Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Macrophages found in the TISSUES, as opposed to those found in the blood (MONOCYTES) or serous cavities (SEROUS MEMBRANE).
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. (1/2123)

BACKGROUND: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.  (+info)

From myocarditis to cardiomyopathy: mechanisms of inflammation and cell death: learning from the past for the future. (2/2123)

A progression from viral myocarditis to dilated cardiomyopathy has long been hypothesized, but the actual extent of this progression has been uncertain. However, a causal link between viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy has become more evident than before with the tremendous developments in the molecular analyses of autopsy and endomyocardial biopsy specimens, new techniques of viral gene amplification, and modern immunology. The persistence of viral RNA in the myocardium beyond 90 days after inoculation, confirmed by the method of polymerase chain reaction, has given us new insights into the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Moreover, new knowledge of T-cell-mediated immune responses in murine viral myocarditis has contributed a great deal to the understanding of the mechanisms of ongoing disease processes. Apoptotic cell death may provide the third concept to explain the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy, in addition to persistent viral RNA in the heart tissue and an immune system-mediated mechanism. Beneficial effects of alpha1-adrenergic blocking agents, carteolol, verapamil, and ACE inhibitors have been shown clinically and experimentally in the treatment of viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Antiviral agents should be more extensively investigated for clinical use. The rather discouraging results obtained to date with immunosuppressive agents in the treatment of viral myocarditis indicated the importance of sparing neutralizing antibody production, which may be controlled by B cells, and raised the possibility of promising developments in immunomodulating therapy.  (+info)

Immune surveillance against a solid tumor fails because of immunological ignorance. (3/2123)

Many peripheral solid tumors such as sarcomas and carcinomas express tumor-specific antigens that can serve as targets for immune effector T cells. Nevertheless, overall immune surveillance against such tumors seems relatively inefficient. We studied immune surveillance against a s.c. sarcoma expressing a characterized viral tumor antigen. Surprisingly, the tumor cells were capable of inducing a protective cytotoxic T cell response if transferred as a single-cell suspension. However, if they were transplanted as small tumor pieces, tumors readily grew. Tumor growth correlated strictly with (i) failure of tumor cells to reach the draining lymph nodes and (ii) absence of primed cytotoxic T cells. Cytotoxic T cells were not tolerant or deleted because a tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell response was readily induced in lymphoid tissue by immunization with virus or with tumor cells even in the presence of large tumors. Established tumors were rejected by vaccine-induced effector T cells if effector T cells were maintained by prolonged or repetitive vaccination, but not by single-dose vaccination. Thus, in addition to several other tumor-promoting parameters, some antigenic peripheral sarcomas-and probably carcinomas-may grow not because they anergize or tolerize tumor-specific T cells, but because such tumors are immunologically dealt with as if they were in a so-called immunologically privileged site and are ignored for too long.  (+info)

T-cell receptor transgenic analysis of tumor-specific CD8 and CD4 responses in the eradication of solid tumors. (4/2123)

The role of tumor-specific CD8 and CD4 lymphocytes in rejecting solid tumors has been difficult to determine because of the lack of models in which tumor antigen, specific CD8 cells, and specific CD4 cells can be monitored and controlled. To investigate the minimal components required for the induction and maintenance of CTL activity sufficient to reject a solid tumor in vivo, we transfected the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) gene into a nonimmunogenic class I+/class II- murine malignant mesothelioma (MM) tumor line to generate an endogenous tumor antigen and used TCR transgenic mice with class I- or class II-restricted specificities for HA as sources of naive, tumor-specific T cells. The data show that the presence of a strong tumor antigen is not in itself sufficient to induce an effective CTL response, nor does the presence of a high frequency of precursor cells guarantee tumor rejection. We also show that tumor-specific CD4 cells, when CTL numbers are suboptimal, greatly enhance the eradication of tumor, confirming the importance of antigen-presenting cell presentation of tumor antigens to class II-restricted cells. These data confirm that T-cell receptor transgenic cells, combined with nominal tumor antigen transfection, represent powerful tools to analyze tumor-specific T-cell responses.  (+info)

Immunological control of a murine gammaherpesvirus independent of CD8+ T cells. (5/2123)

Adult thymectomized C57 BL/6J mice were depleted of T cell subsets by MAb treatment either prior to, or after, respiratory challenge with murine gammaherpesvirus-68. Protection against acute infection was maintained when either the CD4+ or the CD8+ T cell population was greatly diminished, whereas the concurrent removal of both T cell subsets proved invariably fatal. The same depletions had little effect on mice with established infection. The results indicate firstly that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells play a significant part in dealing with the acute infection, and secondly that virus-specific antibody contributes to controlling persistent infection with this gammaherpesvirus.  (+info)

Effective treatment of autoimmune disease and progressive renal disease by mixed bone-marrow transplantation that establishes a stable mixed chimerism in BXSB recipient mice. (6/2123)

Male BXSB mice spontaneously develop autoimmune disease with features similar to systemic lupus erythematosus. To determine whether this autoimmune disease can be treated as well as prevented by bone-marrow transplantation (BMT) and, at the same time, whether the immunity functions of lethally irradiated recipients can be reconstituted fully, male BXSB mice were engrafted with mixed T cell-depleted marrow (TCDM) both from fully allogeneic autoimmune-resistant BALB/c mice and from syngeneic autoimmune-prone BXSB mice, after the onset of autoimmune disease in the recipient mice. BMT with mixed TCDM from both resistant and susceptible strains of mice (mixed BMT) established stable mixed chimerism, prolonged the median life span, and arrested development of glomerulonephritis in BXSB mice. BMT with mixed TCDM also reduced the formation of anti-DNA antibodies that are observed typically in male mice of this strain. Furthermore, mixed BMT reconstituted the primary antibody production in BXSB recipients impressively. These findings indicate that transplantation of allogeneic autoimmune-resistant TCDM plus syngeneic autoimmune-prone TCDM into lethally irradiated BXSB mice can be used to treat autoimmune and renal disease in this strain of mice. In addition, this dual bone-marrow transplantation reconstitutes the immunity functions and avoids the immunodeficiencies that occur regularly in fully allogeneic chimeras after total body irradiation. This report describes an effective treatment of progressive renal disease and autoimmunity by establishing a stable mixed chimerism of TCDM transplantation from allogeneic autoimmune-resistant BALB/c mice plus syngeneic autoimmune-prone BXSB mice into BXSB mice.  (+info)

Comparative outcomes of T-cell-depleted and non-T-cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia: impact of donor lymphocyte infusion. (7/2123)

PURPOSE: Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) can restore complete remission in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) who have relapsed after T-cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The existence of salvage treatment for patients with DLI after TCD allogeneic BMT prompted an evaluation of overall outcome after CD6+ -TCD allogeneic BMT for patients treated during the time when DLI has been available. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 46 patients who underwent TCD allogeneic BMT for stable-phase CML and compared these outcomes with those of 40 patients who underwent non-TCD allogeneic BMT. All subjects were patients at one of two neighboring institutions during a period when DLI was available. All patients received marrow from HLA-identical sibling donors, underwent similar myeloablative regimens, and had similar pretreatment characteristics. RESULTS: After BMT, the TCD group had a lower incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute (15% v 37%, P = .026) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (18% v 42%, P = .024) than did the non-TCD group. The 1-year treatment-related mortality rates for the TCD group and the non-TCD group were 13% and 29%, respectively (P = .07). The estimated 3-year probability of relapse (cytogenetic or hematologic) was higher for patients in the TCD group than for patients in the non-TCD group (62% v 24%, P = .0003). Twenty-three patients (20 in the TCD group and three in the non-TCD group) received and were assessable for response to DLI. After DLI, 17 of 20 patients in the TCD group and two of three patients in the non-TCD group achieved complete remission. Donor lymphocyte infusion induced GVHD in nine of 23 patients. Thirty (65%) of 46 patients in the TCD group and 27 (69%) of 39 assessable patients in the non-TCD group remained alive without evidence of disease. The estimated 3-year overall survival rates were similar for the TCD group and the non-TCD group (72% v 68%, respectively; P = .38). At last follow-up, there was no difference in the overall prevalence of GVHD or the proportion of patients requiring immunosuppressive agents between groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the combination of T-cell depletion and post-BMT DLI is a viable treatment option for patients undergoing allogeneic BMT for CML and should be prospectively compared with traditional forms of GVHD prophylaxis.  (+info)

Development of CD8+ effector T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12. (8/2123)

We investigated the effects of IL-18 on the development of CD8+ effector T cells in DBA/2 anti-BDF1 whole spleen cell MLC and compared the results with those of IL-12. Addition of IL-18 to the MLC resulted in a twofold increase in CD8/CD4 ratios compared with the control cultures when cells were expanded in IL-2-containing medium following MLC. Purified CD8+ T cells recovered from the IL-18-stimulated MLC produced 20- to 30-fold more IFN-gamma after secondary stimulation with C57BL/6 spleen cells or anti-CD3 mAb, and exhibited strong allospecific CTL activity. Neither IL-18 nor IL-18-supplemented culture supernatants from DBA/2 anti-BDF1 MLC induced type I CD8+ effector T cells when purified CD8+ T cells were used as responder cells in primary MLC. Furthermore, CD4+ T cell depletion from the responder cells abrogated the IL-18-induced increase in secondary IFN-gamma production by CD8+ T cells, suggesting that IL-18-induced type I effector CD8+ T cell development was CD4+ T cell dependent. In marked contrast, adding IL-12 to primary MLC decreased CD8/CD4 ratios by 50% and suppressed secondary IFN-gamma production and CTL activity by CD8+ T cells regardless of concentration, whereas Th1 development was promoted by IL-12. Moreover, both IL-12 and IL-18 efficiently induced type I CD8+ effector T cells in C57BL/6 anti-BDF1 MLC. These findings show that IL-18 plays an important role in the generation of type I CD8+ effector T cells, and further suggest that functional maturation of CD8+ T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12.  (+info)

