Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed
Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing
Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1
Killer Cells, Natural
Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic
Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Immune Adherence Reaction
Molecular Sequence Data
Mice, Inbred Strains
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Amino Acid Sequence
Herpesvirus 4, Human
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Fas Ligand Protein
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins
Cell Migration Inhibition
Gene Expression Regulation
Graft vs Host Reaction
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments
Bone Marrow Cells
Binding Sites, Antibody
Hemolytic Plaque Technique
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Major Histocompatibility Complex
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Cell Line, Transformed
Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck)
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (1/16065)Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF. (+info)
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (2/16065)Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), the enzyme schematically next to adenosine deaminase in the purine salvage pathway, has been demonstrated cytochemically in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy subjects and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. The enzyme activity is confined to the cytosol. In healthy subjects the majority of lymphocytes are strongly reactive for PNP, whereas the rest are devoid of cytochemically demonstrable activity. The percentage of PNP-positive cells largely corresponds to the number of E rosette-forming cells and is inversely proportional to the number of Ig-bearing cells. In six of seven CLL patients studied only a minor percentage of the lymphocytes showed strong PNP activity, whereas the large majority (88%--98%) possessed trace activity. Such patients have a high number of Ig-bearing cells and a low number of E rosette-forming cells. A different pattern of markers was found in the lymphocytes of the seventh CLL patient: 66% were strongly reactive for PNP, an important number formed E rosettes, and a minor percentage were Ig bearing. These data indicate that PNP can be useful as a "nonmembrane" marker in the differentiation of the B and T cell origin in CLL and deserves to be studied in other lymphoproliferative disorders. (+info)
Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (3/16065)We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen. (+info)
alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (4/16065)We investigated the expression of alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes in intact human peripheral blood lymphocytes using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and radioligand binding assay techniques combined with antibodies against the three subtypes of alpha1-adrenergic receptors (alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D). RT-PCR amplified in peripheral blood lymphocytes a 348-bp alpha1A-adrenergic receptor fragment, a 689-bp alpha1B-adrenergic receptor fragment, and a 540-bp alpha1D-adrenergic receptor fragment. Radioligand binding assay with [3H]prazosin as radioligand revealed a high-affinity binding with a dissociation constant value of 0. 65+/-0.05 nmol/L and a maximum density of binding sites of 175. 3+/-20.5 fmol/10(6) cells. The pharmacological profile of [3H]prazosin binding to human peripheral blood lymphocytes was consistent with the labeling of alpha1-adrenergic receptors. Antibodies against alpha1A-, alpha1B-, and alpha1D-receptor subtypes decreased [3H]prazosin binding to a different extent. This indicates that human peripheral blood lymphocytes express the three alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes. Of the three different alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes, the alpha1B is the most represented and the alpha1D, the least. Future studies should clarify the functional relevance of alpha1-adrenergic receptors expressed by peripheral blood lymphocytes. The identification of these sites may represent a step for evaluating whether they represent a marker of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in cardiovascular disorders or for assessing responses to drug treatment on these receptors. (+info)
In vitro induction of activation-induced cell death in lymphocytes from chronic periodontal lesions by exogenous Fas ligand. (5/16065)Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which gradually destroys the supporting tissues of the teeth, leading to tooth loss in adults. The lesions are characterized by a persistence of inflammatory cells in gingival and periodontal connective tissues. To understand what mechanisms are involved in the establishment of chronic lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating lymphocytes might be resistant to apoptosis. However, both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were weakly detected in lymphocytes from the lesions, compared with those from peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are susceptible to apoptosis. Nevertheless, very few apoptotic cells were observed in tissue sections from the lesions. Lymphocytes from the lesions expressed mRNA encoding Fas, whereas Fas-ligand mRNA was very weakly expressed in lymphocytes from the lesions and in periodontal tissues. Since the results indicated that lymphocytes in the lesions might be susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis but lack the death signal, we next investigated if these lymphocytes actually undergo apoptosis by the addition of anti-Fas antibodies in vitro. Fas-positive lymphocytes from the lesions underwent apoptosis by these antibodies, but Fas-negative lymphocytes and Fas-positive peripheral lymphocytes did not undergo apoptosis by these antibodies. These results indicate that lymphocytes in the lesions are susceptible to activation-induced cell death and are induced to die by apoptosis after the addition of exogenous Fas ligand. (+info)
Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (6/16065)Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7. (+info)
