The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.
The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.
Compound isolated from Cannabis sativa extract.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.
Inflammation of the choroid as well as the retina and vitreous body. Some form of visual disturbance is usually present. The most important characteristics of posterior uveitis are vitreous opacities, choroiditis, and chorioretinitis.
Inflammation of the pars plana, ciliary body, and adjacent structures.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
After recognizing an antigen, an antigen presenting cell such as the macrophage or B lymphocyte engulfs it completely by a ... Nonspecific recognition by macrophages[edit]. For more details on Toll-like receptors, see Pattern recognition receptors. ... Macrophages and related cells employ a different mechanism to recognize the pathogen. Their receptors recognize certain motifs ... expressed by the macrophages.[1][17] Since the same receptor could bind to a given motif present on surfaces of widely ...
Growth hormone, lymphocytes and macrophages. Biochemical Pharmacology 38:705 713. Fu, Y.K., S. Arkins, G. Fuh, B.C. Cunningham ... Interferon-ϒ inhibits macrophage insulin-like growth factor-I synthesis at the transcriptional level. Molecular Endocrinology 9 ... In the late 1980s, Kelley's group showed that this occurs because growth hormone activates macrophages and neutrophils to ... Differentiation of promyeloid cells into both neutrophils and macrophages is also promoted by IGF-I. Differentiation of ...
The chondrostean kidney is an important hemopoietic organ; where erythrocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages ... where various lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages develop and are stored. Chondrostean fish (sturgeons, paddlefish, and ... Their heart is frequently covered with tissue that contains lymphocytes, reticular cells and a small number of macrophages. ... For example, erythrocytes, macrophages and plasma cells are produced in the anterior kidney (or pronephros) and some areas of ...
Cytauxzoon replicates in macrophages rather than in lymphocytes. For this reason may be moved to a new family at some point. ... Family Babesiidae Poche 1913 This family excludes species that undergo schizogony in lymphocytes before parasitizing ...
Macrophages, intervillous lymphocytes, multinucleated giant cells were maternal; 10.5% of intravillous CD68+ cells and 96.4% of ... The composition of inflammatory infiltrate in VUE on a cellular level is primarily macrophages and lymphocytes. The relative ... Perivillous monocyte-macrophages and histiocytic giant cells were of maternal origin. Foetal macrophages in VUE proliferate and ... The lymphocytes present in VUE are predominantly CD8+ T-cells then CD4. There is usually a ratio of 0.1 to 0.5 for CD4/CD8. The ...
The macrophages are usually located on the edge of the milky spot and the lymphocytes in the middle. Other structural elements ... The enclosing mesothelium contains macrophages, lymphocytes and mast cells. They are also known as secondary lymphoid organs. ...
Their heart is frequently covered with tissue that contains lymphocytes, reticular cells and a small number of macrophages. The ... lymphocytes and macrophages develop. Like chondrostean fish, the major immune tissues of bony fish (teleostei) include the ... where various lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages develop and are stored. Chondrostean fish (sturgeons, paddlefish and ... For example, erythrocytes, macrophages and plasma cells are produced in the anterior kidney (or pronephros) and some areas of ...
Lymphocytes, Macrophages and Cancers, Springer Verlag Heidelberg, 1976; Mathé and Rappaport, Neoplastic diseases of ...
The cells primarily infected are lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. BIV was discovered in the late 1960s in the search for ...
... is expressed on macrophages, fibroblasts, and specific lymphocytes. LTN, is found in two states: a monomer at 10 °C, LTN10 ... Secretion of XCL1 is responsible for the increase of intracellular calcium in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cellular sources ... They are also expressed on RA synovial lymphocytes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000143184 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
It is widely expressed by circulating blood neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes; lymphocyte T cells and B cells ... The FPR2 receptor is expressed on human neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages, T cells, synovial fibroblasts, and ... tissue Mast cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and immature dendritic cells; vascular endothelial cells; neural tissue glial ...
Granulocyte, macrophage, lymphocyte, fibroblast and smooth muscle cell chemotaxis. *TIMP synthesis. *Angiogenesis ... MacrophagesEdit. One of the macrophage's roles is to phagocytize other expended phagocytes,[24] bacteria and damaged tissue,[19 ... Macrophages may restrain the contraction phase.[27] Scientists have reported that removing the macrophages from a salamander ... monocytes mature into macrophages. Macrophages also secrete a number of factors such as growth factors and other cytokines, ...
Other cell types involved include: T lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. There may also be involvement of other ...
Kv1.3 channels can be found in T-lymphocytes and macrophages. The effect of BmP02 on Kv1.3 channels has been validated in ...
Lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages comprise the initial inflammatory infiltrate. In response to bacterial assault and ...
T cells are represented by a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Macrophages and lymphocytes show marked expression of HLA-DR ... The granulomatous tissue largely comprises foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68. ... reaction in cell-mediated immunity has been suggested in this type of infiltrate that is composed of macrophages and T cells. ... osteomyelitis is a peculiar aspect of osteomyelitis characterized by prevalent histiocytic infiltrate and foamy macrophage ...
Such cells include physiologically relevant primary CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages. The encapsidation of APOBEC3G into HIV-1 ...
Rice AP, Herrmann CH (2004). "Regulation of TAK/P-TEFb in CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages". Curr. HIV Res. 1 (4): 395-404. ... Liou LY, Herrmann CH, Rice AP (2005). "HIV-1 infection and regulation of Tat function in macrophages". Int. J. Biochem. Cell ...
MDSC have suppressive effects on T-lymphocytes, Dendritic cells and Macrophages. They produce immunosuppressive TGF-β and IL-10 ... Another producer of suppressive TGF-β and IL-10 are Tumor-associated macrophages, these macrophages have mostly phenotype of ... Expression of PD-L1 on the surface of tumor cells leads to suppression of T lymphocytes by PD1-PD-L1 interaction. Tumor cells ... PD-1 is also an upregulated receptor on the surface of T lymphocytes after activation. Interaction PD-1 with PD-L1 leads to ...
32, 827-837 (1977). "The infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages into a site of infection." In A.I. Bell, A.S. Perelson, ...
Rice AP, Herrmann CH (2003). "Regulation of TAK/P-TEFb in CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages". Curr. HIV Res. 1 (4): 395-404. ... Cunningham AL, Li S, Juarez J, Lynch G, Alali M, Naif H (2000). "The level of HIV infection of macrophages is determined by ... Liou LY, Herrmann CH, Rice AP (2004). "HIV-1 infection and regulation of Tat function in macrophages". Int. J. Biochem. Cell ...
In patients with active sarcoidosis, which is characterized by lymphocyte-macrophage cooperation, lymphocyte peripolesis ... "Lymphocyte macrophage interactions: peripolesis of human alveolar macrophages". European Respiratory Journal. 5 (1): 59-66. ... The lymphocytes could be seen moving around a macrophage while maintaining contact. Sharp, J. A.; Burwell, R. G. (1960-11-05 ... It was observed between lymphocytes and macrophages following skin grafts between subjects, and after immune challenge with ...
January 1992). "Lymphocyte macrophage interactions: peripolesis of human alveolar macrophages". Eur. Respir. J. 5 (1): 59-66. ... Emperipolesis is unlike phagocytosis, in which the engulfed cell is killed by the lysosomal enzymes of the macrophage. Instead ...
There is a dense infiltrate of plasma cells, other lymphocytes and macrophages. The clusters of perivascular plasma cells still ... and macrophages and lymphocytes may also appear. Loss of perivascular collagen occurs; it is thought that this is due to the ... Sparse lymphocytes, and plasma cells in particular, may exist just after exiting small blood vessels deep within the underlying ... It is characterized by a matured leukocytic infiltrate that features mainly lymphocytes. Immunoblasts are quite common in the ...
Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. A delayed type hypersensitivity reaction of ... The foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin are positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68 as pointed out by Nakashiro et al. in ... The large lipid-laden macrophages display an eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm with a granular and vacuolated quality but can ... Under microscope, the cellular infiltrate includes neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, erythrocytes, hemosiderin-laden ...
Epithelioid macrophages differ from ordinary macrophages in that they have elongated nuclei that often resemble the sole of a ... These include lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, multinucleated giant cells, fibroblasts, and collagen (fibrosis). The ... The macrophages in these formations are typically so tightly clustered that the borders of individual cells are difficult to ... Histiocytes (specifically macrophages) are the cells that define a granuloma. They often fuse to form multinucleated giant ...
