with the same or a similar antigen, such as the intradermal injection of TUBERSOL, evokes a local reaction mediated by these cells. (nih.gov)
  • The assay is based on the ability of solubilized, infected red blood cells (RBC) ( P. falciparum "antigen") to combine with anti- P. falciparum antibodies and thus prevent the subsequent interaction of the latter with "antigen"-coated microtiter plates. (ajtmh.org)
  • Restraint stress modifies Langerhans cell migration and lymph node cell proliferation. (cdc.gov)
  • These data suggest that restraint-induced decrease in T cell proliferation may be due, in part, to decreased LC migration to the local lymph nodes. (cdc.gov)
  • T cell proliferation, in response to pollen or granules, was performed by lymph node assay. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • No synergism between IFNγ-NGR and 1-methyl-tryptophan was observed in vitro in tumor cell proliferation assays or in nu/nu tumor-bearing mice, suggesting that the antitumor effect was host mediated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the MTT assay, the highest concentration tested (810 μM) showed cytotoxicity after 72 h of treatment, where cell viability and cell proliferation was diminished. (nutritionalfrontiers.com)
  • Heptachlor and the mitogen-activated protein kinase module in human lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • However, there are few freely available databases integrating both the in vivo and the in vitro skin sensitization assays for development of AOP-based skin sensitization prediction models. (springeropen.com)
  • After Chry was ip injected for 14 days,spleen and thymus index, the white blood cell count, T, B lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytic function of macrophages, natural killer cell ( NK cell) activity were detected. (bvsalud.org)
  • During the first 3 weeks from infection, a period in which clinical signs of disease were not yet detectable, GSH significantly reduced the viral load in lymph nodes and spleen as evaluated by a PCR semiquantitative assay of the proviral DNA content. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of proviral DNA content showed that GSH was effective in inhibiting LP-BM5 infectivity in lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow at 100 mg/day, while it was less effective when administered at 50 mg/day. (nih.gov)
  • We utilize both in vitro and in vivo assays to analyze the immune response of organisms to biologic, antiviral and antibacterial drugs, vaccines, and adjuvants. (cgstack.com)
  • Current computational models to predict skin sensitization mainly based on in vivo assays without incorporating alternative in vitro assays. (springeropen.com)
  • Comparison of the Local Lymph Node Assay with the Guinea Pig Maximization Test for the Detection of a Range of Contact Allergens. (europa.eu)
  • Traditionally, guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and Buehler assay (BA) are utilized as predictive animal models for the identification of skin sensitizers and are widely accepted by regulatory authorities due to their reliable detection of potential human contact allergens. (springeropen.com)
  • The sensitization following infection with mycobacteria occurs primarily in the regional lymph nodes. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike cancerous cell types or stimulated lymphocytes, cutaneous DC do not divide rapidly, and they have been shown to survive several months after whole-body radiation exposure ( 8 , 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A micro semiautomative assay of merozoite inhibition antibody has been developed, based on incorporation of radiolabeled isoleucine into parasite protein. (ajtmh.org)
  • However, an FDA-approved interferon gamma release assay is preferred over tuberculin skin test for persons 5 years of age and older who were previously vaccinated with BCG. (nih.gov)
  • Cytotoxic activity of lymph node cells was evaluated in a standard 51 Cr-release assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To mimick this assay, the chip that Yarmush and a team of researchers created consists of three main compartments involving two different tissues. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • This high level of involvement of α 4 β 1 integrin/VCAM-1 is unique among secondary lymphoid tissues, and may help unify lymphocyte migration pathways and immune responses in BALT and other bronchopulmonary tissues. (rupress.org)
  • Lymphocyte migration from the bloodstream into secondary lymphoid tissues is mandatory for maintaining immune system homeostasis and providing efficient defense against pathogens ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • There exist tumor-specific T lymphocytes in blood, tumor tissues, and lymph nodes in cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The development of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) and associated alternative in vitro assays have reshaped the assessment of skin sensitizers. (springeropen.com)
  • CD11b-expressing migratory DCs in lymph nodes draining the skin are primarily Langerhans cells and dermal DCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Local inguinal lymph nodes were enlarged. (alliedacademies.org)
  • During the next 3 days, the lesion at the bite site (noted by the examining physician) remained very sore, and the patient's right inguinal lymph node became enlarged and very painful. (cdc.gov)
