Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE. Members contain chrysophanic acid, rhein, EMODIN, and other ANTHRAQUINONES. The roots were formerly used as PURGATIVES.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.
The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
A formal process of examination of patient care or research proposals for conformity with ethical standards. The review is usually conducted by an organized clinical or research ethics committee (CLINICAL ETHICS COMMITTEES or RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES), sometimes by a subset of such a committee, an ad hoc group, or an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS).
Committees established by professional societies, health facilities, or other institutions to consider decisions that have bioethical implications. The role of these committees may include consultation, education, mediation, and/or review of policies and practices. Committees that consider the ethical dimensions of patient care are ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL; committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects are ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.
Terrorism on September 11, 2001 against targets in New York, the Pentagon in Virginia, and an aborted attack that ended in Pennsylvania.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. (1/2123)

BACKGROUND: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.  (+info)

From myocarditis to cardiomyopathy: mechanisms of inflammation and cell death: learning from the past for the future. (2/2123)

A progression from viral myocarditis to dilated cardiomyopathy has long been hypothesized, but the actual extent of this progression has been uncertain. However, a causal link between viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy has become more evident than before with the tremendous developments in the molecular analyses of autopsy and endomyocardial biopsy specimens, new techniques of viral gene amplification, and modern immunology. The persistence of viral RNA in the myocardium beyond 90 days after inoculation, confirmed by the method of polymerase chain reaction, has given us new insights into the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Moreover, new knowledge of T-cell-mediated immune responses in murine viral myocarditis has contributed a great deal to the understanding of the mechanisms of ongoing disease processes. Apoptotic cell death may provide the third concept to explain the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy, in addition to persistent viral RNA in the heart tissue and an immune system-mediated mechanism. Beneficial effects of alpha1-adrenergic blocking agents, carteolol, verapamil, and ACE inhibitors have been shown clinically and experimentally in the treatment of viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Antiviral agents should be more extensively investigated for clinical use. The rather discouraging results obtained to date with immunosuppressive agents in the treatment of viral myocarditis indicated the importance of sparing neutralizing antibody production, which may be controlled by B cells, and raised the possibility of promising developments in immunomodulating therapy.  (+info)

Immune surveillance against a solid tumor fails because of immunological ignorance. (3/2123)

Many peripheral solid tumors such as sarcomas and carcinomas express tumor-specific antigens that can serve as targets for immune effector T cells. Nevertheless, overall immune surveillance against such tumors seems relatively inefficient. We studied immune surveillance against a s.c. sarcoma expressing a characterized viral tumor antigen. Surprisingly, the tumor cells were capable of inducing a protective cytotoxic T cell response if transferred as a single-cell suspension. However, if they were transplanted as small tumor pieces, tumors readily grew. Tumor growth correlated strictly with (i) failure of tumor cells to reach the draining lymph nodes and (ii) absence of primed cytotoxic T cells. Cytotoxic T cells were not tolerant or deleted because a tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell response was readily induced in lymphoid tissue by immunization with virus or with tumor cells even in the presence of large tumors. Established tumors were rejected by vaccine-induced effector T cells if effector T cells were maintained by prolonged or repetitive vaccination, but not by single-dose vaccination. Thus, in addition to several other tumor-promoting parameters, some antigenic peripheral sarcomas-and probably carcinomas-may grow not because they anergize or tolerize tumor-specific T cells, but because such tumors are immunologically dealt with as if they were in a so-called immunologically privileged site and are ignored for too long.  (+info)

T-cell receptor transgenic analysis of tumor-specific CD8 and CD4 responses in the eradication of solid tumors. (4/2123)