... and regulatory T lymphocytes. Thus, CCL1 mainly acts as a chemoattractant for monocytes/macrophages, T lymphocytes, specially ... CCL1 is secreted by activated monocytes/macrophages, T lymphocytes and endothelial cells. CCL1 binds to the chemokine receptor ... The CCR8 receptor can serve as a basic receptor for various strains of HIV-1 tropical, dual-tropical and macrophage tropics of ... February 2003). "CC chemokine receptor 8 in the central nervous system is associated with phagocytic macrophages". The American ...
"Maternal microchimerism in healthy adults in lymphocytes, monocyte/macrophages and NK cells". Laboratory Investigation; A ... Lymphocytes also influence the development of persisting fetomaternal microchimerism since natural killer cells compose about ... LP is characterized by T lymphocytes infiltration of the lower levels of epithelium, where they damage basal cells and cause ... 70% of lymphocytes in the first trimester of pregnancy. KIR patterns on maternal natural killer cells of the mother and KIR ...
Other cells in the pulp include fibroblasts, preodontoblasts, macrophages and T lymphocytes. The pulp is commonly called "the ... The cells of the periodontal ligaments include osteoblasts, osteoclasts, fibroblasts, macrophages, cementoblasts, and ...
... cells such as monocyte derived macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The plaque that builds up can lead to ...
Common variable immunodeficiency is thought to be due to a problem in the differentiation from lymphocytes to plasma cells. The ... Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with a considerable nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and a characteristic appearance on light ...
... such as lymphocytes, also undergo programmed cell death leading to an abnormally low concentration of lymphocytes in the blood. ... macrophages, dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication ... Macrophages are the first cells infected with the virus, and this infection results in programmed cell death.[49] Other types ... and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of attack.[54] ...
Strout, R.D.; J. Suttles (2005). "Immunosenescence and macrophage functional plasticity: dysregulation of macrophage function ... As age advances, there is decline in both the production of new naive lymphocytes and the functional competence of memory cell ... Although myeloid cell production does not seem to decline with age, macrophages become dysregulated as a consequence of ... including lymphocytes, antigen-presenting dendritic cells and phagocytes) diminish in their self-renewal capacity. This is due ...
T細胞(英語:T cell、T淋巴細胞/T lymphocyte)是淋巴細胞的一種,在免疫反應中扮演着重要的角色。T細胞在胸腺內分化成熟,成
T cells (T lymphocytes) - T lymphocyte proliferation assay - T lymphocytes - T suppressor cells - T4 cell - T4 cells (T-helper ... MAC - macrophage - macrophage-tropic virus - magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - MAI - maintenance therapy - major ... B-cell lymphoma - B cells - B lymphocytes (B cells) - bactericidal - bacteriostatic - bacterium - baculovirus - baseline - ... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ...
Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Often these cells have specific names depending upon which tissue they settle in, such as fixed macrophages in the liver, which ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ...
Those who smoke additionally have Tc1 lymphocyte involvement and some people with COPD have eosinophil involvement similar to ... The inflammatory cells involved include neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cells. ...
... chemokine and growth factor production in macrophages.[15] Isolated chemical compounds including wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7 ... on chemical mediator production in peritoneal exduate cells and immunoglobulin E of rat mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes". ...
In these disorders both T lymphocytes and often B lymphocytes, regulators of adaptive immunity, are dysfunctional or decreased ... Monocytes/macrophages as well as granulocytes are capable of this process. In certain conditions, either the number of ... lymphocytes and monocytes): different groups of T lymphocytes (dependent on their cell surface markers, e.g. CD4+, CD8+, CD3+, ... T-lymphocyte therapies are still in the experimental stage; few are even in clinical trials, none have been FDA approved, and ...
2010). Lentiviruses and Macrophages: Molecular and Cellular Interactions. Caister Academic. ISBN 978-1-904455-60-8. .. ... "Lymphocyte T-cell immunomodulator (LTCI): Review of the immunopharmacology of a new biologic" (PDF). Intern J Appl Res Vet Med ...
These T cells can then go on to perform effector functions such as macrophage activation, B cell activation, and cell-mediated ... Another example occurs in activated T cell lymphocytes, i.e., when a T cell is induced to mature by binding to a peptide:MHC ...
Main article: Macrophage. Macrophages are large phagocytic leukocytes. They can move across the cell membrane of capillary ... One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small ... Macrophages are the most efficient phagocytes, and can phagocytose substantial numbers of bacteria or other cells or microbes.[ ... Pathogens also stimulate the macrophage to produce chemokines, which summon other cells to the site of infection.[9] ...
লসিকাকোষ (Lymphocyte). *শ্বেত কণিকা ( White blood cells). *অম্লাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Eosinophil). *নিরাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Neutrophil) ... বৃহৎ ভক্ষককোষ (Macrophage). *স্বভাবগত ঘাতক কোষ (Natural killer cell). *বৃক্ষরূপী কোষ (Denditric cell) ...
T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... and macrophages is required.[2] ... 1 Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes *1.1 TI-1 ... Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes[edit]. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... But when the concentration of TI-1 is lower, it can activate only B lymphocytes with specific binding of TI-1 on their BCR, and ...
Macrophages[edit]. Main article: Macrophages. Macrophages, from the Greek, meaning "large eaters", are large phagocytic ... One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small ... Macrophages are the most efficient phagocytes and can phagocytose substantial numbers of bacteria or other cells or microbes.[1 ... Similar to macrophages, neutrophils attack pathogens by activating a respiratory burst. The main products of the neutrophil ...
They become activated and start to secrete cytokines, substances that activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), antibody- ... secreting B cells, macrophages and other particles. Some antigens start out as exogenous, and later become endogenous (for ... Cytotoxic T lymphocytes that recognize these antigens may be able to destroy tumor cells.[15] ... to assess reactivity in patients treated by either tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) cell therapy or checkpoint blockade. ...
It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it can be produced by many other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes ... TNF was thought to be produced primarily by macrophages,[36] but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including ... On macrophages: stimulates phagocytosis, and production of IL-1 oxidants and the inflammatory lipid Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) ... In 1968, Gale A Granger from the University of California, Irvine, reported a cytotoxic factor produced by lymphocytes and ...
2004). „Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signaling pathways". J. Leukoc. Biol. 74 (5): 676 ... Lipp M, Müller G (2006). „Shaping up adaptive immunity: the impact of CCR7 and CXCR5 on lymphocyte trafficking". Verhandlungen ... Freedman BD, Liu QH, Del Corno M, Collman RG (2004). „HIV-1 gp120 chemokine receptor-mediated signaling in human macrophages". ... 2004). „Chemokine receptor utilization and macrophage signaling by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120: Implications for ...
... -related antimicrobial peptides are a family of polypeptides primarily stored in the lysosomes of macrophages and ... "The human antimicrobial and chemotactic peptides LL-37 and alpha-defensins are expressed by specific lymphocyte and monocyte ... but have since been found in many other cells including epithelial cells and macrophages after activation by bacteria, viruses ... rapidly destroys the lipoprotein membranes of microbes enveloped in phagosomes after fusion with lysosomes in macrophages. ...
For example, Lymphocyte T-Cell Immune Modulator inhibits viral growth in the murine model of influenza.[225] ... macrophages, and/or antigen presenting cells, in an effort to drive an immune response towards a cytotoxic effect against the ... Typically, biologics do not target metabolic pathways like anti-viral drugs, but stimulate immune cells such as lymphocytes, ... "Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages by influenza A (H5N1) viruses: a mechanism for the unusual severity ...
... macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils can also mediate ADCC, such as eosinophils killing certain parasitic worms known as ... also have an external structure or integument that is resistant to attack by substances released by neutrophils and macrophages ...
TNF-α is a cytokine produced by macrophages of the immune system, and also a mediator of inflammatory response. Thus the drug ... where CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were stimulated by anti-CD3 which was later confirmed in an early phase trials involving ...
... infiltrates of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, and giant cells may also be seen.[2][3] ... tuberculous granulomas with surrounding lymphocytes clustered around hair follicles may be seen; additionally, ...
... lymphocytes, eosinophils, and macrophages to the initial site. The reaction is usually seen 2-24 hours after the original ... causes a response in a type of immune cell called a TH2 lymphocyte, which belongs to a subset of T cells that produce a ... cytokine called interleukin-4 (IL-4). These TH2 cells interact with other lymphocytes called B cells, whose role is the ...
Fc receptors are also found on eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages and platelets in humans. There are two types of Fcε ... The B lymphocyte differentiation and maturation pathway that eventually generate IgE-secreting plasma cells go through the ... but IL-4 can induce its expression on the surfaces of macrophages, eosinophils, platelets, and some T cells .[13][14] ... "The CD23a and CD23b proximal promoters display different sensitivities to exogenous stimuli in B lymphocytes". Genes Immun. 3 ...