  • His inguinal lymph node had swollen to 3 cm in diameter, and he was still febrile (38.5°C). Blood samples were then obtained as well as a biopsy specimen from the lesion. (cdc.gov)
  • Dermal exposure to DDAC did not induce increased production of IgE as evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node B-cells (IgE+B220+) and measurement of total serum IgE levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Then, the local lymph node is excised and the T cells are measured to determine if they have been activated. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The second compartment includes microfluidic channels, and the third is a lymph node compartment made up of lymphocytes such as T cells or B cells. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • IgE-inclucing potential was evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells and measurement of total serum IgE levels. (cdc.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We phenotypically and functionally characterized Th17 cells and Tregs residing in the pancreatic-draining lymph nodes (PLNs) of 19 patients with type 1 diabetes and 63 nondiabetic donors and those circulating in the peripheral blood of 14 type 1 diabetic patients and 11 healthy subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • assays including multiple strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli , Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and human lymphocyte cultures. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • The animals are euthanized and their lymph node cells are removed and analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukotrienes and PGs are readily produced by activated mast cells and have also been implicated in the trafficking of DC into the lymph node ( 10 - 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Although there were very few Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in the parenchyma of quiescent retina, and they did not accumulate in retina, their depletion by local toxin administration led to disease susceptibility. (frontiersin.org)
  • We propose that these regulatory T cells modulate the pathogenic activity of βgal-specific CD8 T cells in the retinas of arrβgal mice on a local basis, allowing immuno regulation to be responsive to local conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, local, endogenous sympathetic tone has been shown to be crucial for dynamic daily changes in adhesion molecule expression in the bone marrow and skeletal muscle, acting as a key signal to the endothelium and stromal cells to regulate immune cell trafficking. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methods In vitro angiogenesis assay ( UVA exposure dose: 0, 2.0, 5.0 J/cm~2) was used to detect the effects of photochemotherapy on the angiogenic ability of endothelial cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results: The results showed that proliferative responses of lymph node cells were similar in PCG- and pollen-sensitized rats. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Furthermore, activated CD8 + T cells orchestrated the local recruitment of lymph node-resident XCR1 chemokine receptor-expressing DCs via secretion of the XCL1 chemokine. (nih.gov)
  • For example, both BALT and PP provide for the entry of mucosal pathogens through special epithelial cells (M cells), and are involved in local IgA production ( 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • To investigate the prediction ability of a flow cytometric assay of CD69 up-regulation on CD4+ CLA+ T cells in nickel-sensitive and non-nickel-sensitive patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ICS-assays revealed the presence of APP-CCE specific CD4 + CD8α dim IL-17A-producing T cells in blood and lung tissue in most infected animals during the acute and chronic phase of infection and a minor fraction of these cells co-produced TNF-α. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 13 ] described an increase of CD8α − γδ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as B-cells in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs challenged with APP suggesting a role of γδ T cells in this infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ATTLs were induced by coculturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells with autologous tumor cells in medium containing interleukin-1, -2, -4, and -6 and administered into the local tumor site in total numbers of 3-247 × 10 7 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We investigated the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an IFNγ-inducible enzyme that may down-regulate T cells by affecting local tryptophan catabolism in tumor resistance to repeated treatments with IFNγ-NGR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using this assay, we study responses of these cells to ionizing radiation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tumor growth correlated strictly with ( i ) failure of tumor cells to reach the draining lymph nodes and ( ii ) absence of primed cytotoxic T cells. (pnas.org)
  • Inoculation of immature DCs into the PDT-treated tumors resulted in effective homing to regional and peripheral lymph nodes and stimulation of cytotoxic activity of T and natural killer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti-Gal further opsonizes tumor cells within the lesion and, thus, targets them for effective uptake by APC that transport the tumor Ags to draining lymph nodes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Microscopically, there was effacement of normal chewable viagra without a doctor prescription lymph node architecture by sheets of mononuclear cells. (halfherb.top)