The role of tumor-specific CD8 and CD4 lymphocytes in rejecting solid tumors has been difficult to determine because of the lack of models in which tumor antigen, specific CD8 cells, and specific CD4 cells can be monitored and controlled. To investigate the minimal components required for the induction and maintenance of CTL activity sufficient to reject a solid tumor in vivo, we transfected the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) gene into a nonimmunogenic class I+/class II- murine malignant mesothelioma (MM) tumor line to generate an endogenous tumor antigen and used TCR transgenic mice with class I- or class II-restricted specificities for HA as sources of naive, tumor-specific T cells. The data show that the presence of a strong tumor antigen is not in itself sufficient to induce an effective CTL response, nor does the presence of a high frequency of precursor cells guarantee tumor rejection. We also show that tumor-specific CD4 cells, when CTL numbers are suboptimal, greatly enhance the eradication of tumor, confirming the importance of antigen-presenting cell presentation of tumor antigens to class II-restricted cells. These data confirm that T-cell receptor transgenic cells, combined with nominal tumor antigen transfection, represent powerful tools to analyze tumor-specific T-cell responses.  (+info)

Immunological control of a murine gammaherpesvirus independent of CD8+ T cells. (5/2123)

Adult thymectomized C57 BL/6J mice were depleted of T cell subsets by MAb treatment either prior to, or after, respiratory challenge with murine gammaherpesvirus-68. Protection against acute infection was maintained when either the CD4+ or the CD8+ T cell population was greatly diminished, whereas the concurrent removal of both T cell subsets proved invariably fatal. The same depletions had little effect on mice with established infection. The results indicate firstly that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells play a significant part in dealing with the acute infection, and secondly that virus-specific antibody contributes to controlling persistent infection with this gammaherpesvirus.  (+info)

Effective treatment of autoimmune disease and progressive renal disease by mixed bone-marrow transplantation that establishes a stable mixed chimerism in BXSB recipient mice. (6/2123)

Male BXSB mice spontaneously develop autoimmune disease with features similar to systemic lupus erythematosus. To determine whether this autoimmune disease can be treated as well as prevented by bone-marrow transplantation (BMT) and, at the same time, whether the immunity functions of lethally irradiated recipients can be reconstituted fully, male BXSB mice were engrafted with mixed T cell-depleted marrow (TCDM) both from fully allogeneic autoimmune-resistant BALB/c mice and from syngeneic autoimmune-prone BXSB mice, after the onset of autoimmune disease in the recipient mice. BMT with mixed TCDM from both resistant and susceptible strains of mice (mixed BMT) established stable mixed chimerism, prolonged the median life span, and arrested development of glomerulonephritis in BXSB mice. BMT with mixed TCDM also reduced the formation of anti-DNA antibodies that are observed typically in male mice of this strain. Furthermore, mixed BMT reconstituted the primary antibody production in BXSB recipients impressively. These findings indicate that transplantation of allogeneic autoimmune-resistant TCDM plus syngeneic autoimmune-prone TCDM into lethally irradiated BXSB mice can be used to treat autoimmune and renal disease in this strain of mice. In addition, this dual bone-marrow transplantation reconstitutes the immunity functions and avoids the immunodeficiencies that occur regularly in fully allogeneic chimeras after total body irradiation. This report describes an effective treatment of progressive renal disease and autoimmunity by establishing a stable mixed chimerism of TCDM transplantation from allogeneic autoimmune-resistant BALB/c mice plus syngeneic autoimmune-prone BXSB mice into BXSB mice.  (+info)

Comparative outcomes of T-cell-depleted and non-T-cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia: impact of donor lymphocyte infusion. (7/2123)