நிணநீர் செல்கள் (Lymphocytes). *ஒற்றைக் குழியம் (Monocyte). *பெருவிழுங்கி (Macrophage). *கிளையி உயிரணுக்கள் (Dendritic cell) ... "Cell size of alveolar macrophages: an interspecies comparison". Environ. Health Perspect. (Brogan & Partners) 105 Suppl 5 ...
... and monocyte-derived macrophages. Viral replication is highly cytopathic, but susceptible to type-I and -II interferon.[43] In ... Laboratory criteria include a decreased lymphocyte count consistent with viremia. However a definitive laboratory diagnosis can ... viral antigen and viral RNA were found in macrophages in the synovial joint of a person experiencing a relapse of ... as persistent joint pain has been associated with elevated levels of IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ...
... s have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an ... Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein ... Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards ...
PSGL-1 is situated on various hematopoietic cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, in which it ... metastasis by forming complexes with tumor cells and leukocytes in the vasculature thus preventing recognition by macrophage, ...
Epithelial, lymphocytes, and macrophages are the favored sites of replication in the host organism. The first report of a DVE ... and blood lymphocytes. The latency sites of APV-1 is similar to other herpesviruses. Vaccination for duck viral enteritis is ...
Macrophages, and Cancer by G. Mathe, I. Florentin from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get ... Lymphocytes, Macrophages, and Cancer - Recent Results in Cancer Research 56 (Paperback). G. Mathe (editor), I. Florentin ( ... In contrast, the responses to the B-cell mitogen LPS of unfractionated and macrophage-depleted spleen cells were not affected ... The inhibitory effect was shown to be mediated by suppressor cells which had characteristics of macrophages since they could be ...
Thymus-derived lymphocytes control the expression of immunogenic properties of peritoneal macrophages. E Tzehoval, S Segal, and ... Thus, it appears that short-lived T lymphocytes control the maturation of macrophages up to a stage at which they can present ... We found that such T lymphocytes also control the phagocytic properties of macrophages, yet the impairment of their immunogenic ... Thymus-derived lymphocytes control the expression of immunogenic properties of peritoneal macrophages ...
Fate of glutamine utilization by lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. It was generally believed that lymphocytes, ... Lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils play an important role in the immune and inflammatory response. Mature lymphocytes ... This amino acid has been shown to play a role in lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production by lymphocytes and macrophages ... lymphocytes and macrophages were cultured for 24 h. Under this condition, lymphocytes actively synthesize lipids from [3-14C]- ...
Role of cyclophilin A in the uptake of HIV-1 by macrophages and T lymphocytes. Barbara Sherry, Gabriele Zybarth, Massimo Alfano ... CyPA-Binding Sites on CD4+ T Lymphocytes.. To demonstrate the presence of CyPA-binding sites on CD4+ T lymphocytes, we ... Role of cyclophilin A in the uptake of HIV-1 by macrophages and T lymphocytes ... Role of cyclophilin A in the uptake of HIV-1 by macrophages and T lymphocytes ...
Alveolar Macrophage - Splenic Lymphocyte Interactions Following Chronic Asbestos Inhalation in the Rat ... especially as related to macro- phage function and interaction with lymphocytes. Emphasis of the Congress was placed on the ... Activation of Pleural Macrophages by Intrapleural Application of Corynebacterium Parvum I. Bašić, B. Rodé, A. Kaštelan, L. ... The Regulation of Macrophage Activities: Role of the Energy-Dependent Intracellular Ca2+ Buffering Systems ...
Kalf G.F., Snyder R., Post G.B. (1986) Inhibition of RNA Synthesis in Mouse Macrophages and Lymphocytes by Benzene and Its ... Inhibition of RNA Synthesis in Mouse Macrophages and Lymphocytes by Benzene and Its Metabolites. ... Identification of T lymphocyte subpopulations that regulate elaboration of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Br ... Conditioned Medium Aplastic Anemia Peritoneal Exudate Cell Spleen Lymphocyte Rubber Policeman These keywords were added by ...
... of haemagglutinating and mitogenic fractions of phytohaemagglutinin on electrophoretic mobility of lymphocytes and macrophages ...
Characterisation of T Lymphocytes, NK Cells and Macrophages in Melanoma Patients (IMMUMELA). The safety and scientific validity ... Characterisation of T Lymphocytes, NK Cells and Macrophages in Melanoma Patients: Impact on Immunity Versus Immunosuppression. ... in particular T lymphocytes, NK cells and macrophages), the role of inhibitor receptors on in situ immunosuppression, and ... Part 1: study of cellular infiltrate (lymphocytes) performed on large primary melanoma and cutaneous metastasis ( fresh samples ...
... on thiol regulation in alveolar macrophages (AM) and lymphocytes. We obtained AM and lymph node (thymic and tracheal) cells ( ... Alteration of intracellular cysteine and glutathione levels in alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes by diesel exhaust particle ... on thiol regulation in alveolar macrophages (AM) and lymphocytes. We obtained AM and lymph node (thymic and tracheal) cells ( ... Lymphocytes; Laboratory-animals; Author Keywords: cysteine; diesel exhaust particles; glutathione; glutathione reductase; ...
Macrophages from normal or sensitized animals, in the presence of antigen and sensitized lymphocytes, and to a lesser extent ... Activity in Vitro of Lymphocytes and Macrophages in Delayed Hypersensitivity. S. B. Salvin, Stewart Sell and Jane Nishio ... Non-sensitized macrophages aggregated and tended to become associated with lymphocytes in the presence of antigen and ... Activity in Vitro of Lymphocytes and Macrophages in Delayed Hypersensitivity Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
ALTERATIONS OF MACROPHAGE FUNCTIONS BY MEDIATORS FROM LYMPHOCYTES. Carl F. Nathan, Manfred L. Karnovsky, John R. David ... Thus, antigen-stimulated lymphocytes secrete a factor or factors which enhance certain macrophage functions. Implications for ... were incubated with normal peritoneal exudate macrophages. Macrophage adherence, phagocytosis, spreading, motility, and direct ... Sensitized lymphocytes were incubated in vitro with the specific antigen Supernatants from these cultures were chromatographed ...
Ca++ supports IgM complex binding to macrophages but not lymphocytes. IgG complex binding to both lymphocytes and macrophages ... Different divalent cation requirements for binding IgM complexes to lymphocytes and macrophages.. A S Walia, D R Shaw, E W ... These findings allow one to distinguish IgG from IgM binding and macrophage from lymphocyte IgM complex binding by their ... We have found that Mg++ supports IgM complex binding to mouse lymphocytes but not to macrophages. In contrast, ...
... activated peritoneal macrophages rendering them highly cytotoxic for tumor cells in vitro. This cytotoxic activ ... In contrast, the responses to the B-cell mitogen LPS of unfractionated and macrophage-depleted spleen cells were not affected ... The inhibitory effect was shown to be mediated by suppressor cells which had characteristics of macrophages since they could be ... Fresh living Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BeG), injected i.v. into (C57BI/ 6xDBA/2)FI mice, activated peritoneal macrophages ...
Eosinophils, T-lymphocytes, mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in bronchial biopsy specimens from atopic subjects with ... The mean number of leukocytes (CD45+) and T-lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) at two airway levels in the subjects with asthma ... When the relationships between numbers of T-lymphocytes, activated (CD25+) cells, and EOSs were analyzed, there were positive ... T-lymphocytes release products which regulate recruitment of EOSs into the airway wall. In addition, our findings suggest that ...
Involvement of Lymphocytes, miRNAs, Ubiquitin-Proteasome, and M1/M2 Macrophages," Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2015, Article ... and M1/M2 Macrophages. S. Rossi,1 C. Di Filippo,2 C. Gesualdo,1 N. Potenza,3 A. Russo,3 M. C. Trotta,2 M. V. Zippo,2 R. Maisto, ... Protection from Endotoxic Uveitis by Intravitreal Resolvin D1: Involvement of Lymphocytes, miRNAs, Ubiquitin-Proteasome, ...
Association of Helicobacter pylori and iNOS Production by Macrophages and Lymphocytes in the Gastric Mucosa in Chronic ... With the development of the disease cellular inflammatory infiltrates composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages ... cells of the host organism during development of chronic gastritis causes increase in number of macrophages and lymphocytes in ...
Macrophages, Dendritic Cells and White Blood Cells) works to defend the body against foreign substances such as bacteria, ... Macrophages. Macrophages are the bodys first line of defense and have many roles. A macrophage is the first cell to recognize ... Lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are one of the main types of immune cells. Lymphocytes are divided mainly into B and T cells. ... B lymphocytes are powerless to penetrate the cell so the job of attacking these target cells is left to T lymphocytes. ...
Lymphocytes / drug effects*, enzymology, metabolism. Macrophages / drug effects*, enzymology, metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred ... Resident peritoneal macrophages cultured with lipopolysaccharides showed no obvious fragmentation unless they were also treated ... has been reported to suppress in culture the proliferation of splenocytes and increase the release of IL-1 from macrophages; ...