Following B lymphocyte depletion in patients with RA, a positive clinical response occurred in correlation with a significant drop in the levels of CRP and autoantibodies. Antibacterial antibody levels were relatively well maintained. B lymphocyte return preceded relapse in all patients. There was a …
We have developed a rapid and simple procedure for the elimination of mature T-cells from the donor marrow using a single incubation with the monoclonal antibody Campath-1 and donor complement. This resulted in a reduction of T-cell contamination to a mean of 1%. This regimen reduced the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease significantly in 21 consecutive bone marrow grafts in 18 patients with leukaemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Purging was responsible for an increased incidence of graft rejection in HLA-identical transplants (13%).
different allogeneic graft accelerates white cell and platelet engraftment after T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation. Addition of a seconds profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
article{8038961, author = {BONROY, CAROLIEN and Smith, Vanessa and Deschepper, Ellen and De Keyser, Filip and Devreese, Katrien}, issn = {0315-162X}, journal = {JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY}, language = {eng}, number = {1}, pages = {247--249}, title = {Specific antinuclear antibody level changes after B cell depletion therapy in systemic sclerosis are associated with improvement of skin thickening}, url = {}, volume = {43}, year = {2016 ...
In the clinic, BCDT can markedly ameliorate the course of autoimmune diseases in patients, but the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are poorly understood, as they are thought, in many cases, to operate irrespective of autoantibody levels. Here, we demonstrate that IL-6 production is the major mechanism of B cell-mediated pathogenesis during EAE, and we show that this inflammatory pathway is markedly increased in RR-MS patients. Autoantibody levels were unaffected by IL-6 production by B cells. This is the first demonstration of a nonantibody-mediated mechanism of B cell pathogenesis in EAE and MS. Remarkably, the elevated production of IL-6 by B cells from MS patients was effectively normalized by Rituximab treatment. In both patients and mice the reduced disease severity after B cell depletion was accompanied by a decrease in the autoreactive Th17 response, and so we believe that B cells are making an all-important contribution to the IL-6-dependent promotion of pathogenic Th17 ...
Published in Bone Marrow Transplantation, Volume 21, Issue 5, 1998, pages 461-471. Lamb, Jr., L. S., Gee, A. P., Henslee-Downey, P. J., Geier, S. S., Hazlett, L., Pati, A. R., Godder, K., Abhyankar, S. A., Turner, M. W., Lee, C., Harris, W. G., & Parrish, R. S. (1998). Phenotypic and functional reconstitution of peripheral blood lymphocytes following T cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation from partially mismatched related donors. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 21(5), 461-471.. © Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1998, Nature Publishing Group. ...
Rituximab (RTX) may favorably affect skin and lung fibrosis in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We aimed to explore the hypothesis that RTX may mediate its antifibrotic effects by regulating the expression of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), an inhibitor of the Wnt pathway. Fourteen patients with SSc and five healthy subjects were recruited. Dkk-1 expression was immunohistochemically assessed in skin biopsies obtained from 11 patients with SSc (8 treated with RTX and 3 with standard treatment), whereas DKK1 gene expression was assessed in 3 patients prior to and following RTX administration. In baseline biopsies obtained from all patients with SSc but not in healthy subjects, Dkk-1 was undetectable in skin fibroblasts. Following RTX treatment, four out of eight patients had obvious upregulation of Dkk-1 skin expression. Similarly, RTX treatment correlated with a significant 4.8-fold upregulation of DKK1 gene expression (p = 0.030). In contrast,
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory viral infections in infants and children. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a crucial role in combatting airborne pathogens, strongly express CD169, and are localized in the lung alveoli. Therefore, we used CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice to explore the roles of CD169(+) cells in immune responses to mucosal RSV infection. The administration of diphtheria toxin to CD169-DTR mice induced specific AM depletion and reduced the recruitment of Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Notably, CD169(+) cell depletion reduced levels of innate cytokines, such as interferon-beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during RSV infection without affecting the production of proinflammatory chemokines. Moreover, the depletion of CD169(+) cells increased the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lung during the early stage of RSV infection, although not during the later stages of RSV infection. Furthermore, the depletion of ...
The occurrence of massive CD4+ T cell depletion is one of the most prominent characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection during acute phase, resulting in unrestorable destruction to the immune system. The infected host undergoes an asymptomatic period lasting several years with low viral load and ostensibly healthy status, which is presumably due to virus-specific adaptive immune responses. In the absence of therapy, an overwhelming majority of cases develop to AIDS within 8-10 years of latent infection. In this review, we discuss the roles in AIDS pathogenesis played by massive CD4+ T lymphocytes depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) during acute infection and abnormal immune activation emerging in the later part of chronic phase.
Results. In patients with pSS, frequencies of circulating TFH cells and Th17 cells were increased at baseline compared with HC, whereas frequencies of Th1 and Th2 cells were unchanged. B cell depletion therapy resulted in a pronounced decrease in circulating TFH cells, whereas Th17 cells were only slightly lowered. Frequencies of IL-21-producing and IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells and serum levels of IL-21 and IL-17 were also reduced. Importantly, the decrease in circulating TFH cells was associated with lower systemic disease activity over time, as measured by the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögrens Syndrome Disease Activity Index scores and serum IgG levels. ...
Molecular analysis of highly enriched populations of T-cell-depleted monocytes.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Karpf, M; Gelfand, M C.; Handwerger, B S.; and Schwartz, R H., Lack of b lymphocyte depletion from murine spleen cell populations by a human gamma-globulin, anti-human gamma-globulin column system. (1975). Subject Strain Bibliography 1975. 1248 ...
The evolution of immune blockades in tumors limits successful anti-tumor immunity, but the mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. Depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs), a T cell subset that dampens excessive inflammatory and autoreactive responses, can allow activation of tumor-specific T cells. However, cancer immunotherapy studies have demonstrated that a persistent failure of activated lymphocytes to infiltrate tumors remains a fundamental problem. In evaluating this issue, we found that despite an increase in T cell activation and proliferation following Treg depletion there was no significant association with tumor growth rate. In contrast, there was a highly significant association between low tumor growth rate and the extent of T cell infiltration. Further analyses revealed a total concordance between low tumor growth rate, high T cell infiltration and the presence of high endothelial venules (HEV). HEV are blood vessels normally found in secondary lymphoid tissue ...
Patients with leukemia who receive a T cell-depleted allogeneic stem cell graft followed by postponed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) can experience graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) reactivity, with a lower risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here, we have investigated the magnitude, diversity, and specificity of alloreactive CD8 T cells in patients who developed GVL reactivity after DLI in the absence or presence of GVHD. We observed a lower magnitude and diversity of CD8 T cells for minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHAs) in patients with selective GVL reactivity without GVHD. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MiHA-specific T cell clones from patients with selective GVL reactivity showed lower reactivity against nonhematopoietic cells, even when pretreated with inflammatory cytokines. Expression analysis of MiHA-encoding genes showed that similar types of antigens were recognized in both patient groups, but in patients who developed GVHD, T cell reactivity was skewed to target broadly ...
Font J, Cervera R, Espinosa G, Pallares L, Ramos-Casals M, Jimenez S, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in childhood: analysis of clinical and immunological findings in 34 patients and comparison with SLE characteristics in adults. Ann Rheum Dis 1998; 57: 456-9 ...
We have been talking about the best treatment for stopping relapsing disease in animals over the past couple of weeks. This is a transient depletion followed by delivery of the disease causing molecules via an immune tolerogenic route. In this study relapsing neurodegenerative disease was set in motion and then at different time points further relapses were stopped. We then looked to see what had happened in the CNS a few months later. It was clear that despite elimination of relapsing disease some nerve tracts showed progressive neurodegeneration, rather disturbing this occurred even after after a single attack. With each attack different nerve tracts started to degenerate. Therefore even in this simple model of MS it can be seen that relapses cause nerve damage and therefore stopping them, as quickly as possible, is important. Likewise in this case the autoimmune response can trigger a neurodegenerative condition and this progressive neurodegeneration can occur even from disease onset. From a ...
B-cell therapy (also called B-cell depletion therapy) is a treatment for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Learn what you need to know about this option.
Before entering in the study protocol and according to their tumor burden and the investigators judgment, patients could receive a cytoreductive treatment as part of the routine care, based on a dexamethasone-based debulking chemotherapy (if applicable). eligible patients following written informed consent signature will enter a Screening Period. Patients will then be included and will start the Lymphodepletion treatment period, which will take place from Day -7 to Day -2 during the week preceding uCaRT19 infusion at Day 0. The patients could be hospitalized, according to the local practices per country, from 7 days before the administration of uCaRT19 (D-7) or the day before the uCaRT19 administration (D-1). The lymphodepletion regimen combines fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. at the end of the lymphodepletion regimen, eligibility criteria allowing uCaRT19 administration should be assessed in order to ensure patients safety. The Treatment Period (starting at the time of the investigational ...