PURPOSE: Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) can restore complete remission in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) who have relapsed after T-cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The existence of salvage treatment for patients with DLI after TCD allogeneic BMT prompted an evaluation of overall outcome after CD6+ -TCD allogeneic BMT for patients treated during the time when DLI has been available. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 46 patients who underwent TCD allogeneic BMT for stable-phase CML and compared these outcomes with those of 40 patients who underwent non-TCD allogeneic BMT. All subjects were patients at one of two neighboring institutions during a period when DLI was available. All patients received marrow from HLA-identical sibling donors, underwent similar myeloablative regimens, and had similar pretreatment characteristics. RESULTS: After BMT, the TCD group had a lower incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute (15% v 37%, P = .026) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (18% v 42%, P = .024) than did the non-TCD group. The 1-year treatment-related mortality rates for the TCD group and the non-TCD group were 13% and 29%, respectively (P = .07). The estimated 3-year probability of relapse (cytogenetic or hematologic) was higher for patients in the TCD group than for patients in the non-TCD group (62% v 24%, P = .0003). Twenty-three patients (20 in the TCD group and three in the non-TCD group) received and were assessable for response to DLI. After DLI, 17 of 20 patients in the TCD group and two of three patients in the non-TCD group achieved complete remission. Donor lymphocyte infusion induced GVHD in nine of 23 patients. Thirty (65%) of 46 patients in the TCD group and 27 (69%) of 39 assessable patients in the non-TCD group remained alive without evidence of disease. The estimated 3-year overall survival rates were similar for the TCD group and the non-TCD group (72% v 68%, respectively; P = .38). At last follow-up, there was no difference in the overall prevalence of GVHD or the proportion of patients requiring immunosuppressive agents between groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the combination of T-cell depletion and post-BMT DLI is a viable treatment option for patients undergoing allogeneic BMT for CML and should be prospectively compared with traditional forms of GVHD prophylaxis.  (+info)

Development of CD8+ effector T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12. (8/2123)

We investigated the effects of IL-18 on the development of CD8+ effector T cells in DBA/2 anti-BDF1 whole spleen cell MLC and compared the results with those of IL-12. Addition of IL-18 to the MLC resulted in a twofold increase in CD8/CD4 ratios compared with the control cultures when cells were expanded in IL-2-containing medium following MLC. Purified CD8+ T cells recovered from the IL-18-stimulated MLC produced 20- to 30-fold more IFN-gamma after secondary stimulation with C57BL/6 spleen cells or anti-CD3 mAb, and exhibited strong allospecific CTL activity. Neither IL-18 nor IL-18-supplemented culture supernatants from DBA/2 anti-BDF1 MLC induced type I CD8+ effector T cells when purified CD8+ T cells were used as responder cells in primary MLC. Furthermore, CD4+ T cell depletion from the responder cells abrogated the IL-18-induced increase in secondary IFN-gamma production by CD8+ T cells, suggesting that IL-18-induced type I effector CD8+ T cell development was CD4+ T cell dependent. In marked contrast, adding IL-12 to primary MLC decreased CD8/CD4 ratios by 50% and suppressed secondary IFN-gamma production and CTL activity by CD8+ T cells regardless of concentration, whereas Th1 development was promoted by IL-12. Moreover, both IL-12 and IL-18 efficiently induced type I CD8+ effector T cells in C57BL/6 anti-BDF1 MLC. These findings show that IL-18 plays an important role in the generation of type I CD8+ effector T cells, and further suggest that functional maturation of CD8+ T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12.  (+info)