67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression in patients with lymphoma. (7/16065)Lym-1, a monoclonal antibody that preferentially targets malignant lymphocytes, has induced therapeutic responses and prolonged survival in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma when labeled with 1311. Radiometal-labeled antibodies provide higher tumor radiation doses than corresponding 1311 antibodies. 67Cu has an exceptional combination of properties desirable for radioimmunotherapy, including gamma and beta emissions for imaging and therapy, respectively, a biocompatible half-time and absence of pathways contributing to myelotoxicity. The radioimmunoconjugate, 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1, has been shown to be efficacious in nude mice bearing human Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) xenografts. Based on these results, a clinical study of the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in patients with lymphoma was initiated. METHODS: Eleven patients with advanced stage 3 or 4 lymphoma were given a preload dose of unmodified Lym-1, then an imaging dose of 126-533 MBq (3.4-14.4 mCi) 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1. Total Lym-1 ranged from 25 to 70 mg dependent on the specific activity of the radioimmunoconjugate and was infused at a rate of 0.5-1 mg/min. Imaging, physical examination, including caliper measurement of superficial tumors, and analysis of blood, urine and fecal samples were performed for a period of 6-13 d after infusion to assess pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression. RESULTS: In 7 patients, in whom superficial tumors had been accurately measured, tumors regressed from 18% to 75% (mean 48%) within several days of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 infusion. The uptake and biological half-time of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in tumors were greater than those of normal tissues, except the mean liver half-time exceeded the mean tumor half-time. The mean tumor-to-marrow radiation ratio was 32:1, tumor-to-total body was 24:1 and tumor-to-liver was 1.5:1. Images were of very good quality; tumors and normal organs were readily identified. Mild and transient Lym-1 toxicity occurred in 6 patients; 1 patient developed a human antimouse antibody. There were no significant changes in blood counts or serum chemistries indicative of radiation toxicity. CONCLUSION: Because of the long residence time of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in tumors, high therapeutic ratios were achieved and, remarkably, numerous tumor regressions were observed after imaging doses. The results indicate considerable therapeutic potential for 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1. (+info)
Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus. (8/16065)The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells. (+info)
The two main types of lymphoid leukemia are:
1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This type of leukemia is most commonly seen in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature white blood cells in the blood and bone marrow.
2. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia usually affects older adults and is characterized by the gradual buildup of abnormal white blood cells in the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.
Symptoms of lymphoid leukemia include fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment options for lymphoid leukemia can vary depending on the type of cancer and the severity of symptoms, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or bone marrow transplantation.
There are several possible causes of lymphopenia, including:
1. Viral infections: Many viral infections can cause lymphopenia, such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and influenza.
2. Bacterial infections: Some bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis and leprosy, can also cause lymphopenia.
3. Cancer: Certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, can cause lymphopenia by destroying lymphocytes.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, can cause lymphopenia by attacking the body's own tissues, including lymphocytes.
5. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy can destroy lymphocytes and cause lymphopenia.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as chemotherapy drugs and antibiotics, can cause lymphopenia as a side effect.
7. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders, such as X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, can cause lymphopenia by affecting the development or function of lymphocytes.
Symptoms of lymphopenia can include recurring infections, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment of lymphopenia depends on the underlying cause and may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, or immunoglobulin replacement therapy. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.
Overall, lymphopenia is a condition that can have a significant impact on quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many people with lymphopenia can experience improved health outcomes and a better quality of life.
Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).
Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.
Examples of Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes include:
1. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PIDDs): These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the immune system's ability to function properly. Examples include X-linked agammaglobulinemia, common variable immunodeficiency, and severe combined immunodeficiency.
2. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): This is a condition that results from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which destroys CD4 cells, a type of immune cell that fights off infections.
3. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP): This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack and destroy platelets, which are blood cells that help the blood to clot.
4. Autoimmune Disorders: These are conditions in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages healthy cells and tissues in the body. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis.
5. Immunosuppressive Therapy-induced Immunodeficiency: This is a condition that occurs as a side effect of medications used to prevent rejection in organ transplant patients. These medications can suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of infections.
Symptoms of Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes can vary depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the immune system dysfunction. Common symptoms include recurrent infections, fatigue, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment options for these syndromes range from medications to suppress the immune system to surgery or bone marrow transplantation.
In summary, Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes are a group of disorders that result from dysfunction of the immune system, leading to recurrent infections and other symptoms. There are many different types of these syndromes, each with its own set of symptoms and treatment options.
There are several types of lymphoma, including:
1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.
The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.
Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.
There are several possible causes of lymphocytosis, including:
1. Infection: Lymphocytosis can be caused by a variety of infections, such as viral or bacterial infections.
2. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis can cause an abnormal increase in lymphocytes.
3. Cancer: Lymphocytosis can be a symptom of certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
4. Reaction to medication: Certain medications, such as antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, can cause lymphocytosis.
5. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic disorders, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia, can cause lymphocytosis.