In vitro verification of CD4 positive cells depletion derived from human healthy donors and cancer patients by humanized anti-CD4 antibody (IT1208) (2015 ...
Since monocytes and macrophages that arise during the culture of bone marrow progenitor cells are potential sources of interleukin 6 (IL-6), we investigated whether auto- or paracrine production of this factor is involved in colony formation by normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. We added a polyclonal anti-IL-6 antiserum and a monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibody to cultures of monocyte- and T cell-depleted bone marrow cells. Colony formation was stimulated with granulocyte/monocyte-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), monocyte-CSF, or IL-3. Addition of anti-IL-6 antibody resulted in decreased numbers of monocytic colonies to 40-50% of control values, whereas the numbers of granulocytic colonies were not altered. The inhibitory effect was preserved in cultures of CD34(+)-enriched bone marrow cells. As a second approach, we added a monoclonal antibody directed against the IL-6 receptor to cultures of monocyte- and T cell-depleted bone marrow cells. This antibody almost completely inhibited the growth ...
The depletion of CD19+ B cells by CD19-targeted CAR CD8+ T cells effectively eliminated autoantibody production and deferred or reversed disease manifestations of experimental lupus in two mouse models. These results contrast with previous results in the same mouse models, which showed resistance to anti-CD20 antibody-mediated B cell depletion (11-13). We propose that CD19-targeted CAR T cells have superior efficacy because cytotoxic T cells induce target cell death by a direct mechanism, whereas antibody-mediated cytotoxicity requires the buildup of bound antibody for complement-dependent target cell lysis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, or clearance by phagocytes. Previous studies indicated that in models of lupus, the increased abundance of endogenous antibodies and immune complexes impairs B cell depletion by macrophages (12). Thus, anti-CD20 antibody was only effective if given repeatedly and at high doses to autoimmune mice. CD19-targeted CAR T cells, in contrast, kill B cells ...
Senolt, L; Kryštůfková, O; Hulejová, H; Kuklová, M; Filková, M; Cerezo, L A; Běláček, J; Haluzík, M; Forejtová, S; Gay, S; Pavelka, K; Vencovsky, J (2011). The level of serum visfatin (PBEF) is associated with total number of B cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and decreases following B cell depletion therapy. Cytokine, 55(1):116-121.. Senolt, L; Polanska, M; Filkova, M; Oslejskova, L; Pavelka, K; Gay, S; Haluzik, M; Vencovsky, J (2010). Vaspin and omentin: new adipokines differentially regulated at the site of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 69(7):1410-1411.. Oslejsková, L; Grigorian, M; Hulejová, H; Vencovsky, J; Pavelka, K; Klingelhöfer, J; Gay, S; Neidhart, M; Brabcová, H; Suchy, D; Senolt, L (2009). Metastasis-inducing S100A4 protein is associated with the disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology, 48(12):1590-1594.. Senolt, L; Vencovský, J; Pavelka, K; Ospelt, C; Gay, S (2009). Prospective new biological ...
Induction of lymphopenia has been exploited therapeutically to improve immune responses to cancer therapies and vaccinations. Whereas IL-15 has well-established roles in stimulating lymphocyte responses after lymphodepletion, the mechanisms regulating these IL-15 responses are unclear. We report that cell surface IL-15 expression is upregulated during lymphopenia induced by total body irradiation (TBI), cyclophosphamide, or Thy1 Ab-mediated T cell depletion, as well as in RAG−/− mice; interestingly, the cellular profile of surface IL-15 expression is distinct in each model. In contrast, soluble IL-15 (sIL-15) complexes are upregulated only after TBI or αThy1 Ab. Analysis of cell-specific IL-15Rα conditional knockout mice revealed that macrophages and dendritic cells are important sources of sIL-15 complexes after TBI but provide minimal contribution in response to Thy1 Ab treatment. Unlike with TBI, induction of sIL-15 complexes by αThy1 Ab is sustained and only partially dependent on ...
In multiple sclerosis (MS), B cell-depleting therapy using monoclonal anti-CD20 Abs, including rituximab (RTX) and ocrelizumab, effectively reduces disease activity. Based on indirect evidence, it is generally believed that elimination of the Ag-presenting capabilities and Ag nonspecific immune functions of B cells underlie the therapeutic efficacy. However, a small subset of T lymphocytes (T cells) was shown to also express CD20, but controversy prevails surrounding the true existence of this T cell subpopulation. Using single-cell imaging flow cytometry and expression profiling of sorted lymphocyte subsets, we unequivocally demonstrate the existence of CD3+CD20dim T cells. We show that in MS patients, increased levels of CD3+CD20dim T cells are effectively depleted by RTX. The pathological relevance of this T cell subset in MS remains to be determined. However, given their potential proinflammatory functionality, depletion of CD20-expressing T cells may also contribute to the therapeutic ...
Learn more about the Chronic GVHD Prevention Through Naïve T Cell Depletion in BMT Transplants for Leukemia - Phase II study at UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh.
T regulatory lymphocytes were shown to be partly responsible for immune tolerance to cancer cells. In that respect these cells oppose to the mounting of
I was in the CAMMS323 trial and I received Campath (although I still do not know the dosage). I was only diagnosed with RRMS for one year and 2 months before going into the trial. I am currently at month ...
FGF and depletion of ATP induce the nuclear translocation of FGFR1. (a) Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were untreated or subjected to ATP depletion by treatment with oli
Depletion of xWRN reduces SSA. (A) Western blot of the depleted NPE. The three lanes on the right are quantitation controls and contain normal NPE at 1%, 2%, an
Treg depletion improves anti-tumor immunity but is unlikely to be curative alone. Denileukin diftitox (DT) depletes Tregs in BL6 mice and prolongs survival 11% at 5 µg/mouse weekly starting 2 weeks after challenge with ID8 ovarian cancer. Weekly human interferon (hIFN)-α 20,000 U/day on 4 consecutive days of 7 plus weekly DT survival improved 26% vs DT alone. Neither DT nor DT+hIFN-α improved survival in RAG1-/- mice with ID8, showing a requirement for adaptive immunity. hIFN-α alone reduced in vitro Treg suppression ~15% vs PBS, but did not clearly enhance DT-mediated Treg depletion, or increase T cell activation by CD69 expression. A patient in our clinical trial of DT for ovarian cancer failed, with CA-125 increasing 4.5-fold after 4 monthly cycles. Addition of weekly pegylated IFN-α2a to failed monthly DT improved blood Treg depletion 50% over DT alone and reduced CA-125 by 9-fold, demonstrating immunologic and clinical efficacy. To provide additional mechanistic insight we studied ...
In Paper I, using four congenic sub-loci within the arthritis susceptible Cia9 locus on chromosome 1, we found that the NOD.Q polymorphic Fc gamma receptor gene (FcγR) cluster located within sub-loci Cia9i and Cia9k, regulated arthritis. Polymorphic FcγR2b and FcγR4 were contained in both Cia9i and Cia9k, whereas Cia9i mice also carried polymorphic FcγR3. FcγR2b gene and protein expression were downregulated in Cia9i and Cia9k mice, whereas FcγR3 was upregulated in Cia9i mice and found downregulated in Cia9k mice compared to littermate control mice. This difference in FcγR3 expression affected killing by NK cells and phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro and PC61 antibody induced regulatory T cell depletion in vivo. Interestingly, arthritis development was regulated by interaction between FcγR2b and FcγR3 without affecting anti-collagen type II antibody secretion. These results show that polymorphisms in both FcγR2b and FcγR3 regulate the severity of inflammatory responses ...
Approaches for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (BMT) without T-cell depletion have been designed using new transplant strategies, including anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) preparative regimens, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-primed grafts, post-transplantation rapamycin, or high-dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) in combination with other immunosuppressive agents for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. These strategies ensured fast hematologic engraftment across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) barrier with an acceptable incidence of GVHD. Long-term follow-up results from different transplant centers suggest that unmanipulated transplantation may provide an alternative strategy in the haploidentical setting without requiring the technical expertise and cost of ex vivo T-cell depletion. This review discusses immune reconstitution and factors associated with clinical outcomes following unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and compares ...
Based on pilot patient observations, and experience from the prior study KTS-1-2008, the investigators anticipate that severely affected chronic fatigue syndrome patients may benefit from B-cell depletion therapy using Rituximab induction with maintenance treatment.. The hypothesis is that at least a subset of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients have an activated immune system involving B-lymphocytes, and that prolonged B-cell depletion may alleviate symptoms.. An approved amendment (April 15th 2011): the study will be extended with up to 5 patients. For up to 5 patients in the study, standard plasma exchange may be performed 2-3 weeks prior to start of B-lymphocyte depletion using Rituximab (as in the protocol).. Approved amendment (December 2011): for patients with gradual improvement in CFS/ME symptoms after 12 months follow-up, but not having reached a clear response, up to 6 additional Rituximab infusions (500 mg/m2, max 1000 mg) may be given during the following 12 months period. ...
This is a pilot study with 2 strata to evaluate engraftment and graft vs. host disease (GVHD) in patients receiving unrelated or partially matched relat
I think the new pms-rituxan studies are exploring the possibility that the treatment failed because IV administration barely penetrates the cns. The assumption is that it works in rrms because the bbb is open and therefore the rituxan can get into the cns. I believe this logic is also part of the suitability criteria for hsct relapses, no joy or something like that. The new studies all have an IT component. There is conflicting information out there regarding the usefulness of rituxan in the cns. Some claim the cns B cells arent cleared out by IT rituxan. Others claim they do. Based on successful use of IT rituxan for CNS lymphomas that were NOT managed by IV rituxan, I think the cns B cells are cleaned up by IT rituxan. Im not a doctor though...just a rampant speculator ...