Metabolic and functional stimulation of lymphocytes and macrophages by an Escherichia coli extract (OM-89): in vitro studies.. ... These experiments indicate that OM-89 can stimulate metabolic and functional activities of lymphocytes and macrophages that are ... Passage through nylon wool strongly decreased the OM-89-induced effect, suggesting that the responding lymphocytes were of the ... In addition, OM-89 treatment induced marked PMA-dependent superoxide and hydrogen peroxide release by macrophages from the LPS ...
CD44 regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophil granulocytes, but not apoptotic lymphocytes, by human macrophages.. S P ... We demonstrate that phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils, but not apoptotic lymphocytes, by human monocyte-derived macrophages ... CD44 regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophil granulocytes, but not apoptotic lymphocytes, by human macrophages. ... CD44 regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophil granulocytes, but not apoptotic lymphocytes, by human macrophages. ...
In order to characterize the role of T cells, macrophages, and their cytokines in uveitis, the authors examined iris biopsies ... Immunohistochemical localization of T lymphocytes and macrophages and expression of interferon gamma and defensin in uveitis ... and between the presence of macrophages and tissue staining for defensins. This study showed that T cells and macrophages were ... In order to characterize the role of T cells, macrophages, and their cytokines in uveitis, the authors examined iris biopsies ...
Mannan-induced Nos2 in macrophages enhances IL-17-driven psoriatic arthritis by innate lymphocytes ... Mannan-induced Nos2 in macrophages enhances IL-17-driven psoriatic arthritis by innate lymphocytes ... Mannan-induced Nos2 in macrophages enhances IL-17-driven psoriatic arthritis by innate lymphocytes ... Mannan-induced Nos2 in macrophages enhances IL-17-driven psoriatic arthritis by innate lymphocytes ...
Fate of glutamine utilization by lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. It was generally believed that lymphocytes, ... Lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils play an important role in the immune and inflammatory response. Mature lymphocytes ... This amino acid has been shown to play a role in lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production by lymphocytes and macrophages ... Metabolic fate of glutamine in lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. R. Curi1, P. Newsholme2, T.C. Pithon-Curi1, M. Pires- ...
Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients ... Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients ... Antibodies used for phenotypic characterisation of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages are listed in table 1. RPE-Cy5 ... Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies used for staining of lymphocytes (L) and monocytes/macrophages (M). FITC conjugated ...
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Apoptosis in Macrophages and Lymphocytes: Involvement of Bcl-2 and Caspase-1 Weigang Zhu, ... Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Apoptosis in Macrophages and Lymphocytes: Involvement of Bcl-2 and Caspase-1 Weigang Zhu, ... Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Apoptosis in Macrophages and Lymphocytes: Involvement of Bcl-2 and Caspase-1 Weigang Zhu, ... Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Apoptosis in Macrophages and Lymphocytes: Involvement of Bcl-2 and Caspase-1 ...
Our results indicate that lung tumor-derived PGE2 plays a pivotal role in promoting lymphocyte and macrophage IL-10 induction ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent Regulation of Cytokine Balance in Lymphocytes and Macrophages: Up- ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent Regulation of Cytokine Balance in Lymphocytes and Macrophages: Up- ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent Regulation of Cytokine Balance in Lymphocytes and Macrophages: Up- ...
1993) Activated T-lymphocytes and macrophages in bronchial mucosa of subjects with chronic bronchitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 147: ... 1992) Identification of T lymphocytes, macrophages and activated eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa in intrinsic asthma. Am ... Increases in CD4+ T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and interleukin 8 positive cells in the airways of patients with ... Increases in CD4+ T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and interleukin 8 positive cells in the airways of patients with ...
Studies on Autoimmunity For Initiation of β-Cell Destruction: V. Decrease of Macrophage-Dependent T Lymphocytes and Natural ... Studies on Autoimmunity For Initiation of β-Cell Destruction: V. Decrease of Macrophage-Dependent T Lymphocytes and Natural ... Studies on Autoimmunity For Initiation of β-Cell Destruction: V. Decrease of Macrophage-Dependent T Lymphocytes and Natural ... Studies on Autoimmunity For Initiation of β-Cell Destruction: V. Decrease of Macrophage-Dependent T Lymphocytes and Natural ...
Role of CCR5 in infection of primary macrophages and lymphocytes by macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus: ... Role of CCR5 in infection of primary macrophages and lymphocytes by macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus: ... Role of CCR5 in infection of primary macrophages and lymphocytes by macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus: ... Role of CCR5 in infection of primary macrophages and lymphocytes by macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus: ...
In this study, the MI of lymphocyte cultured received the medium containing CA-stimulated macrophages showed a higher ... Our results suggest that CA treatment, in addition to activating macrophages, indirectly induces lymphocyte proliferation and ... These lymphocytes were cultured in media containing Canova and their mitotic index was compared with lymphocytes cultured ... of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes cultured in a medium supplemented with human macrophages activated by CA, ...
  • This amino acid has been shown to play a role in lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production by lymphocytes and macrophages and phagocytosis and superoxide production by macrophages and neutrophils. (scielo.br)
  • Lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils play an important role in the immune and inflammatory response. (scielo.br)
  • The metabolic fate of glutamine in lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils will be discussed in the present paper. (scielo.br)
  • Eosinophils, T-lymphocytes, mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in bronchial biopsy specimens from atopic subjects with asthma: comparison wit. (nih.gov)
  • Eosinophils, T-lymphocytes, mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in bronchial biopsy specimens from atopic subjects with asthma: comparison with biopsy specimens from atopic subjects without asthma and normal control subjects and relationship to bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate that phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils, but not apoptotic lymphocytes, by human monocyte-derived macrophages is augmented rapidly following ligation of CD44 by bivalent Abs in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • Immunostaining (APAAP method) was performed on frozen cryostat sections with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to total leucocytes (CD45), T lymphocyte phenotypic markers (CD3, CD4, CD8), macrophages (CD68), eosinophils (EG2), and neutrophils (elastase). (bmj.com)
  • Neutrophil and macrophage cell numbers were also increased in patients with bronchiectasis (114 cells/mm 2 and 213 cells/mm 2 , respectively) compared with controls (41 neutrophils/mm 2 and 40 macrophages/mm 2 ). (bmj.com)
  • Platelets release platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) from their alpha granules to attract neutrophils and macrophages. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed] Unlike short-lived neutrophils, macrophages survive longer in the body, up to several months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fresh living Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BeG), injected i.v. into (C57BI/ 6xDBA/2)FI mice, activated peritoneal macrophages rendering them highly cytotoxic for tumor cells in vitro. (waterstones.com)
  • Macrophages, given keyhole limpet hemocyanin in vitro, from normal mice initiate in culture antigen-specific T cell-mediated immune reactions. (pnas.org)
  • The in vitro activities and interactions of macrophages and lymphocytes from tuberculin-sensitive and normal guinea pigs, in the presence or absence of antigen (PPD), were examined with the aid of phase-contrast time-lapse cinematography. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sensitized lymphocytes were incubated in vitro with the specific antigen Supernatants from these cultures were chromatographed on Sephadex G-100 columns. (rupress.org)
  • Metabolic and functional stimulation of lymphocytes and macrophages by an Escherichia coli extract (OM-89): in vitro studies. (nih.gov)
  • We show that NRP-1 on macrophages regulated the migration of and chemokine secretion from macrophages in vitro. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Role of lymphocytes in macrophage-induced killing of Coccidioides immitis in vitro. (asm.org)
  • In the present study we have evaluated in parallel the level of TfR expression, ferritin, and IRE-BP in cultures of: (i) circulating human lymphocytes stimulated to proliferate by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and (ii) circulating human monocytes maturing in vitro to macrophages. (epfl.ch)
  • Terech-Majewska E, Siwicki A, Hermańska S, Kaczorek-Łukowska E, Pajdak-Czaus J, Schulz P. Influence of trans-resveratrol on macrophage and lymphocyte activity in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) - in vitro study. (termedia.pl)
  • In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of NE on rat thymic lymphocyte and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (HPBMC) functions. (thescipub.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicated that NE was capable to activate in vitro rat and human lymphocyte and macrophage pro-inflammatory response. (thescipub.com)
  • Here we studied the interaction of mouse lymph node lymphocytes, co-cultured in vitro with macrophages in the presence or absence of the CHM, with B16F10 melanoma cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that CHM treatment activates macrophages both in vivo and in vitro , inducing several molecular modifications in macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the immunotoxicity of CdSe/ZnS QDs using the in vitro in macrophages and lymphocytes and in vivo in BALB/c mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Levamisole, an anthelminthic agent with immunostimulatory properties, does not alter in vitro macrophage-lymphocyte rosette formation between sheep alveolar macrophages and autochthonous lymphocytes. (mysciencework.com)