Symptoms of lymphocytosis may include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, and weight loss. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition, and may involve antibiotics, chemotherapy, or other medications. In some cases, no treatment is necessary, as the condition may resolve on its own over time.
Examples of autoimmune diseases include:
1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.
The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
There are several types of melanoma, including:
1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.
The risk factors for developing melanoma include:
1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma
The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:
1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole
If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.
In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.
The presence of chromosome-defective micronuclei in cells can be an indication of genetic damage and may be used as a diagnostic marker for certain diseases or conditions, such as cancer or exposure to toxic substances. The frequency and distribution of these structures within a cell population can also provide information about the type and severity of genetic damage present.
In contrast to other types of micronuclei, which are typically smaller and less complex, chromosome-defective micronuclei are larger and more irregular in shape, and may contain fragmented or abnormal chromatin material. They can also be distinguished from other types of micronuclei by their specific staining properties and the presence of certain structural features, such as the presence of nucleoli or the absence of a membrane boundary.
Overall, the study of chromosome-defective micronuclei is an important tool for understanding the mechanisms of genetic damage and disease, and may have practical applications in fields such as cancer diagnosis and environmental health assessment.
People with agammaglobulinemia are more susceptible to infections, particularly those caused by encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b. They may also experience recurrent sinopulmonary infections, ear infections, and gastrointestinal infections. The disorder can be managed with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, which provides antibodies to help prevent infections. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.
Agammaglobulinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder, meaning that a person must inherit two mutated copies of the BTK gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition. It is relatively rare, affecting approximately one in 1 million people worldwide. The disorder can be diagnosed through genetic testing and a complete blood count (CBC) that shows low levels of immunoglobulins.
Treatment for ag
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
In LLCB, the B cells undergo a mutation that causes them to become cancerous and multiply rapidly. This can lead to an overproduction of these cells in the bone marrow, causing the bone marrow to become crowded and unable to produce healthy red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.
LLCB is typically a slow-growing cancer, and it can take years for symptoms to develop. However, as the cancer progresses, it can lead to a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, weight loss, fever, night sweats, and swollen lymph nodes.
LLCB is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment options for LLCB include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, stem cell transplantation.
Overall, while LLCB is a serious condition, it is typically slow-growing and can be managed with appropriate treatment. With current treatments, many people with LLCB can achieve long-term remission and a good quality of life.
There are several different types of leukemia, including:
1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.
Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.
There are several key features of inflammation:
1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.
There are several types of inflammation, including:
1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.
There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:
1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.
It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:
3. Heart disease
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.
There are several types of lymphoproliferative disorders, including:
1. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can arise from either B cells or T cells. There are several subtypes of lymphoma, including Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
2. Leukemia: This is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It occurs when there is an abnormal proliferation of white blood cells, which can lead to an overproduction of immature or malignant cells.
3. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that affect the bone marrow and can lead to an abnormal production of blood cells. MDS can progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
4. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): This is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by the accumulation of mature-looking but dysfunctional B cells in the blood.
5. Marginal zone lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that arises from the marginal zone of the spleen, which is the area where the white pulp and red pulp of the spleen meet.
6. Mantle cell lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the mantle zone of the lymph node.
7. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL): This is a rare type of cancer that affects the brain and spinal cord, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the central nervous system.
8. Hairy cell leukemia: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by the accumulation of abnormal B cells with a "hairy" appearance in the blood and bone marrow.
9. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.
10. AIDS-related lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects people with HIV/AIDS, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.
It's important to note that these are just some examples of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and there are many other subtypes and variants of this disease. Each type of lymphoma has its own unique characteristics and may require different treatment approaches.
The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.
There are several subtypes of LES, including:
1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.
There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.
It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.
The symptoms of AIDS can vary depending on the individual and the stage of the disease. Common symptoms include:
3. Swollen glands
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
9. Memory loss and other neurological problems
10. Cancer and other opportunistic infections.
AIDS is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HIV antibodies or the virus itself. There is no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.
In summary, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a severe and life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is characterized by a severely weakened immune system, which makes it difficult to fight off infections and diseases. While there is no cure for AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.
Hodgkin Disease can spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system, and it can affect people of all ages, although it is most common in young adults and teenagers. The symptoms of Hodgkin Disease can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but they may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and itching.
There are several types of Hodgkin Disease, including:
* Classical Hodgkin Disease: This is the most common type of Hodgkin Disease and is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
* Nodular Lymphocytic predominant Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by the presence of nodules in the lymph nodes.
* Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by a mixture of Reed-Sternberg cells and other immune cells.
Hodgkin Disease is usually diagnosed with a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected lymph node or other area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells. Treatment for Hodgkin Disease typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be necessary.