Following B lymphocyte depletion in patients with RA, a positive clinical response occurred in correlation with a significant drop in the levels of CRP and autoantibodies. Antibacterial antibody levels were relatively well maintained. B lymphocyte return preceded relapse in all patients. There was a …
We have developed a rapid and simple procedure for the elimination of mature T-cells from the donor marrow using a single incubation with the monoclonal antibody Campath-1 and donor complement. This resulted in a reduction of T-cell contamination to a mean of 1%. This regimen reduced the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease significantly in 21 consecutive bone marrow grafts in 18 patients with leukaemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Purging was responsible for an increased incidence of graft rejection in HLA-identical transplants (13%).
different allogeneic graft accelerates white cell and platelet engraftment after T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation. Addition of a seconds profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
article{8038961, author = {BONROY, CAROLIEN and Smith, Vanessa and Deschepper, Ellen and De Keyser, Filip and Devreese, Katrien}, issn = {0315-162X}, journal = {JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY}, language = {eng}, number = {1}, pages = {247--249}, title = {Specific antinuclear antibody level changes after B cell depletion therapy in systemic sclerosis are associated with improvement of skin thickening}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.150105}, volume = {43}, year = {2016 ...
In the clinic, BCDT can markedly ameliorate the course of autoimmune diseases in patients, but the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are poorly understood, as they are thought, in many cases, to operate irrespective of autoantibody levels. Here, we demonstrate that IL-6 production is the major mechanism of B cell-mediated pathogenesis during EAE, and we show that this inflammatory pathway is markedly increased in RR-MS patients. Autoantibody levels were unaffected by IL-6 production by B cells. This is the first demonstration of a nonantibody-mediated mechanism of B cell pathogenesis in EAE and MS. Remarkably, the elevated production of IL-6 by B cells from MS patients was effectively normalized by Rituximab treatment. In both patients and mice the reduced disease severity after B cell depletion was accompanied by a decrease in the autoreactive Th17 response, and so we believe that B cells are making an all-important contribution to the IL-6-dependent promotion of pathogenic Th17 ...
Published in Bone Marrow Transplantation, Volume 21, Issue 5, 1998, pages 461-471. Lamb, Jr., L. S., Gee, A. P., Henslee-Downey, P. J., Geier, S. S., Hazlett, L., Pati, A. R., Godder, K., Abhyankar, S. A., Turner, M. W., Lee, C., Harris, W. G., & Parrish, R. S. (1998). Phenotypic and functional reconstitution of peripheral blood lymphocytes following T cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation from partially mismatched related donors. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 21(5), 461-471.. © Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1998, Nature Publishing Group. ...
Rituximab (RTX) may favorably affect skin and lung fibrosis in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We aimed to explore the hypothesis that RTX may mediate its antifibrotic effects by regulating the expression of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), an inhibitor of the Wnt pathway. Fourteen patients with SSc and five healthy subjects were recruited. Dkk-1 expression was immunohistochemically assessed in skin biopsies obtained from 11 patients with SSc (8 treated with RTX and 3 with standard treatment), whereas DKK1 gene expression was assessed in 3 patients prior to and following RTX administration. In baseline biopsies obtained from all patients with SSc but not in healthy subjects, Dkk-1 was undetectable in skin fibroblasts. Following RTX treatment, four out of eight patients had obvious upregulation of Dkk-1 skin expression. Similarly, RTX treatment correlated with a significant 4.8-fold upregulation of DKK1 gene expression (p = 0.030). In contrast,
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory viral infections in infants and children. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a crucial role in combatting airborne pathogens, strongly express CD169, and are localized in the lung alveoli. Therefore, we used CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice to explore the roles of CD169(+) cells in immune responses to mucosal RSV infection. The administration of diphtheria toxin to CD169-DTR mice induced specific AM depletion and reduced the recruitment of Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Notably, CD169(+) cell depletion reduced levels of innate cytokines, such as interferon-beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during RSV infection without affecting the production of proinflammatory chemokines. Moreover, the depletion of CD169(+) cells increased the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lung during the early stage of RSV infection, although not during the later stages of RSV infection. Furthermore, the depletion of ...