  • Analysis in vitro showed that A-LPS was a potent activator of both macrophages and B-lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Two in vitro correlates of delayed hypersensitivity, blastoid transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the inhibition of migration of peritoneal macrophages, were also positive. (ajtmh.org)
  • On the other hand, macrophages from nude, from adult-thymectomized, or from neonatal-thymectomized mice are impaired with respect to their capacity to signal such an antigen-specific T cell reaction. (pnas.org)
  • The capacity of macrophages from adult thymectomized mice to promote the activation of antigen-specific "helper" T cells which, cooperating with B lymphocytes, would lead to antibody production, was also impaired. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, it appears that short-lived T lymphocytes control the maturation of macrophages up to a stage at which they can present antigen-specific T cells with antigen in an immunogenic form. (pnas.org)
  • Macrophages from normal or sensitized animals, in the presence of antigen and sensitized lymphocytes, and to a lesser extent sensitized thymocytes, formed considerably less active and less numerous pseudopodia, became spherical and were more sluggish in their movements. (jimmunol.org)
  • The motion of lymphocytes and thymocytes, normal or sensitized, was not affected by specific antigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • Non-sensitized macrophages aggregated and tended to become associated with lymphocytes in the presence of antigen and sensitized lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Supernatant fractions containing MIF, chemotactic factor, and lymphotoxin, but free of antigen and antibody, were incubated with normal peritoneal exudate macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, antigen-stimulated lymphocytes secrete a factor or factors which enhance certain macrophage functions. (rupress.org)
  • B lymphocytes produce antibodies - proteins (gamma globulins) that recognize foreign substances (antigen) and attach themselves to them. (chemocare.com)
  • Dendritic cells are efficient with regard to antigen presenting capacity and are probably critical in primary immune responses, while alveolar macrophages have generally been considered to have poor antigen presenting capacity 2 and may even suppress T cell proliferation. (bmj.com)
  • Several studies have suggested an enhanced capacity of alveolar macrophages to function in sarcoidosis as efficient antigen presenters. (bmj.com)
  • 4 5 Parameters affecting the ability of alveolar macrophages to present antigen to T cells include expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 interacting with CD28 on T cells. (bmj.com)
  • We also confirmed the above advantages of the lymphocyte transformation technique by using tuberculin antigen (PPD). (bmj.com)
  • A number of recent studies have suggested that the main functional role of the product of the immune response (Ir) genes is in the process of antigen recognition by the T lymphocyte. (rupress.org)
  • The observation in the accompanying report that the interaction of macrophage-associated antigen with immune T lymphocytes requires that both cells share histocompatibility antigens raised the question as to whether the macrophage played a role in the genetic control of the immune response or even if the macrophage were the primary cell in which the product of the Ir gene is expressed. (rupress.org)
  • No stimulation was seen when column-purified F 1 lymph node lymphocytes were mixed with antigen-pulsed macrophages from the nonresponder parent. (rupress.org)
  • However, when the highly reactive peritoneal exudate lymphocyte population was used as the indicator cells, parental macrophages pulsed with an antigen whose Ir gene they lacked were capable of initiating F 1 T-cell proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • In order to explain this observation, we hypothesize that antigen recognition sites on the T lymphocyte are physically related to a macrophage-binding site and both are linked to the serologically determined histocompatibility antigens. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, parental macrophages pulsed with an antigen, whose Ir gene they lack, activate F 1 cells poorly because the recognition sites for the antigen are physically related to the macrophage-binding site of the responder parent while the main contacts between the cells are at the nonresponder binding sites. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, when parental macrophages are pulsed with any antigen and added to F 1 T cells, an alloantiserum directed against parental histocompatibility antigens reacts with both the lymphocyte and the macrophage and thereby inhibits macrophage-lymphocyte interaction and abolishes antigen-induced lymphocyte transformation. (rupress.org)
  • When the alloantisera are directed at determinants present solely on the T lymphocyte, they only inhibit the recognition of antigens controlled by the Ir gene linked to the histocompatibility antigen against which they are directed. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude from these studies that antigen recognition by the T lymphocyte is a complex multicellular event involving more than simple antigen binding to a specific lymphocyte receptor. (rupress.org)
  • Antigen-mediated physical interactions between immune guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes and syngeneic macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • The effect of specific antigen on the development of physical interactions between lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) obtained from animals which had been immunized to that antigen and macrophages was examined. (rupress.org)
  • We found that the presence of antigen, either limited to the macrophage () or free in the medium, profoundly increased the degree of ) or free in the medium, profoundly increased the degree of Mphi-LNL interaction observed. (rupress.org)
  • Although antigen-independent interactions developed equally well between syngeneic and allogeneic combinations of lymphocytes and macrophages, antigen mediated interactions required that macrophages and lymphocytes be syngeneic. (rupress.org)
  • Prolongation of antigen-mediated Mphi-LNL interactions resulted in the induction of LNL DNA synthesis, initially involving those lymphocytes physically associated with antigen-bearing Mphi. (rupress.org)
  • These studies are interpreted to indicate that physical interaction between immune lymphocytes and antigen-bearing Mphi represents a morphological correlate of the functional activation of immune lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Further, it is suggested that the physical events involved in lymphocyte proliferation may proceed sequentially from antigen-independent reversible binding of lymphocytes by macrophages to prolonged antigen-stabilized interaction eventuating in the triggering of specifically immune lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • The greater effectiveness of macrophages at induction of lymphocyte transformation may be related to the efficiency of this cell type at trapping antigen and its effectiveness at making contact with and binding lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Hanifin, JM & Cline, MJ 1970, ' Human monocytes and macrophages: Interaction with antigen and lymphocytes ', Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 97-105. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon γ (IFN-γ)-stimulated macrophages, or M1 macrophages, upregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, official symbol NOS2), accompanied by increased antigen presentation and bactericidal capacity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Macrophage also plays a vital role in adaptive immunity that is by sending antigen to be destroyed by other components of adaptive immune system. (blogspot.com)
  • Lymphocyte is the white blood cell that has specific function to identify and destroy invader antigen. (blogspot.com)
  • After having maturation, every lymphocyte will make one receptor antigen with a specific structure on the surface of lymphocyte cell. (blogspot.com)
  • The Lymphocyte Biology Section (LBS) has made numerous contributions to the understanding of the cell biology of antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I and especially class II molecules. (nih.gov)
  • The Immune system is a complex network of cells (such as lymphocytes) and organs that work together to defend the body against foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria, a virus or tumor cell. (chemocare.com)
  • T lymphocytes are cells that are programmed to recognize, respond to and remember antigens. (chemocare.com)
  • A macrophage is the first cell to recognize and engulf foreign substances (antigens). (chemocare.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex-restricted helper T cell clones against "minor" antigens expressed on B cell and macrophage surfaces, when confronted with appropriate T cell-depleted spleen cells, are induced to proliferation and, in turn, activate "target-responder" B cells to polyclonal growth and maturation. (pasteur.fr)
  • They are produced by the white blood cells known as lymphocytes in response to exposure to the antigens of the foreign body against which they act. (leukaemia.org.au)
  • Simultaneous detection of lymphocyte surface marker and viral antigens in pokeweed mitogen-stimulated PBL revealed that both T and non-T cells (B and null cells) are able to support PPV replication. (nebraska.edu)
  • Specific or nonspecific recognition of the pathogen (because of its antigens) with its subsequent engulfing by B cells or macrophages . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by activated human macrophages treated with Canova. (vithoulkas.com)
  • Since CA may stimulate lymphocyte differentiation, proliferation, and/or survival, the aim of the present study was to compare the mitotic index (MI) of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes cultured in a medium supplemented with human macrophages activated by CA, with lymphocytes cultured in a medium without CA-treated macrophages. (vithoulkas.com)
  • Our results suggest that CA treatment, in addition to activating macrophages, indirectly induces lymphocyte proliferation and has potential as a new adjuvant therapeutic approach. (vithoulkas.com)
  • The intracellular iron level exerts a negative feedback on transferrin receptor (TfR) expression in cells requiring iron for their proliferation, in contrast to the positive feedback observed in monocytes-macrophages. (epfl.ch)
  • 0.01) enhanced (1.3-fold increase) proliferation of rat thymic lymphocytes at 10 -5 M, without altering HPBMC proliferation, as compared with untreated control. (thescipub.com)
  • Tolerance ie caused by a proliferation threshold that comes into existence when T-lymphocyte effectors are made short-lived. (uu.nl)
  • Adherent cell depletion on Sephadex G10 columns, while completely abrogating helper T cell proliferation, does not abolish helper cell-induced B cell responses, demonstrating a remarkable quantitative difference in macrophage requirements for the growth of these two cell types. (pasteur.fr)
  • These results demonstrate that human lung macrophages are potent modulators of lectin-mediated proliferation of human PBMC. (northwestern.edu)
