Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CKiller Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Cell SeparationCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Lymphocytes, Null: A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.ThymidineMice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Immunologic Capping: An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred C3HMice, Inbred CBAImmunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Graft vs Host Reaction: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Rats, Inbred LewMicronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Mice, Inbred DBANeutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Chromium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (1/16065)Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF. (+info)
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (2/16065)Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), the enzyme schematically next to adenosine deaminase in the purine salvage pathway, has been demonstrated cytochemically in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy subjects and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. The enzyme activity is confined to the cytosol. In healthy subjects the majority of lymphocytes are strongly reactive for PNP, whereas the rest are devoid of cytochemically demonstrable activity. The percentage of PNP-positive cells largely corresponds to the number of E rosette-forming cells and is inversely proportional to the number of Ig-bearing cells. In six of seven CLL patients studied only a minor percentage of the lymphocytes showed strong PNP activity, whereas the large majority (88%--98%) possessed trace activity. Such patients have a high number of Ig-bearing cells and a low number of E rosette-forming cells. A different pattern of markers was found in the lymphocytes of the seventh CLL patient: 66% were strongly reactive for PNP, an important number formed E rosettes, and a minor percentage were Ig bearing. These data indicate that PNP can be useful as a "nonmembrane" marker in the differentiation of the B and T cell origin in CLL and deserves to be studied in other lymphoproliferative disorders. (+info)
Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (3/16065)We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen. (+info)
alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (4/16065)We investigated the expression of alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes in intact human peripheral blood lymphocytes using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and radioligand binding assay techniques combined with antibodies against the three subtypes of alpha1-adrenergic receptors (alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D). RT-PCR amplified in peripheral blood lymphocytes a 348-bp alpha1A-adrenergic receptor fragment, a 689-bp alpha1B-adrenergic receptor fragment, and a 540-bp alpha1D-adrenergic receptor fragment. Radioligand binding assay with [3H]prazosin as radioligand revealed a high-affinity binding with a dissociation constant value of 0. 65+/-0.05 nmol/L and a maximum density of binding sites of 175. 3+/-20.5 fmol/10(6) cells. The pharmacological profile of [3H]prazosin binding to human peripheral blood lymphocytes was consistent with the labeling of alpha1-adrenergic receptors. Antibodies against alpha1A-, alpha1B-, and alpha1D-receptor subtypes decreased [3H]prazosin binding to a different extent. This indicates that human peripheral blood lymphocytes express the three alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes. Of the three different alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes, the alpha1B is the most represented and the alpha1D, the least. Future studies should clarify the functional relevance of alpha1-adrenergic receptors expressed by peripheral blood lymphocytes. The identification of these sites may represent a step for evaluating whether they represent a marker of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in cardiovascular disorders or for assessing responses to drug treatment on these receptors. (+info)
In vitro induction of activation-induced cell death in lymphocytes from chronic periodontal lesions by exogenous Fas ligand. (5/16065)Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which gradually destroys the supporting tissues of the teeth, leading to tooth loss in adults. The lesions are characterized by a persistence of inflammatory cells in gingival and periodontal connective tissues. To understand what mechanisms are involved in the establishment of chronic lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating lymphocytes might be resistant to apoptosis. However, both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were weakly detected in lymphocytes from the lesions, compared with those from peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are susceptible to apoptosis. Nevertheless, very few apoptotic cells were observed in tissue sections from the lesions. Lymphocytes from the lesions expressed mRNA encoding Fas, whereas Fas-ligand mRNA was very weakly expressed in lymphocytes from the lesions and in periodontal tissues. Since the results indicated that lymphocytes in the lesions might be susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis but lack the death signal, we next investigated if these lymphocytes actually undergo apoptosis by the addition of anti-Fas antibodies in vitro. Fas-positive lymphocytes from the lesions underwent apoptosis by these antibodies, but Fas-negative lymphocytes and Fas-positive peripheral lymphocytes did not undergo apoptosis by these antibodies. These results indicate that lymphocytes in the lesions are susceptible to activation-induced cell death and are induced to die by apoptosis after the addition of exogenous Fas ligand. (+info)
Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (6/16065)Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7. (+info)
67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression in patients with lymphoma. (7/16065)Lym-1, a monoclonal antibody that preferentially targets malignant lymphocytes, has induced therapeutic responses and prolonged survival in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma when labeled with 1311. Radiometal-labeled antibodies provide higher tumor radiation doses than corresponding 1311 antibodies. 67Cu has an exceptional combination of properties desirable for radioimmunotherapy, including gamma and beta emissions for imaging and therapy, respectively, a biocompatible half-time and absence of pathways contributing to myelotoxicity. The radioimmunoconjugate, 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1, has been shown to be efficacious in nude mice bearing human Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) xenografts. Based on these results, a clinical study of the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in patients with lymphoma was initiated. METHODS: Eleven patients with advanced stage 3 or 4 lymphoma were given a preload dose of unmodified Lym-1, then an imaging dose of 126-533 MBq (3.4-14.4 mCi) 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1. Total Lym-1 ranged from 25 to 70 mg dependent on the specific activity of the radioimmunoconjugate and was infused at a rate of 0.5-1 mg/min. Imaging, physical examination, including caliper measurement of superficial tumors, and analysis of blood, urine and fecal samples were performed for a period of 6-13 d after infusion to assess pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression. RESULTS: In 7 patients, in whom superficial tumors had been accurately measured, tumors regressed from 18% to 75% (mean 48%) within several days of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 infusion. The uptake and biological half-time of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in tumors were greater than those of normal tissues, except the mean liver half-time exceeded the mean tumor half-time. The mean tumor-to-marrow radiation ratio was 32:1, tumor-to-total body was 24:1 and tumor-to-liver was 1.5:1. Images were of very good quality; tumors and normal organs were readily identified. Mild and transient Lym-1 toxicity occurred in 6 patients; 1 patient developed a human antimouse antibody. There were no significant changes in blood counts or serum chemistries indicative of radiation toxicity. CONCLUSION: Because of the long residence time of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in tumors, high therapeutic ratios were achieved and, remarkably, numerous tumor regressions were observed after imaging doses. The results indicate considerable therapeutic potential for 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1. (+info)
Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus. (8/16065)The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells. (+info)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: evidence for a functionally distinct receptor on human lymphocytes.<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. T2 - evidence for a functionally distinct receptor on human lymphocytes.. AU - Richman, David P. AU - Arnason, B. G.. PY - 1979/9. Y1 - 1979/9. N2 - The presence of three distinct cholinergic receptors on human lymphocytes was suggested by the effects of carbamoylcholine on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. The cells responded to both 0.1 nM and 1 microM carbamoylcholine by increased proliferation which was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. This effect occurred in both mitogen-stimulated cells (maximum effect at 24 hr) and nonstimulated cells (maximum effect at 72 hr). In contrast, 1--10 nM carbamoylcholine produced diminished in vitro proliferation, an effect which was blocked by the nicotinic antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine.. AB - The presence of three distinct cholinergic receptors on human lymphocytes was suggested by the effects of carbamoylcholine on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. The cells responded to ...
Are neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio reliable | TCRM
Are neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio reliable parameters as prognostic indicators in malignant mesothelioma? Seda Tural Onur,1 Sinem Nedime Sokucu,1 Levent Dalar,2 Sinem Iliaz,1 Kaan Kara,1 Songül Buyukkale,3 Sedat Altin1 1Department of Chest Diseases, Yedikule Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Bilim University, 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Yedikule Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive asbestos-related pleural tumor. The incidence is increasing with intensive use of asbestos in developing countries. We need an easily accessible, inexpensive, and reliable method for determining the low survival time prognosis of this tumor. The aim of our study was to investigate the viability of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as prognostic
Diagnostic value of platelet/lymphocyte ratio and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in investigations for helicobacter pylori...
Helicobacter pylori (HP) can cause many diseases and malignant conditions. In the stomach, HP causes mucosal injury and inflammation. We determined the association of the platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with HP-positive and HP-negative gastritis severity. We retrospectively reviewed 234 patients who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for the investigation of dyspepsia and reflux symptoms. The patients were divided into three groups according to the results of the histopathologic evaluation: HP-negative gastritis group, HP-positive gastritis group and control group (neither HP positivity nor gastritis). We routinely collected laboratory data, including complete blood count, from all the patients. The mean neutrophil count was higher and the mean lymphocyte count was lower in the HP-positive gastritis group than in the other groups. The mean platelet count was increased in all groups, but the lowest increase was seen in the HP-positive gastritis ...
Reactive lymphocyte - Wikipedia
Reactive lymphocytes or variant lymphocytes are cytotoxic (CD8+) lymphocytes that become large as a result of antigen stimulation. Typically, they can be more than 30 µm in diameter with varying size and shape. The nucleus of a reactive lymphocyte can be round, elliptic, indented, cleft, or folded. The cytoplasm is often abundant and can be basophilic. Vacuoles and/or azurophilic granules are also sometimes present. Most often, the cytoplasm is gray, pale blue, or deep blue in colour. The distinctive cell associated with EBV or CMV is known as a "Downey cell", after Hal Downey, who contributed to the characterization of it in 1923. Reactive lymphocytes are usually associated with viral illnesses, but they can also be present as a result of drug reactions (such as phenytoin), immunizations, radiation, and hormonal causes (such as stress and Addisons disease), as well as some autoimmune disorders (such as rheumatoid arthritis). Some pathogen-related causes include: Epstein-Barr virus ...
Investigation of K<sup>+</sup> channel expression in human peripheral lymphocytes of healthy donors by means of flow...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigation of K+ channel expression in human peripheral lymphocytes of healthy donors by means of flow cytometry. AU - Krjukova, J.. AU - Osna, N.. AU - Pilmane, M.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Evaluation of different types of K+ channel expression was performed in resting and PHA (phytohemagglutinine)-activated human peripheral lymphocytes (HPL) of healthy donors by means of flow cytometry. In resting peripheral lymphocytes, the application of kaliotoxin (a selective blocker for voltage-dependent K+ (K(V)) channels), K(V) resulted in pronounced depolarization of lymphocyte membrane potential, with further promotion in the presence of thapsigargin (compound discharging Ca(i) from endoplasmic reticulum). In activated HPL, the expression of various types of K+ channels was estimated utilizing cell-cycle analysis data. In contrast to the resting cells, kaliotoxin-induced depolarization of membrane potential in PHA-activated lymphocytes of the G0/G1 phase was not enhanced ...
Genotoxic effects of tacrolimus on human lymphocyte cells. - M...
"Immunological properties of fc receptor on lymphocytes. V. Suppressiv" by T Masuda, M Miyama et al.
Autophagy is the predominant process induced by arsenite in human lymphoblastoid cell lines<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autophagy is the predominant process induced by arsenite in human lymphoblastoid cell lines. AU - Bolt, Alicia M.. AU - Byrd, Randi M.. AU - Klimecki, Walter T.. PY - 2010/5/1. Y1 - 2010/5/1. N2 - Arsenic is a widespread environmental toxicant with a diverse array of molecular targets and associated diseases, making the identification of the critical mechanisms and pathways of arsenic-induced cytotoxicity a challenge. In a variety of experimental models, over a range of arsenic exposure levels, apoptosis is a commonly identified arsenic-induced cytotoxic pathway. Human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) have been used as a model system in arsenic toxicology for many years, but the exact mechanism of arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in LCL is still unknown. We investigated the cytotoxicity of sodium arsenite in LCL 18564 using a set of complementary markers for cell death pathways. Markers indicative of apoptosis (phosphatidylserine externalization, PARP cleavage, and sensitivity to ...
'Comparison of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio According to Degree of Glycemic Control in Children with Recent-onset Type 1 and...
Background: There is a direct relation between C-reactive protein and leukocyte count as indicators of inflammation. The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is the balance between both cells and is considered a marker of low-grade inflammation and an indicator of high risk of cardiovascular events. An elevated NLR is related with type 2 diabetes (T2D), however, even when in type 1 diabetes (T1D) there is an underlying inflammatory process, an elevation of circulating neutrophils isn t observed. NLR is associated with hyperglycemia in adult patients with long-duration T2D. However, reports in pediatric populations with recent-onset type 1 (T1D) and T2D are scarce.. Objective and hypotheses: To evaluate the association between NLR and the degree of glycemic control in pediatric patients with recent-onset T1D and T2D vs healthy controls.. Method: Design: Analytical cross-sectional. Subjects 8 16 years of age were included, with T1D or T2D with diagnosis ≤ 3 months, who, with their guardians, signed ...
The Predictive Value of Total Neutrophil Count and Neutrophil/ Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting In-hospital Mortality and...
"Viscosity of lymphocyte plasma membrane in aging mice and its possible" by B Rivnay, A Globerson et al.
Clinical impact of monocyte distribution width and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for distinguishing COVID-19 and influenza...
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic. Rapidly distinguishing COVID-19 from other respiratory infections is a challenge for first-line health care providers. This retrospective study was conducted at the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Patients who visited the outdoor epidemic prevention screening station for respiratory infection from February 19 to April 30, 2020, were evaluated for blood biomarkers to distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory infections. Monocyte distribution width (MDW) ≥ 20 (odds ratio [OR]: 8.39, p = 0.0110, area under curve [AUC]: 0.703) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) | 3.2 (OR: 4.23, p = 0.0494, AUC: 0.673) could independently distinguish COVID-19 from common upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). Combining MDW ≥ 20 and NLR | 3.2 was more efficient in identifying COVID-19 (AUC: 0.840). Moreover, MDW ≥ 20 and NLR | 5 effectively identified influenza infection (AUC: 0.7055). Thus, MDW and NLR can distinguish COVID-19 from
Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) Platelet-To-Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), and Outcomes With Nivolumab in Pretreated Non-Small...
The prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at different time points in patients with hepatocellular...
Article Metrics] Clinical Value of Postoperative Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Change | CMAR
Differential effects of palmitoleic acid on human lymphocyte proliferation and function | Lipids in Health and Disease | Full...
Palmitoleic acid (PA) is a n-7 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) secreted by adipose tissue and related to decreased insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Evidences have been shown that PA also decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression in cultured macrophages. Although studies have shown that other fatty acids (FAs) modulate several lymphocyte functions, the specific effect of PA on these cells is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible influence of PA on activation and differentiation of human lymphocytes in comparison to oleic acid (OA). Human lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of health men and cultured in the presence of growing concentrations of PA or OA (5 to 200 μM), for 24 h. After that, cells were collected and cytotoxicity evaluated by flow cytometry. Then, we analyzed proliferative capacity in lymphocytes treated with non toxic concentrations of PA and OA (25 and 50 μM, respectively), in the presence or absence of concanavalin A (ConA). The
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio - Wikipedia
In medicine neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is used as a marker of subclinical inflammation. It is calculated by dividing the number of neutrophils by number of lymphocytes, usually from peripheral blood sample, but sometimes also from cells that infiltrate tissue, such as tumor. Higher NLR is independent predictor of mortality in patients undergoing angiography or cardiac revascularization. Increased NLR is associated with poor prognosis of various cancers, such as esophageal cancer or pancreatic cancer. Wang X (Mar 2014). "Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in relation to risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events among patients undergoing angiography or cardiac revascularization : A meta-analysis of observational studies". Atherosclerosis. 234 (1): 206-13. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.03.003. PMID 24681815. Wang J (Jan 2014). "The clinical significance of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and neutrophil-to-CD8+lymphocyte ratio in patients with resectable esophageal squamous ...
Macrophage-lymphocyte interaction. II. Antigen-mediated physical interactions between immune guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes...