Though sustainable development is a relatively recent addition to the public lexicon, concern that resource depletion may threaten the welfare of future generations dates back at least to Thomas Malthus and other classical economists writing nearly two centuries ago. Today the debate over this threat not only continues, but seems more polarized than ever. In one school are the concerned, often ecologists and other scientists and engineers, who contend the earth cannot for long continue to support current and anticipated levels of demand for oil and other exhaustible resources. In the opposing school are the unconcerned, often economists, who claim with equal conviction that the earth with the help of market incentives, appropriate public policies, and new technology can amply provide for societys needs for the indefinite future. That intelligent and informed individuals remain so divided on such an important issue for the future of humanity after years of debate is surprising. The explanation, ...
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The End of the Line (Babelgum) Endorsed by and with major marketing support from National Geographic, Greenpeace and the ... ...
Redwood City dentist, Dr. Charles Carter DDS is a dental professional dedicated to general, family, and cosmetic dentistry with services including dental exams, dental makeovers, teeth whitening, veneers, crowns, x-rays, cleanings, and more. Please call our dentist in Redwood City, CA to schedule your next appointment.
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment has recently become a first-line therapy for many non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Unfortunately, most NSCLC patients are refractory to ICI monotherapy, and initial attempts to address this issue with secondary therapeutics have proven unsuccessful. To identify entities precluding CD8+ T cell accumulation in this process, we performed unbiased analyses on flow cytometry, gene expression, and multiplexed immunohistochemical data from a NSCLC patient cohort. The results revealed the presence of a myeloid-rich subgroup, which was devoid of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Of all myeloid cell types assessed, neutrophils were the most highly associated with the myeloid phenotype. Additionally, the ratio of CD8+ T cells to neutrophils (CD8/PMN) within the tumor mass optimally distinguished between active and myeloid cases. This ratio was also capable of showing the separation of patients responsive to ICI therapy from those with stable or progressive ...
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the hosts immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of Immunosuppressive Agents (Drugs or Radiation) or by Lymphocyte Depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of Antigen and immunosuppressive Drugs ...
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load monitoring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) enables earlier detection of EBV replication and often serves as a trigger for preemptive therapies aimed at reducing EBV-related diseases. Our institutional strategy is to treat patients with clinical signs of EBV-related disease accompanied by a rising viral load, rather than to intervene based solely on viral load. This affords an opportunity to study the natural history of EBV replication and to assess whether our strategy reduces overtreatment without compromising outcomes. The objectives of the present study were to assess the natural history of untreated EBV replication in patients who underwent an alemtuzumab-based allogeneic HSCT and to examine whether our clinical strategy reduced overtreatment without compromising patient outcomes. In this retrospective single-center observational study of 515 consecutive patients (age ≥18 years) undergoing T cell-depleted allogeneic HSCT incorporating
Three gene expression signatures can help rheumatologists predict which patients are more likely to respond to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) or B-cell depletion therapies in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, according to new research findings presented this week at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Scientific Meeting in Washington.
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
0.75 x 6 x 2. Skin button made of latex. Semi-spherical shape with a tube coming out of the side. Same as #00.5A.4. Skin Buttons provided access to the body for tubes which led to and from the Thoracic Duct and made lymph dialysis possible. They were used in lymphocyte depletion prior to transplant. (See assorted papers in T.S. Hargests CV on lymphocyte drainage-skin buttons paper-#17. T.S. Hargest. CV) ...
BACKGROUND: The hallmark of HIV-1 pathogenesis is the progressive CD4(+) T cell depletion and high propensity of CD4(+) T cells to apoptosis. HIV-1 viral
The Sex Instinct and The Sex Appeal Today. The idea to write this book came to me during the time I have accessed on the networking when I was single.I have to admit that for a couple of years I was unhappy about sex when I was on my early kamammevobulxojetspeanodakhtappe.coinfo I was not abnormal.I was certain that the problem I have faced with the man,the woman I met on my kamammevobulxojetspeanodakhtappe.coinfo I am feeling something very interesting ...
Transplantation of 8 x 10(6) C57BL/6-Nu+/Nu+ (nude) bone marrow cells into C3H/HeJ recipients after conditioning with 8 Gy of total body irradiation has resulted in a markedly higher rate of graft rejection or graft failure compared to that found in recipients of normal C57BL/6 or C57BL/6-Bg+/Bg+ (beige) T-cell-depleted bone marrow. Mixing experiments using different numbers of nude bone marrow cells with or without mature thymocytes (unagglutinated by peanut agglutinin) revealed that engraftment of allogeneic T-cell-depleted bone marrow is T-cell dependent. To ensure engraftment, a large inoculum of nude bone marrow must be supplemented with a trace number of donor T cells, whereas a small bone marrow dose from nude donors requires a much larger number of T cells for engraftment. Marked enhancement of donor type chimerism was also found when F1 thymocytes were added to nude bone marrow cells, indicating that the enhancement of bone marrow engraftment by T cells is not only mediated by ...
The efficacy of B cell depletion therapies in diseases such as nephrotic syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis suggests a broader role in B cells in human disease than previously recognized. In some of these diseases, such as the minimal change disease subtype of nephrotic syndrome, pathogenic antibodies and immune complexes are not involved. We hypothesized that B cells, activated in the kidney, might produce cytokines capable of directly inducing cell injury and proteinuria. To directly test our hypothesis, we targeted a model antigen to the kidney glomerulus and showed that transfer of antigen-specific B cells could induce glomerular injury and proteinuria. This effect was mediated by IL-4, as transfer of IL-4-deficient B cells did not induce proteinuria. Overexpression of IL-4 in mice was sufficient to induce kidney injury and proteinuria and could be attenuated by JAK kinase inhibitors. Since IL-4 is a specific activator of STAT6, we analyzed kidney biopsies and demonstrated STAT6 activation in ...
Treatment with the chimerical monoclonal antibody rituximab results in CD20-directed B cell depletion. Although this depletion is almost complete in the peripheral blood of nearly all patients with...
I eat far more fresh vegetables and fruits than I do anything else, to the point of (especially during the summer months) often going through what seems ridiculous amounts of produce.. Although some people in the early stages of recovery from mold-related illness do not do well with a produce-heavy diet, for most people (including chronic illness sufferers who are further along in the recovery process) it seems to be a very good thing.. Although I am aware that fresh organic vegetables and fruits may have been grown using naturally derived pesticides, they tend to feel pretty clean to me across the board - even when produced by large growers and sold through regular grocery stores.. However, I do feel like a lot of organic supermarket produce can be lacking in terms of nutrient density, compared to some other produce that I have encountered from certain smaller growers.. Even if a farm is growing food truly organically, soil depletion may cause it to have far lower levels of minerals, ...
Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD52 to deplete circulating T and B lymphocytes; lymphocyte depletion is followed by a distinctive pattern of T- and B-cell repopulation, changing the balance of the immune system. This review reports the efficacy and safety findings of the phase 2 CAMMS223 trial and the phase 3 CARE-MS I and II trials investigating alemtuzumab for the treatment of active relapsing-remitting MS. Alemtuzumab, administered intravenously, was shown to improve relapse rate versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in patients who were treatment-naive (CAMMS223 and CARE-MS I) or had relapsed on prior therapy (CARE-MS II), and to reduce sustained accumulation of disability (CAMMS223 and CARE-MS II ...
Host preconditioning with lymphodepletion augments the antitumor activity of infused IFNγ+CD8+ T cells (Tc0) in mice and in humans with melanoma. Yet, the extent to which lymphodepletion affects the fate of antitumor IL17A+CD8+ T (Tc17) cells-an emerging subset showing great promise in ACT murine models-remains unknown. To address this, we polarized pmel-1 CD8+ T cells to secrete IL17A or IFNγ and infused them into melanoma-bearing mice that were either (i) not lymphodepleted (0 Gy TBI) or lymphodepleted with (ii) a nonmyeloablative (5 Gy TBI) or (iii) myeloablative (9 Gy TBI requiring HSC) preparative regimen. We found that Tc17 cells regressed melanoma in myeloablated mice to a greater extent than in lymphoreplete or nonmyeloablated mice (Fig. 1A-C). Moreover, Tc17 cells, but not Tc0 cells, mediated curative responses in myeloablated mice. Additional investigation revealed that Tc17 cells converted from mainly IL17A producers into IL17A+IFNγ+ double producers 2 days after transfer into ...
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076104. an infection. Hence, the VX-765 (Belnacasan) activation of NK cells, essential mediators from the innate immune system response, by treatment with an IL-15 superagonist boosts their anti-HIV activity and allows these to potently suppress severe HIV-1 an infection. These results indicate that activation of NK cells might represent a fresh immunotherapeutic method of suppress severe HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Epidemiological research have got indicated that NK cells donate to the control of HIV-1 an infection, and research have got demonstrated that NK cells may wipe out HIV-1-infected cells selectively. We showed that activation of NK cells by treatment with an IL-15 superagonist that potently stimulates the antitumor activity of NK cells markedly inhibited severe HIV-1 an infection in humanized mice, even though activation of NK cells by IL-15 superagonist treatment is normally postponed until 3 times after HIV-1 inoculation. NK cell depletion from PBMCs ahead ...