  • However, a recent report by KELLER (26) suggests that, in addition to a contact-mediated effect, soluble factors produced by activated macrophages may decrease target-cell proliferation. (seamolec.org)
  • Large doses of the tumor break through, but their progressive growth is accompanied by a strong immune response involving extensive lymphocyte proliferation. (uu.nl)
  • Unresponsiveness can evolve because in this model net T-lymphocyte proliferation requires the presence of a minimum number of helper T cells (i.e. a proliferation threshold). (uu.nl)
  • At some sites such as the testis, macrophages have been shown to populate the organ through proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peritoneal macrophages from normal mice phagocytized arthroconidia and endospores of Coccidioides immitis without affecting the viability of the spores within 4 h after infection. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, macrophages, when infected in the presence of lymphocytes from immune mice, significantly reduced the viability of phagocytized endospores and arthroconidia. (asm.org)
  • The inability of macrophages from normal mice to kill C. immitis may in part be explained by the observation that C. immitis appeared to inhibit fusion of the phagosomes containing fungal spores with the lysosomes within the macrophages. (asm.org)
  • However, fusion of phagosomes containing spores and lysosomes was observed in macrophages infected in the presence of lymphocytes from immune mice. (asm.org)
  • Previous studies in mice have demonstrated that the CHM activates macrophages, induces an increase in the number of leukocytes and improves the murine response against Sarcoma-180. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To study the in vivo effects in mice, we showed that QDs injection did not cause significant changes to body weight, hematology, organ histology, and phagocytic function of peritoneal macrophages in QDs-treated mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lymphocytes from QDs-treated mice showed reduced cell viability, changed subtype proportions, increased TNF-α and IL-6 release, and reduced transformation ability in response to LPS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings show that indeed i.v. injection of TNP labeled macrophages isolated from control mice into syngenic recipients induces unresponsiveness. (edu.pl)
  • TCR*-/- and $2m-/- mice induces strong CHS similar to that observed after skin painting with TNP-Cl.Moreover, it was shown that TNP conjugated macrophages isolated from CD1d-/- mice were still able to promote immunosuppression when injected intravenously. (edu.pl)
  • Th1, Th2, and Th0 lines were generated from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice and transferred into lymphocyte-deficient, OVA-treated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. (jci.org)
  • In contrast, the responses to the B-cell mitogen LPS of unfractionated and macrophage-depleted spleen cells were not affected or significantly enhanced depending on the dose of BCG injected. (waterstones.com)
  • The number of macrophages in both spleen and peripheral blood was significantly decreased in STDP rats compared with untreated DP rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A-LPS was a potent mitogen for spleen lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • by contrast, the responses to the B-cell mitogen LPS of unfractionated and macrophage-depleted spleen cells weren't affected or considerably more desirable counting on the dose of BCG injected. (seamolec.org)
  • This latter possibility is suggested by the finding that CyPA resembles cytokines in two important aspects: it is released into the culture medium by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages ( 14 ), and it has proinflammatory ( 15 ) and leukocyte chemotactic activity ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Macrophages also produce substances called cytokines that help to regulate the activity of lymphocytes. (chemocare.com)
  • In order to characterize the role of T cells, macrophages, and their cytokines in uveitis, the authors examined iris biopsies from eight patients with chronic, quiescent anterior uveitis and five subjects with cataracts. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo, the Th1/Th2 paradigm may be distorted by the presence of macrophage-derived cytokines such as IL-1. (monash.edu)
  • Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is one of the cytokines that has been shown to be increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. (plos.org)
  • Beyond increasing inflammation and stimulating the immune system, macrophages also play an important anti-inflammatory role and can decrease immune reactions through the release of cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocytes are attracted to a damaged site by chemical substances through chemotaxis, triggered by a range of stimuli including damaged cells, pathogens and cytokines released by macrophages already at the site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alteration of intracellular cysteine and glutathione levels in alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes by diesel exhaust particle exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on thiol regulation in alveolar macrophages (AM) and lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. (bmj.com)
  • CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. (bmj.com)
  • Alveolar macrophage-lymphocyte rosette formation: failure of l. (mysciencework.com)
  • Alveolar macrophage-lymphocyte rosette formation: failure of levamisole to alter activity. (mysciencework.com)
  • 2 Inhaled droplets containing minute numbers of bacteria are engulfed by alveolar macrophages. (bmj.com)
  • They take various forms (with various names) throughout the body (e.g., histiocytes, Kupffer cells, alveolar macrophages, microglia, and others), but all are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The download lymphocytes, macrophages, However was that distribution workers ask to follow been further, and some initiatives refused s employees, legal as growing the approval decision, followed to the detail. (pressstudio.com)
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  • Incubation with recombinant murine interferon-gamma and OM-89, but not with either compound alone, led to functional activation, as shown by the killing of tumor target cells, and by the destruction of the intracellular parasite Leishmania enrietti by macrophages of both LPS-responsive and unresponsive mouse strains. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, NRP-1 expression is required for differentiation and activation of macrophages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our previous study has identified a group of microRNAs that mediate Notch signaling to regulate macrophage activation and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Meanwhile, miR-148a-3p promoted M1 and inhibited M2 polarization of macrophages upon Notch activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, our data establish a novel molecular mechanism by which Notch signaling promotes monocyte differentiation and M1 macrophage activation through miR-148a-3p, and suggest that miR-148a-3p-modified monocytes or macrophages are potential new tools for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • however, the outputs of macrophage activation are heterogeneous, depending on signaling from pattern recognition receptors and the inflammatory microenvironment. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the expression levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in patients with early diabetic cardiomyopathy, and to investigate the mechanisms involved in MIF expression and GRK2 activation. (plos.org)
  • This necessity for prolonged contact may prove to be important for macrophage activation. (seamolec.org)
  • Baines MG, Duclos AJ, Antecka E, Haddad EK (1997) Decidual infiltration and activation of macrophages leads to early embryo loss. (edu.pl)
  • Macrophages can be classified on basis of the fundamental function and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific inhibition of COX-2 abrogated the capacity of IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells to induce IL-10 in lymphocytes and macrophages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, specific inhibition of A549 COX-2 reversed the tumor-derived PGE 2 -dependent inhibition of macrophage IL-12 production when whole blood was cultured in tumor supernatants. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Comparison of lymphocyte transformation and macrophage migration inhibition tests in the detection of beryllium hypersensitivity. (bmj.com)
  • The Be macrophage migration inhibition test was only positive in four of seven patients (57%) not on steroids, and was not reproducible. (bmj.com)
  • Macrophage inhibition persisted several months after resolution. (ajtmh.org)
  • The cell subsets studied were CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood and BAL fluid, as well as peripheral blood monocytes and macrophages. (bmj.com)
  • PPD-sensitized monocytes and macrophages from tuberculin-positive subjects are both capable of inducing blastogenic transformation of autologous lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, cytotoxic T cells not only reduced IL-1 production by macrophages but also potentiated PGE 2 release. (jamanetwork.com)
  • abstract = "Porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), peripheral blood monocytes, and peritoneal macrophages were examined for their ability to support porcine parvovirus (PPV) replication. (nebraska.edu)
  • A relatively detailed model of experimentally described macrophage T-lymphocyte interactions has been developed. (uu.nl)
  • Immune response (Ir) genes expressed at macrophage-B lymphocyte interactions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Macrophage-lymphocyte interactions in immune induction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The model represents macrophage T-lymphocyte interactions that generate cytotoxic macrophages and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. (uu.nl)
  • Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in macrophages and lymphocytes: involvement of Bcl-2 and caspase-1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HIFU, even when administered as a single shot, induces apoptosis of tumor cells and intratumoral infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes. (mysciencework.com)
  • It was shown previously that subcutaneous injection of hapten conjugated macrophages (TNP-Mf) induces the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response, whereas intravenous (i.v.) or intraperitioneal administration of TNP-Mf results in unresponsiveness as a result of induced T suppressor (Ts) cells. (edu.pl)
  • Our results indicate that lung tumor-derived PGE 2 plays a pivotal role in promoting lymphocyte and macrophage IL-10 induction while simultaneously inhibiting macrophage IL-12 production. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Synovial lining macrophages were selectively depleted by intraarticular injection of clodronate liposomes prior to disease induction. (monash.edu)