The effect of specific antigen on the development of physical interactions between lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) obtained from animals which had been immunized to that antigen and macrophages was examined. We found that the presence of antigen, either limited to the macrophage () or free in the medium, profoundly increased the degree of ) or free in the medium, profoundly increased the degree of Mphi-LNL interaction observed. This enhanced interaction was dependent on the coincidence in the cultures of Mphi bearing antigen and LNL from animals specifically immunized to that antigen. Although antigen-independent interactions developed equally well between syngeneic and allogeneic combinations of lymphocytes and macrophages, antigen mediated interactions required that macrophages and lymphocytes be syngeneic. Prolongation of antigen-mediated Mphi-LNL interactions resulted in the induction of LNL DNA synthesis, initially involving those lymphocytes physically associated with antigen-bearing Mphi. ...
Stable expression of human cytochrome P450IA2 cDNA in a human lymphoblastoid cell line: role of the enzyme in the metabolic...
A human lymphoblastoid cell line stably expressing a human cytochrome P450IA2 cDNA was developed. This recombinant cell line displayed P450IA2 protein and estradiol 2-hydroxylase activity, neither of which was detected in the parental cell line. The recombinant cell line was also approximately 1000- …
Longitudinal characteristics of lymphocyte responses and cytokine profiles in the peripheral blood of SARS-CoV-2 infected...
Novelty: This study describes the kinetic changes in lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profiles and identifies neutrophil-to-CD8+ T cell ratios and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios as prognostic factors for disease severity. Standing in the field: It has been previously shown that lymphopenia and pro-inflammatory cytokine storm are involved in COVID-19 disease. This is the first study to explore the changes in lymphocyte count and pro-inflammatory cytokine number over the course of COVID-19 disease. Appropriate statistics: Yes Viral model used: SARS-CoV-2 Translatability: This study validates the use of neutrophil-to-CD8+ T cell ratio and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as prognostic markers for COVID-19 disease severity. This may be used to allow clinicians to identify infected patients at higher risk of severe COVID-19. Main limitations: Small sample size. The cohort size (40 patients) is too small to draw broad conclusions from, particularly as the severe group is made up of only 13 patients, 3 ...
Lymphocyte CD44 binds the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin. | JCB
The lymphocyte-high endothelial venule (HEV) cell interaction is an essential element of the immune system, as it controls lymphocyte recirculation between blood and lymphoid organs in the body. This interaction involves an 85-95-kD class of lymphocyte surface glycoprotein(s), CD44. A subset of lymphocyte CD44 molecules is modified by covalent linkage to chondroitin sulfate (Jalkanen, S., M. Jalkanen, R. Bargatze, M. Tammi, and E. C. Butcher. 1988. J. Immunol. 141:1615-1623). In this work, we show that removal of chondroitin sulfate by chondroitinase treatment of lymphocytes or incubation of HEV with chondroitin sulfate does not significantly inhibit lymphocyte binding to HEV, suggesting that chondroitin sulfate is not involved in endothelial cell recognition of lymphocytes. Affinity-purified CD44 antigen was, on the other hand, observed to bind native Type I collagen fibrils, laminin, and fibronectin, but not gelatin. Binding to fibronectin was studied more closely, and it was found to be ...
Biological in-vivo measurement of dose distribution in patients' lymphocytes by gamma-H2AX immunofluorescence staining: 3D...
Different radiation-techniques in treating local staged prostate cancer differ in their dose- distribution. Physical phantom measurements indicate that for 3D, less healthy tissue is exposed to a relatively higher dose compared to SSIMRT. The purpose is to substantiate a dose distribution in lymphocytes in-vivo and to discuss the possibility of comparing it to the physical model of total body dose distribution. For each technique (3D and SSIMRT), blood was taken from 20 patients before and 10 min after their first fraction of radiotherapy. The isolated leukocytes were fixed 2 hours after radiation. DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in lymphocytes nuclei were stained immunocytochemically using the gamma-H2AX protein. Gamma-H2AX foci inside each nucleus were counted in 300 irradiated as well as 50 non-irradiated lymphocytes per patient. In addition, lymphocytes of 5 volunteer subjects were irradiated externally at different doses and processed under same conditions as the patients lymphocytes in order to
neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio [Operative Neurosurgery]
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio see Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for subarachnoid hemorrhage. see Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for glioma. see Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for intracerebral hemorrhage. Normal Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio values in an adult, non-geriatric, population in good health are between 0.78 and 3.53. These data may help the researcher as the clinician searching for a cut-off for the NLR, until now lacking
Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort. AU - Gul, Z.. AU - Van Meter, E.. AU - Abidi, M.. AU - Ditah, I.. AU - Abdul-Hussein, M.. AU - Deol, A.. AU - Ayash, L.. AU - Lum, L. G.. AU - Waller, E. K.. AU - Ratanatharathorn, V.. AU - Uberti, J.. AU - Al-Kadhimi, Z.. PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. N2 - Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. ...
Normal Human Lymphocyte And Red Blood Cells In Peripheral Blood Wright Stain Lm X400 Stock Photo | Getty Images
Surface receptor expression on human lymphocytes and ne | Open-i
Illusory DNA breaks in quiescent lymphocytes?<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Illusory DNA breaks in quiescent lymphocytes?. AU - Boerrigter, Michael E.T.I.. AU - Mullaart, Erik. AU - van der Schans, Govert P.. AU - Vijg, Jan. PY - 1990/5. Y1 - 1990/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025241827&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025241827&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0014-4827(90)90269-G. DO - 10.1016/0014-4827(90)90269-G. M3 - Article. C2 - 2328767. AN - SCOPUS:0025241827. VL - 188. JO - Experimental Cell Research. JF - Experimental Cell Research. SN - 0014-4827. IS - 1. ER - ...
Purification of concanavalin A receptor from pig lymphocyte plasma membrane | Biochemical Journal
Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Positively Correlates to Age in Healthy Population. - Semantic Scholar
BACKGROUND Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was reported to be an independent easy-to-measure marker for many diseases, while the distribution of NLR in healthy population was not formally studied. So we investigated NLR in healthy people in this study. METHODS Data include NLR, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and body mass index (BMI), which were collected from 3,262 healthy population. Correlations of NLR with variables were analyzed with SPSS16.0. RESULTS Results demonstrated that NLR was positively associated with age (P | 0.001). The eldest age group possessed the highest NLR and the youngest age group had the lowest NLR. NLR was also slightly positively associated with systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and BMI (P | 0.001). CONCLUSION Older people possessed relatively high NLR in healthy population.
low lymphocytes - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for low lymphocytes
Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is a valuable data to reduce negative laporotomy rates in emergency department | Abstract
Are abnormal lymphocytes normal in blood smear results? - Undiagnosed Symptoms - MedHelp
Classification and Clinical Manifestations of Lymphocyte and Plasma Cell Disorders | Williams Hematology, 9e | AccessHemOnc |...
Lymphocyte and plasma cell disorders can be classified into three major groups (Table 78-1). The first group, listed under "primary disorders," is composed of lymphocyte disorders caused by intrinsic defects in lymphoid cells that result in functional abnormalities of marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes, thymic-derived (T) lymphocytes, combined T and B (impaired humoral and cellular immunity), or natural killer (NK) cells. These disorders primarily result from inborn errors in lymphocyte metabolism (Chaps. 73 to 77 and 80) and/or receptor-ligand expression (Chaps. 17 and 80). The second group, listed under "acquired disorders," consists of disorders caused by factors extrinsic to lymphocytes resulting in immune dysfunction. These conditions most commonly result from infection with viruses, or other cellular pathogens (Chaps. 79, 81, and 82), but they also may be caused by bacteria, drugs or systemic disease of nonlymphoid cells. The third group of diseases is composed of preneoplastic and neoplastic ...
Two small lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. II. Functional characterization in vitro - Forskning - Aarhus...
Two small lymphocyte subpopulations from human peripheral blood were produced by rosette sedimentation procedures, and tested for in vitro functions by stimulation with mitogens, PPD and allogeneic lymphocytes, and for effector capacities in ADCC. The non-T, non-Fc subpopulation had previously been found to be a SmIg+ fraction which did not aquire new surface markers during unstimulated culture, did not respond to mitogens, PPD or allogeneic cells but were potent MLC stimulators. In addition, they were poor ADCC effector cells. The non-T, non-B (Null) cells, which showed varying surface marker profiles from donor to donor, were able to respond to mitogens and PPD, but were weak MLC responders. Potent ADCC effector capacity was, however, found to be exhibited by this subpopulation. ...
Reconstitution of circulating lymphocyte counts in FTY720-treated MS patients - MS Society of Canada
FTY720 (Fingolimod) reduces multiple sclerosis disease activity by inducing lymphopenia and inhibiting lymphocyte re-entry from lymph nodes. Peripheral lymphocyte reconstitution following drug discontinuation has been considered relatively rapid (2-4weeks), based on short-term studies. Authors investigated the kinetics of lymphocyte reconstitution in MS patients in open label extension phases of FTY720 clinical trials who discontinued therapy after prolonged use (,1-5years), and examined histological features of a mediastinal lymph node obtained from a lymphopenic FTY720 patient. Although three patients showed reconstitution of peripheral lymphocytes within the predicted timeline, two patients continued to be lymphopenic 9 and 34months after therapy cessation. Lymph nodes from the latter patient showed preserved architecture. Notwithstanding preserved lymph node integrity, time for lymphocyte reconstitution after prolonged FTY720 therapy can be significantly greater than predicted by ...
Frontiers | NFAT2 Regulates Generation of Innate-Like CD8+ T Lymphocytes and CD8+ T Lymphocytes Responses | Immunology
NFAT2 null mutant mice die in utero of cardiac failure, precluding analysis of the role of NFAT2 in lymphocyte responses. Only the NFAT2-/-/Rag-1-/- chimeric mice model gave insight into the role of NFAT2 transcription factor in T lymphocyte development, activation and differentiation. As reports are mainly focused on the role of NFAT2 in CD4+ T lymphocytes activation and differentiation, we decided to investigate NFAT2s impact on CD8+ T lymphocytes responses. We report that NFAT2 is phosphorylated and inactive in the cytoplasm of naive CD8+ T cells, and upon TCR stimulation is dephosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus. To study the role of NFAT2 in CD8+ T responses we employed NFAT2fl/flCD4-Cre mice with NFAT2 deletion specifically in T cells. Interestingly, the absence of NFAT2 in T cells resulted in increased percentage of nonconventional innate-like CD8+ T cells. These cells were CD122+, rapid producer of IFN-γ and had characteristics of conventional memory CD8+ T cells. We also observed
Aging | Combination of lymphocyte number and function in evaluating host immunity - Figure
Accurate monitoring of host immunity is hampered by the flaws of conventional tests. The relationship between lymphocyte number and function is unknown. The function of lymphocytes was analyzed based on IFN-γ secretion assay. Lymphocyte number and function was investigated in individuals under various states. The number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was gradually decreased, whereas the function of them was gradually increased with increasing age. A significantly negative correlation existed between the number and function of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Differently, both the number and function of NK cells are maintained at a high level after birth. Staying up all night was found to impair the function of CD4+, CD8+ T cells, or NK cells. Lymphocyte number and function were both decreased in patients with immunosuppressive conditions or opportunistic infections, while the opposite phenomenon was observed in patients with some autoimmune
Lymphocyte surface modulation and cyclic nucleotides I. Topographic correlation of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate and...
The cross-linking of human peripheral lymphocyte surface Ig results in an early association of cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate (cAMP) and the cell surface Ig patches. Examination of the subsequent stages of cap formation reveals the continued relationship of cAMP and the clustered surface Ig. In addition, the generalized influx of calcium produced by the ionophore A-23187 disrupts human lymphocyte caps. During the process of cap dissolution cAMP is still associated with surface Ig. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the localized concentration of cyclic nucleotide and calcium ion regulates the movement of cell surface constituents by coordinating the function of the cells contractile and structural elements. ...
Frontiers | A Mucosal and Cutaneous Chemokine Ligand for the Lymphocyte Chemoattractant Receptor GPR15 | Immunology
Chemoattractants control lymphocyte recruitment from the blood, contributing to the systemic organization of the immune system. The G protein-linked receptor GPR15 mediates lymphocyte homing to the large intestines and skin. Here we show that the 9 kDa CC-motif containing cationic polypeptide AP57/colon-derived SUSD2 binding factor (CSBF), encoded by C10orf99 in the human and 2610528A11Rik in the mouse, functions as a chemokine ligand for GPR15 (GPR15L). GPR15L binds GPR15 and attracts GPR15-expressing T cells including lymphocytes in colon draining lymph nodes and Vγ3+ thymic precursors of dermal epithelial T cells. Patterns of GPR15L expression by epithelial cells in adult mice and humans suggest a homeostatic role for the chemokine in lymphocyte localization to the large intestines, as well as a role in homing to the epidermis during wound healing or inflammation. GPR15L is also significantly expressed in squamous mucosa of the oral cavity and esophagus with still poorly defined regulation.
In vitro activation of HIV RNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a marker to predict the stability of non...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activation of HIV RNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a marker to predict the stability of non-progressive status in long-term survivors. AU - Garbuglia, Anna R.. AU - Salvi, Roberto. AU - Di Caro, Antonino. AU - Cappiello, Giuseppina. AU - Montella, Francesco. AU - Di Sora, Fiorella. AU - Recchia, Olga. AU - Lauria, Filippo. AU - Benedetto, Arrigo. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Objectives: We investigated a selected group of 11 non-progressor, HIV-infected individuals 20 months prior to this study and found that they all had undetectable levels of viral RNA expression in their peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of PBL produced easily detectable amounts of HIV RNA in only two out of five of these patients. Here we report the results of the virological and clinical follow-up of nine non-progressors from this group. We verified the stability of their non-progressive status and ...
Autoimmunity Including Intestinal Behçet Disease Bearing the KRAS Mutation in Lymphocytes: A Case Report | Case Reports |...
We experienced a case exhibiting various autoimmune disorders. The percentage of double negative T cells (2.75% of TCRαβ+ T lymphocytes; 2.18% of total lymphocytes) met the diagnostic criteria for ALPS (ie, more than 2.5% of TCRαβ+ lymphocytes and 1.5% of total lymphocytes, respectively). The patients serum levels of IgG (1018 mg/dL), IgM (63 mg/dL), IgA (81 mg/dL), vitamin B12 (309 pg/mL; normal range, 233-914), soluble FASL (449.82 pg/mL; normal range, 451.6 ± 35.7), and interleukin (IL)-10 (6.49 pg/mL; normal range, 8.6 ± 9.6) were not elevated. However, there was a modest elevation in the patients IL-18 level (520.0 pg/mL; normal range, 126.0 ± 44.5). The relative proportion of lymphocyte subpopulation was within the normal range (T cells [CD3+CD19−], 73.1%; B cells [CD3−CD19+] 14.7%). Finally, the diagnosis of ALPS was denied, based on the findings of FAS-dependent apoptosis4,9 and mutational screening of FAS and FAS-L were negative. We also conducted genomic sequencing of ...
LYON19- Lymphocyte Detection Test Set | Zenodo
LYON19 The provided test set includes 441 ROIs saved in the .png files, and it is a test set of LYON grand challenge: https://lyon19.grand-challenge.org Data Description The test set contains Region of Interests (ROIs) selected from whole-slide images (WSI) of immunohistochemistry (IHC) stained specimens of breast, colon and prostate. Data came from eight different medical centers in the Netherlands. All slides were stained with an antibody against CD3 or CD8. Slides were subsequently digitized with a Pannoramic 250Flash II scanner (3DHistech, Hungary), resulting in WSIs with a spatial resolution of 0.24μm/px. Selected ROIs were saved with full resolution in the .png files. Selected ROIs were representative for most different types of lymphocyte distributions that occur in slides, namely (1) area with regular lymphocyte distribution, (2) clustered cells, and (3) staining or tissue artifacts. Citation: Please reference the following paper if you use LYON19 data for a scientific publication:
Prognostic value of preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in Crohn's disease | springermedizin.at
Reagents and Methods for Engaging Unique Clonotypic Lymphocyte Receptors
latforms comprising at least one lymphocyte affecting molecule and at least one molecular complex that, when bound to an antigen, engages a unique clonotypic lymphocyte receptor can be used to induce and expand therapeutically useful numbers of specific lymphocyte populations. Antigen presenting platforms comprising a T cell affecting molecule and an antigen presenting complex can induce and expand antigen-specific T cells in the presence of relevant peptides, providing reproducible and economical methods for generating therapeutic numbers of such cells. Antibody inducing platforms comprising a B cell affecting molecule and a molecular complex that engages MHC-antigen complexes on a B cell surface can be used to induce and expand B cells that produce antibodies with particular specificities.
Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in glioblastoma
Are Blood Eosinophilia and Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio Stable Over Time? | AVESİS
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a marker of systemic endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects
DNA-synthetic responses of fractionated human lymphocytes expo...
Lymphocytes - AMA Manual of Style
The normal adult human body contains on the or- der of a trillion (1012) lymphocytes.… Together, the thymus and marrow produce approximately 109 mature lymphocytes each day, which are then released into the circulation. Tristram G. Parslow(pp40-41) Lymphocytes are the cells that carry out antigen-specific immune responses. The 2 main types are the T lymphocyte and the B lymphocyte, also called the T cell and the B cell. A hyphen does not appear in these terms, unless they are used adjectivally. Historically, the letters T and B reflected the anatomic sites of maturation of the 2 groups of cells, the thymus
Inhibition of Macrophage-Lymphocyte Interaction by Cytochalasin B During Antigen Recognition by T Lymphocytes | The Journal of...
The effects of cytochalasin B on functional and physical macrophage-lymphocyte interaction have been examined. Cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of a variety of membrane activities blocks antigen-dependent binding of immune lymphocytes to macrophages and antigen-triggered lymphocytes proliferation if added at the initiation of culture. Cytochalasin B becomes progressively less inhibitory if addition is delayed by increasing intervals from the onset of culture. Under these conditions neither antigen handling by macrophages nor the proliferative response of lymphocytes to PHA is inhibited by cytochalasin B. These data are interpreted to suggest that cytochalasin B inhibits antigen-specific macrophage-lymphocyte interaction either by inhibition of an initial antigen-independent phase of macrophage-lymphocyte interaction or by interfering with a lymphocyte membrane event necessary for the interaction of the antigen-specific lymphocyte receptor with the macrophage-bound antigenic signal.. ...
Roles of the red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in predicting thrombolysis failure in patients with an...
The Comparison of Apache Ii Scores with Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio and Red Cell Distribution Width for the Prediction of...
RePub, Erasmus University Repository: The impact of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio among...
Background: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio may be host factors associated with prognosis. We sought to determine whether neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio were associated with overall survival among patients undergoing surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: Patients who underwent resection for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma between 1990 and 2015 were identified from 12 major centers. Clinicopathologic factors and overall survival were compared among patients stratified by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio. Risk factors identified on multivariable analysis were included in a prognostic model and the discrimination was assessed using Harrells concordance index (C index). Results: A total of 991 patients were identified. Median neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio were 2.7 (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.0-4.0) and 109.6 (IQR: 72.4-158.8), respectively. Preoperative ...
Preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent prognostic marker in patients with laryngeal squamous cell...
Preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent prognostic marker in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The lymphocyte surface. II. Separation of Fc receptor, C'3 receptor and surface immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes |...
A one-step separation procedure is described for both depleting and obtaining in pure form Fc receptor (FcRL), C3 receptor (CRL) and surface immunoglobulin bearing (IgL) lymphocytes from rat lymphoid populations. The method is a modification of the Bӧyum (1968) technique for separating lymphocytes from whole blood by sedimentation on Ficoll/Isopaque, and is based on the fact that when a lymphocyte forms a rosette with sensitized erythrocytes it will sediment with the red cells rather than float with the non-rosetting lymphocytes. The technique is , 99.5% efficient at depleting thoracic duct lymphocytes (TDL) of FcRL, CRL and IgL and these subpopulations can be recovered 93-98% pure. The total recovery of lymphocytes applied is usually , 90% and the separated lymphocytes are , 95% viable. This technique allowed the cellular distribution of Fc receptors, C3 receptors and surface Ig to be determined. It was found that (a) Almost all CRL carry surface Ig, although a very small sub-population of ...
PMAP: SubstrateDB : cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA
cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00059 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00084 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00084 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00008 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA is proteolytically cut by matrix metallopeptidase-3 (M10.005) cleavage... cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA is proteolytically cut by matrix metallopeptidase-1 (M10.001) cleavage... cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA is proteolytically cut by ADAM17 peptidase (M12.217) cleavage. KLDK-SFSM.. ...
Lymphocytes Produce Antibodies Stock Footage | Pond5
DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF CIRCULATING AND PERITONEAL MONONUCLEAR CELLS OF MICE TO TOTAL-BODY X IRRADIATION,
Dose-response curves obtained 1 and 3 days after exposure to total-body X irradiation indicate that the mononuclear cells in the circulating blood and in the peritoneal cavity of LAF sub1 mice may be arranged in the following order of decreasing sensitivity: circulating lymphocytes, small peritoneal lymphocytes, medium peritoneal lymphocytes, peritoneal macrophages. However, on the 3rd day postirradiation, the curve of the small peritoneal lymphocytes closely approached that of the circulating lymphocytes. It is suggested that the greater sensitivity to irradiation of small than of medium peritoneal lymphocytes is not due to environmental factors but to as yet unidentified differences in the cells. On the other hand, the greater loss of circulating lymphocytes than of small peritoneal lymphocytes 1 day after X ray exposure may merely reflect more efficient removal of damaged cells from the circulation than from the peritoneal cavity. (Author)(*LYMPHOCYTES
Novel mechanism for Trypanosoma cruzi-induced suppression of human lymphocytes. Inhibition of IL-2 receptor expression. | The...
Co-culture of blood forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, with human PBMC impaired the capacity of T lymphocytes to express surface receptors for IL-2. This effect was evidenced by marked reductions in both the proportion of Tac+ cells and the density of Tac Ag on the surface of the positive cells, determined by flow cytometry. The extent of the inhibition increased with parasite concentration. Under optimal or suboptimal conditions of stimulation with either PHA or monoclonal anti-CD3, specific for an epitope of the T3-Ti human T cell Ag receptor complex, the presence of T. cruzi curtailed the capacity of T lymphocytes to proliferate and express Il-2R but did not affect IL-2 production. Furthermore, the addition of exogenous IL-2 did not restore the responsiveness of suppressed human lymphocytes but did when mouse lymphocytes were used instead. Therefore, unlike mouse lymphocytes, human lymphocyte suppression by T. cruzi did not involve deficient IL-2 production ...
Activated peripheral CD8 lymphocytes express CD4 in vivo and are targets for infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. ...
There is increasing evidence that CD8 lymphocytes may represent targets for infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vivo whose destruction may contribute to the loss of immune function underlying AIDS. HIV-1 may infect thymic precursor cells destined to become CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes and contribute to the numerical decline in both subsets on disease progression. There is also evidence for the induction of CD4 expression and susceptibility to infection by HIV-1 of CD8 lymphocytes activated in vitro. To investigate the relationship between CD8 activation and infection by HIV-1 in vivo, activated subsets of CD8 lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-seropositive individuals were investigated for CD4 expression and HIV infection. Activated CD8 lymphocytes were identified by expression of CD69, CD71, and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II, the beta-chain of CD8, and the RO isoform of CD45. CD4(+) and CD4(-) CD8 lymphocytes, CD4 lymphocytes, other T cells,
Treatment of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma
Cytoskeletal requirements for lymphocyte entry into the central nervous system
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by immune cell infiltration and damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Therapies that target lymphocyte trafficking in MS patients have shown promise, but current approaches can have major side-effects, caused in part by lack of specificity for homing to the CNS. Therefore, more specific tools to inhibit lymphocyte recruitment to the CNS without affecting systemic trafficking of immune cells are needed for the treatment of MS. Using cutting-edge in vivo multi-photon microscopy to image lymphocyte infiltration into the CNS, this project will test a novel approach aimed at more specifically preventing lymphocyte extravasation into the CNS. Our goal is to determine how the lymphocyte cytoskeleton mediates the steps required for T cell infiltration through the blood-brain barrier and into the CNS during autoimmunity. We hypothesize that lymphocyte extravasation through the specialized CNS vasculature walls relies on transcellular ...
Increased proto-oncogene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other...
Using RNA hybridization techniques, we examined the expression of proto-oncogenes associated with lymphocyte activation in vitro in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. T and B lymphocytes from these patients were found to have significantly increased expression of c-myc, c-myb, and c-raf RNA when compared with those of normal individuals. Among the mononuclear cell subpopulations, B lymphocytes expressed higher levels of RNA for these proto-oncogenes compared with the T lymphocytes. Since prompt expression of these and other proto-oncogenes occurs in fibroblasts and lymphocytes following mitogenic stimulation, we propose that the present findings reflect the pathologically activated state of various lymphocytic subpopulations which is observed in systemic lupus erythematosus and in other autoimmune diseases. Endogenous and exogenous factors which lead to the expression of autoimmunity might share the induction of proto-oncogene expression as a common ...
Lymphocyte - Wikipedia
Mammalian stem cells differentiate into several kinds of blood cell within the bone marrow. This process is called haematopoiesis. All lymphocytes originate, during this process, from a common lymphoid progenitor before differentiating into their distinct lymphocyte types. The differentiation of lymphocytes follows various pathways in a hierarchical fashion as well as in a more plastic fashion. The formation of lymphocytes is known as lymphopoiesis. B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in humans is the GALT, which is thought to be located in the Peyers patches of the intestine, while T cells migrate to and mature in a distinct organ, called the thymus. Following maturation, the lymphocytes enter the circulation and peripheral lymphoid organs (e.g. the spleen and lymph nodes) where they survey for invading pathogens and/or tumor cells. The lymphocytes involved in adaptive immunity (i.e. B and T cells) differentiate further after exposure to an antigen; they form ...
Erythrocytes modulate cell cycle progression but not the baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in pig lymphocytes
La Plata, Argentina. ABSTRACT The effect of co-culturing varying concentrations of pig and human red blood cells (RBCs) on the baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and cell-cycle progression in pig plasma (PLCs) and whole blood leukocyte cultures (WBCs) was studied. No variation in SCE frequency was observed between pig control WBC and PLC. Addition of pig and human RBCs to pig PLCs did not modify the baseline frequency of SCEs. On the other hand, cell proliferation was slower in PLCs than in WBCs. The addition of pig or human RBCs to PLCs accelerated the cell-cycle progression of pig lymphocytes. When RBCs were added to PLCs the concentration and time sequence of RBC incorporation affected the cell-cycle progression of swine lymphocytes. When doses of pig or human RBCs equivalent to those present in WBCs were added immediately after PLC stimulation, the cell-cycle kinetics were similar to those of WBCs. Shorter co-incubation periods or a reduction in the dose of RBCs made ...
Purpose To review the role of the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and | immune-source.com
immune Uncategorized Keratin 7 antibody, purchase Flumazenil 0 Comment Purpose To review the role of the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte:lymphocyte ratio (MLR) in discriminating between different patient groups hospitalized for fever due to contamination and those without contamination. the other bacterial infection groups. Conclusions NLR is usually a more useful diagnostic tool to identify patients with septicemia than other more commonly used diagnostic blood assessments. NLR and MLR may be useful in the diagnosis of bacterial infection among patients hospitalized for fever. One hundred and fifty patients with a diagnosis of bacterial infection supported by microbiology, serology, or radiology of which 69 experienced pneumonia, 30 urinary tract contamination, and 27 experienced septicemia. Fourteen patients with a diagnosis of viral contamination supported by microbiology, serology or radiology. Of these, purchase Flumazenil nine suffered from infectious mononucleosis. ...
Antigen-pulsed neutrophils bearing Ia antigens can induce T lymphocyte proliferative response to the syngeneic or semisyngeneic...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils bearing Ia antigens can induce T lymphocyte proliferative response to the syngeneic or semisyngeneic antigen-primed T lymphocytes. AU - Okuda, K.. AU - Tani, K.. AU - Ishigatsubo, Y.. AU - Yokota, S.. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils from mouse peritoneal cavities displayed a remarkable level of lymphocyte proliferative activities to antigen-primed T lymphocytes. Genetic mapping studies demonstrated that compatibility at the I-A, as well as I-E/C, subregions of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was essential for effective presentation of the lysozyme antigen. These antigen-presenting activities were remarkably inhibited by anti-Ia sera. Inhibition tests revealed that neutrophil immune-associated (Ia) antigens seem to be essential for antigen presentation during the initial 8 hr. Elimination studies of antigen-pulsed neutrophils with alloantisera plus complement revealed these antigen-presenting ...
JCI - Citations to Studies on N5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocystein methyltransferase in normal and leukemia leukocytes.
A cobalamin-dependent N5-methyltetra-hydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (methyl-transferase) was demonstrated in unfractioned extracts of human normal and leukemia leukocytes. Activity was substantially reduced in the absence of an added cobalamin derivative. Presumably, this residual activity reflects the endogeneous level of holoenzyme. Enzyme activity was notably higher in lymphoid cells than in myeloid cells. Thus, mean specific activities (+/-SD) were: chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes, 2.15+/-1.16; normal lymphocytes, 0.91+/-0.59; normal mature granulocytes, 0.15+/-0.10; chronic myelocytic leukemia granulocytes, barely detectable activity. Properties of leukocytes enzymes resembled those of methyltransferases previously studied in bacteria and other animal cells. Granulocytes and chronic myelocytic leukemia cells contain a factor or factors that inhibits Escherichia coli enzyme. The data suggest that the prominence of this cobalamin-dependent enzyme in lymphocytes and other ...
A New Inflammatory Prognostic Index, Based on C-reactive Protein, the Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Serum Albumin is...
Purpose: We aimed to establish an inflammatory prognostic index (IPI) in early and advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients based on hematologic and biochemical parameters and to analyze its predictive value for NSCLC survival. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 685 patients with early and advanced NSCLC diagnosed between 2009 and 2014 was conducted with collection of clinical, and laboratory data. The IPI was calculated as C-reactive protein × NLR (neutrophil/ lymphocyte ratio)/serum albumin. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the prognostic value of relevant factors. Results: The optimal cut-off value of IPI for overall survival (OS) stratification was determined to be 15. Totals of 334 (48.8%) and 351 (51.2%) patients were assigned to high and low IPI groups, respectively. Compared with low IPI, high IPI was associated with older age, greater tumor size, high lymph node involvement, distant metastases, advanced stage and poor performance status.
Transcriptional regulation of Munc13-4 expression in cytotoxic lymphocytes is disrupted by an intronic mutation associated with...
By studying a mutation that causes specific defects in lymphocyte cytotoxicity, we have delineated a critical role for STAT4 in regulating Munc13-4 expression upon cytotoxic lymphocyte differentiation and identified a novel, evolutionarily conserved promoter within intron 1 of UNC13D. The intronic c.118-308C,T mutation causative of FHL3 abolished an ELF1-binding site that is necessary for the recruitment of STAT4 and BRG1 as well as the acquisition of histone marks permissive for transcription. TCR stimulation of naive CD8+ T cells led to robust induction of Munc13-4, STAT4, and BRG1, and knockdown of STAT4 abrogated induction of Munc13-4 expression. Our data show that the UNC13D intronic sequence can act both as an alternative promoter and as a general enhancer, promoting Munc13-4 expression upon cytotoxic lymphocyte differentiation.. A surprising finding from our analysis of lymphocyte subsets was that Munc13-4 expression levels are selectively up-regulated upon cytotoxic lymphocyte ...