The occurrence of massive CD4+ T cell depletion is one of the most prominent characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection during acute phase, resulting in unrestorable destruction to the immune system. The infected host undergoes an asymptomatic period lasting several years with low viral load and ostensibly healthy status, which is presumably due to virus-specific adaptive immune responses. In the absence of therapy, an overwhelming majority of cases develop to AIDS within 8-10 years of latent infection. In this review, we discuss the roles in AIDS pathogenesis played by massive CD4+ T lymphocytes depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) during acute infection and abnormal immune activation emerging in the later part of chronic phase.
Results. In patients with pSS, frequencies of circulating TFH cells and Th17 cells were increased at baseline compared with HC, whereas frequencies of Th1 and Th2 cells were unchanged. B cell depletion therapy resulted in a pronounced decrease in circulating TFH cells, whereas Th17 cells were only slightly lowered. Frequencies of IL-21-producing and IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells and serum levels of IL-21 and IL-17 were also reduced. Importantly, the decrease in circulating TFH cells was associated with lower systemic disease activity over time, as measured by the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögrens Syndrome Disease Activity Index scores and serum IgG levels. ...
Molecular analysis of highly enriched populations of T-cell-depleted monocytes.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Karpf, M; Gelfand, M C.; Handwerger, B S.; and Schwartz, R H., Lack of b lymphocyte depletion from murine spleen cell populations by a human gamma-globulin, anti-human gamma-globulin column system. (1975). Subject Strain Bibliography 1975. 1248 ...
The evolution of immune blockades in tumors limits successful anti-tumor immunity, but the mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. Depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs), a T cell subset that dampens excessive inflammatory and autoreactive responses, can allow activation of tumor-specific T cells. However, cancer immunotherapy studies have demonstrated that a persistent failure of activated lymphocytes to infiltrate tumors remains a fundamental problem. In evaluating this issue, we found that despite an increase in T cell activation and proliferation following Treg depletion there was no significant association with tumor growth rate. In contrast, there was a highly significant association between low tumor growth rate and the extent of T cell infiltration. Further analyses revealed a total concordance between low tumor growth rate, high T cell infiltration and the presence of high endothelial venules (HEV). HEV are blood vessels normally found in secondary lymphoid tissue ...
Patients with leukemia who receive a T cell-depleted allogeneic stem cell graft followed by postponed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) can experience graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) reactivity, with a lower risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here, we have investigated the magnitude, diversity, and specificity of alloreactive CD8 T cells in patients who developed GVL reactivity after DLI in the absence or presence of GVHD. We observed a lower magnitude and diversity of CD8 T cells for minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHAs) in patients with selective GVL reactivity without GVHD. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MiHA-specific T cell clones from patients with selective GVL reactivity showed lower reactivity against nonhematopoietic cells, even when pretreated with inflammatory cytokines. Expression analysis of MiHA-encoding genes showed that similar types of antigens were recognized in both patient groups, but in patients who developed GVHD, T cell reactivity was skewed to target broadly ...
Font J, Cervera R, Espinosa G, Pallares L, Ramos-Casals M, Jimenez S, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in childhood: analysis of clinical and immunological findings in 34 patients and comparison with SLE characteristics in adults. Ann Rheum Dis 1998; 57: 456-9 ...
We have been talking about the best treatment for stopping relapsing disease in animals over the past couple of weeks. This is a transient depletion followed by delivery of the disease causing molecules via an immune tolerogenic route. In this study relapsing neurodegenerative disease was set in motion and then at different time points further relapses were stopped. We then looked to see what had happened in the CNS a few months later. It was clear that despite elimination of relapsing disease some nerve tracts showed progressive neurodegeneration, rather disturbing this occurred even after after a single attack. With each attack different nerve tracts started to degenerate. Therefore even in this simple model of MS it can be seen that relapses cause nerve damage and therefore stopping them, as quickly as possible, is important. Likewise in this case the autoimmune response can trigger a neurodegenerative condition and this progressive neurodegeneration can occur even from disease onset. From a ...