  • Macrophages (Mf) play an important role in induction and regulation of the immune response. (edu.pl)
  • However, induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes was not observed. (elsevier.com)
  • However after casein-induction, these macrophages disappear from the peritoneal cavity soon afterwards. (seamolec.org)
  • The role of macrophages in the induction of the immune response and the metabolism of mammalian ova are also explored, together with the structure of gallbladder epithelium and cell types in the mammalian thyroid gland. (elsevier.com)
  • The inhibitory effect was shown to be mediated by suppressor cells which had characteristics of macrophages since they could be removed by carbonyl iron and magnet treatment and were adherent to plastic. (waterstones.com)
  • In contrast, macrophages are terminally differentiated end-cells whose ability to proliferate is gradually lost. (scielo.br)
  • Indeed, it was not until the pioneering work of Eric Newsholme's laboratory in the 1980's that it was established that immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages could utilize glutamine at high rates in addition to glucose (3,4). (scielo.br)
  • Taken together with our observations that recombinant CyPA-induced mobilization of calcium in immortalized, as well as primary, CD4 + T lymphocytes, and that incubation of T cells with iodinated CyPA, followed by chemical cross-linking, resulted in the formation of a high molecular mass complex on the cell surface, these results suggest that HIV-1-associated CyPA mediates an early event in viral infection via interaction with a cellular receptor. (pnas.org)
  • The aim of the study is to analyse at different stages of the disease, tumor samples and to characterise the cellular infiltrate in situ ( in particular T lymphocytes, NK cells and macrophages), the role of inhibitor receptors on in situ immunosuppression, and potential modulation by medical treatments such as dacarbazine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When the relationships between numbers of T-lymphocytes, activated (CD25+) cells, and EOSs were analyzed, there were positive correlations between CD3 and EG2, between CD3 and CD25, and between CD25 and EG2 positive cells in the airways of subjects with asthma. (nih.gov)
  • With the development of the disease cellular inflammatory infiltrates composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages are formed in epithelium and lamina propria of the stomach. (hindawi.com)
  • The data obtained indicate that stimulation of H. pylori immune system cells of the host organism during development of chronic gastritis causes increase in number of macrophages and lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate of the gastric mucosa. (hindawi.com)
  • Lymphocytes are one of the main types of immune cells. (chemocare.com)
  • Lymphocytes are divided mainly into B and T cells. (chemocare.com)
  • B lymphocytes (or B cells) are each programmed to make one specific antibody. (chemocare.com)
  • B lymphocytes are powerless to penetrate the cell so the job of attacking these target cells is left to T lymphocytes. (chemocare.com)
  • T lymphocytes (or T cells) contribute to the immune defenses in two major ways. (chemocare.com)
  • When stimulated by the antigenic material presented by the macrophages, the T cells make lymphokines that signal other cells. (chemocare.com)
  • Other T lymphocytes are able to destroy targeted cells on direct contact. (chemocare.com)
  • All except one iris biopsy from uveitic patients demonstrated the presence of T cells and macrophages following avidin-biotin-complex immunoperoxidase staining. (nih.gov)
  • The most striking feature was the consistent spatial correlation between the presence of T cells and localized tissue staining for interferon gamma, and between the presence of macrophages and tissue staining for defensins. (nih.gov)
  • This study showed that T cells and macrophages were part of the inflammatory response in uveitis and that they secreted interferon gamma and defensin respectively. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. (bmj.com)
  • There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type. (bmj.com)
  • In early disease there is a mononuclear cell alveolitis dominated by activated CD4+ (helper/inducer) T cells and macrophages. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION Airway inflammation in bronchiectasis is characterised by tissue neutrophilia, a mononuclear cell infiltrate composed mainly of CD4+ T cells and CD68+ macrophages, and increased IL-8 expression. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, in vivo studies using a humanized mouse model showed that NRP-1 knockdown of macrophages in adoptively transferring peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) suppressed anti-tumor activity and infiltration of CD45+ immune cells into tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that NRP-1 expression on CD4+ T cells was induced by NRP-1 transfer from macrophages to T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results demonstrate that NRP-1 expressing macrophages are key subsets of immune cells in trastuzumab-mediated anti-tumor activity and may predict better outcomes for HER2+ BC patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • NRP-1 expressing macrophages promote NRP-1 expression on CD4+ T cells by direct interaction and contribute to anti-tumor immune responses in HER2+ BC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Not only was there a decrease of natural killer (NK) cell activity in splenocytes from STDPBB rats, but there was also a significant reduction in the number of immunocytes such as T lymphocytes (helper/inducer and cytotoxic/suppressor) and NK cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast to the changes in T lymphocytes and NK cell activity, there was no change in target β-cells in STDPBB rats with regard to the susceptibility to adoptive transfer of insulitis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The alpha-chemokine receptor fusin (CXCR-4) and beta-chemokine receptor CCR5 serve as entry cofactors for T-cell (T)-tropic and macrophage (M)-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains, respectively, when expressed with CD4 in otherwise nonpermissive cells. (asm.org)
  • Spontaneous IRE-BP activity, already present at low level in quiescent T lymphocytes, shows a gradual and marked increase in PHA-stimulated T cells from day 1 of culture onward. (epfl.ch)
  • In these experiments the non-syncytium-inducing phenotype in T cells did not always correlate with macrophage tropism. (asm.org)
  • In most cases, different V3 amino acid positions were found to independently influence macrophage tropism and syncytium formation in T cells and position 13 was the only V3 location which appeared to simultaneously influence both macrophage tropism and syncytium formation in lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • Sections from 215 cervical specimens (149 LSIL, 38 HSIL, 13 SCC and 15 normal cervical mucosae) were immunostained for B lymphocytes (CD20), macrophages (CD68) and mast cells (CD117). (omicsonline.org)
  • Because significant B cell responses are detected upon interaction with primed helper T cells under conditions of extreme macrophage depletion, we conclude that the role of macrophages in T-B cell cooperation is limited to expansion of optimal numbers of helper T lymphocytes. (pasteur.fr)
  • these macrophages were then mixed with T cells derived from the (nonresponder x responder)F 1 and the resultant stimulation was measured. (rupress.org)
  • Lymphocytes co-cultured with macrophages in the presence of the CHM had greater anti-melanoma activity, reducing melanoma cell density and increasing the number of lysed tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, lymphocytes activated by treatment destroyed growing cancer cells more effectively than control lymphocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Co-culture of macrophages with lymphocytes in the presence of the CHM enhanced the anti-cancer performance of lymphocytes against a very aggressive lineage of melanoma cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This type of immunity is mediated by T-lymphocytes, also called T-cells. (lecturio.com)
  • This is achieved by activating macrophages to destroy phagocytosed microbes via helper T-lymphocytes, or by directly killing infected cells via cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. (lecturio.com)
  • T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and natural killer cells) are important immune cells which mediated the innate and adapted immunity of human body. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is also not known whether QDs influence the immune function of macrophages or other immune cells toward immune stimulus such as bacterial endotoxin and viral nucleic acids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lymphocyte DNA synthesis occurred as early as 40 hr of culture and always in cells in contact with mononuclear phagocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • CD8+ and TCR(*+ lymphocytes stimulate macrophages to induce immunosuppression instead of a strong CHS reaction, whereas CD1d dependent NKT cells are not involved in negative regulation of macrophage function. (edu.pl)
  • We therefore studied the effects of cloned allosensitized murine helper or cytotoxic T cells on both interleukin 1 (IL-1) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production by syngeneic resident murine peritoneal macrophages. (jamanetwork.com)
  • After 48 hours of coculture with LPS-treated macrophages, cloned helper cells augmented IL-1 release by macrophages but inhibited PGE 2 production. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Thus, endotoxin renders macrophages more susceptible to allosensitized "help" (↑ IL-1, ↓ PGE 2 ) or "suppression" (↓ IL-1, ↑ PGE 2 ) by cytotoxic T cells. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells in BM give rise to common myeloid progenitors, which produce monocytes through several intermediates, including macrophage and dendritic cell precursors and common monocyte progenitors. (frontiersin.org)
  • A rapidly progressing cancer of the blood affecting the type of white blood cells known as lymphocytes. (leukaemia.org.au)
  • The inhibitory impression was once proven to be mediated by way of suppressor cells which had features of macrophages for the reason that they can be got rid of by way of carbonyl iron and magnet remedy and have been adherent to plastic. (seamolec.org)
  • 2. Nonmicrobial Targets Activated macrophages appear to kill tumor cells by a nonphagocytic mechanism. (seamolec.org)
  • Several authors have emphasized the need for a close contact between activated macrophages and target cells in order for the latter to be affected. (seamolec.org)
  • The mechanisms by which macrophages, the professional scavenging phagocytes of apoptotic cells, are attracted to sites of apoptosis are poorly defined. (ashpublications.org)
  • These results provide the first demonstration of chemokine/chemokine-receptor activity in the navigation of macrophages toward apoptotic cells and identify a mechanism by which macrophage infiltration of tissues containing apoptotic lymphocytes is achieved. (ashpublications.org)