Production of MIF-like supernatants by rheumatoid arthritis lymphocytes stimulated by immunoglobulin G. - Semantic Scholar
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), patients with positive tuberculin (PPD) skin-tests and controls were studied. The lymphocytes from these groups were cultured in serum-free medium to obtain cell-free supernatants. These lymphocyte cultures were pre-incubated with the appropriate antigen or reconstituted after removal of the cells. Supernatants from RA lymphocytes stimulated in vitro by IgG induced an inhibition of the leucocyte migration, as well as the supernatants from tuberculin-sensitized lymphocytes. However, supernatants from non-RA lymphocytes or tuberculin-unsensitized lymphocytes did not show such an inhibition. These MIF-like supernatants have been studied by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. A MIF activity has been found for PPD and IgG supernatants between the chymotrypsinogen (MW 23,000) and the lysozyme (MW 17,000). This seems to agree with the classical region where MIF can be usually isolated.
Low lymphocyte count in underweight Japanese women | Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine | Full Text
Young women being underweight is a public health problem in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate this problem by measuring lymphocyte count as an indicator of nutritional status. The subjects were 114 women aged 20-39 who participated in an annual health checkup for residents in a city in Aichi, Japan. Data from a questionnaire, physical examination, and blood tests were analyzed in relation to women who were severely underweight [body mass index (BMI) ≤ 17.5 kg/m2], slightly underweight (17.5 | BMI | 18.5 kg/m2), of normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI | 25 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Lymphocyte count tended to be lower with a decrease in BMI. The prevalence of low lymphocyte count of |1,500/mm3 increased in underweight women. In women who had restricted food intake for weight loss, leukocyte count, and total serum protein, and lymphocyte count were lower. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the association of low lymphocyte count to being severely underweight [odds ratio
Surface proteins of thymus-derived lymphocytes and bone-marrow-derived lymphocytes. Selective isolation of immunoglobulin and...
Accessible surface proteins of thymus-derived lymphocytes (T-cells) of normal CBA mice and bone-marrow-derived lymphocytes (B-cells) of congenitally athymic nu/nu mice were analysed. The surfaces of lymphocytes were radioiodinated by using the enzyme lactoperoxidase (EC 22.214.171.124), then solubilized either in acid-urea or in the non-ionic detergent Nonidet P-40. These lysates were then precipitated with antisera specific to either immunoglobulin or the θ-alloantigen in order to assess the presence of these surface markers. Comparable amounts of radioactivity in proteins specifically precipitable as immunoglobulin were obtained from T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes when the cells were disrupted by acid-urea. This immunoglobulin had mol. wt. approx. 180000 and was composed of light chains and μ-type heavy chains. When radioiodinated lymphocytes were solubilized with Nonidet P-40, 3-4% of radioiodinated high-molecular-weight protein of B-cells consisted of immunoglobulin, a result similar to that ...
Oxidative/antioxidative status, lymphocyte DNA damage, and urotensin-2 receptor level in patients with migraine attacks | AVESİS
Mapping lymphocyte plasma membrane proteins: a proteomic approach. - The Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology
The pathological importance of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is now widely accepted. Ex vivo data from synovial cell cultures suggest that direct cell contact between activated T-cells and macrophages may be an important driver of macrophage TNF-alpha production in the RA joint. However, the ligand/receptor pairs driving this cell contact signal remain obscure. One reason for this is that plasma membrane (PM) proteins are resistant to systematic analysis using traditional proteomic approaches. In this chapter we present a method for the enrichment and resolution of PM proteins from murine T-cell hybridomas as a prelude to identification by tandem mass spectrometry. We used cell surface biotinylation, differential centrifugation and subsequent streptavidin affinity capture, followed by solution phase iso-electric focussing and tandem mass spectrometry to identify 75 PM proteins and make semiquantitative comparisons of resting and activated cells. The method is applicable
2013 The Components Of Immune System Are macrophage, Lymphocyte And Antigen Receptor ~ New Science Biology
The T lymphocyte or T cell is mature in thymus. T Lymphocyte is also called cytotoxic (poisonous cell) or killer T lymphocyte. The T cell kill directly all the cell having specific antigen on it is surface which has been recognized by T cells. The helper T lymphocyte controls the strength and quality of all immune responds. Mature lymphocyte cell flow constantly in blood toward thymus gland and back into the blood to monitor the body from invader substances continuously ...
A new prognostic model using the NCCN-IPI and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma | TJ
The high NLR group had a low complete response (CR) rate compared to low NLR group (51.6% vs. 83.5%; p,0.001). The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 27.4% and 30% in the high NLR group and 61.1% and 63.7% in the low NLR group, respectively (both p,0.001). Multivariate analyses confirmed that NLR is one of the independent risk factors for failure to achieve CR and for worse PFS and OS. The nomogram showed superior discrimination ability for predicting 5-year PFS and OS rates compared with NCCN-IPI (c index 0.78 vs. 0.75 and 0.79 vs. 0.75, respectively).. ...
Human myeloma: several subsets of circulating lymphocytes express plasma cell-associated antigens. | IRIS Uni Torino
Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 9 monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) and 27 multiple myelomas (MM) were studied with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) that recognize B and T lymphocytes and plasma cells. No difference in the percentage of B lymphocytes, identified by B1 and B4 MoAb, was observed in MGUS and MM patients versus normal controls. However, high percentages of circulating lymphocytes expressing plasma cell-associated antigens were detected in MM (HAN-PC1+ = 29.4 +/- 20.4%; TEC-T10+ = 27.8 +/- 19.2%) whereas they were in the normal range in MGUS (HAN-PC1+ = 8.8 +/- 5.8% p = 0.006; TEC-T10+ = 5.7 +/- 4.7% p less than 0.001). Almost identical results were obtained using PCA-1 MoAb in 17 of these patients. TEC-T10+ and PCA-1+ lymphocytes were sorted and re-analyzed with phycoerythrin conjugated MoAb in 3 healthy subjects, 2 MGUS, and 4 MM patients. In normal subjects and in MGUS the majority of PCA-1+ cells belonged to the B lineage (Leu 2-, Leu3-, Leu ...
Baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with outcome of ipilimumab-treated metastatic melanoma patients. -...
Effect of low molecular weight human serum factors and human somatomedin peptides on human lymphocyte cultures | Journal of...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
Regulation of human mixed lymphocyte culture reactions: augmentation of proliferation and generation of cytotoxic cells<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of human mixed lymphocyte culture reactions. T2 - augmentation of proliferation and generation of cytotoxic cells. AU - Suthanthiran, Manikkam. AU - Lagman, M.. AU - Rubin, A. L.. AU - Stenzel, K. H.. AU - Novogrodsky, A.. PY - 1978/12/1. Y1 - 1978/12/1. N2 - The in vitro proliferation and generation of cytotoxic cells in the mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLC) are thought to mimic in vivo cellular immune effector mechanisms operative in allograft rejection. Recent studies have clarified the need for disparity at the D-locus-determined antigens between the stimulator and responder cell populations in the allogeneic MLC reactions. However, very little is known about the initial cell surface interactions of transmembrane propagation of stimulatory signals in the MLC. Since alterations in cell shape or surface architecture could conceivably influence these processes and since the microtubular apparatus is the prime candidate for a cell surface modulating structure, we ...
Phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin controls lymphocyte emigration | Journal of Cell Science
To test the role of intracellular tyrosines of VEC more systematically and in an EC system more relevant to inflammation, VEC mutants containing single Y to F substitutions were transiently expressed as N-terminal fusion proteins of EGFP in GPNT cells. Expression levels and overall localization of the individual VEC mutants were similar and mostly restricted to the periphery of the cell (Fig. 5A). Some cells expressed the protein at very high levels throughout the cell but these appeared non-viable and were never integrated into endothelial monolayers. In all other expressing cells, EGFP was almost exclusively found at cell-cell junctions once EC monolayers were formed (Fig. 5B). Again we observed that the introduction of Y731F-VEC significantly reduced lymphocyte migration. In addition we also observed impaired lymphocyte migration across GPNT cells that expressed Y645F-VEC or Y733F-VEC (Fig. 5C). By contrast, the introduction of wt VEC or any other Y to F mutant did not affect migration. The ...
BDPI USP - Detalhe do registro: Formation of ketone bodies by resting lymphocytes
Dynamic change of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and hemorrhagic transformation after thrombolysis in stroke | Journal of...
The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to predict short- and long-term outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. We sought to explore the temporal profile of the plasma NLR in stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and its relationship with intracranial bleeding complications after thrombolysis. A total of 189 ischemic stroke patients were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples for leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were obtained at admission and at 3-6, 12-18, and 36-48 h after IVT. Head CT was performed on admission and repeated after 36-48 h, and a CT scan was done immediately in case of clinical worsening. Hemorrhagic events were categorized as symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) and parenchymal hematomas (PH) according to previously published criteria. An increasing trend in the NLR was observed after stroke, and the NLR was higher in patients who developed PH or sICH at 3-6, 12-18, and 36-48 h after IVT (P | 0.01) than in those without PH or sICH.
AID 196412 - Percent inhibition of Concanavalin A stimulated cell proliferation of rat spleen lymphocytes at 10 uM; ND is not...
Serval - Ly 2 positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes, whether specific or non-specific in lytic activity, may express a large,...
Cytotoxic clones consisting entirely of large, vacuolated granular lymphocytes (LGL) are produced with high frequency when individual purified mature Ly 2+ T cells are cultured at limit dilution in the presence of concanavalin A and irradiated spleen filler cells. Similar cells are produced in cultures of Ly 2- T cells but in lower proportion, the level of granular lymphocytes amongst the largely non-cytotoxic, Ly 2- L3T4+ product cells being only 20%. A proportion (15%) of LGL are also found in conventional mixed lymphocyte cultures. In the limit-dilution cultures of Ly 2+ T cells the LGL originate from the single precursor cell and not from the irradiated filler cells. They bear the markers expected of active cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Thy 1++; PNA++; Ly 1+; Ly 2++; L3T4-). Their DNA and chromosome complement appear normal. The granules within the cells are heterogeneous in form, and some resemble in ultrastructure those described in certain cytotoxic, suppressor and NK-cell lines. The
What is Lymphoma
Lymphoma is a cancer of the Lymphatic System, and it can occur when an error occurs in the way a lymphocyte is produced, resulting in an abnormal cell. These abnormal Lymphocytes can accumulate by two mechanisms: they can duplicate faster than normal cells, or, they can live longer than normal Lymphocytes.. Like normal Lymphocytes, the cancerous Lymphocytes can grow in many parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, blood, or other organs.. Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer and the third most common childhood cancer.. Lymphoma is a disease that starts in and affects the Immune System. In order to understand Lymphoma and its treatment, it is important to know how the Immune System functions.. Lymphoma are forms of cancer that originate in Lymphocytes or, on rare occasions, the histiocytes. Lymphomas are part of the broad group of diseases called Hematological Neoplasms.. Just as there are many types of Lymphocytes in our bodies, so are there many types of Lymphoma. ...
Lymphocyte called home: β2-adreneric neurotransmission confines T cells to lymph nodes to suppress inflammation | Journal of...
It has been known for decades that adrenergic neurons innervate lymph nodes. Missing was the answer to how such neurons might regulate T lymphocytes. In the present study, ablation of adrenergic signaling to lymph nodes, or deletion of β2-adrenergic receptors from lymphocytes resulted in lymphopenia in lymph nodes. β2-adrenergic receptors physically associated with CCR7 and CXCR4, which control lymphocyte retention in lymph nodes, resulting in prolonged RAC1 signaling. CCR7 and CXCR4 signals enhanced lymph node retention of B and T cells, respectively. Moreover, activation of β-adrenergic signals inhibited lymph node transit of antigen-primed T cells, significantly curtailing the development of paralysis in EAE and attenuating inflammation in DTH. This indicates that β2-adrenergic neural signaling can override T cell damage to tissues.. ...
Characterization of subset of OKT8+, OKT10+, OKT3-, HNK1- cells with NK activity in cord blood lymphocytes<...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Characterization of subset of OKT8+, OKT10+, OKT3-, HNK1- cells with NK activity in cord blood lymphocytes. AU - Astaldi-Ricotti, G. C.. AU - Alberini, Cristina. AU - Montagna, D.. AU - Porta, F. A.. AU - DeAmici, M. AU - Ugazio, A. G.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. M3 - Chapter (peer-reviewed). BT - Protides of biological fluids, XXXI Colluquium. A2 - Peepers, E.. PB - Academic Press. ER - ...
Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymp
White blood cell
Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage). Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ... Lymphocytes include: *B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement ...
T independent antigen (TI)
T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... But when the concentration of TI-1 is lower, it can activate only B lymphocytes with specific binding of TI-1 on their BCR, and ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ...
A lymphoblast is a modified naive lymphocyte with altered cell morphology. It occurs when the lymphocyte is activated by an ... Lymphoblasts can also refer to immature cells which typically differentiate to form mature lymphocytes. Normally ... Lymphoblasts look like immature lymphocytes, and were once thought to be precursor cells.". Commonly, when speaking about ... The Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research Consortium defines a lymphoblast as "A lymphocyte that has become larger after being ...
Epidermal growth factor
Natural killer cell
... granular lymphocytes known today as NK cells. The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were ... Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells ... A functional marker of human non-T lymphocytes". Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 21 (2): 226-35. PMC 1538269. PMID 810282 ... Large granular lymphocyte entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of. *. Calmeiro J, Carrascal M, Gomes C, Falcão A, Cruz MT ...
T helper cell
These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... commonly lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in chronic inflammation and cytokine release. Antibodies do not play a direct ... "Molecular interactions mediating T-B lymphocyte collaboration in human lymphoid follicles. Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating ...
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated ... within a population of lymphocytes known as intraepithelial lymphocytes. In rabbits, sheep, and chickens, the number of γδ T ... T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell ... The T lymphocyte activation pathway: T cells contribute to immune defenses in two major ways; some direct and regulate immune ...
Once Upon a Time... Life
The Lymphocytes - represented by: *Lymphocytes B as marshals in small one-man round flying craft with two aimable side-mounted ... Lymphocytes T: the same sort of craft but with a large uppercase T on the underbelly at the bow. They can discharge smoke that ... Immature leucocytes: teenage humanoids with the same uniform as the lymphocyte B pilots: seen in the bone marrow, which is ... Captain Courageous and Ace for the lymphocyte B crafts' pilots; Plasmus and Globina for Hemo and Globin, Corpo for Jumbo; ...
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5
White blood cell - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Polyclonal B cell response
After recognizing an antigen, an antigen presenting cell such as the macrophage or B lymphocyte engulfs it completely by a ... or B lymphocytes) involving an arm of the immune system known as humoral immunity. The antibodies are soluble and do not ... The role of lymphocytes in mediating both cell-mediated and humoral responses was demonstrated by James Gowans in 1959. ... What makes the analogy even stronger is that the B lymphocytes have to compete with each other for signals that promote their ...
Lymphocyte-rich. Is a rare subtype, show many features which may cause diagnostic confusion with nodular lymphocyte predominant ... Lymphocyte depleted. Is a rare subtype, composed of large numbers of often pleomorphic RS cells with only few reactive ... Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma expresses CD20, and is not currently considered a form of classical Hodgkin's ... Micrograph showing a "popcorn cell", the Reed-Sternberg cell variant seen in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. H ...
Adoptive cell transfer
In the 1960s, lymphocytes were discovered to be the mediators of allograft rejection in animals. Attempts to use T cells to ... Syngeneic lymphocytes were transferred from rodents heavily immunized against the tumor to inhibit growth of small established ... Description of T cell growth factor interleukin-2 (IL-2) in 1976 allowed T lymphocytes to be grown in vitro, often without loss ... The result is individually grown in IL-2. Lymphocytes overgrow. They destroy the tumors in the sample within 2 to 3 weeks. They ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Necrosis is increased in T lymphocytes.. Tingible body macrophages (TBMs) - large phagocytic cells in the germinal centers of ... B and T cell tolerance for apoptotic cells is abrogated, and the lymphocytes get activated by these autoantigens; inflammation ... The cytokines B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLys), interleukin 6, interleukin 17, interleukin 18, type I interferons, and tumor ... The body's sensitized B-lymphocyte cells will now produce antibodies against these nuclear-related proteins. These antibodies ...