The prognosis for Hodgkin Disease is generally good, especially if the disease is detected and treated early. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for people with Hodgkin Disease is about 85%. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
Hodgkin Disease is a rare form of cancer that affects the immune system. It is most commonly diagnosed in young adults and is usually treatable with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of treatment can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
There are several symptoms of RA, including:
1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)
RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.
There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.
Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.
People with SCID are extremely susceptible to infections, particularly those caused by viruses, and often develop symptoms shortly after birth. These may include diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and failure to gain weight or grow at the expected rate. Without treatment, SCID can lead to life-threatening infections and can be fatal within the first year of life.
Treatment for SCID typically involves bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy. Bone marrow transplantation involves replacing the patient's faulty immune system with healthy cells from a donor, while enzyme replacement therapy involves replacing the missing or dysfunctional enzymes that cause the immune deficiency. Both of these treatments can help restore the patient's immune system and improve their quality of life.
In summary, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a rare genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to fight infections and can be fatal without treatment. Treatment options include bone marrow transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy.
The diagnosis of GVHD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, and in severe cases, stem cell transplantation reversal or donor lymphocyte infusion.
Prevention of GVHD includes selecting the right donor, using conditioning regimens that minimize damage to the recipient's bone marrow, and providing appropriate immunosuppression after transplantation. Early detection and management of GVHD are critical to prevent long-term complications and improve survival rates.
There are several types of chromosome aberrations, including:
1. Chromosomal deletions: Loss of a portion of a chromosome.
2. Chromosomal duplications: Extra copies of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
3. Chromosomal translocations: A change in the position of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
4. Chromosomal inversions: A reversal of a segment of a chromosome.
5. Chromosomal amplifications: An increase in the number of copies of a particular chromosome or gene.
Chromosome aberrations can be detected through various techniques, such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). These tests can help identify changes in the chromosomal makeup of cells and provide information about the underlying genetic causes of disease.
Chromosome aberrations are associated with a wide range of diseases, including:
1. Cancer: Chromosome abnormalities are common in cancer cells and can contribute to the development and progression of cancer.
2. Birth defects: Many birth defects are caused by chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
3. Neurological disorders: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to various neurological disorders, including autism and intellectual disability.
4. Immunodeficiency diseases: Some immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
5. Infectious diseases: Chromosome aberrations can increase the risk of infection with certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
6. Ageing: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to the ageing process and may contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
7. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can cause chromosome abnormalities, which can increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
8. Genetic disorders: Many genetic disorders are caused by chromosome aberrations, such as Turner syndrome (45,X), which is caused by a missing X chromosome.
9. Rare diseases: Chromosome aberrations can cause rare diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), which is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome.
10. Infertility: Chromosome abnormalities can contribute to infertility in both men and women.
Understanding the causes and consequences of chromosome aberrations is important for developing effective treatments and improving human health.
The symptoms of infectious mononucleosis can vary in severity but typically include:
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
* Enlarged spleen
* Muscle weakness
* Swollen liver or spleen
Infectious mononucleosis is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and other laboratory tests. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and allowing the body to fight the infection on its own.
Prognosis for infectious mononucleosis is generally good, but it can take several weeks to recover fully. Complications are rare but can include inflammation of the spleen, liver disease, and a condition called splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen).
Prevention includes avoiding close contact with people who have mononucleosis, washing hands frequently, and not sharing eating or drinking utensils. There is no vaccine available to protect against infectious mononucleosis.
Types of experimental neoplasms include:
* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.
The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The exact cause of LGL leukemia is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations and environmental factors. The disease typically affects older adults and is more common in men than women.
Symptoms of LGL leukemia can include fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. If the disease progresses, it can lead to anemia, infections, and bleeding problems.
Diagnosis of LGL leukemia is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The prognosis for LGL leukemia varies depending on the aggressiveness of the disease and the response to treatment.
In summary, large granular lymphocytic leukemia is a rare and complex blood cancer that requires specialized medical care and close monitoring for effective management and treatment.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
Examples of experimental leukemias include:
1. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA): A rare inherited disorder that leads to a lack of antibody production and an increased risk of infections.
2. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA): A rare inherited disorder characterized by a failure of red blood cells to mature in the bone marrow.
3. Fanconi anemia: A rare inherited disorder that leads to a defect in DNA repair and an increased risk of cancer, particularly leukemia.
4. Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT): A rare inherited disorder characterized by progressive loss of coordination, balance, and speech, as well as an increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma.
5. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which increases the risk of developing leukemia, particularly acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
These experimental leukemias are often used in research studies to better understand the biology of leukemia and to develop new treatments.
1. Lymphedema: This is a condition in which the lymph vessels are unable to properly drain fluid from the body, leading to swelling in the affected limb.