  • When apoptosis occurs at high rates in mammalian tissues, apoptotic cells are almost invariably encountered in situ in association with macrophages. (ashpublications.org)
  • Differentiates CD14 + monocytes into M1 macrophage cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • Differentiates naïve CD4 + lymphocytes into mature Th1 effector cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • Differentiates naïve CD4 + human lymphocytes into CD25 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • a key feature of this response is the production of antibodies by B cells (or B lymphocytes) involving an arm of the immune system known as humoral immunity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages (abbreviated as Mφ, MΦ or MP) (Greek: large eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós) = large, φαγεῖν (phagein) = to eat) are a type of white blood cell of the immune system that engulfs and digests anything that does not have on its surface proteins that are specific to healthy body cells, including cancer cells, microbes, cellular debris, foreign substances, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides phagocytosis, they play a critical role in nonspecific defense (innate immunity) and also help initiate specific defense mechanisms (adaptive immunity) by recruiting other immune cells such as lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each type of macrophage, determined by its location, has a specific name: Investigations concerning Kupffer cells are hampered because in humans, Kupffer cells are only accessible for immunohistochemical analysis from biopsies or autopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the testis, for example, macrophages have been shown to be able to interact with Leydig cells by secreting 25-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol that can be converted to testosterone by neighbouring Leydig cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages are professional phagocytes and are highly specialized in removal of dying or dead cells and cellular debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages from peritoneal exudate had active amoeboid motion and numerous rapidly extending pseudopodia. (jimmunol.org)
  • a. increases the activity of macrophages. (yahoo.com)
  • 4. The T H 1 lymphocyte secretes the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) that binds to IFN-γ receptors receptors on the macrophage. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • These experiments indicate that OM-89 can stimulate metabolic and functional activities of lymphocytes and macrophages that are important for host defense. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe the results of an experimental laboratory validation of the potential of peritoneal macrophages, challenged with a complex homeopathic medication (CHM), to stimulate the immune effectiveness of mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes (Ly). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both casein and C. parvum are chemotactic for macrophages and both induce a macrophage exudate 2-5 days after injection into the peritoneal cavity of the guinea-pig (49). (seamolec.org)
  • CD44 regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophil granulocytes, but not apoptotic lymphocytes, by human macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophil granulocytes by macrophages at inflammatory sites is an important determinant of the process by which inflammation resolves. (jimmunol.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Biological effects of lipopolysaccharide from Achromobacter stenohalis on lymphocytes and macrophages. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Macrophages in Intrahepatic Cholangiocellular Carcinoma. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Nonspecific 'lymphocyte activating' factors produced by macrophages. (wustl.edu)
  • In contrast, Ca++ supports IgM complex binding to macrophages but not lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, the total IRE-BP level is similar in both quiescent and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes, grown in cultures supplemented or not with iron salts. (epfl.ch)
  • In contrast, the profound reduction of LPS-induced responses upon macrophage depletion suggests accessory cell production of such factors in thymus-independent B cell growth and/or maturation. (pasteur.fr)
  • In contrast, lymphocytes exposed to QDs exhibited enhanced cell viability, increased release of TNF-α and IL-6 following exposure with CpG-ODN, and decreased transformation ability treatment in response to LPS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, we observed a higher number of CD14+ macrophages in repeat breeding group compared to the control cows, however, this difference was slightly pronounced. (edu.pl)
  • By contrast, most of the macrophages that accumulate at diseased sites typically derive from circulating monocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have evaluated differences in T cell and monocyte/macrophage phenotypic characteristics between peripheral blood and BAL fluid and, more specifically, have compared patients with active and inactive disease. (bmj.com)
  • We also attempted to correlate T cell phenotype with monocyte/macrophage phenotypes. (bmj.com)
  • These observations suggest that cocaine has stimulatory effect on TNF-α production by lymphocytes but inhibitory action on TNF-α production by monocyte/macrophages. (elsevier.com)
  • When a monocyte enters damaged tissue through the endothelium of a blood vessel, a process known as leukocyte extravasation, it undergoes a series of changes to become a macrophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that such T lymphocytes also control the phagocytic properties of macrophages, yet the impairment of their immunogenic properties does not seem to be derived from decreased phagocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • These observations, together with the lack of effect of CD44 Abs upon macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan or Ig-opsonized erythrocytes, imply that CD44 may regulate the differential clearance of apoptotic leukocytes during evolution of inflammatory responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Macrophage is the white blood cell component which has the function of innate immunity through phagocytosis process. (blogspot.com)
  • Polyclonal stimulation of lymphocytes by macrophages. (jax.org)
  • and Flad, H D., "Polyclonal stimulation of lymphocytes by macrophages. (jax.org)
  • B lymphocyte, macrophage and mast cell densities in the stroma underlying cervical low and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 200 tissue samples, with concomitant HPV typing, was assessed, in order to examine their relationship to disease status and progression. (omicsonline.org)
  • A statistically significant difference in B lymphocyte and mast cell density was found between LSIL and HSIL. (omicsonline.org)
  • Increased B lymphocyte and mast cell density in the stroma underlying cervical HSIL and SCC compared to LSIL suggests a possible relationship of both cell types to progression of cervical SIL. (omicsonline.org)
  • Neuropilin-1 expressing macrophages promote neuropilin-1 expression on lymphocytes by direct interaction and exert antitumor activity in HER2 positive breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphocytes, Macrophages, and Cancer by D. Catovsky (auth. (seamolec.org)
  • Antibodies that attach to and destroy lymphocytes.This may be used clinically by injection into a vein, for example, in aplastic anaemia or in other conditions where the body's immune system is being harmful. (leukaemia.org.au)
  • Lymphocytes produce special proteins against foreign invaders called antibodies. (weegy.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that miR-148a-3p functions as a novel downstream molecule of Notch signaling to promote the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (frontiersin.org)
  • Human macrophages are about 21 micrometres (0.00083 in) in diameter and are produced by the differentiation of monocytes in tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infiltration by macrophages and lymphocytes in transplantable. (mysciencework.com)
  • Infiltration by macrophages and lymphocytes in transplantable mouse sarcoma after irradiation with high-intensity focused ultrasound. (mysciencework.com)
  • Irradiation of helper cell populations, however, demonstrates that their effector functions (and B lymphocyte responses) are independent of proliferative activity. (pasteur.fr)
  • There was also a higher proportion of activated (CD25 + ) lymphocytes with increased viability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results indicated that macrophages treated with 1.25 or 2.5 nM QDs exhibited decreased cell viability, increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), elevated apoptotic events, altered phagocytic ability, and decreased release of TNF-α and IL-6 by upon subsequent stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we show that CX3CL1/fractalkine, a chemokine and intercellular adhesion molecule, is released rapidly from apoptotic lymphocytes, via caspase- and Bcl-2-regulated mechanisms, to attract macrophages. (ashpublications.org)
  • Effective chemotaxis of macrophages to apoptotic lymphocytes is dependent on macrophage fractalkine receptor, CX3CR1. (ashpublications.org)
  • These macrophages harbour the pathogen and transport it to draining lymph nodes. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, using a well-known permeabilization method that is assessed by flow cytometry, we show that lymphocytes and macrophages from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the peritoneal cavity exhibit different sensitivities to extracellular ATP. (karger.com)
  • We have found that Mg++ supports IgM complex binding to mouse lymphocytes but not to macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • It is concluded that the prevention of insulitis and diabetes in STDPBB rats is due to a decrease in macrophage-dependent T lymphocytes and NK cell cytotoxicity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, OM-89 treatment induced marked PMA-dependent superoxide and hydrogen peroxide release by macrophages from the LPS low responder mouse strain C3H/HeJ. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, miR-148a-3p also enhanced M1 macrophage polarization and pro-inflammatory responses through PTEN/AKT-mediated upregulation of NF-κB signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • One microgram of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 total RNA was reverse transcribed, and the resulting cDNA amplified by PCR by using a set of cyclophilin-specific primers (5′-CCATGGTCAACCCCACC-3′ and 5′-ACGCTCTCCTGAGCTACAGA-3′) that span the murine cyclophilin (cyclophilin A) coding region. (pnas.org)
  • Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) stimulated both IL-1 and PGE 2 production in macrophages. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Biological effects of lipopolysaccharide from Achromobacter stenohalis on lymphocytes and macrophages. (elsevier.com)