GenWay offers the transferring protein depletion column to dig deeper into the proteome. Visit the GenWay website to learn more about the transferring depletion column and other serum protein depletion column products currently available.
There is depletion of lymphocytes in lymph nodes and necrosis and destruction of the intestinal crypts. Anaerobic bacteria that ...
Soiffer, RJ (1992). "Prevention of graft-versus-host disease by selective depletion of CD6-positive T lymphocytes from donor ... CD4+ T cell depletion is one of two hallmarks of HIV. Depletion of regulatory T cells increase immune activation, the second ... However, depletion of regulatory T cells results in more intense flares of systemic lupus erythematosus. The in vivo depletion ... This problem is partially answered by more selective depletion, such as depletion of CD3+ or αβT-cell and CD19 B cell, which ...
PCV-2 (first isolated in 1997) causes PMWS, which over time results in significant depletion of lymphocytes; postmortem ...
... leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as ...
"B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and ... Normal B lymphocyte development". Blood. 70 (5): 1316-24. doi:10.1182/blood.V70.5.1316.1316. PMID 3117132. Stamenkovic I, Seed ... This gene encodes a B-lymphocyte surface molecule that plays a role in the development and differentiation of B-cells into ...
"CD4 depletion in HIV-infected haemophilia patients is associated with rapid clearance of immune complex-coated CD4+ lymphocytes ... The severe reactions in humans could have only occurred, they believe, in those with memory T lymphocytes. Animals raised in a ... Paradoxically, some kinds of the men's white blood cells (lymphocytes and monocytes, involved in immune responses) had vanished ...
... following therapeutic lymphocyte depletion with alemtuzumab (Campath-1H)". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 119 (7): 2052-61 ...
May 2019). "B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double- ... "B-cell depletion using several infusions of rituximab over 12 months was not associated with clinical improvement in patients ...
Liao K, Hung S, Hsiao Y, Bennett M, Chu R (2003). "Canine transmissible venereal tumor cell depletion of B lymphocytes: ...
"Antibody-mediated depletion of lymphocyte-activation gene-3 (LAG-3(+) )-activated T lymphocytes prevents delayed-type ... Haudebourg T, Dugast A, Coulon F, Usal C, Triebel F, Vanhove B (December 15, 2007). "Depletion of LAG-3 positive cells in ...
"Antibody-mediated depletion of lymphocyte-activation gene-3 (LAG-3+)-activated T lymphocytes prevents delayed-type ... Triebel F (May 1990). "LAG-3, a novel lymphocyte activation gene closely related to CD4". J. Exp. Med. 171 (5): 1393-405. doi: ... PMID 20653948.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Li B (2008). "Lymphocyte activation gene-3 fusion ... Casati C (March 2008). "Human lymphocyte activation gene-3 molecules expressed by activated T cells deliver costimulation ...
STIM1 is a crucial component of the CRAC influx mechanism in lymphocytes, acting as a sensor of low Ca2+ concentration in the ... STIM proteins sense the depletion of luminal Ca2+ from the ER and trigger activation of CRAC channels in the surface membrane ... Yarkoni and Cambier (2011) reported that STIM1 expression differs in murine T and B lymphocytes; mature T cells express about 4 ... The primary mechanism of extracellular Ca2+ entry in lymphocytes involves CRAC channels. ...
Prior to death the dogs also showed rapid and shallow respiration, while in rats labored respiration and lymphocyte depletion ...
Mice lacking ILC3s due to the deletion of RORγt or depletion suffered severe infections by Candida albicans. It has been shown ... Approximately 10-15% of lymphocytes were identified as ILCs, most of them producing IFN-γ ILC1s. ILC3s in the oropharyngeal ... of the resident lymphocyte population, in human lean adipose depots. A high fat diet increases ILC1 number, and activation of ... of these specific transcription factors activate or repress target genes critical in the differentiation of the lymphocyte ...
The first mechanism is based on tryptophan depletion from the tumor microenvironment. The second mechanism is based on the ... production of catabolic products called kynurenins, that are cytotoxic for T lymphocytes and NK cells. Overexpression of human ...
The cytokines B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), also known as B-cell activating factor (BAFF), interleukin 6, interleukin 17, ... January 2002). "Mitochondrial hyperpolarization and ATP depletion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus". Arthritis and ... B and T cell tolerance for apoptotic cells is abrogated, and the lymphocytes get activated by these autoantigens; inflammation ... Necrosis is increased in T lymphocytes. Tingible body macrophages (TBMs) - large phagocytic cells in the germinal centers of ...
Later, Slavin introduced the concept of post-transplant depletion of host-vs-graft and graft-vs-host reactive lymphocytes with ... Sep 1984). "Elimination of graft-versus-host disease by in-vitro depletion of alloreactive lymphocytes with a monoclonal rat ... Prigozhina TB, Elkin G, Khitrin S, Slavin S (Nov 2004). "Depletion of donor-reactive cells as a new concept for improvement of ... Slavin S (Jul 1993). "Depletion of donor-reactive cells as a new concept for improvement of mismatched bone marrow engraftment ...
However, the depletion of the CD4 lymphocytes made it very difficult to isolate the virus in patients with the disease later ... Barré-Sinoussi and her colleagues decided to add lymphocytes from a blood donor in order to save the culture and it proved ... "Naive T-Cell Depletion Related to Infection by X4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Poor Immunological Responders to ... began and clinical observations suggested that the disease attacked immune cells because of the significant CD4 cell depletion ...
Experiments on ALS that confirmed its efficacy in lymphocyte depletion led to testing of different types of preparations ... Since the discovery of a link between antilymphocyte serum (ALS) and lymphocyte depletion by Metchnikoff in 1899, various ... of ATG can induce lysis of T lymphocytes through the classical complement pathway along with B cell and NK cell depletion as ... While these antibodies have a variety of specificities, their main mechanism of immunosuppression is through depletion of T ...
Kv1.3 has been reported to be expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane in lymphocytes. The apoptotic protein Bax has been ... Franco R, DeHaven WI, Sifre MI, Bortner CD, Cidlowski JA (December 2008). "Glutathione depletion and disruption of ... DeCoursey TE, Chandy KG, Gupta S, Cahalan MD (1984). "Voltage-gated K + channels in human T lymphocytes: a role in mitogenesis ... Matteson DR, Deutsch C (1984). "K channels in T lymphocytes: a patch clamp study using monoclonal antibody adhesion". Nature. ...
Guinea pigs and injected it into normal mice he observed a marked depletion in the number of circulating mouse lymphocytes. ... Temporary depletion of the T-cell population at the time of the transplant also risks delayed acute rejection, which may be ... A similar trial of anti-lymphocyte globulin showed a trend in reduction of acute graft versus host that was not statistically ... A rabbit anti-T lymphocyte globulin made by Neovii Pharmaceuticals is marketed outside of the United States under the name ...
"Crk-associated substrate lymphocyte type is required for lymphocyte trafficking and marginal zone B cell maintenance". J. ... NEDD9 depletion sensitizes breast tumor cell lines to the Aurora A inhibitor alisertib. Consideration of NEDD9 as a biomarker ... In lymphocytes, integrin or TCR signaling induces NEDD9 phosphorylation by tyrosine kinases Fyn and Lck (SRC family kinases), ... Ice RJ, McLaughlin SL, Livengood RH, Culp MV, Eddy ER, Ivanov AV, Pugacheva EN (2013). "NEDD9 depletion destabilizes Aurora A ...
Lympho-depletion is thought to eliminate the negative effects of other lymphocytes that may compete for growth factors and ... Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms Lion Biotechnologies, Inc. (Lymphocytes ... "Specific lymphocyte subsets predict response to adoptive cell therapy using expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes ... CD8+-Enriched Autologous Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes Following a Lymphocyte Depleting Regimen in Metastatic Digestive Tract ...
... leading to the selective depletion of dividing and non-dividing T and B lymphocytes. In contrast, the DCK:5'-NT ratio is ... As a result, a reduction in lymphocyte count (lymphopenia) may be reported following treatment. In clinical trials, lymphocyte ... it is proposed to have a transient effect on B and T lymphocyte depletion, interrupting the cascade of immune events central to ... This ratio differs between cell types, with high levels in T and B lymphocytes, resulting in selective targeting of these cells ...
Rüegg C, Pytela R (1995). "Sequence of a human transcript expressed in T-lymphocytes and encoding a fibrinogen-like protein". ... it has been shown that depletion of the Treg cell population in murine models for disease lead to enhanced immune responses to ... 1998). "Characterization of human fibroleukin, a fibrinogen-like protein secreted by T lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 161 (1): 138- ... HCV's core protein has been found to increase the levels of expression of sFGL2 and cause virus-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes to ...
... "depression is accompanied by a depletion of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids". Their methodology involved taking periodic blood ... number of peripheral blood lymphocytes and serum sIL-2R) variables. Another study focused on the association between depression ...
... lymphocyte depletion MeSH E02.095.520.450.800 - transplantation conditioning MeSH E02.095.520.750 - radioimmunotherapy MeSH ... lymphocyte transfusion MeSH E02. - platelet transfusion MeSH E02.095.135.164 - blood transfusion, autologous ...
... and macrophages that attack mainly steroid-producing cells and eventually result in follicular depletion. In some women FSH may ... examination almost always confirms the presence of an autoimmune oophoritis in which follicles are infiltrated by lymphocytes, ...
... lymphocyte depletion MeSH E05.478.610.800 - transplantation conditioning MeSH E05.490.630.569 - microscopy, phase-contrast MeSH ... lymphocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.595.500.150 - cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.595.500.150.160 - cd4-cd8 ... lymphocyte culture test, mixed MeSH E05.478.550.520 - immunization, passive MeSH E05.478.550.520.050 - adoptive transfer MeSH ...
... negative signaling is of particular interest in view of the progressive depletion of the CD4+ subset of T lymphocytes by the ...
Recent study proposes that the primary "killing units" of CD4 T cells leading to CD4 T-cell depletion and progression to AIDS ... 2005). "Engagement of specific T-cell surface molecules regulates cytoskeletal polarization in HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes". ... "Spread of HTLV-I between lymphocytes by virus-induced polarization of the cytoskeleton". Science. 299 (5613): 1713-1716. ...