2. Lymphangitis: This is an inflammation of the lymph vessels that can cause pain, redness, and swelling.
3. Lymphadenitis: This is an infection of the lymph nodes that can cause swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Primary lymphedema: This is a rare genetic condition in which the lymph vessels are missing or do not develop properly.
5. Secondary lymphedema: This is a condition that develops as a result of another condition or injury, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or infection.
6. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormalities in the development of the lymph vessels and nodes that can cause swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.
7. Lymphocystis: This is a rare condition in which small cysts form in the lymph vessels and nodes.
8. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare condition that causes cysts to form in the lungs and can also affect the lymph vessels and nodes.
9. Lipedema: This is a condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the legs, thighs, and buttocks, which can cause swelling and pain.
10. Pemphigus: This is a group of rare autoimmune disorders that affect the skin and mucous membranes, leading to blistering and scarring.
Treatment for lymphatic diseases depends on the specific condition and may include compression garments, exercises, and manual lymph drainage therapy. In some cases, medications such as antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Surgery may also be necessary in some cases to remove blockages or repair damaged vessels.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent swelling or pain, as these can be signs of a lymphatic disease. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
* Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL): This is a rare type of T-cell lymphoma that can develop in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs.
* Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL): This is a type of PTCL that affects the skin and can cause lesions, rashes, and other skin changes.
* Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL): This is a rare subtype of PTCL that can develop in the lymph nodes, spleen, or bone marrow.
* Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL): This is a rare and aggressive subtype of PTCL that is caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1).
Symptoms of T-cell lymphoma can include:
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Skin lesions or rashes
Treatment options for T-cell lymphoma depend on the subtype and stage of the cancer, but may include:
* Radiation therapy
* Targeted therapy
Prognosis for T-cell lymphoma varies depending on the subtype and stage of the cancer, but in general, the prognosis for PTCL is poorer than for other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, with prompt and appropriate treatment, many people with T-cell lymphoma can achieve long-term remission or even be cured.
The symptoms of T-cell leukemia can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but they may include:
* Frequent infections
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the bones or joints
* Confusion or seizures (in severe cases)
T-cell leukemia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to kill cancer cells and restore the body's normal production of blood cells. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.
The prognosis for T-cell leukemia varies depending on the patient's age and overall health, as well as the aggressiveness of the disease. However, with current treatments, the 5-year survival rate is around 70% for children and adolescents, and around 40% for adults.
It's important to note that T-cell leukemia is relatively rare compared to other types of leukemia, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, it can be a very aggressive and difficult-to-treat form of cancer, and patients with T-cell leukemia often require intensive treatment and close follow-up care.
Mast cell sarcoma is most commonly seen in the skin, but it can also arise in other parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, or gastrointestinal tract. The tumors are usually large, irregularly shaped masses that can be firm or soft to the touch. They may ulcerate and bleed easily, leading to swelling and discomfort.
The symptoms of mast cell sarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. They may include:
* A lump or mass that may be painless or tender to the touch
* Swelling in the affected area
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Night sweats
Mast cell sarcoma is rare and accounts for only about 1-2% of all skin tumors. It is more common in dogs than cats and tends to affect older animals. The exact cause of mast cell sarcoma is not known, but genetic factors and environmental triggers may play a role.
Treatment options for mast cell sarcoma depend on the location and stage of the tumor. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove the tumor and any affected tissue. Additional therapies such as radiation, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy may be recommended based on the severity of the disease and the patient's overall health.
Prognosis for mast cell sarcoma varies depending on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the effectiveness of treatment, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is guarded and early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes. With prompt and appropriate therapy, some patients with mast cell sarcoma can achieve long-term remission or even cure. However, in advanced cases or those that are resistant to treatment, the prognosis may be poorer.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
Granulomas are formed in response to the presence of a foreign substance or an infection, and they serve as a protective barrier to prevent the spread of the infection and to isolate the offending agent. The granuloma is characterized by a central area of necrosis, surrounded by a ring of immune cells, including macrophages and T-lymphocytes.
Granulomas are commonly seen in a variety of inflammatory conditions, such as tuberculosis, leprosy, and sarcoidosis. They can also occur as a result of infections, such as bacterial or fungal infections, and in the context of autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
In summary, granuloma is a term used to describe a type of inflammatory lesion that is formed in response to the presence of a foreign substance or an infection, and serves as a protective barrier to prevent the spread of the infection and to isolate the offending agent.
There are several subtypes of lymphoma, B-cell, including:
1. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): This is the most common type of B-cell lymphoma and typically affects older adults.
2. Follicular lymphoma: This type of lymphoma grows slowly and often does not require treatment for several years.
3. Marginal zone lymphoma: This type of lymphoma develops in the marginal zone of the spleen or other lymphoid tissues.
4. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of B-cell lymphoma that is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, which are abnormal cells that can be identified under a microscope.