B-cell therapy (also called B-cell depletion therapy) is a treatment for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Learn what you need to know about this option.
Before entering in the study protocol and according to their tumor burden and the investigators judgment, patients could receive a cytoreductive treatment as part of the routine care, based on a dexamethasone-based debulking chemotherapy (if applicable). eligible patients following written informed consent signature will enter a Screening Period. Patients will then be included and will start the Lymphodepletion treatment period, which will take place from Day -7 to Day -2 during the week preceding uCaRT19 infusion at Day 0. The patients could be hospitalized, according to the local practices per country, from 7 days before the administration of uCaRT19 (D-7) or the day before the uCaRT19 administration (D-1). The lymphodepletion regimen combines fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. at the end of the lymphodepletion regimen, eligibility criteria allowing uCaRT19 administration should be assessed in order to ensure patients safety. The Treatment Period (starting at the time of the investigational ...
In vitro verification of CD4 positive cells depletion derived from human healthy donors and cancer patients by humanized anti-CD4 antibody (IT1208) (2015 ...
Since monocytes and macrophages that arise during the culture of bone marrow progenitor cells are potential sources of interleukin 6 (IL-6), we investigated whether auto- or paracrine production of this factor is involved in colony formation by normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. We added a polyclonal anti-IL-6 antiserum and a monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibody to cultures of monocyte- and T cell-depleted bone marrow cells. Colony formation was stimulated with granulocyte/monocyte-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), monocyte-CSF, or IL-3. Addition of anti-IL-6 antibody resulted in decreased numbers of monocytic colonies to 40-50% of control values, whereas the numbers of granulocytic colonies were not altered. The inhibitory effect was preserved in cultures of CD34(+)-enriched bone marrow cells. As a second approach, we added a monoclonal antibody directed against the IL-6 receptor to cultures of monocyte- and T cell-depleted bone marrow cells. This antibody almost completely inhibited the growth ...
The depletion of CD19+ B cells by CD19-targeted CAR CD8+ T cells effectively eliminated autoantibody production and deferred or reversed disease manifestations of experimental lupus in two mouse models. These results contrast with previous results in the same mouse models, which showed resistance to anti-CD20 antibody-mediated B cell depletion (11-13). We propose that CD19-targeted CAR T cells have superior efficacy because cytotoxic T cells induce target cell death by a direct mechanism, whereas antibody-mediated cytotoxicity requires the buildup of bound antibody for complement-dependent target cell lysis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, or clearance by phagocytes. Previous studies indicated that in models of lupus, the increased abundance of endogenous antibodies and immune complexes impairs B cell depletion by macrophages (12). Thus, anti-CD20 antibody was only effective if given repeatedly and at high doses to autoimmune mice. CD19-targeted CAR T cells, in contrast, kill B cells ...
Senolt, L; Kryštůfková, O; Hulejová, H; Kuklová, M; Filková, M; Cerezo, L A; Běláček, J; Haluzík, M; Forejtová, S; Gay, S; Pavelka, K; Vencovsky, J (2011). The level of serum visfatin (PBEF) is associated with total number of B cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and decreases following B cell depletion therapy. Cytokine, 55(1):116-121.. Senolt, L; Polanska, M; Filkova, M; Oslejskova, L; Pavelka, K; Gay, S; Haluzik, M; Vencovsky, J (2010). Vaspin and omentin: new adipokines differentially regulated at the site of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 69(7):1410-1411.. Oslejsková, L; Grigorian, M; Hulejová, H; Vencovsky, J; Pavelka, K; Klingelhöfer, J; Gay, S; Neidhart, M; Brabcová, H; Suchy, D; Senolt, L (2009). Metastasis-inducing S100A4 protein is associated with the disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology, 48(12):1590-1594.. Senolt, L; Vencovský, J; Pavelka, K; Ospelt, C; Gay, S (2009). Prospective new biological ...