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug
Association with p56lck in T lymphocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (5): 2863-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.5.2863. ... CD44 participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, ... "Lymphocyte CD44 binds the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 116 (3): 817-25. ... protein tyrosine kinases Lck and Fyn in glycosphingolipid-rich plasma membrane domains of human peripheral blood lymphocytes". ...
On T lymphocytesEdit. CD4+ T cells provide help to B cells that produce antibodies. Several subsets of activated effector CD4+ ... An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells - including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular ... Pichler, W. J., Lum, L., and Broder, S. (1978) Fc-receptors on human T lymphocytes. I. Transition of Tgamma to Tmu cells. J ... Sandor, M., and Lynch, R. G. (1993) Lymphocyte Fc receptors: the special case of T cells. Immunology today 14, 227-231 10.1016/ ...
Lymphocytes are one of the five kinds of white blood cells or leukocytes, circulating in the blood. Although mature lymphocytes ... Antigen processing for cytotoxic lymphocyte actionsEdit. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (June 2013) ... T lymphocytes (likewise called T cells). B cells are produced in the bone marrow. The precursors of T cells are also produced ... is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes ...
The B lymphocyte, in this ready-to-respond form, is known as a "naive B lymphocyte." The naive B lymphocyte expresses both ... Nemazee D (2006). "Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nat Rev Immunol. 6 (10): 728-740. doi: ... How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody from Cells Alive!. *Antibody applications Fluorescent antibody image library, University of ... Goding J (1978). "Allotypes of IgM and IgD receptors in the mouse: a probe for lymphocyte differentiation". Contemp Top ...
In the lymphatic system a lymph node is a secondary lymphoid organ. Lymph nodes contain lymphocytes, a type of white blood ... In order to do this, lymph nodes contain lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, which includes B cells and T cells. These ... Both B and T lymphocytes enter lymph nodes from circulating blood through specialized high endothelial venules found in the ... In the course of the lymph, lymphocytes may be activated as part of the adaptive immune response. ...
Allergic contact dermatitis
In a similar fashion, cytotoxic T lymphocytes patrol an area of skin and play an important role in controlling both the ... Their immunology centres on the interaction of immunoregulatory cytokines and discrete subpopulations of T lymphocytes. The ... and present the antigen to T-lymphocytes. This process is controlled by cytokines and chemokines - with tumor necrosis factor ... the differentiated DCs present the allergenic epitope associated with the allergen to T lymphocytes. These T cells then divide ...
Associated organs composed of lymphoid tissue are the sites of lymphocyte production. Lymphocytes are concentrated in the lymph ... the spleen retains the ability to produce lymphocytes. The spleen stores red blood cells and lymphocytes. It can store enough ... The tertiary lymphoid tissue[clarification needed] typically contains far fewer lymphocytes, and assumes an immune role only ... The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ and the site of maturation for T cells, the lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system. ...
Lymphocytes and Platelets | HowStuffWorks
Lymphocytes are complex cells that direct the bodys immune system. Learn about T lymphocyte types and functions, B lymphocytes ... Lymphocytes are complex cells that direct the bodys immune system. T lymphocytes start in the bone marrow from pluripotent ... T lymphocytes (T cells) are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. B lymphocytes are responsible for humoral immunity ( ... antibody production). Seventy-five percent of lymphocytes are T cells. Lymphocytes are different from the other WBCs because ...
low lymphocytes - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for low lymphocytes
Treatments and Tools for low lymphocytes. Find low lymphocytes information, treatments for low lymphocytes and low lymphocytes ... MedHelps low lymphocytes Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Has anyone else on gilenya been told that your lymphocyte count is too low? I got a call f... ... hi , my percentage of lymphocytes is very low just 14,26 % and the number is1.26 is this s... ...
Lymphocytes - AMA Manual of Style
The 2 main types are the T lymphocyte and the B lymphocyte, also called the T cell and the B cell. A hyphen does not appear in ... lymphocytes.… Together, the thymus and marrow produce approximately 109 mature lymphocytes each day, which are then released ... Tristram G. Parslow(pp40-41) Lymphocytes are the cells that carry out antigen-specific immune responses. ... The 2 main types are the T lymphocyte and the B lymphocyte, also called the T cell and the B cell. A hyphen does not appear in ...
Autoimmunity Including Intestinal Behçet Disease Bearing the KRAS Mutation in Lymphocytes: A Case Report | Case Reports |...
The percentage of double negative T cells (2.75% of TCRαβ+ T lymphocytes; 2.18% of total lymphocytes) met the diagnostic ... The role of Ras signaling in lupus T lymphocytes: biology and pathogenesis. Clin Immunol. 2007;125(3):215-223pmid:17913587. ... Interestingly, the KRAS G13C mutation was observed in T and B lymphocytes, as well as natural killer cells, but not ... First, the RAS mutation in lymphocytes may exist among patients with common autoimmunity, such as chronic ITP and recurrent HSP ...
Frontiers | Unperturbed Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Phenotype and Function in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome...
... adrenaline and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we re-assessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS. Forty-eight patients ... adrenaline and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we re-assessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS. Forty-eight patients ... cytotoxicity lymphocyte aberrances were not found among ME/CFS patients. These assessments of cytotoxic lymphocytes therefore ... Cytotoxic lymphocytes combat intracellular infections. Their function is attenuated by stress. Despite numerous studies, the ...
Lymphocyte - Wikipedia
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of a white blood cell in a vertebrates immune system. Lymphocytes include natural killer ... Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Main article: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte. In some cancers, such as melanoma and ... A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as the percentage of lymphocytes ... The formation of lymphocytes is known as lymphopoiesis. B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in ...
Lymphocytes: Levels, ranges, and functions
Learn more about lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. We look at their function, normal levels, and what happens if levels ... There are two categories of lymphocytes known as B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. These are commonly referred to as B cells and ... The normal lymphocyte range in adults is between 1,000 and 4,800 lymphocytes in 1 microliter (µL) of blood. In children, the ... In children, the lymphocyte count would be around 9,000 lymphocytes in 1 µL of blood, although this value can change with age. ...
Lymphocytes Defined | AAAAI
AAAAI experts explain Lymphocytes are types of white blood cells that help the immune system defend against disease and ... There are two main types of lymphocytes: T-cells and B-cells. T-cells fight infected cells and tell other cells to fight. B- ... Lymphocytes are types of white blood cells that help the immune system defend against disease and infection. ... Learn more about the role of lymphocytes in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD). ...
Anti-lymphocyte globulin - Wikipedia
T Cells or T-Lymphocytes | Encyclopedia.com
Source for information on T Cells or T-Lymphocytes: World of Microbiology and Immunology dictionary. ... T cells or T-lymphocytes When a vertebrate encounters substances that are capable of causing it harm, a protective system known ... The T-8 lymphocytes differentiate into cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) that can destroy the body cells that have the original ... T Cells or T-Lymphocytes. Updated About encyclopedia.com content Print Article Share Article ...
Induced Division of Human Lymphocytes | The BMJ
Immunology of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. - PubMed - NCBI
GIMAP Proteins in T-Lymphocytes
T. Nitta and Y. Takahama, "The lymphocyte guard-IANs: regulation of lymphocyte survival by IAN/GIMAP family proteins," Trends ... S. J. McLeod and M. R. Gold, "Activation and function of the Rap1 GTPase in B lymphocytes," International Reviews of Immunology ... E. Genot and D. A. Cantrell, "Ras regulation and function in lymphocytes," Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. ... P. Poussier, A. F. Nakhooda, J. A. Falk, C. Lee, and E. B. Marliss, "Lymphopenia and abnormal lymphocyte subsets in the "BB" ...
Lymphocyte homing. - PubMed - NCBI
What causes elevated lymphocytes? | Reference.com
... or the presence of a high number of lymphocytes, can be caused by many different disorders and diseases, including ... What is the cause of having a high lymphocyte count in the blood?. A: A high lymphocyte count is referred to as lymphocytosis ... The Mayo Clinic asserts that the exact thresholds at which a high number of lymphocytes in a blood sample is considered to ... Children have much higher lymphocyte counts than adults, and the count tends to vary with age. In some cases, children must ...
Intraepithelial lymphocytes: exploring the Third Way in immunology | Nature Immunology
Locally resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are primarily T cells with potent cytolytic and immunoregulatory capacities ... Regulatory function for murine intraepithelial lymphocytes. Two subsets of CD3+, T cell receptor-1+ intraepithelial lymphocyte ... Intraepithelial lymphocytes traffic to the intestine and enhance resistance to Toxoplasma gondii oral infection. J. Immunol. ... Novel function for intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes: murine CD3+, γ/δ TCR+ T cells produce IFN-γ and IL-5. J. Immunol. ...
RhymeZone: lymphocyte definitions
CiNii Articles - B-Lymphocytes
T and B lymphocytes flow out from the arterial terminal, and migrate in the reticular framework. … Homing of lymphocytes to ... CD3+ and Pax5+ Lymphocytes in the Dermis of Normal Skin from the Dorsolateral Thorax of Cats [in Japanese] Fickle Daniel C. , ... Decreased Expression of MicroRNA-107 in B Lymphocytes of Patients with Antibody-Mediated Renal Allograft Rejection Zhang Zhe- ... mAb BW-3C3 react to a fraction of the lymphocytes. … The mAb-positive cells were identical to cells that also stained with ...
Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels in Human B Lymphocytes | SpringerLink
In the immune system such diverse cell types as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, hybridomas, and natural ... In: Gupta S., Paul W.E. (eds) Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation II. Springer, Boston, MA. * DOI https ... Subset-specific expression of potassium channels in developing murine T lymphocytes. Science 239: 771 (1988).PubMedCrossRef ... Cahalan MD, Chandy KG, DeCoursey TE, Gupta S, Lewis R, Sutro JB: Ion channels in T lymphocytes. In: Gupta S, Paul WE, and Fauci ...
Counting Lymphocytes in Histopathology Images Using Connected Components | SpringerLink
... a method for automatic counting of lymphocytes in histopathology images using connected components is presented. Our multi-step ... In this paper, a method for automatic counting of lymphocytes in histopathology images using connected components is presented ... Graf F., Grzegorzek M., Paulus D. (2010) Counting Lymphocytes in Histopathology Images Using Connected Components. In: Ünay D ... Application to lymphocyte segmentation on breast cancer histopathology. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 57(7), 1676 ...
JCI - Reparative T lymphocytes in organ injury
High WBC, Low lymphocytes - Leukemia & Lymphoma - MedHelp
Lymphocyte 3.7 (L) Lymphocyte Absolute 0.6 (L) Absolute Neutrophil 14.9 (H) He has always been a super healthy kid. He seems to ... Lymphocyte 3.7 (L) Lymphocyte Absolute 0.6 (L) Absolute Neutrophil 14.9 (H) He has always been a super healthy kid. He seems to ... High WBC, Low lymphocytes. My 12yr old son had some blood work done in the ER, we were there due to some severe abdominal pain ... lymphocyte 0.25 - 0.33 mine is 0.25 my rbc is low what does this mean?? ive been diagnose of ptb ...
Colchicine inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover induced in lymphocytes by concavalin A | Nature
... turnover in lymphocytes since it is known that increased PI turnover is an early event induced by con A and other mitogenic ... colchicine also has been shown to inhibit con A-induced lymphocyte transformation at an early stage in the sequence of events ... con A inhibition of lymphocyte immunoglobulin receptor capping is reversed by colchicine2-4 and con A-induced aggregation of ... Colchicine inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover induced in lymphocytes by concavalin A. *R. ROBERT SCHELLENBERG1. & ...
Lymphocyte | Define Lymphocyte at Dictionary.com
Lymphocyte definition, a type of white blood cell having a large, spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin layer of nongranular ... lymphocyte. Historical Examples. of lymphocyte. *. When large forms of the lymphocyte are present, the distinction is often ... Origin of lymphocyte. First recorded in 1885-90; lympho- + -cyte. Related formslym·pho·cyt·ic [lim-fuh-sit-ik] /ˌlɪm fəˈsɪt ɪk/ ... a type of white blood cell formed in lymphoid tissueSee also B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte ...
CD4 Lymphocyte Monitoring | HealthCentral
Description Monitoring lymphocyte counts in a patient with HIV infection is one way to assess the degree of immunosuppression ... CD4 lymphocytes act as the on switch for part of the immune system, so as the number of CD4 cells drops, damage to the immune ... Monitoring lymphocyte counts in a patient with HIV infection is one way to assess the degree of immunosuppression and the risk ... HIV infects and kills certain white blood cells called CD4 lymphocytes, reducing their number. The number of CD4 cells usually ...
Lymphocytes From A Risk Group
Therefore, a large number of mutant T-lymphocytes with a person means that their owner has become a prey to irradiation or his/ ... Double increase of mutant lymphocyte frequency (more than 6.2 mutants per 10,000 cells) as compared to the background group was ... Increased frequency of mutations in patients lymphocytes is the evidence of risk. But, unfortunately, the lack of mutation ... Thus, European researchers have discovered that people with increased frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in lymphocytes of ...
T lymphocytes - definition of T lymphocytes by The Free Dictionary
T lymphocytes synonyms, T lymphocytes pronunciation, T lymphocytes translation, English dictionary definition of T lymphocytes ... n. Any of a class of lymphocytes, including the helper T cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, that form in bone marrow and mature ... Related to T lymphocytes: MHC, B lymphocytes, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes. T cell. n.. Any of a class of lymphocytes, including the ... T lymphocyte. lymph cell, lymphocyte - an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell ...
Review of Text-T Lymphocytes in the Liver
Bare lymphocyte syndrome type I: MedlinePlus Genetics
Bare lymphocyte syndrome type I (BLS I) is an inherited disorder of the immune system (primary immunodeficiency). ... Bare lymphocyte syndrome type I (BLS I) is an inherited disorder of the immune system (primary immunodeficiency). ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/bare-lymphocyte-syndrome-type-i/ Bare lymphocyte syndrome type I. ... on cells, including infection-fighting white blood cells (lymphocytes), which is where the condition got its name. ...
Bare lymphocyte syndrome type II: MedlinePlus Genetics
Bare lymphocyte syndrome type II (BLS II) is an inherited disorder of the immune system categorized as a form of combined ... Genetic Testing Registry: Bare lymphocyte syndrome type 2, complementation group A *Genetic Testing Registry: Bare lymphocyte ... which leads to an absence of MHC class II proteins on the surface of certain lymphocytes. Lack of these proteins on lymphocytes ... Bare lymphocyte syndrome type II (BLS II) is an inherited disorder of the immune system categorized as a form of combined ...
NASA - ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression
ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) - 03.23.17. Overview , Description , Applications , Operations , Results , ... ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) will to determine the role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in loss of T ... lymphocyte activity in microgravity.. * Various aspects of the apoptotic process will be assessed, using human T-lymphocytes, ... In this project, we plan to ascertain whether or not Space conditions might induce apoptosis in human lymphocytes through a 5- ...
Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Cause Low Lymphocytes?
Lymphocytes are white blood cells whose function is to fight off infection. There are three major categories of lymphocytes: B- ... Significance of Low Lymphocytes Acquired from RA or Its Treatment. Abnormally low lymphocytes, or lymphocytopenia, presents ... RA can cause low lymphocytes. Lymphocytes, sometimes referred to as "fighter cells," attack infection-causing microorganisms. ... Lymphocytes are a vital component of the bodys immune system. Medical intervention may be necessary if the number of ...