  • Nevertheless, these assays are based on animal models and having limitations such as extrapolating the animal data to humans, false positives or negatives, and several others in evaluating the immune system. (hindawi.com)
  • Although BALT clearly plays a role in pulmonary immune responses, the multistep cascade that controls the migration of lymphocytes to BALT, and the relationship of this cascade to the lymphocyte α 4 β 1 /endothelial VCAM-1-dominant cascade involved in lymphocyte homing to pulmonary parenchyma, remain to be elucidated ( 11 - 15 ). (rupress.org)
  • Our results suggest that this distinctive combination of adhesion receptors helps form a unique lymphocyte-endothelial cascade that is important in lymphocyte subset recruitment to BALT and in bronchopulmonary immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • Local or distal injection of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands could rescue the immune impairment in the antibiotic-treated mice. (nih.gov)
  • Local and distal TLR stimulation restores immune response to influenza virus infection in antibiotic-treated mice. (nih.gov)
  • The ratio of tracer incorporation in lymph nodes from dosed animals is compared to control animals, giving a stimulation index (SI). (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay measures the proliferation of lymphocytes during the induction phase of skin sensitization and provides EC3 values (effective concentration for a stimulation index of threefold in lymphocyte proliferation compared to vehicle controls) to make comparisons of the relative potency of different chemical sensitizers. (springeropen.com)
  • This method assesses whether a test material topically applied on an animal induces the proliferation of lymphocytes. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The mechanisms whereby individual DC subpopulations are mobilized and the extent to which these processes are linked to increases in overall lymph node cellularity have not been determined. (jimmunol.org)
  • In response to local infection or inflammatory insults, the number of DCs in the draining lymph node increases. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the irritancy assays, no significant increases in the percent ear swelling were observed at 24 hours following the last exposure, in animals treated with heptachlor at any concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • Conventional DCs that express CD11c can be divided into migratory DCs that enter the lymph node through the lymphatics and lymphoid tissue-resident DCs that are derived from precursors that enter the lymph node from the blood ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The lymphoid tissue-resident DCs can be further subdivided into CD8 + CD11b − and CD8 − CD11b + groups, which collect and present Ags in the lymph nodes after entering from the blood. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using mast cell-deficient mice and local mast cell reconstitution, plasmacytoid and CD8 + DC responses were shown to be mast cell dependent, whereas the CD11b + DC response was not. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, C3 −/− allografts caused attenuated Th1/Th17 responses, but increased CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cell expression markedly in local intragraft and H-2 bm12 recipients. (nature.com)
  • Conclusions: Thus, PCGs, able to deeply penetrate in the respiratory tract, induced local and strong allergic and inflammatory responses more linked with asthma-than rhinitis-related allergic symptoms. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • These histopathological changes show that local reactions are caused by both inflammatory and allergic responses. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Disperse blue 124 and Disperse blue 106 showed the most pronounced increase in cell count and lymph node weight already at low concentrations of 0.003%, followed by Disperse orange 37, Disperse Red 1, Disperse Blue 35 and Disperse Blue 1. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Multiple DC subpopulations can be found within the lymph node, but their individual functions in the establishment of immunity and tolerance have not been fully elucidated. (jimmunol.org)
  • Five major conventional DC subpopulations and one plasmacytoid DC (pDC) population have been identified in lymph nodes draining the skin. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mice were sacrificed on day 19 with deep CO2 anaesthesia, the lymph nodes were prepared and various end points, such as ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count, and the proportion of various lymphocyte subpopulations were determined. (fu-berlin.de)
  • In the current study, the mechanisms of DC subset mobilization to the draining auricular lymph node were examined after intradermal injection of Staphylococcus aureus -derived peptidoglycan. (jimmunol.org)
  • It has established the artificial skin and microfluidic compartments of the chip and is now working on the lymph node compartment. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The technology is of a modular design so that with the same microfluidic channels and lymph node compartment, different cell types can be exchanged to perform different tests. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • A histamine H2 receptor-dependent, CXCL9-independent pathway controlled the selective influx of both plasmacytoid and CD11b + DC into the lymph node, but not lymph node cellularity. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition to conventional DCs, CD11c low blood derived pDCs are found in the lymph node. (jimmunol.org)