Induction of lymphopenia has been exploited therapeutically to improve immune responses to cancer therapies and vaccinations. Whereas IL-15 has well-established roles in stimulating lymphocyte responses after lymphodepletion, the mechanisms regulating these IL-15 responses are unclear. We report that cell surface IL-15 expression is upregulated during lymphopenia induced by total body irradiation (TBI), cyclophosphamide, or Thy1 Ab-mediated T cell depletion, as well as in RAG−/− mice; interestingly, the cellular profile of surface IL-15 expression is distinct in each model. In contrast, soluble IL-15 (sIL-15) complexes are upregulated only after TBI or αThy1 Ab. Analysis of cell-specific IL-15Rα conditional knockout mice revealed that macrophages and dendritic cells are important sources of sIL-15 complexes after TBI but provide minimal contribution in response to Thy1 Ab treatment. Unlike with TBI, induction of sIL-15 complexes by αThy1 Ab is sustained and only partially dependent on ...
In multiple sclerosis (MS), B cell-depleting therapy using monoclonal anti-CD20 Abs, including rituximab (RTX) and ocrelizumab, effectively reduces disease activity. Based on indirect evidence, it is generally believed that elimination of the Ag-presenting capabilities and Ag nonspecific immune functions of B cells underlie the therapeutic efficacy. However, a small subset of T lymphocytes (T cells) was shown to also express CD20, but controversy prevails surrounding the true existence of this T cell subpopulation. Using single-cell imaging flow cytometry and expression profiling of sorted lymphocyte subsets, we unequivocally demonstrate the existence of CD3+CD20dim T cells. We show that in MS patients, increased levels of CD3+CD20dim T cells are effectively depleted by RTX. The pathological relevance of this T cell subset in MS remains to be determined. However, given their potential proinflammatory functionality, depletion of CD20-expressing T cells may also contribute to the therapeutic ...
Learn more about the Chronic GVHD Prevention Through Naïve T Cell Depletion in BMT Transplants for Leukemia - Phase II study at UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh.
T regulatory lymphocytes were shown to be partly responsible for immune tolerance to cancer cells. In that respect these cells oppose to the mounting of
I was in the CAMMS323 trial and I received Campath (although I still do not know the dosage). I was only diagnosed with RRMS for one year and 2 months before going into the trial. I am currently at month ...
FGF and depletion of ATP induce the nuclear translocation of FGFR1. (a) Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were untreated or subjected to ATP depletion by treatment with oli
Depletion of xWRN reduces SSA. (A) Western blot of the depleted NPE. The three lanes on the right are quantitation controls and contain normal NPE at 1%, 2%, an
Treg depletion improves anti-tumor immunity but is unlikely to be curative alone. Denileukin diftitox (DT) depletes Tregs in BL6 mice and prolongs survival 11% at 5 µg/mouse weekly starting 2 weeks after challenge with ID8 ovarian cancer. Weekly human interferon (hIFN)-α 20,000 U/day on 4 consecutive days of 7 plus weekly DT survival improved 26% vs DT alone. Neither DT nor DT+hIFN-α improved survival in RAG1-/- mice with ID8, showing a requirement for adaptive immunity. hIFN-α alone reduced in vitro Treg suppression ~15% vs PBS, but did not clearly enhance DT-mediated Treg depletion, or increase T cell activation by CD69 expression. A patient in our clinical trial of DT for ovarian cancer failed, with CA-125 increasing 4.5-fold after 4 monthly cycles. Addition of weekly pegylated IFN-α2a to failed monthly DT improved blood Treg depletion 50% over DT alone and reduced CA-125 by 9-fold, demonstrating immunologic and clinical efficacy. To provide additional mechanistic insight we studied ...
In Paper I, using four congenic sub-loci within the arthritis susceptible Cia9 locus on chromosome 1, we found that the NOD.Q polymorphic Fc gamma receptor gene (FcγR) cluster located within sub-loci Cia9i and Cia9k, regulated arthritis. Polymorphic FcγR2b and FcγR4 were contained in both Cia9i and Cia9k, whereas Cia9i mice also carried polymorphic FcγR3. FcγR2b gene and protein expression were downregulated in Cia9i and Cia9k mice, whereas FcγR3 was upregulated in Cia9i mice and found downregulated in Cia9k mice compared to littermate control mice. This difference in FcγR3 expression affected killing by NK cells and phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro and PC61 antibody induced regulatory T cell depletion in vivo. Interestingly, arthritis development was regulated by interaction between FcγR2b and FcγR3 without affecting anti-collagen type II antibody secretion. These results show that polymorphisms in both FcγR2b and FcγR3 regulate the severity of inflammatory responses ...