Autologous Lymphocytes - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | Medindia
Autologous Lymphocytes - A persons white blood cells. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system, including the ... Medical Word - Autologous Lymphocytes. Ans : A persons white blood cells. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune ... Autologous Lymphocytes - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical ...
absolute lymphocytes - Forum on Choosing Your Meds -- TheBody.com
Lymphocytes are one type of white blood cell. CD4s represent a large part of the lymphocyte population. The absolute lymphocyte ... The absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) is a measure of how many lymphocytes there are in the blood; in countries where CD4 counts ... Lymphocytes are one type of white blood cell. CD4s represent a large part of the lymphocyte population. ...
atipical lymphocytes - Forum on Understanding Your Labs -- TheBody.com
Yes atypical lymphocytes reflect the size and shape of lymphocytes as they can be seen under the microscope. They are often ... Yes atypical lymphocytes reflect the size and shape of lymphocytes as they can be seen under the microscope. They are often ... Cd4 42%, 1400 cels, mi questions are 1. is normal for a chronic hiv infection to have atipical lymphocytes (betewn 1-2%) 2. is ...
Memory Lymphocyte | Definition | AIDSinfo
Memory lymphocytes mount a rapid and strong immune response when exposed to an antigen for a second time. Both T lymphocytes (T ... Memory lymphocytes can recognize an antigen introduced into the body during a prior infection or vaccination. ... cells) and B lymphocytes (B cells) can become memory cells. ... Memory Lymphocyte Memory Lymphocyte Speaker Synonym(s): Memory ... Memory lymphocytes mount a rapid and strong immune response when exposed to an antigen for a second time. Both T lymphocytes (T ...
Lymphocyte - New World Encyclopedia
Typical recognition markers for lymphocytes. LYMPHOCYTE CLASS. FUNCTION OF LYMPHOCYTE. PHENOTYPIC MARKER(S). ... The two main categories of lymphocytes are the B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cell), both of which are involved ... Lymphocytes and disease. A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as ... The two main types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells, which function in the adaptive immune system. Other lymphocyte-like ...
Lymphocytes: Antigen‐Induced Gene Activation
Lymphocytes are activated upon antigen (Ag) recognition by their clonotypic surface Ag receptors, TCR in the case of T cells ... Antigen‐induced lymphocyte activation: the two‐signal paradigm. Four major steps take place in lymphocyte activation: Ag ... Lymphocytes are activated upon antigen (Ag) recognition by their clonotypic surface Ag receptors, TCR in the case of T cells ... Lymphocytes: Antigen‐Induced Gene Activation. Abel Suárez‐Fueyo, Instituto de Investigación Hospital, Madrid, Spain Joaquín ...
T Lymphocytes: Plasticity of Subsets
... Tim R Mosmann, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA Jonathan ... Mosmann, Tim R, and Rebhahn, Jonathan A(Nov 2016) T Lymphocytes: Plasticity of Subsets. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, ... Cantor H and Boyse EA (1975) Functional subclasses of T‐lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. I. The generation of ... 2007) A model of immune regulation as a consequence of randomized lymphocyte division and death times. Proceedings of the ...
... , Lymphocyte, B-Lymphocyte, B-Cell, T-Lymphocyte, T-Cell, Natural Killer Cell, NK cell, Lymphocytosis. ... t lymphocyte, t cells, t lymphocytes, t-lymphocytes, t-lymphocyte, t-cell, T Cell Lymphocyte, T lymphocyte, T cell, T-cell, T ... B-lymphocyte, b-lymphocyte, b-lymphocytes, b cell, b lymphocyte, b cells, b-cell, b lymphocytes, b-cells, Lymphocytes B, B ... B Lymphocytes, B-Lymphocyte, B Cell. French. Lymphocyte B, Cellules B, Lymphocytes B, Lymphocytes bursodépendants, Lymphocytes ...
... , Lymphocyte, B-Lymphocyte, T-Lymphocyte, Natural Killer Cell, Lymphocytosis. ... Lymphocyte Count. Lymphocyte Count Aka: Lymphocyte Count, Lymphocyte, B-Lymphocyte, T-Lymphocyte, Natural Killer Cell, ... t lymphocyte, t cells, t lymphocytes, t-lymphocytes, t-lymphocyte, t-cell, T Cell Lymphocyte, T lymphocyte, T cell, T-cell, T ... B-lymphocyte, b-lymphocyte, b-lymphocytes, b cell, b lymphocyte, b cells, b-cell, b lymphocytes, b-cells, Lymphocytes B, B ...
Interleukin-2 programs mouse alpha beta T lymphocytes for apoptosis
Antigen receptor stimulation of mature alpha beta T lymphocytes can lead either to proliferation or death. Programmed cell ... Interleukin-2 programs mouse alpha beta T lymphocytes for apoptosis Nature. 1991 Oct 31;353(6347):858-61. doi: 10.1038/353858a0 ... Antigen receptor stimulation of mature alpha beta T lymphocytes can lead either to proliferation or death. Programmed cell ... IL-2 may thus participate in a feedback regulatory mechanism by predisposing mature T lymphocytes to apoptosis. ...
Lymphocytes, Macrophages, and Cancer by G. Mathe, I. Florentin | Waterstones
JCI - Foxp3+ T lymphocytes: immune regulators within the lung allograft
JCI - Foxp3+ T lymphocytes: immune regulators within the lung allograft
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has emerged as an important cause of lung graft failure. In the current issue of the JCI, a study by Li et al. identifies a critical role of Foxp3+ T cells residing within lung allografts in the regulation of AMR. This study not only provides new insights into the nature of lung allografts as a primary site where T and B cell priming and immune regulation can occur, but also introduces the mouse orthotopic lung transplant as a model for studying the immunobiology of AMR. Because AMR can be so difficult to effectively treat in lung transplant recipients, the development of an animal model is a major advance in understanding the immunopathogenesis of AMR.. ...
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes - Wikipedia
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, also tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and ... "Specific lymphocyte subsets predict response to adoptive cell therapy using expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes ... CD8+-Enriched Autologous Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes Following a Lymphocyte Depleting Regimen in Metastatic Digestive Tract ... The presence of lymphocytes in tumors is often associated with better clinical outcomes (after surgery or immunotherapy). When ...
Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell immunomodulator - help
Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell ... Amani Oakley. * *Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-c... Ardy ... Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell ... marlene melpignano. * *Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-c... ... Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell immun... Amani Oakley. *Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell ... Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell immunomodulator - help marlene melpignano Sat, 28 Oct 2017 13:07:19 -0700 ...
Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis | PNAS
Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis. F Hirata, S Toyoshima, J Axelrod, M J Waxdal ... Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis. F Hirata, S Toyoshima, J Axelrod, M J Waxdal ... Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis. F Hirata, S Toyoshima, J Axelrod, and M J ... Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Treatment of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma
Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an uncommon subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). This disorder is ... Clinical presentation, course, and prognostic factors in lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkins disease and lymphocyte-rich classical ... Treatment of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Authors. Ann S LaCasce, MD. Ann S LaCasce, MD ... Rituximab in relapsed lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: long-term results of a phase 2 trial by the German Hodgkin ...
Phys.org - lymphocytes
Under the microscope, lymphocytes can be divided into large lymphocytes and small lymphocytes. Large granular lymphocytes ... Lymphocyte. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system. ... Polymer-coated gold nanospheres do not impair the innate immune function of human B lymphocytes. Over the past 20 years, the ... Patients suffering from B-cell lymphomas can be treated with antibodies directed against the B-lymphocyte antigen CD20. ...
Recent Articles | Lymphocytes And Ecology | The Scientist Magazine®
The cell cycle of lymphocytes in Fanconi anemia
... a significant slowing of the cell cycle of lymphocytes in vitro was observed in all FA patients, and possibly in FA ... The cell cycle of lymphocytes in Fanconi anemia Hum Genet. 1982;62(4):327-32. doi: 10.1007/BF00304549. ... a significant slowing of the cell cycle of lymphocytes in vitro was observed in all FA patients, and possibly in FA ...
What Is the Role of Lymphocytes? (with pictures)
The role of lymphocytes is to recognize harmful particles in the body and carry out processes to deal with them. The main types ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell that is part of the immune system. The role of lymphocytes involves recognizing ... The role of lymphocytes of the natural killer cell type is not as specific and they can recognize many different types of ... T lymphocytes can be subdivided into helper and killer T cells. Helper T cells have what is probably the most important role of ...
B-Lymphocyte (LN-3) | ALZFORUM
SEM Lymphocyte.jpg | Naked Scientists
The Naked Scientists® 2000-2018 , The Naked Scientists® and Naked Science® are registered trademarks created by Dr Chris Smith. Information presented on this website is the opinion of the individual contributors and does not reflect the general views of the administrators, editors, moderators, sponsors, Cambridge University or the public at large.. ...
Differentiation-linked leukemogenesis in lymphocytes | Science
Most human lymphoid malignancies preserve a pattern of gene expression reflecting their proliferative activity and the development level of clonal expansion and maturation arrest. Characteristics of leukemia and other cancer cells frequently considered to reflect aberrant differentiation may more often reflect clonal selection of cell types that are normally infrequent and transitory. The differentiation status of progenitor or mature lymphoid cells influences which genetic elements are at risk of being exploited, via mutation, recombination, or deletion, for clonal advantage. These alterations may frequently arise spontaneously as a consequence of the unique developmental and functional programs of lymphoid cells and have as a major phenotypic consequence the stabilization of transitory cellular phenotypes. ...
Lymphocytes Produce Antibodies Stock Footage | Pond5
Lymphocyte Biology | JEM
Anti-immunoglobulin stimulation of B lymphocytes activates src-related protein-tyrosine kinases. | PNAS
Anti-immunoglobulin stimulation of B lymphocytes activates src-related protein-tyrosine kinases.. A L Burkhardt, M Brunswick, J ... Stimulation of resting B lymphocytes with antibodies to surface immunoglobulin (sIgD or sIgM) induces protein tyrosine ... Anti-immunoglobulin stimulation of B lymphocytes activates src-related protein-tyrosine kinases. ... Anti-immunoglobulin stimulation of B lymphocytes activates src-related protein-tyrosine kinases. ...
Identified a key protein in the generation of B lymphocytes | EurekAlert! Science News
... involved in the generation and the identity of B lymphocytes, the cells responsible to create antibodies in our immune system. ... Identified a key protein in the generation of B lymphocytes Researchers of the Cellular Differentiation Group of IDIBELL have ... In this work, researchers have shown that in B lymphocytes HDAC7 is involved in the transcriptional repression of " ... Identified a key protein in the generation of B lymphocytes. IDIBELL-Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute ...
Processes | Free Full-Text | Non-Viral Transfection of Human T Lymphocytes
... before either method can be used to routinely transfect primary T lymphocytes. ... The genetic modification of human T lymphocytes with established non-viral methods is inefficient. Linear polyethylenimine (l- ... Non-Viral Transfection of Human T Lymphocytes by Simon A. B. Riedl 1, Patrick Kaiser 1. , Alexander Raup 1,2, Christopher V. ... Riedl, S.A.B.; Kaiser, P.; Raup, A.; Synatschke, C.V.; Jérôme, V.; Freitag, R. Non-Viral Transfection of Human T Lymphocytes. ...
Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes Adjuvant Therapy of Melanoma - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes Adjuvant Therapy of Melanoma Official Title ICMJE TIL (Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes) and IL2 ( ... Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes Adjuvant Therapy of Melanoma (TIL). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes will be obtained from a small piece of tumour tissue removed from the invaded lymphnode after ... Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes) combined with IL2 (Interleukin 2; low dose injected subcutaneously) on the metastatic relapse ...
Autoreactive lymphocyte - definition of autoreactive lymphocyte by The Free Dictionary
autoreactive lymphocyte synonyms, autoreactive lymphocyte pronunciation, autoreactive lymphocyte translation, English ... dictionary definition of autoreactive lymphocyte. n. Any of a class of white blood cells of the vertebrate immune system, ... lymphocyte. (redirected from autoreactive lymphocyte). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. lym·pho·cyte. (lĭm′fə- ... lymphocyte. (ˈlɪmfəʊˌsaɪt) n. (Biochemistry) a type of white blood cell formed in lymphoid tissue. See also B-lymphocyte, T- ...
Moore2004 - Chronic Myeloid Leukemic cells and T-lymphocyte interaction | BioModels
SBML L2V4 representation of Moore2004 - Chronic Myeloid Leukemic cells and T-lymphocyte interaction. 63.13 KB. Preview , ... Moore2004 - Chronic Myeloid Leukemic cells and T-lymphocytes interaction. A mathematical model for the interaction of between ... cancer cells and immune system, involving CML cancer cells, naive and effector T-lymphocytes. ...
Does Hiv Affect Overall Lymphocyte Count - The Body
... does hiv affect overall lymphocyte count, with a wealth of fact sheets, expert advice, community perspective, the latest news/ ... Although HIVaffects the CD4 lymphocyte count, the CD8 count will increase in reaction to HIV infection and the rest of the ... Using total lymphocyte count. Hello:I have been recently diagnosed HIV+ at a "no questions asked" anonymous clinic in Toronto ... CD4 counts and total lymphocyte count?. From what I have read here, I imagine that if one person tests positive for HIV,the ...
Lymphocyte - Wikipedia
... "lymphocyte". The three major types of lymphocyte are T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Lymphocytes can be ... A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as the percentage of lymphocytes ... A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrates immune system. Lymphocytes include natural killer ... The formation of lymphocytes is known as lymphopoiesis. B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in ...
[email protected]: Biophysical responses of lymphocytes to environmental stress
Journey of lymphocyte. | ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? -?????? OZON.ru | 9783659515217
OZON ??? ?????? ??????? Journey of lymphocyte ????????? LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ... Much of the knowledge of lymphocyte life history has come from experimental situations. Lymphocytes are the only cells in the ... Since lymphocytes play an integral role in the bodys immune response as well as have several important physiologic roles to ...
Lymphocyte 3D Models for Download | TurboSquid
Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) - Cancer Immunotherapy Market
you should know this tumor infiltrating lymphocytes a new frontier in cancer immunotherapy market research report by cheryl l ... Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes: A New Frontier in Cancer Immunotherapy. Single User License: $2500 Member Price: FREE Buy Now. ... Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes: A New Frontier in Cancer Immunotherapy. Aug 2019, BIO129A, BCC Publishing ... Full Report: Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes: A New Frontier in Cancer Immunotherapy. 21. $2,500. Free. ...
D veloppement et s lection des lymphocytes
collection dexercices sur le d veloppement et la s lection des lymphocytes. This is the main site of WIMS (WWW Interactive ... Tol rance des lymphocytes B. CD4/CD8. Les cellules T dune suspension cellulaire sont analys es par cytom trie en flux apr s ... Tol rance des lymphocytes B. Chez des souris dhaplotype H-2d, on introduit par transg n se les g nes codant pour un BCR ... D veloppement et s lection des lymphocytes --- Introduction --- Ce module regroupe 6 exercices sur le d veloppement et la s ...
Copyright 1995-2010 - Carden Jennings Publishing Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. The material available at this site is for educational purposes only and is NOT intended for any diagnostic, clinically related, or other purpose. Carden Jennings Publishing Co., Ltd., assumes no responsibility for any use or misuse of this material and makes no warranty or representation of any kind with respect to the material available at this site.. ...
lymphocytes | MalariaWorld
Definition of therapeutic tumor infiltrating lymphocytes - NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute
In vitro, therapeutic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are isolated from tumor tissue and cultured with lymphokines such ... consisting of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, that are manipulated in vitro and, upon administration in vivo, re- ... therapeutic tumor infiltrating lymphocytes A preparation of cells, consisting of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, ... In vitro, therapeutic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are isolated from tumor tissue and cultured with lymphokines such ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Carbamate Pesticide-Induced Apoptosis in Human T Lymphocytes
To investigate whether carbamate pesticides also induce apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, in the present study Jurkat human T ... Carbamate Pesticide-Induced Apoptosis in Human T Lymphocytes. Qing Li * , Maiko Kobayashi. ... Li, Q.; Kobayashi, M.; Kawada, T. Carbamate Pesticide-Induced Apoptosis in Human T Lymphocytes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public ... To investigate whether carbamate pesticides also induce apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, in the present study Jurkat human T ...