  • Functionally, this CD8 + T cell-mediated reorganization of the local DC network allowed for the interaction and cooperation of pDCs and XCR1 + DCs, thereby optimizing XCR1 + DC maturation and cross-presentation. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to advice on study design, and discussions to find the most relevant endpoints for your projects, we can offer you access to the latest technologies along with our experience in a wide range of in vitro and in vivo immunotoxicology assays. (citoxlab.com)
  • The highest concentration of rutin after 24h treatment induced DNA damage, shown in the comet assay, but did have a genotoxic effect in the micronucleus test. (nutritionalfrontiers.com)
  • E ) The lung washes of flu-infected mice were harvested at 9 d postinfection, and viral titers were measured by plaque assay. (nih.gov)
  • DTaP is safer than the diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) and has fewer severe side effects, but local reactions such as redness, swelling, and induration are still reported. (worldwidescience.org)
  • To clarify the cause of local reactions, we conducted studies using the mouse model. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Because this mouse study resulted in the same pattern of reactions observed in humans, this method will be useful for studies focusing on local reactions. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Our flow cytometric assay would offer some advantages over the classical LTT, as it provides results after 72 h instead of 7 days and does not require 3 H-thymidine incorporation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In conclusion, this is a useful laboratory professional's 'workshop manual' for the most well-established immunotoxicity assays, focusing very much on the procedures at the laboratory bench. (apress.com)
  • and an IFA (immunoflourescent assay), a confirmatory test that, because of the technology required, must be done at a commercial laboratory. (cornell.edu)
  • In the laboratory, a Giemsa stain of a smear prepared from the patient's blood showed activated lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • who investigated clinically relevant doses of local exposure to mouse ears ( 14 ), concluded that LC were depleted from the epidermis after radiation exposure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. (nutritionalfrontiers.com)
  • In addition, rutin suppressed ACD based on ear thickness and lymphocyte proliferation, serum IgG2a levels, and expression of INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-α in ACD ears. (nutritionalfrontiers.com)
  • The dissemination of lymphoma into anatomical compartments that are poorly accessible from circulation, such as lymph nodes, necessitates high doses of systemic chemotherapy. (mit.edu)
  • Intramuscular administration of 50 or 100 mg GSH/mouse for five consecutive days weekly to LP-BM5-infected mice did not show local or systemic signs of acute toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • All patients as well as their sexual partners received systemic and/or local nitroimidazole treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • this migration is partly controlled by tissue-selective expression of endothelial adhesion molecules that bind to ligands on circulating lymphocytes ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • In this work, we explore the lymphocyte-endothelial adhesion pathways that control the migration of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into BALT. (rupress.org)
  • If a positive result is seen in either assay, a test substance may be designated as a potential sensitizer, and it may not be necessary to conduct a further guinea pig test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once cats have been vaccinated against FIV, the antibody assay for the virus is no longer useful, since the test cannot distinguish between antibodies produced as a result of infection and those produced following vaccination. (cornell.edu)
  • For a number of years, an innovative kind of assay called the IDEXX Combo test has been routinely used by veterinarians. (cornell.edu)
  • Basically, Dr. Scott explains, the assay kit consists of a small piece of filter paper impregnated with various dots of test material: FeLV- and FIV-positive controls, a negative control, an FeLV sample test spot and an FIV sample test spot. (cornell.edu)
  • However, eosinophils, lymphocytes and pro-allergy cytokines in BALF were higher in PCG- than in pollen-sensitized rats. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Gossypol suppresses leukemic cell differentiation in response to tumor-promoting phorboids [11] and decreases the expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon  (IFN-) in activated human T lymphocytes [12]. (termedia.pl)
  • Earlier studies have indicated the immunomodulatory effects such as decrease in antiovalbumin titer of blood sera, autologous rosette formation of T-lymphocytes [ 12 - 14 ], lymphocyte transformation rate, and an increase in neutrophil phagocytosis rate [ 15 ] from exposure to cypermethrin in animal models. (hindawi.com)