The symptoms of lymphoma, B-cell can vary depending on the subtype and the location of the tumor. Common symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.
Treatment for lymphoma, B-cell usually involves chemotherapy, which is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy may also be used in some cases. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be recommended.
Prognosis for lymphoma, B-cell depends on the subtype and the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. In general, the prognosis is good for patients with early-stage disease, but the cancer can be more difficult to treat if it has spread to other parts of the body.
Prevention of lymphoma, B-cell is not possible, as the exact cause of the disease is not known. However, avoiding exposure to certain risk factors, such as viral infections and pesticides, may help reduce the risk of developing the disease. Early detection and treatment can also improve outcomes for patients with lymphoma, B-cell.
Lymphoma, B-cell is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can be treated with chemotherapy and other therapies. The prognosis varies depending on the subtype and stage of the disease at diagnosis. Prevention is not possible, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
Also known as Burkitt's Lymphoma.
Splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes
Tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes
Lymphocyte homing receptor
Lymphocyte expansion molecule
Variable lymphocyte receptor
Peripheral blood lymphocyte
Mixed lymphocyte reaction
Donor lymphocyte infusion
Bare lymphocyte syndrome
Lymphocyte antigen 96
Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2
Lymphocyte function-associated antigen
Lymphocyte T-cell immunomodulator
Antibodies from lymphocyte secretions
Lymphocyte-activation gene 3
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio
Bare lymphocyte syndrome type II
Signalling lymphocyte activation molecule family
Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1
Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma
Type 3 innate lymphoid cells
Cytotoxic T cell
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- While the mobilisation of cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets (NK cells, CD8+ T-cells γδ T-cells), tended to be larger in response to exercise following DS, their enhanced egress at 1 h post-exercise was more marked. (napier.ac.uk)
- Lymphocyte subsets in Chediak-Higashi patients. (duke.edu)
- Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were studied in 6 Chediak-Higashi patients and 12 family members. (duke.edu)
- The lymphocyte subsets were characterized by monoclonal antibody reagents and fluorescence flow-cytometry. (duke.edu)
- No correlation was seen between the clinical status (presence or absence of the lymphoproliferative phase) and the percentage of the lymphocyte subsets. (duke.edu)
- In the present study, we examined whole lymphocyte subsets and signal transduction proteins using high-dimensional single-cell mass cytometry and a bioinformatics pipeline for an in-depth characterization of the immune cell subsets and protein profiles involved in pathways in the peripheral blood of patients with PS. (jci.org)
- The use of single-cell mass cytometry allows systemic-level characterization of lymphocyte subpopulations and dysregulated signaling pathways in the blood of patients with PS, identifying abnormalities of different immune cell subsets. (jci.org)
- Experience in flow cytometric determination of T-lymphocyte subsets as prognostic markers in HIV-1 infected individuals. (bvsalud.org)
- The percentage of CD4+ T-lymphocytes among total lymphocytes and the percentages of other lymphocyte subpopulations (e.g. (cdc.gov)
- To examine the effects of exposure to manganese (Mn) on the cellular and humoral immune system in men, T lymphocyte subpopulations, B (CD19+) lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and serum immunoglobulins (i.e. (cdc.gov)
- 2012). 'The association between the recurrence of solitary nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes', Croatian Medical Journal , 53(6), pp. 598-604. (srce.hr)
- Krpina K, Babarović E, Đorđević G, Fučkar Ž, Jonjić N. The association between the recurrence of solitary nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. (srce.hr)
- Results Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were predominantly observed within cancer stroma, and only rare individual cells were observed intraepithelially. (srce.hr)
Primary T lymphocytes2
- Therefore, a Myc-dependent global metabolic transcriptome drives metabolic reprogramming in activated, primary T lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
- To understand the mechanisms underlined in this regulation in normal human cells, we have analysed in vivo protein-DNA interactions at the Cyclin A locus in primary T lymphocytes. (cnrs.fr)
- BACKGROUND Clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements and loss of T cell antigens such as CD8 and TCR-β in intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) may indicate the development of an enteropathy-type intestinal T cell lymphoma (EITCL) in patients with refractory sprue. (bmj.com)
- Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) expressing the γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) provide surveillance of the intestinal mucosa at steady-state, which is regulated, in part, by CD103. (listlabs.com)
Helper T cel3
- They're also called CD4 T lymphocytes or "helper T cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- HIV infection is characterized by a decrease and, eventually, a depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells). (cdc.gov)
- Using immunophenotyping, HIV-positive blood samples and age-matched controls were tested for the proportion of lymphocytes that are T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells (helper T cells), and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells). (cdc.gov)
- Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma is an uncommon form of Hodgkin's lymphoma . (knowcancer.com)
- Lymphoma is cancer of the lymphocytes, a type of cell in the immune system. (knowcancer.com)
- Certain features of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma distinguish it from other types of lymphoma. (knowcancer.com)
- Approximately 8,000 Americans are diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma each year and about 5-10% of those are nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma cases. (knowcancer.com)
- In approximately 3% of these cases the nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma goes beyond the lymph nodes and metastasizes into the bone marrow. (knowcancer.com)
- The main symptom of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma is enlarged lymph nodes. (knowcancer.com)
- The cells of Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma spread in an orderly fashion from one lymph node to another. (knowcancer.com)
- A combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally used to treat nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. (knowcancer.com)
- Since nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma is often detected and diagnosed in the early stages prognosis is very good. (knowcancer.com)
- A 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan revealed unexpected activity in the heart, lungs, and mild generalized lymphadenopathy that led to the diagnosis of lymphoma of granular lymphocytes after nonspecific findings on imaging with standard modalities of echocardiography, thoracic radiography, and abdominal ultrasound. (avmi.net)
- Immune recognition of tumor targets by specific cytotoxic lymphocytes is essential for the effective rejection of tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- CD8+ T-lymphocytes) are generally measured by flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) (also called immunophenotyping by flow cytometry (2), T-lymphocyte immunophenotyping (3), and fluorescence-activated cell sorting). (cdc.gov)
- Lymphocyte Activation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Lymphocyte Activation" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Lymphocyte Activation" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Lymphocyte Activation" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) - Cluster of differentiation 80 or CD80 or B7-1 is a protein found on dendritic cells, activated B cells and monocytes. (researchandmarkets.com)
- T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) pipeline Target constitutes close to 10 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
- The latest report T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 - Pipeline Review, H2 2018, outlays comprehensive information on the T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
- It also reviews key players involved in T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
- A phase I clinical trial of ipilimumab (an antibody that blocks CTLA-4 function) in combination with bevacizumab (an antibody that inhibits angiogenesis) in patients with metastatic melanoma found favorable clinical outcomes were associated with increased tumor endothelial activation and lymphocyte infiltration. (aacrjournals.org)
- The rapid activation of AMPK in response to Ca 2+ signaling in T lymphocytes thus reveals that TCR triggering is linked to an evolutionally conserved serine kinase that regulates energy metabolism. (rupress.org)
- During T lymphocyte activation, triggering of the TCR stimulates phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to generate inositol-1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) and polyunsaturated diacylglycerol (DAG). (rupress.org)
- Lymphocyte egress from thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs is dependent on S1P receptor 1," Nature , 427:355-60, 2004. (the-scientist.com)
- Lymphocytes obtained from fresh blood of patients suffering from chronic lymphatic leukemia have a lower intracellular potential than normal lymphocytes. (karger.com)
- Lymphocytes, in particular, undergo massive and apparently unregulated apoptosis in human patients and laboratory animals with sepsis, potentially playing a major role in the severe immunosuppression that characterizes the terminal phase of fatal illness. (cdc.gov)
- undertaken from July 15th, 2017 to March 15th, 2018.The multicentrique de cohorte prospective a inclus des Glasgow Coma Scale helped to determine the severety of the patients consécutifs admis en phase aiguë d AVC, disease at admission. (who.int)
- More than half of critically des patients avec AVC en phase aiguë présentent ill patients exhibit admission hyperglycemia with age, severity of stroke and known diabetes as its main associated principaux facteurs de risque a risk factors. (who.int)
- The present study aimed to evaluate the role of subtypes of B lymphocytes and related cytokines in the infarcted mass and left ventricular ejection fraction obtained by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed after 30 days of STEMI. (portlandpress.com)
- We examined the effects of a disrupted night sleep on the exercise-induced redeployment of lymphocytes and their subtypes. (napier.ac.uk)
- Lymphocytes and their subtypes were enumerated using direct immunofluorescence assays and 4-colour flow cytometry. (napier.ac.uk)
- Stimulation of purified T lymphocytes by a combination of monoclonal antibodies directed at CD2 and CD28 adhesion molecules gives rise to a long lasting proliferation in the absence of accessory cells. (cnrs.fr)
- Lymphocytes require the receptor to recirculate in the periphery and demonstrate a chemotactic response to S1P, which is found in high levels in. (the-scientist.com)