Analysis of human lymphocyte anti... preview & related info | Mendeley
Malignant cells have been reported to escape immune surveillance by modulation of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) class Ia ... Analysis of human lymphocyte antigen class I expression in gastric cancer by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. * ... Dutta, N., Majumder, D., Gupta, A., Mazumder, D. N. G., & Banerjee, S. (2005). Analysis of human lymphocyte antigen class I ... Malignant cells have been reported to escape immune surveillance by modulation of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) class Ia ...
The Lymphocyte: Structure and Function, Second Edition - 2nd Edition
Most VitalSource eBooks are available in a reflowable EPUB format which allows you to resize text to suit you and enables other accessibility features. Where the content of the eBook requires a specific layout, or contains maths or other special characters, the eBook will be available in PDF (PBK) format, which cannot be reflowed. For both formats the functionality available will depend on how you access the ebook (via Bookshelf Online in your browser or via the Bookshelf app on your PC or mobile device).. ...
Browsing by Subject "B-Lymphocytes"
Keystone Symposia Conference | Lymphocytes and their Roles in Cancer - Program
memory T-lymphocytes « Chiropractic Resource Organization - largest Chiropractic News Source
NFAT in Lymphocytes: A Factor for All Events? | Science Signaling
Frontiers | The Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis in T Lymphocytes | Immunology
Therapeutic strategies are now evolving based on the modulation of T lymphocyte calcium homeostasis in order to combat immune- ... calcium homeostasis participate in a number of cellular processes that determine short and long-term function of T lymphocytes ... The Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis in T Lymphocytes ... The regulation of calcium homeostasis in T lymphocytes. Gergely ... Keywords: calcium, T lymphocytes, lymphocyte activation, CRAC channel, CaV1 channels, autophagy, adenine nucleotides, ...
National Jewish Health | Nickel Lymphocyte Proliferation Testing
National Jewish Health Advanced Diagnostic Laboratories offers a sensitive and specific nickel lymphocyte proliferation test ( ... Nickel lymphocyte proliferation testing is a clinically useful tool for evaluating patients undergoing initial joint ... In 2012, National Jewish Health Advanced Diagnostic Laboratories introduced a nickel lymphocyte proliferation test (NiLPT) to ...
A model of tumor and lymphocyte interactions
... and irreversible lymphocyte decline are found either analytically or numerically. A better understanding of tumor-immune ... A model of tumor and lymphocyte interactions. Amy H. Lin 1, 1. Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, University of ... A model of tumor and lymphocyte interactions. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2004, 4 (1) : 241-266. doi: 10.3934/ ... and irreversible lymphocyte decline are found either analytically or numerically. A better understanding of tumor-immune ...
What is an Atypical Lymphocyte? (with pictures)
An atypical lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell that is an indicator of antigen stimulation or the activation of the ... The atypical lymphocyte has more cytoplasm and thus grows larger in size than a normal lymphocyte as a reaction to infection, ... The presence of an atypical lymphocyte, otherwise referred to as a reactive lymphocyte or an atypical white blood cell, in the ... In addition to making changes in the structure of the bodys lymphocytes, most viruses that can create an atypical lymphocyte ...
Lymphocyte proliferation assay with specific antigen stimulation
Does MHC class II processing pathway is still required for in vitro lymphocyte , proliferation assay? CTL assay by standard Cr- ... The reason for , inactivated virus for stimulation in lymphocyte proliferation is to provide a , MHC class II processing ... Lymphocyte proliferation assay with specific antigen stimulation. Luck Felder luck_felder at hotmail.com Tue Mar 30 09:18:38 ... You need epitopes which can be recognized by Your specific lymphocyte. , Is APC required for nonspecific stimulation with ConA ...
Lymphocyte - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
All lymphocytes come from a common basic lymphocyte cell before differentiating into their distinct lymphocyte types. ... Lymphocytes and disease[change , change source]. When white blood cells are counted, the lymphocyte count is the percentage of ... Lymphocytes can be divided into three main types: *large granular lymphocytes: these are part of the innate immune system, and ... small lymphocytes: these lymphocytes are the main agents of the acquired immune system. The two main types are: *T cells and ...
Regulatory T-lymphocytes in asthma | European Respiratory Society
A fraction of the CD4+ T-lymphocytes, also called T-helper (Th) lymphocytes, are activated by cognate interaction of the T-cell ... Incited by the role of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in the production of immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody by B-lymphocytes, subsequent ... Regulatory T-lymphocytes in asthma. A. J. M. van Oosterhout, N. Bloksma ... Opinion-regulatory lymphocytes: natural versus adaptive regulatory T cells. Nat Rev Immunol 2003;3:253-257. ...
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis and Lymphocytes Differentiation and Maturation | IntechOpen
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis and Lymphocytes Differentiation and Maturation , IntechOpen, Published on: 2017-07-12. Authors: Luciana ... B Lymphocytes. 1.1.1. B Lymphocytes ontogeny. Lymphocytes are cells from the adaptive immune system and are derived from ... T Lymphocytes. 1.2.1. T Lymphocytes ontogeny. Currently, we will discuss the origin and differentiation of T and natural killer ... Different from B lymphocytes, the precursors of T lymphocytes migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus to complete their ...
IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE IN BONE MARROW-DERIVED LYMPHOCYTES | JEM
Phenotypic Analysis of Antigen-Specific T Lymphocytes | Science
Phenotypic Analysis of Antigen-Specific T Lymphocytes. By John D. Altman, Paul A. H. Moss, Philip J. R. Goulder, Dan H. Barouch ... Phenotypic Analysis of Antigen-Specific T Lymphocytes. By John D. Altman, Paul A. H. Moss, Philip J. R. Goulder, Dan H. Barouch ... Tetramers of human lymphocyte antigen A2 that were complexed with two different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived ... Identification and characterization of antigen-specific T lymphocytes during the course of an immune response is tedious and ...
CISDOC - Chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of high-voltage laboratory cable splicers exposed to electromagnetic fields
Mature B lymphocytes accelerate the healing of diabetic ulcers, other skin injuries | EurekAlert! Science News
The researchers report that application of mature B lymphocytes -- best known for producing antibodies -- greatly accelerated ... Mature B lymphocytes accelerate the healing of diabetic ulcers, other skin injuries Direct application of immune cells speeds ... Mature B lymphocytes accelerate the healing of diabetic ulcers, other skin injuries. Massachusetts General Hospital ... "Our demonstration that B lymphocytes - immune system cells that are abundant in the blood - can accelerate wound healing in ...
Mixed lymphocyte culture test | Define Mixed lymphocyte culture test at Dictionary.com
Egress: a receptor-regulated step in lymphocyte trafficking: Ingenta Connect
Blood lymphocyte numbers, which are maintained by recirculation through secondary lymphoid organs, are essential for the ... Recirculating populations of B and T lymphocytes are regulated by the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-dependent control ... Mesenteric lymph nodes show log-jamming of lymphocytes subjacent to sinus-lining endothelium. Agonism of S1P receptors produces ... Pharmacological subversion of the S1P receptor system, through systemic S1P agonist-induced inhibition of lymphocyte egress, ...
RCSB PDB - 1KIK: SH3 Domain of Lymphocyte Specific Kinase (LCK)
Treatments for childhood nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL - Canadian Cancer Society
Treatments for childhood nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma are surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Learn more ... Cancer information / Cancer types / Hodgkin lymphoma- childhood / Treatment / Nodular lymphocyte predominant Select the text ... Chemotherapy is the primary treatment for stages II to IV of nodular lymphocyte-predominant childhood HL. It may be given alone ... Surgery to remove the lymph nodes is the main treatment for stage I nodular lymphocyte-predominant childhood HL when doctors ...
What Is the Normal Range for Lymphocyte Count? | Reference.com
The normal range for lymphocytes in adults is 1000 to 4800 lymphocytes per microliter of blood, according to the National Heart ... The normal range for lymphocytes in adults is 1000 to 4800 lymphocytes per microliter of blood, according to the National Heart ... The normal range of lymphocytes in children is typically between 3000 and 9500 lymphocytes per microliter of blood. ... Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that makes up approximately 20 to 40 percent of all of the white blood cells in the ...
PeripheralNeutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratioBone marrowApoptosisSubpopulationsImmune systemDifferentiationCellsImmunityProliferationInduceSignificantlyPrognosticCellRatioCountsHumanInfectionProliferative capacityAutoimmuneTypes of lymphocytesAntigenGranular lymphocytesMacrophagesType of lymphocyteLymphAntibodiesThymusTumor-infiltratinCategories of lymphocytesNodular lymphocySmall lymphocytesAbstractAntibodyInduce apoptosis in humanBody'sLymphocytosisSubsetsPeripheral blood lymphScanning electron mRole of lymphocytesVitroStimulationDifferentiation and functionReceptorAbsolute lymphocyteSpecific lymphocyteAbnormal lymphocyteAtypical lymphocytesCytotoxic lymphocyteHelperCancerBacteriaBloodPhenotypePopulationsViralPercentage
- Peripheral lymphocyte reconstitution following drug discontinuation has been considered relatively rapid (2-4weeks), based on short-term studies. (mssociety.ca)
- Although three patients showed reconstitution of peripheral lymphocytes within the predicted timeline, two patients continued to be lymphopenic 9 and 34months after therapy cessation. (mssociety.ca)
- Human lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of health men and cultured in the presence of growing concentrations of PA or OA (5 to 200 μM), for 24 h. (biomedcentral.com)
- Human peripheral lymphocytes that have been exposed to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) release mitogenic factors (MF) on subsequent incubation in fresh medium. (mysciencework.com)
- In this investigation, MF-rich supernatants were analyzed for their ability to induce DNA synthesis in various fractions of peripheral human lymphocytes. (mysciencework.com)
- Two small lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. (au.dk)
- Two small lymphocyte subpopulations from human peripheral blood were produced by rosette sedimentation procedures, and tested for in vitro functions by stimulation with mitogens, PPD and allogeneic lymphocytes, and for effector capacities in ADCC. (au.dk)
- The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio has demonstrated to be a prognostic inflammatory marker in cardiovascular disease. (cun.es)
- The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and pathologic urinary albumin/creatinine ratio as an early marker of cardiovascular risk and systemic endothelial dysfunction, associated with microvascular disease, in asymptomatic subjects. (cun.es)
- The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly associated with altered urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in the univariate analysis and after adjustment for other known endothelial and cardiovascular risk factors (age, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes or altered glomerular filtration rate). (cun.es)
- The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio appears to be a cost-efficient, non-invasive and independent potential marker of systemic endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects. (cun.es)
- The Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio has recently gained increased attention as a prognostic marker for malignant disease and short term outcomes. (springermedizin.at)
- There is little data available in patients with Crohn's disease, thus the present study was conducted to correlate preoperative Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio values with disease phenotype and postoperative course. (springermedizin.at)
- Preoperative Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio values were calculated and analyzed in regard to disease phenotype and 30-day morbidity rate. (springermedizin.at)
- Elevated preoperative Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio in symptomatic Crohn's disease is not predictive for complications. (springermedizin.at)
- However, Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio showed a significant correlation with specific disease phenotypes. (springermedizin.at)
- Most strikingly, Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio was highly elevated in patients with a colorectal cancer in the resected specimen, which needs to be addressed in future studies. (springermedizin.at)
- see Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for subarachnoid hemorrhage . (operativeneurosurgery.com)
- Normal Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio values in an adult, non-geriatric, population in good health are between 0.78 and 3.53. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
- The prognostic significance of representative markers neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and red cell distribution width (RDW) in patients exist in a variety of tumors. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
- It has been recently reported that neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) could represent a novel composite inflammatory marker for predicting the prognosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). (operativeneurosurgery.com)
- Multivariate analysis indicated that white blood cells (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), LMR were significantly associated with ND during the initial week after ICH onset and also were associated with 90-day mortality. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
- Forget P, Khalifa C, Defour JP, Latinne D, Van Pel MC, De Kock M. What is the normal value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio? (operativeneurosurgery.com)
- Age-matched reference values for lymphocyte subpopulations are generally obtained via cross-sectional studies, whereas patients are followed longitudinally. (eur.nl)
- We performed a detailed longitudinal analysis of the changes in lymphocyte subpopulations in a group of 11 healthy infants followed from birth up to 1 y of age, with special attention for early developmental markers, markers of maturation, and markers of activation. (eur.nl)
- In conclusion, our longitudinal survey of T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, and their subpopulations during the first year of life helps to complete the picture of lymphocyte development in infants. (eur.nl)
- T lymphocytes (T cells) are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. (howstuffworks.com)
- Seventy-five percent of lymphocytes are T cells. (howstuffworks.com)
- The abundant expression of CD38 on an infant's T lymphocytes might be related to a greater metabolic need of the large population of naive untriggered cells that are continually involved in primary immune responses during the first year of life. (eur.nl)
- Although studies have shown that other fatty acids (FAs) modulate several lymphocyte functions, the specific effect of PA on these cells is unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lymphocytes are small leucocytes or white blood cells occurring in the lymphatic system that the body produces to help fight back disease. (onehowto.com)
- Selected ROIs were representative for most different types of lymphocyte distributions that occur in slides, namely (1) area with regular lymphocyte distribution, (2) clustered cells, and (3) staining or tissue artifacts. (zenodo.org)
- PA promoted a decrease of lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by ConA in both concentrations. (biomedcentral.com)
- In conclusion, PA promoted a suppressive effect on lymphocyte proliferation characterized by a decrease of Th1 and Th17 response, and co-stimulatory molecule (CD28). (biomedcentral.com)
- However, OA increased lymphocyte proliferation through IL2 production and Th2 response. (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast, supplementation with olive oil in vivo, which is rich in OA, promotes a decrease of lymphocyte proliferation stimulated with Concanavalin A (ConA) [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lymphocyte -to- monocyte ratio (LMR) is an independent predictive factor of clinical outcome of acute ischemic stroke and cancer, but the predictive effect of LMR in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unknown. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
- Qi H, Wang D, Deng X, Pang X. Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio Is an Independent Predictor for Neurological Deterioration and 90-Day Mortality in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
- When you have high lymphocytes it means that the body has taken out its defense mechanism and is letting you know that you may be battling an infection, autoimmune disease or cancer of the lymphatic system. (onehowto.com)
- In some cases lymphocytes can increase due to an infection that may resolve in a matter of days or weeks. (onehowto.com)
- Then, we analyzed proliferative capacity in lymphocytes treated with non toxic concentrations of PA and OA (25 and 50 μM, respectively), in the presence or absence of concanavalin A (ConA). (biomedcentral.com)
- The different types of FAs in the diet can modulate the lymphocyte proliferative capacity and cytokine production. (biomedcentral.com)
Types of lymphocytes5
- In this article, we look at different types of lymphocytes, what normal levels to have in the blood are, and what happens if levels get too low or too high. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- There are two main types of lymphocytes: T-cells and B-cells. (aaaai.org)
- The two main types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells , which function in the adaptive immune system . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Different types of lymphocytes exist, known as T cells , B cells and natural killer cells, and their roles differ accordingly. (wisegeek.com)
- the common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) can differentiate into all types of lymphocytes but lack the myeloid potential under physiological conditions, although some myeloid-related genes can be detected in CLPs depending on experimental conditions [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Effector lymphocytes function to eliminate the antigen, either by releasing antibodies (in the case of B cells), cytotoxic granules ( cytotoxic T cells ) or by signaling to other cells of the immune system ( helper T cells ). (wikipedia.org)
- The large clone of identical lymphocytes then differentiates into different cells that can destroy the original antigen. (encyclopedia.com)
- Memory lymphocytes can recognize an antigen introduced into the body during a prior infection or vaccination. (nih.gov)
- Memory lymphocytes mount a rapid and strong immune response when exposed to an antigen for a second time. (nih.gov)
- Lymphocytes are activated upon antigen (Ag) recognition by their clonotypic surface Ag receptors, TCR in the case of T cells and BCR in the case of B cells. (els.net)
- Antigen‐induced lymphocyte activation: the two‐signal paradigm. (els.net)