A low level of blood lymphocytes may result from the virus acting through ACE2-related entry into lymphocytes. Another common ... Spleen: white pulp depletion. Preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection include getting vaccinated, staying at ... Autopsies of people who died of COVID‑19 have found diffuse alveolar damage, and lymphocyte-containing inflammatory infiltrates ...
DNA damage may trigger signalling pathways, such as apoptosis, that contribute to depletion of stem cell stocks. This has been ... Wolf, FI; Fasanella, S; Tedesco, B; Cavallini, G; Donati, A; Bergamini, E; Cittadini, A (Mar 2005). "Peripheral lymphocyte 8- ... "Oxidative DNA damage repair and parp 1 and parp 2 expression in Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocyte cells from young ...
This overproduction causes depletion of the melanocyte stem cells which are required to produce melanin, the pigment ... DNA-repair parameters in peripheral lymphocytes of Down's syndrome patients". Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. 100 (1): 85 ...
For example, lymphocyte proliferation can be measured this way in lymphoproliferative disorders. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) is ... diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown under conditions in which thymidyate levels varied from excess to depletion. ...
Maternal immune factors are transferred by lymphocytes traveling from the mother's gut to the mammary gland where the secretory ... except in cases of extreme maternal depletion. Seasonal changes and malnutrition influence the concentration of immune factors ... Their presence in human milk may stimulate lymphocytes responsible for the development of the infant's specific immunity. ...
Groundwater depletion is a concern in some areas because of sustainability issues (and in some cases, land subsidence and/or ... Müller-Suur, C.; Larsson, K.; Malmberg, P.; Larsson, P.H. (1997). "Increased number of activated lymphocytes in human lung ... Groundwater depletion in the United States (1900-2008). United States Geological Survey. Scientific Investigations Report 2013- ... Some irrigated livestock feed production is not hydrologically sustainable in the long run because of aquifer depletion. ...
Such cells include physiologically relevant primary CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages. The encapsidation of APOBEC3G into HIV-1 ... to be particularly important for APOBEC3G interactions with Vif because a D128K point mutation prevents Vif-dependent depletion ... substitution in human APOBEC3G antiretroviral enzyme confers resistance to HIV-1 virion infectivity factor-induced depletion". ...
Depletion of B cells increased CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion but decreased IL-10 secretion. Blocking IL-10 or ... All of these lymphocytes act, at least in part, by secreting IL-10 and other suppressive cytokines.[citation needed] CD4+ T ... There is a 9.6 fold increase in IL-10 expressing CD8+ T cells among PBMC lymphocytes from PKDL patients. In the one study of T ... Depletion of CD8+ T cells from VL PBMC stopped endogenous IL-10 secretion but increased Leishmania antigen specific IL-10 ...
... and B-lymphocytes. ALOX5 metabolizes arachidonic acid to the 5,6-epoxide precursor, LTA4, which is then acted on by LTC4 ... blockage of P2Y12 activation either by receptor depletion or pharmacological methods inhibits many of the CysLTR1-dependent ... B lymphocytes, pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (CD34+), mast cells, pancreas, small intestine, prostate, interstitial ...
Dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease is associated with repressive histone modifications, including reduced H3K4me3, and ... Another effect of VPA is its prevention of macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation in the spinal cords of MS rats. Currently, ... Research in China has identified the gene CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) as being highly methylated in myasthenia ...
Prolonged depletion of B cells (with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment that affects B cells but not PC) also did not ... Common variable immunodeficiency is thought to be due to a problem in the differentiation from lymphocytes to plasma cells. The ... The absence of antigens and the depletion of B cells does not appear to have an effect on the production of high-affinity ... January 2008). "Maintenance of long-lived plasma cells and serological memory despite mature and memory B cell depletion during ...
Unusually, CASS4 depletion had a bimodal affect, causing some cells to have lower velocity and others to have higher velocity ... These are compatible with regulation relevant to lymphocytes and deregulation in cancer. In vertebrates, the CAS protein family ...
McCune, J. M. (2001). "The dynamics of CD4+ T-cell depletion in HIV disease". Nature. 410 (6831): 974-9. Bibcode:2001Natur.410 ... "CD4 T-lymphocyte recovery in individuals with advanced HIV-1 infection receiving potent antiretroviral therapy for 4 years: The ... "Cell dysfunction and depletion in AIDS: The programmed cell death hypothesis". Immunology Today. 12 (4): 102-5. doi:10.1016/ ...
Artificial depletion of lacritin from normal human tears revealed that tears lacking lacritin are unable to promote the ... heparanase mechanism appears at first glance to be poor for ocular health since heparanase release from invading lymphocytes in ... Indeed, no binding was detected from cells lacking heparanase after siRNA depletion. Binding was restored by spiking in ...
PTHB1 Bare lymphocyte syndrome, type I; 604571; TAP1 Bare lymphocyte syndrome, type I; 604571; TAPBP Bare lymphocyte syndrome, ... MPV17 Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form; 609560; TK2 Mitochondrial DNA-depletion syndrome, hepatocerebral ... MHC2TA Bare lymphocyte syndrome, type II, complementation group C; 209920; RFX5 Bare lymphocyte syndrome, type II, ... RRM2B Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, hepatocerebral form; 251880; C10orf2 Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, ...
Kline-Smith, S. L.; Khodjakov, A; Hergert, P; Walczak, C. E. (2004). "Depletion of centromeric MCAK leads to chromosome ... In mitotic vertebrate B lymphocytes, the proper centromeric localization of a number of Aurora B binding partners requires ... In Drosophila cells, Aurora B depletion disrupts chromosome structure and compaction. In these cells, the condensin complex ...
... s are also shown to play a role in the development and homeostasis of T lymphocytes. This has been shown in ... potassium depletion, and metabolic alkalosis. Glucocorticoids cause immunosuppression, decreasing the function and/or numbers ... The diminished amounts of IL-2 also cause fewer T lymphocyte cells to be activated. The effect of glucocorticoids on Fc ... This includes inhibitory effects on lymphocyte proliferation, as in the treatment of lymphomas and leukemias, and the ...
Depletion of these two cyclophilins leads to hyperoxidation of the ER. In the ER, PPIB interacts with proteins such as P3H1, ... This protein can bind to cells derived from T- and B-lymphocytes, and may regulate cyclosporine A-mediated immunosuppression. ... Stocki P, Chapman DC, Beach LA, Williams DB (Aug 2014). "Depletion of cyclophilins B and C leads to dysregulation of ... recognized by HLA-A24-restricted and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes which could be used as cancer vaccines, and in fact ...
... s, also known as NK cells or large granular lymphocytes (LGL), are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical ... Depletion of the inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma reversed the effect.[citation needed] Tumor-infiltrating NK cells have ... Pross HF, Jondal M (August 1975). "Cytotoxic lymphocytes from normal donors. A functional marker of human non-T lymphocytes". ... granular lymphocytes known today as NK cells. The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were ...
GVHD can often be avoided by T-cell depletion of the graft. The use of a high dose cyclophosphamide post-transplant in a half ... "Immunosuppressive effect of cyclophosphamide on white blood cells and lymphocyte subpopulations from peripheral blood of Balb/c ... Or-Geva N, Reisner Y (March 2016). "The evolution of T-cell depletion in haploidentical stem-cell transplantation". British ...
The depletion of oxygen within a body of water can lead to the creation of a dead zone. Dead zones occur when a body of water ... a reduction in lymphocyte proliferation responses, and oxidative stress. Fish such as Atlantic herring, American pollock, ... and for the first time proven to identify the rapid growth of algae and the subsequent depletion of oxygen in the water. ... resulting in asphyxiation oxygen depletion of the water column (hypoxia or anoxia) from cellular respiration and bacterial ...
Coe D, Begom S, Addey C, White M, Dyson J, Chai JG (2010). "Depletion of regulatory T cells by anti-GITR mAb as a novel ... Ronchetti S, Nocentini G, Riccardi C, Pandolfi PP (2002). "Role of GITR in activation response of T lymphocytes". Blood. 100 (1 ... "Role of GITR in activation response of T lymphocytes". Blood. 100 (1): 350-352. doi:10.1182/blood-2001-12-0276. ISSN 1528-0020 ...
One study showed that depletion of zinc by TPEN induced apoptosis in liver cells of rats. This may be because zinc is necessary ... This leads to the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9. When these T lymphocytes were pretreated with caspase inhibitors, DNA ... "Cellular Zn depletion by metal ion chelators (TPEN, DTPA and chelex resin) and its application to osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells ... and found that depletion of intracellular zinc with TPEN induces apoptosis. Additionally, the same study found that TPEN ...
... especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the ... primary and metastatic disease or nutritional depletion. Aerobic exercise has been found to be beneficial in reducing fatigue ...
... depletion of B cells using rituximab in combination with antiviral therapy or used alone in patients refractory to antiviral ... antibody directed against CD20 surface antigen-bearing lymphocytes) in patients with Waldenstroms macroglobulonemia). Treatment ...
Unexplained CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Depletion in Persons Without Evident HIV Infection -- United States Since 1989, 21 persons with ... The cause of CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in the patients described in this report and in other reports is unknown; moreover, it ... CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion (absolute CD4+ T-cell level less than 300 cells/uL or less than 20% on more than one determination ... one possibility is that some or all of these case reports of unexplained CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion are part of background ...
In vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells abrogates priming of CD8+ T cells by exogenous cell-associated antigens. Immunity ... Cell isolation and depletion.. We isolated naive Tg CD8 cells from SYVPSAEQI-specific CD8+ TCR-transgenic mice and calculated ... Chakravarty, S., Cockburn, I., Kuk, S. et al. CD8+ T lymphocytes protective against malaria liver stages are primed in skin- ... CD8+ T lymphocytes protective against malaria liver stages are primed in skin-draining lymph nodes. *Sumana Chakravarty1, ...