- Mature lymphocytes recirculate via blood and lymph through lymphoid tissues in a relatively quiescent state until stimulated to proliferate during, for example, a bacterial or viral infection. (who.int)
- Our findings indicate that short-term changes in sleep architecture may 'prime' the immune system and cause minor enhancements in lymphocyte trafficking in response to acute dynamic exercise. (napier.ac.uk)
- This study shows that human and mouse T lymphocytes express AMPKα1 and that this is rapidly activated in response to triggering of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). (rupress.org)
- These experiments reveal two distinct pathways for the regulation of AMPK in T lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
- Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. (harvard.edu)
- Indeed, it was not until the pioneering work of Eric Newsholme's laboratory in the 1980's that it was established that immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages could utilize glutamine at high rates in addition to glucose (3,4). (who.int)
- These B1 cells were associated with CD4+ T lymphocytes at D1 and D30, while B2 classic lymphocytes at day 30 were related to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). (portlandpress.com)
- DS was associated with elevated concentrations of total lymphocytes and CD3−/CD56+ NK-cells. (napier.ac.uk)
- B lymphocytes transdifferentiate into immunosuppressive erythroblast-like cells. (bvsalud.org)
- One physiologic process that characterizes several severe infections is a massive loss of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, gastrointestial epithelial cells, and other cell types through apoptosis, or programmed cell death. (cdc.gov)
- By impairing the development of adaptive immune responses needed for recovery, the apoptotic destruction of lymphocytes and dendritic cells could have a particularly adverse effect on disease outcome. (cdc.gov)
- Data are then presented that indicate that a marked die-off of lymphocytes also occurs in Ebola hemorrhagic fever, anthrax, and plague, which suggests that unregulated apoptosis of these cells is a component of many, and perhaps all, severe infectious processes and may contribute to high case fatality rates by impairing adaptive immune function. (cdc.gov)
- Lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils play an important role in the immune and inflammatory response. (who.int)
- The metabolic fate of glutamine in lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils will be discussed in the present paper. (who.int)
- He and colleagues at the University of California San Francisco found a clue to lymphocyte escape, both from the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, in an immunosuppressant drug, FTY720. (the-scientist.com)
- The rapid redeployment of lymphocytes between the blood and tissues is an archetypal feature of the acute stress response, but it is not known if short-term perturbations in sleep architecture affect lymphocyte redeployment. (napier.ac.uk)
- T lymphocytes from mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites eliminate malaria from hepatocytes. (who.int)
- According to our study, it appears that a subset of these CD45+ EPCs originate from B lymphocytes . (bvsalud.org)
- The pathogenesis of disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is largely attributable to the decrease in T-lymphocytes bearing the CD4 cell-surface molecule (CD4+ T-lymphocytes) (1). (cdc.gov)
- Eric Newsholme's laboratory was the first to show glutamine utilization by lymphocytes and macrophages. (who.int)
- IgG, IgA and IgM) together with total T (CD3+) lymphocytes and total lymphocytes were measured in blood samples from 21 welders mainly exposed to Mn fume with blood Mn (BMn) concentrations of 0.6-2.3 (mean 1.4) µg/dl and 21 healthy controls working in the same factory (BMn concentrations: 0.7 to 1.7, mean 1.1 µg/dl). (cdc.gov)
- After adjusting for age and smoking, significant inverse correlations between BMn concentrations and CD4+CD45RA+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, CD3+ T, and total lymphocytes were found. (cdc.gov)
- The Cambridge Biotech HIV-1 Western Blot Kit is manufactured by Calypte Corporation from HIV-I propagated in an H9/HTLV-IIIb T-lymphocyte cell line. (cdc.gov)
- Prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis, through either genetic modification of the host or treatment with specific inhibitors, markedly improves survival in murine sepsis models. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, the Social Security Administration uses the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count as part of the criteria for determining disability in persons with HIV-related illness (8). (cdc.gov)
- It was surprising to find lymphocytes responding "to a circulatory lipid, rather than protein cues," says Cyster. (the-scientist.com)
- Compared to normal lymphocytes, the intracellular potential in leukemic lymphocytes behaves differently in environments with a changing concentration of K and Cl ions. (karger.com)
- However, the whole lymphocyte compartment and the potential pathologies of PS have not been fully characterized. (jci.org)
- This amino acid has been shown to play a role in lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production by lymphocytes and macrophages and phagocytosis and superoxide production by macrophages and neutrophils. (who.int)
- the numbers of CD8+ T lymphocytes were significantly lower in moderate-BMn group compared to low-BMn group. (cdc.gov)
- We begin this article by summarizing evidence that a massive apoptotic loss of lymphocytes takes place in humans during the course of septic shock and describing similar findings in animal models of sepsis. (cdc.gov)
- Enumeration of CD4+ lymphocytes in HIV-positive participants and age-matched controls was performed on cryopreserved whole blood using the method reported by Fiebig et. (cdc.gov)