- Patients suffering from B-cell lymphomas can be treated with antibodies directed against the B-lymphocyte antigen CD20. (phys.org)
- The role of lymphocytes of the natural killer cell type is not as specific and they can recognize many different types of antigen , including infected cells and some tumor cells. (wisegeek.com)
- Tristram G. Parslow(pp40-41) Lymphocytes are the cells that carry out antigen-specific immune responses. (amamanualofstyle.com)
- The presence of an atypical lymphocyte, otherwise referred to as a reactive lymphocyte or an atypical white blood cell, in the bloodstream is an indicator of antigen stimulation or immune system activation in the body. (wisegeek.com)
- Identification and characterization of antigen-specific T lymphocytes during the course of an immune response is tedious and indirect. (sciencemag.org)
- Tetramers of human lymphocyte antigen A2 that were complexed with two different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived peptides or with a peptide derived from influenza A matrix protein bound to peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro and to T cells from the blood of HIV-infected individuals. (sciencemag.org)
- Pharmacological subversion of the S1P receptor system, through systemic S1P agonist-induced inhibition of lymphocyte egress, suppresses antigenic responses to peripheral, but not to systemically, delivered antigen. (ingentaconnect.com)
- A preparation of autologous peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBTL) that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
- The NK cells are sometimes labeled "large granular lymphocytes," while the T cells and B cells are labeled as "small lymphocytes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Large granular lymphocytes include natural killer cells (NK cells). (phys.org)
- Natural killer cells are large granular lymphocytes, with visible granules contained in their cytoplasm and a lobed nucleus. (wisegeek.com)
- IHC tested on neurological tissues highlighted a heterogeneous population of infiltrating T and B lymphocytes admixed macrophages. (nii.ac.jp)
- In the immune system such diverse cell types as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, hybridomas, and natural killer cells express an assortment of channels (reviewed in 3). (springer.com)
- In this work, researchers have shown that in B lymphocytes HDAC7 is involved in the transcriptional repression of "inappropriate" gens characteristic of other cell types such as macrophages and T lymphocytes. (eurekalert.org)
- Eric Newsholme's laboratory was the first to show glutamine utilization by lymphocytes and macrophages. (scielo.br)
- Lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils play an important role in the immune and inflammatory response. (scielo.br)
- Indeed, it was not until the pioneering work of Eric Newsholme's laboratory in the 1980's that it was established that immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages could utilize glutamine at high rates in addition to glucose (3,4). (scielo.br)
- The metabolic fate of glutamine in lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils will be discussed in the present paper. (scielo.br)
Type of lymphocyte3
- A third type of lymphocyte, known as a natural killer or NK cell, comes from the same place as B and T cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A type of lymphocyte. (nih.gov)
- Some pathogens that influence the presence of this type of lymphocyte in the blood will also cause this altered cell to take on defining characteristics, such as changes to the shape of the nucleus and the quantity or color of the cytoplasm in the lymphocyte. (wisegeek.com)
- Following maturation, the lymphocytes enter the circulation and peripheral lymphoid organs (e.g. the spleen and lymph nodes ) where they survey for invading pathogens and/or tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
- A person with a high lymph count could be suffering from a condition called lymphocytosis, an elevated level of white blood cells called lymphocytes. (reference.com)
- Lymphocytes are found in the lymph nodes and spleen and circulate continuously in the blood and lymph. (dictionary.com)
- any of several closely related lymphocytes, developed in the thymus, that circulate in the blood and lymph and regulate the immune system's response to infected or malignant cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Lymphocytes continually pass back and forth between lymph tissue, lymph fluid and blood. (howstuffworks.com)
- Antibody blockade of IL-2 but not IL-4 reverses the marked reduction of lymph node V beta 8+ T cells caused in mice by the bacterial superantigen Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B. IL-2 may thus participate in a feedback regulatory mechanism by predisposing mature T lymphocytes to apoptosis. (nih.gov)
- Lymphocytes are produced inside bone marrow before traveling to areas of the lymphatic system such as the spleen, thymus and lymph nodes. (wisegeek.com)
- After they mature, the lymphocytes enter the circulation and lymphoid organs (e.g. the spleen and lymph nodes ) where they are able to sense invading pathogens and tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Mesenteric lymph nodes show log-jamming of lymphocytes subjacent to sinus-lining endothelium. (ingentaconnect.com)
- The S1P receptor system may represent an early physiological link between the non-specific inflammatory response and the alteration of lymphocyte traffic through draining lymph nodes. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Surgery to remove the lymph nodes is the main treatment for stage I nodular lymphocyte-predominant childhood HL when doctors think the tumour can be completely removed, or resected. (cancer.ca)
- Mature lymphocytes recirculate via blood and lymph through lymphoid tissues in a relatively quiescent state until stimulated to proliferate during, for example, a bacterial or viral infection. (scielo.br)
- The WBC differential channel classifies Lymphocytes (LYMPH), Monocytes (MONO), Eosinophils (EO), and Granulocytes by cellular complexity and nucleic acid content. (crlcorp.com)
- Anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) is an infusion of animal- antibodies against human T cells which is used in the treatment of acute rejection in organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
- Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system, including the production of antibodies and other substances that fight infection and disease. (medindia.net)
- One important role of lymphocytes is the production of antibodies, and plasma cells are responsible for this. (wisegeek.com)
- Stimulation of resting B lymphocytes with antibodies to surface immunoglobulin (sIgD or sIgM) induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation, implicating one or more B-cell protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in sIg signal transduction. (pnas.org)
- Researchers of the Cellular Differentiation Group at the Epigenetics and Cancer Biology Program at IDIBELL, led by researcher Maribel Parra, have identified a transcriptional repressor, the histone deacetylase HDAC7, involved in the generation and the identity of B lymphocytes, the cells responsible to create antibodies in our immune system. (eurekalert.org)
- Certain lymphocytes (called B cells) act by stimulating the production of antibodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In their report published in Wound Repair and Regeneration , the investigators from the MGH Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center (VIC) describe how application of mature B lymphocytes - the immune cells best known for producing antibodies - greatly accelerated the healing of acute and chronic wounds in both diabetic and nondiabetic mice. (eurekalert.org)
- B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in humans is the GALT , which is thought to be located in the Peyer's patches of the intestine, while T cells migrate to and mature in a distinct organ, called the thymus . (wikipedia.org)
- Any of a class of lymphocytes, including the helper T cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, that form in bone marrow and mature in the thymus. (thefreedictionary.com)
- ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) will determine the role of programmed apoptosis (cell death) in loss of T-lymphocyte (white blood cells originating in the thymus) activity in microgravity. (nasa.gov)
- T lymphocytes start in the bone marrow from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, then travel to and mature in the thymus gland. (howstuffworks.com)
- CD8 T cells and B cells also differentiate into cytotoxic thymus‐derived lymphocytes and plasma cells, respectively, driven by specific activation in the context of CD4 T H cells (helper) and the cytokine microenvironment. (els.net)
- Immunologically important lymphocyte that is not thymus-dependent, is either short-lived and naive or long-lived and of memory phenotype, and resembles the bursa-derived lymphocyte of birds in that it is responsible for the production of immunoglobulins. (fpnotebook.com)
- Together, the thymus and marrow produce approximately 109 mature lymphocytes each day, which are then released into the circulation. (amamanualofstyle.com)
- B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bone marrow, while T cells migrate to and mature in a distinct organ, called the thymus . (wikipedia.org)
- Lymphocyte differentiation in the rabbit thymus. (biomedsearch.com)
- Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, also tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
- In colorectal cancer, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are associated with microsatellite instability cancers, as may be seen in Lynch syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
- The tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) interact most closely with the tumor cells and are likely to more accurately reflect tumor host interactions. (nih.gov)
- Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes will be obtained from a small piece of tumour tissue removed from the invaded lymphnode after surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A preparation of cells, consisting of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, that are manipulated in vitro and, upon administration in vivo, re-infiltrate the tumor to initiate tumor cell lysis. (cancer.gov)
- The 'Global Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes Immunotherapy Market Opportunity & Clinical Trials Insight 2025' report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (yahoo.com)
- Now-a-days, the market of immunotherapy is more attributed towards developing Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes for causing complete remission of the tumor cells from the cancer patients. (yahoo.com)
Categories of lymphocytes3
- There are two categories of lymphocytes known as B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- There are three major categories of lymphocytes: B-cells, T-cells and NK-cells. (ehow.co.uk)
- The two main categories of lymphocytes are the B lymphocytes ( B cells ) and T lymphocytes ( T cell ), both of which are involved in the adaptive immune system (Alberts 1989). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an uncommon subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). (uptodate.com)
- See 'Clinical manifestations, pathologic features, and diagnosis of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma' . (uptodate.com)
- The following are treatment options for childhood nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). (cancer.ca)
- Also see Evans 2002 (3): "Our findings provide the first evidence that depression may alter the function of killer lymphocytes in HIV-infected women and suggest that depression may decrease natural killer cell activity and lead to an increase in activated CD8 T lymphocytes and viral load" (quote from the abstract). (thefreedictionary.com)
- B lymphocytes are responsible for humoral immunity (antibody production). (howstuffworks.com)
- Incited by the role of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in the production of immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody by B-lymphocytes, subsequent studies in the late 1980s demonstrated that they are also involved in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma 2 , 3 . (ersjournals.com)
Induce apoptosis in human1
- Lack of these proteins on lymphocytes impairs the body's immune response to bacteria, viruses, and fungi, leading to persistent infections in individuals with BLS II syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
- Lymphocytes are a vital component of the body's immune system. (ehow.co.uk)
- Lymphocytes play an important and integral role in the body's defenses, and are part of a system of extraordinary complexity and coordination. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- In addition to making changes in the structure of the body's lymphocytes, most viruses that can create an atypical lymphocyte are also transmitted through sex or the exchange of bodily fluids. (wisegeek.com)
- Lymphocyte immune globulin anti-thymocyte (also called equine anti-thymocyte immune globulin), is an immunosuppressant that lowers your body's immune system. (drugs.com)
- HealthCentral explains that lymphocytosis, or the presence of a high number of lymphocytes, can be caused by many different disorders and diseases, including mononucleosis, toxoplasmosis, AIDS and tuberculosis. (reference.com)
- however, adults with more than 3,000 lymphocytes per milliliter of blood are generally considered to suffer from lymphocytosis. (reference.com)
- In some cases, children must have more than 9,000 lymphocytes per milliliter of blood to be considered to suffer from lymphocytosis. (reference.com)
- A high lymphocyte count is referred to as lymphocytosis and is caused by a bacterial or viral infection, cancer, autoimmune disorders, tuberculosis, HIV/AI. (reference.com)
- Prompted by advances in the understanding of defects in lymphocyte cytotoxicity, the discovery of adaptive natural killer (NK) cell subsets associated with certain viral infections, and compelling links between stress, adrenaline, and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we reassessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS. (frontiersin.org)
- We will provide flow cytometry plots showing strategies to identify and characterize NK, T and B lymphocytes and their subsets in circulation. (intechopen.com)
Peripheral blood lymph1
Scanning electron m1
Role of lymphocytes3
Differentiation and function2
- In summary, employing sensitive assays and analyses for quantification of cytotoxic lymphocyte differentiation and function, cytotoxicity lymphocyte aberrances were not found among ME/CFS patients. (frontiersin.org)
- Lymphocyte differentiation and function is directed by specific transcription factors that determine the cell lineage. (els.net)
- According to Japanese and Russian researchers' data, the patients suffering from larynx cancer and some other malignant growths, even before treatment starts experience increase of quantity of lymphocytes with T-cell receptor (TCR) genes mutations. (innovations-report.com)
- Receptor-mediated formation, metabolism, and mode of action of these novel second messengers in T lymphocytes will be reviewed. (frontiersin.org)
- Recirculating populations of B and T lymphocytes are regulated by the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-dependent control of lymphocyte egress. (ingentaconnect.com)
- T lymphocytes that constitutively express the IL-2 receptor a-chain, CD25, and the transcription factor Foxp3, comprising approximately 10% of the [CD4.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Yes atypical lymphocytes reflect the size and shape of lymphocytes as they can be seen under the microscope. (thebody.com)
- These viruses, which have the ability to remain dormant for many years, are often first identified by the presence of atypical lymphocytes in the blood. (wisegeek.com)
- I got to look at a few slides of atypical lymphocytes when I took Anatomy and Physiology. (wisegeek.com)
- She often has to look for atypical lymphocytes in her samples, among other atypical things! (wisegeek.com)
- As the article said, different atypical lymphocytes have different characteristics. (wisegeek.com)
- Forty-eight patients from two independent cohorts fulfilling the Canada 2003 criteria for ME/CFS were evaluated with respect to cytotoxic lymphocyte phenotype and function. (frontiersin.org)
- Reproducible differences between patients and controls were not found in cytotoxic lymphocyte numbers, cytotoxic granule content, activation status, exocytotic capacity, target cell killing, or cytokine production. (frontiersin.org)
- T-helper cell type (Th)2 lymphocytes play an important role in the initiation, progression and persistence of allergic diseases, including asthma. (ersjournals.com)
- In contrast to strictly cytokine-producing helper ILCs, resident innate lymphocyte populations with cytolytic potential have been identified in multiple tissues in both mouse and human. (jimmunol.org)
- Detection of gene expression specific for different kind of immune cell populations can then be used to determine the degree of lymphocyte infiltration as has been shown in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, European researchers have discovered that people with increased frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in lymphocytes of blood more often fall ill with cancer. (innovations-report.com)
- These mutations are easy to discover via a special immunological test, which was used by the Obninsk physicians for search of mutant lymphocytes in blood of patients with thyroid gland cancer. (innovations-report.com)
- A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of a white blood cell in a vertebrate 's immune system . (wikipedia.org)
- In children, the normal range is between 3,000 and 9,500 lymphocytes in 1 µL of blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In normal situations, the coarse, dense nucleus of a lymphocyte is approximately the size of a red blood cell (about 7 μm in diameter). (wikipedia.org)
- What is the cause of having a high lymphocyte count in the blood? (reference.com)
- In the F0 generation, we obtained 35 pups and 25 out of them were positive for Surveyor assay, and most of mutants displayed dramatic reductions of T and B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. (nii.ac.jp)
- My daughter is about the same age and has chronic low lymphocytes results when her blood is drawn. (medhelp.org)
- Medical intervention may be necessary if the number of lymphocytes circulating in the blood becomes depressed. (ehow.co.uk)
- Lymphocytes are one type of white blood cell. (thebody.com)
- A B lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell. (fpnotebook.com)
- Crowding by the surrounding red blood cell is the reason why the lymphocytes produced by infectious mononucleosis often have a dented shape to their cytoplasm. (wisegeek.com)
- The effects of other virus or lymphocyte disorders can also often be estimated by counting the numbers of lymphocytes present in the blood . (wikipedia.org)
- The normal range for lymphocytes in adults is 1000 to 4800 lymphocytes per microliter of blood, according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (reference.com)
- The normal range of lymphocytes in children is typically between 3000 and 9500 lymphocytes per microliter of blood. (reference.com)
- Lymphocyte immune globulin is made of certain blood products from horses and may contain viruses and other infectious agents. (drugs.com)
- While using lymphocyte immune globulin, you may need frequent blood tests. (drugs.com)
- This Review focuses on the major populations of T lymphocytes known to mediate tissue repair, their reparative mechanisms, and the diseases in which they have been implicated. (jci.org)
- Les thymocytes doubles n gatifs sont tout d'abord isol s, puis s par s en diverses sous populations (DN1, DN2, DN3 et DN4) suivant l'expression des marqueurs CD44 (une prot ine d'adh sion) et CD25 (cha ne α du r cepteur de l'IL-2). (unice.fr)