... lymphocyte depletion; MC = mixed cellularity. ... Absolute lymphocyte count less than 600/mm3, less than 8% of ... Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) constitutes 5% of ... 1] Nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depleted, and lymphocyte rich are the four types referred to as classical ... Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin lymphoma. LDHL constitutes less than 1% of cases. The infiltrate in LDHL is diffuse and often ...
A 3-Year Observational Study of Patients with Progressive Systemic Sclerosis Treated with an Intensified B Lymphocyte Depletion ... Objectives: We aimed at investigating the 36-month outcomes of 20 SSc patients who underwent an intensified B-depletion therapy ... Objectives: We aimed at investigating the 36-month outcomes of 20 SSc patients who underwent an intensified B-depletion therapy ...
Depletion or inhibition of T-regs can enhance antitumor immunity. We demonstrated both by RT-PCR and by E … ... Lymphocyte Activation / immunology * Lymphocyte Depletion * Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology * Mice * Mice, Inbred ... Depletion or inhibition of T-regs can enhance antitumor immunity. We demonstrated both by RT-PCR and by ELISA that murine TANs ... Systemic neutrophil depletion in tumor-bearing mice using anti-Ly6G monoclonal antibodies reduced the migration of T-regs into ...
... and coincided with the entire period of B-lymphocyte depletion; this depletion was more pronounced in LON patients (P=0.002) ... Late-onset neutropenia following rituximab therapy in rheumatic diseases: Association with B-lymphocyte depletion and ... LON is a clinically significant adverse event associated with marked B-lymphocyte depletion and severe infections. The ...
In Vivo T-Cell Depletion. Acute depletion of lymphocyte populations by MAb treatment on days -3, +2, +8 relative to day of ... Lymphocyte depletion was confirmed to be complete; residual CD4+ or CD8+ cells were ,1% (data not shown). Of the B/NP control ... Individual depletion of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells did not abrogate protection. Depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells together partially ... Given the effect of T-cell depletion, we tested for in vitro M2-specific IFN-γ-producing T cells. The IFN-γ ELISPOT assay ...
Depletion of circulating eosinophils and lymphocytes. *. Reduction of circulating lymphocytes (primarily T cells) ...
Categories: Lymphocyte Depletion Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Lymphopenia, hypoprolactinemia and lymphocyte depletion in pediatric multiple organ failure Authors: K Felmet, M Hall, R Jaffe ... Peripheral blood lymphocytes of critically ill patients show signs of late stage apoptosis Authors: SU Weber, J-C Schewe, S ... Changes in lymphocyte subpopulations during enrichment of early enteral nutrition with lactic acid bacterium after major ...
Generally, induction was lymphocyte depletion (Thymoglobulin; Genzyme, Cambridge, MA) for patients with a PRA ,40% or in ... Donor lymphocytes are isolated from whole blood using EasySep kits, which yield highly purified lymphocytes. Approximately 0.25 ... T and B lymphocytes are analyzed using allophycocyanin-conjugated anti-CD3 (clone SK7) and PE-conjugated anti-CD19 (clone 4G7) ... Traditionally, a physical crossmatch (PXM) using donor lymphocytes and patient serum has been performed before transplant to ...
An open study of B lymphocyte depletion in systemic lupus erythematosus.. Arthritis Rheum. 2002; 46: 2673-2677. View in Article ... A vascular permeability factor in lymphocyte culture supernants from patients with nephrotic syndrome. II. Pharmacological and ...
HIV infection is characterized by a decrease and, eventually, a depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells). Using ... HIV Antibody Test, CD4+ T Lymphocytes & CD8+ T Cells (LAB03) Data File: LAB03.xpt First Published: December 2004. Last Revised ... The absolute count of a full lymphocyte subset profile (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD3-CD19+, CD3-CD16/56+) can be determined in ... Enumeration of CD4+ lymphocytes in HIV-positive participants and age-matched controls was performed on cryopreserved whole ...
Show author(s) (2011). Benefit from B-lymphocyte depletion using the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in chronic fatigue syndrome. ...
Free Dox, but not Lip-Dox or a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox, caused the substantial depletion of leukocytes and ... Lymphocyte depletion during treatment with intensive chemotherapy for cancer. Blood. 1994;84(7):2221-2228. ... Th-1 lymphocytes induce dendritic cell tumor killing activity by an IFN-γ-dependent mechanism. J Immunol. 2011;187(12):6310- ... Free Dox, but not Lip-Dox or a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox, caused the substantial depletion of leukocytes and ...
... this finding has been ascribed to depletion of infected cells, presumably T-lymphocytes (30,32). Sharing blood-contaminated ... ATL is a malignancy of HTLV-I-infected CD4+ T-lymphocytes. The HTLV-I provirus is monoclonally integrated in the abnormal cell ... Detection and isolation of type-C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell ... Detection of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus, type II, in a patient with large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Blood 1992;80 ...
Rapid depletion of B lymphocytes by ultra-low-dose rituximab delivered intrathecally ...
Part of the DEP effects may be due to a depletion of glutathione in lymphocytes. The organic component, which is shown to ... and lymphocytes, and activate AM in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The organic ...
Benefit from B-lymphocyte depletion using the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in chronic fatigue syndrome. A double-blind and ... A recent Norwegian study showed that antibody treatment against B lymphocytes had beneficial effects in a majority of patients ...
... lymphocyte depletion in the thymus of 9 male and 8 female rats and lymphocyte necrosis in the thymus of 1 male and 6 female ... lymphocyte depletion in the thymus of 5 females and lymphocyte necrosis in the thymus of 4 females. Male and female rats ... and slightly decreased lymphocytes in males and females (males: controls--77 6.9% [12 mo] and 76.6 7.6% [18 mo]; 750 mg/kg bw/ ...
Lymphocyte depletion also occurs either by complement-dependent lysis in the intravascular space or by opsonization and ... Antibodies interact with lymphocyte surface antigens, depleting circulating thymus-derived lymphocytes and interfering with ... They include clonal deletion and the development of anergy in donor specific lymphocytes, development of suppressor lymphocytes ... Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) can be used to assess the degree of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II ...
... a purine analog that interferes with DNA synthesis inducing a prolonged lymphocyte depletion; and alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 ... As expected, lymphocyte count at the time of immune-based assays sampling was significantly decreased in patients treated with ... Cladribine treatment of multiple sclerosis is associated with depletion of memory B cells. J Neurol. 2018;265:1199-1209. ... The therapies with IFN-β and fingolimod were not interrupted when vaccination was scheduled.22 Blood tests and lymphocyte count ...
Lymphocyte Depletion: This aggressive type of HL characterized by a few normal lymphocytes with an abundance of RS cells. ... Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes. *Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant: This slow-growing type of HL is associated ... Lymphocyte-Rich: Characterized by the presence of numerous normal- appearing lymphocytes and classic RS cells. ...
Induction of remission by B lymphocyte depletion in eleven patients with refractory antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody- ...
Intraepithelial lymphocytes", ... Dive into the research topics of Cytotoxic T cell depletion ... Cytotoxic T cell depletion with increasing epithelial abnormality in women with benign breast disease. Breast Cancer Research ... Cytotoxic T cell depletion with increasing epithelial abnormality in women with benign breast disease. In: Breast Cancer ... Cytotoxic T cell depletion with increasing epithelial abnormality in women with benign breast disease. / Adhikary, Sabina; ...
Depletion State , Physiology) for each neuron. We then summed these probabilities to determine the depletion state with the ... 2016) Pathological α-synuclein transmission initiated by binding lymphocyte-activation gene 3 Science 353:aah3374. ... suggesting that across depletion models, a similar correlation exists between physiology, behavior, and depletion severity. ... "the progression of SNr pathophysiology depends more on the stage of dopamine depletion than the mechanism of depletion", the ...
Bone marrow transplantation from related donors other than HLA-identical siblings: Effect of T cell depletion. Bone marrow ... Bone marrow transplantation from related donors other than HLA-identical siblings : Effect of T cell depletion. / Ash, R. C.; ... Bone marrow transplantation from related donors other than HLA-identical siblings : Effect of T cell depletion. In: Bone marrow ... title = "Bone marrow transplantation from related donors other than HLA-identical siblings: Effect of T cell depletion", ...
... lymphocyte depletion. An HBLS value of no more than 1 (no or slight lesion) was defined as protective against IBDV challenge [1 ...
The mechanism of the antitumor effect was characterized by depletion of subsets of lymphocytes as well as adopted transfer of ... The mechanism of the antitumor effect was characterized by depletion of subsets of lymphocytes as well as adopted transfer of ... The mechanism of the antitumor effect was characterized by depletion of subsets of lymphocytes as well as adopted transfer of ... The mechanism of the antitumor effect was characterized by depletion of subsets of lymphocytes as well as adopted transfer of ...
  • Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant: This slow-growing type of HL is associated with abnormal B cells, which may be distributed in a nodular (knot-like) pattern within the tissues. (
  • For therapeutic purposes, nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL is managed in the same way as indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (see Follicular Lymphoma [non-Hodgkin Lymphoma] ). (
  • in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen. (
  • Objectives: We aimed at investigating the 36-month outcomes of 20 SSc patients who underwent an intensified B-depletion therapy (IBCDT) scheme, including both Rituximab (RTX) and cyclophosphamide (CYC). (
  • Conclusion: In patients treated with rituximab for rheumatic diseases, LON is a clinically significant adverse event associated with marked B-lymphocyte depletion and severe infections. (
  • 1 In addition, despite inducing prolonged depletion of circulating B lymphocytes, systemic rituximab does not affect malignant B cells in CNS lymphomas. (
  • 3 The intrathecal synthesis of IgG 4 in patients with IgG 4 -related hypertrophic pachymeningitis(RHP) and the clinical improvement after rituximab in patients with systemic involvement, support a pathogenic role of B lymphocytes. (
  • The hypothesis is that a subset of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/ myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), including also patients with no clinical response after B-cell depletion therapy using the anti-CD20 antibody Rituximab, may benefit from tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibition using Etanercept as weekly subcutaneous injections. (
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Inhibition Using Etanercept in Moderate and Serious Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), Including in Patients With no Clinical Response After B-lymphocyte Depletion Using the Anti-CD20 Antibody Rituximab. (
  • Systemic neutrophil depletion in tumor-bearing mice using anti-Ly6G monoclonal antibodies reduced the migration of T-regs into the tumors. (
  • The current study describes what we believe to be a novel mechanism by which ARG1 mRNA expression is regulated in neutrophils in cancer and highlights the central role that neutrophil lineage cells play in the suppression of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (
  • The association between the admission lymphocyte and neutrophil counts and the risk of bacteraemia was assessed. (
  • Both lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, rather than total white blood cell count, should be considered in adult medical admissions with suspected bacteraemia. (
  • 13, 14 We sought to clarify the relation between age, lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, and bacteraemia by the study of a large cohort of adults with medical emergencies in a region, which, at the time of study, had a low prevalence of HIV. (
  • Flow cytometric estimation of the apoptotic marker CD95 in peripheral neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes was done for 18 infants with non-oedematous protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and 12 oedematous ones, on hospital admission and after supervised nutritional rehabilitation, and compared with 12 matched controls. (
  • Rapid degradation of condensin I and condensin II - two essential regulators of mitotic chromosome structure - revealed that both complexes are individually required for cell division in precursor lymphocytes, but not in their differentiated peripheral lymphocyte derivatives. (
  • HIV infection is characterized by a decrease and, eventually, a depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells). (
  • Using immunophenotyping, HIV-positive blood samples and age-matched controls were tested for the proportion of lymphocytes that are T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells (helper T cells), and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells). (
  • Various immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, play a protective role in suppressing the development and progression of tumors. (
  • Lymphocyte Depletion: This aggressive type of HL characterized by a few normal lymphocytes with an abundance of RS cells. (
  • Lymphocyte-Rich: Characterized by the presence of numerous normal- appearing lymphocytes and classic RS cells. (
  • The major cause of this syndrome is depletion of immature parenchymal stem cells in specific tissues. (
  • Myeloid lineage cells suppress T cell viability through arginine depletion via arginase 1 (ARG1). (
  • The kit is optimized for high yield of tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, while preserving important cell surface epitopes. (
  • This research demonstrated that the measles virus attacks T lymphocytes - cells that build up "immune memory" against other diseases - creating a state of immune amnesia. (
  • IL-21R expression on CD25 - lymphocytes suggested that IL-21 could be more effective in mice depleted of CD25 + cells. (
  • Natural killer cells, also known as NK cells are a type of lymphocytes and are key components of the innate immune system. (
  • NK cells are derived from the common lymphoid progenitor cells (lymphoblasts), which also generate B and T lymphocytes. (
  • First, the appearance of cytotoxic CD8 + T lymphocytes (CTLs) during acute HIV infection coincided with a decrease in plasma viremia, and the experimental depletion of CD8 + T cells in vivo resulted in a rapid increase in plasma viremia in the simian immunodeficiency virus infected macaque model [1] , [2] . (
  • The development of skin sensitization is associated with, and requires, the activation and clonal expansion of allergen responsive T lymphocytes and it is these cells that orchestrate the cutaneous allergic reaction. (
  • Induction of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes by Immunization with Dengue Virus - Derived, Modified Epitope Peptide, Using Dendritic Cells as a Peptide Delivery System. (
  • The mechanism of the antitumor effect was characterized by depletion of subsets of lymphocytes as well as adopted transfer of serum from pcDNA3-Hmeso-vaccinated mice. (
  • The surface area of the villus is reduced (villus blunting), along with the appearance of a dense intraepithelial infiltrate of CD8 + T lymphocytes. (
  • In this study, we use toxin- and neurodegeneration-induced mouse models of dopamine depletion to establish the physiological trajectory by which the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) transitions from the healthy to the diseased state. (
  • Despite a vast literature describing basal ganglia pathophysiology at end-stages of dopamine loss, the question of when deficits emerge over the course of progressive depletion is poorly understood. (
  • To study the onset and progression of basal ganglia pathophysiology during progressive dopamine loss, we recorded from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) of mice at different severities of dopamine depletion, induced at rates ranging from 3 days - 6 months, using both toxin and neurodegenerative models. (
  • Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of anti-PD1 and SX-682 (CXCR1/2 inhibitor) displayed relocation of lymphocytes from the tumor periphery into a malignant tumor, which was associated with induction of IFN-γ-responsive genes. (
  • Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) (LIGHT) is an interesting costimulatory molecule associated with T lymphocyte activation, and it mainly exerts its biological effects by binding to its receptors herpesvirus invasion mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin-ß receptor. (
  • As such, our results establish SSB1/2 as safeguards of B cell development and unveil their differential requirement in immature and mature B lymphocytes. (
  • CD4 + T lymphocytes also recognize proteins derived from other microorganisms such as Chlamydia pneumoniae , Herpes simplex , Helicobacterpylori , and CMV [ 13 - 16 ]. (
  • Depletion or inhibition of T-regs can enhance antitumor immunity. (
  • Both belong to the oncovirus subfamily of retroviruses and can transform human lymphocytes so that they are self-sustaining in vitro. (
  • In severe cases of gastroenteritis with volume depletion, electrolytes and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine should be monitored. (
  • In addition, CDC has received reports of five persons from three states who have had persistently low CD4+ T-cell levels but who have had no evidence of HIV infection or underlying disease processes or therapies known to be associated with T-cell depletion. (
  • The Cambridge Biotech HIV-1 Western Blot Kit is manufactured by Calypte Corporation from HIV-I propagated in an H9/HTLV-IIIb T-lymphocyte cell line. (
  • Results of 470 bone marrow transplants from related donors other than genotypically HLA-identical siblings (alternative related donors) were analysed to identify factors associated with transplant outcome and to determine whether T cell depletion improved results. (
  • T cell depletion increased graft failure and decreased acute GVHD after alternative related donor transplants but did not improve leukemia-free survival. (
  • Mina was motivated to pursue this analysis after reading a paper co-authored by Rik L. de Swart from Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands, which found profound associations between measles and memory-cell depletion. (
  • The relative efficacy of distinct antiviral CD8+ T-cell specificity can be directly assessed via antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell depletion. (
  • Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. (
  • In conclusion, immunotherapy of micrometastases by an IL-21-based cellular vaccine is strongly potentiated by CD25 + cell depletion. (
  • The COX-2 gene promoter polymorphism -765 delays CD4 T-cell reconstitution after lymphocyte depletion with antithymocyte globulins. (
  • We recently reported that transient in vivo CD8+ cell depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected elite controller (EC) macaques resulted in a brief period of viral recrudescence. (
  • Free Dox, but not Lip-Dox or a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox, caused the substantial depletion of leukocytes and significantly increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase in mice. (
  • Guido Silvestri and colleagues use an interleukin-15 superagonist in conjunction with CD8 + lymphocyte depletion to achieve substantial and persistent virus reactivation in all treated animals. (
  • 11, 12 Generalisation of the published data to other populations is further complicated by the gradual decline in lymphocyte counts that occurs as normal adults age. (
  • La última se realiza ex vivo en la médula ósea antes de su trasplante. (
  • Despite numerous studies exploring the mechanisms by which ARG1 perturbs lymphocyte function, the cellular populations responsible for its generation and release remain poorly understood. (
  • Background and Objectives: Water and sanitation are major public healthissues exacerbated by rapid population growth, limited resources, disasters andenvironmental depletion. (
  • Tap water supplementation of BV did not alter the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes, heterophils, and lymphocytes. (
  • Since 1989, 21 persons with unexplained CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion, but without evident human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, have been described (1-12). (
  • Drozd K, Wysokinski D, Krupa R, Wozniak K. Bisphenol A-glycid methacrylate induces a broad spectrum of DNA damage in human lymphocytes. (
  • this depletion was more pronounced in LON patients (P=0.002) than in a control group consisting of 20 matched patients without LON. (
  • Parasites remain in the liver for only a short duration and there may not be sufficient time to recruit lymphocytes from other organs 21 . (
  • Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación. (
  • Enumeration of CD4+ lymphocytes in HIV-positive participants and age-matched controls was performed on cryopreserved whole blood using the method reported by Fiebig et. (
  • The particulate component is known to induce alveolar epithelial damage, alter thiol levels in alveolar macrophages (AM) and lymphocytes, and activate AM in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. (
  • A hastily convened meeting by the Centers for Disease Control at Atlanta, Georgia, agreed to name the new phenomenon "CD4 T-lymphocyte depletion in persons without evident HIV infection", or just mystery virus, for short. (