Approaches for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (BMT) without T-cell depletion have been designed using new transplant strategies, including anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) preparative regimens, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-primed grafts, post-transplantation rapamycin, or high-dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) in combination with other immunosuppressive agents for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. These strategies ensured fast hematologic engraftment across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) barrier with an acceptable incidence of GVHD. Long-term follow-up results from different transplant centers suggest that unmanipulated transplantation may provide an alternative strategy in the haploidentical setting without requiring the technical expertise and cost of ex vivo T-cell depletion. This review discusses immune reconstitution and factors associated with clinical outcomes following unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and compares ...
Based on pilot patient observations, and experience from the prior study KTS-1-2008, the investigators anticipate that severely affected chronic fatigue syndrome patients may benefit from B-cell depletion therapy using Rituximab induction with maintenance treatment.. The hypothesis is that at least a subset of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients have an activated immune system involving B-lymphocytes, and that prolonged B-cell depletion may alleviate symptoms.. An approved amendment (April 15th 2011): the study will be extended with up to 5 patients. For up to 5 patients in the study, standard plasma exchange may be performed 2-3 weeks prior to start of B-lymphocyte depletion using Rituximab (as in the protocol).. Approved amendment (December 2011): for patients with gradual improvement in CFS/ME symptoms after 12 months follow-up, but not having reached a clear response, up to 6 additional Rituximab infusions (500 mg/m2, max 1000 mg) may be given during the following 12 months period. ...
This is a pilot study with 2 strata to evaluate engraftment and graft vs. host disease (GVHD) in patients receiving unrelated or partially matched relat
I think the new pms-rituxan studies are exploring the possibility that the treatment failed because IV administration barely penetrates the cns. The assumption is that it works in rrms because the bbb is open and therefore the rituxan can get into the cns. I believe this logic is also part of the suitability criteria for hsct protocols...no relapses, no joy or something like that. The new studies all have an IT component. There is conflicting information out there regarding the usefulness of rituxan in the cns. Some claim the cns B cells arent cleared out by IT rituxan. Others claim they do. Based on successful use of IT rituxan for CNS lymphomas that were NOT managed by IV rituxan, I think the cns B cells are cleaned up by IT rituxan. Im not a doctor though...just a rampant speculator ...
The content of the Repository, unless otherwise specified, is protected with a Creative Commons license: Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment has recently become a first-line therapy for many non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Unfortunately, most NSCLC patients are refractory to ICI monotherapy, and initial attempts to address this issue with secondary therapeutics have proven unsuccessful. To identify entities precluding CD8+ T cell accumulation in this process, we performed unbiased analyses on flow cytometry, gene expression, and multiplexed immunohistochemical data from a NSCLC patient cohort. The results revealed the presence of a myeloid-rich subgroup, which was devoid of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Of all myeloid cell types assessed, neutrophils were the most highly associated with the myeloid phenotype. Additionally, the ratio of CD8+ T cells to neutrophils (CD8/PMN) within the tumor mass optimally distinguished between active and myeloid cases. This ratio was also capable of showing the separation of patients responsive to ICI therapy from those with stable or progressive ...
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the hosts immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of Immunosuppressive Agents (Drugs or Radiation) or by Lymphocyte Depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of Antigen and immunosuppressive Drugs ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load monitoring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) enables earlier detection of EBV replication and often serves as a trigger for preemptive therapies aimed at reducing EBV-related diseases. Our institutional strategy is to treat patients with clinical signs of EBV-related disease accompanied by a rising viral load, rather than to intervene based solely on viral load. This affords an opportunity to study the natural history of EBV replication and to assess whether our strategy reduces overtreatment without compromising outcomes. The objectives of the present study were to assess the natural history of untreated EBV replication in patients who underwent an alemtuzumab-based allogeneic HSCT and to examine whether our clinical strategy reduced overtreatment without compromising patient outcomes. In this retrospective single-center observational study of 515 consecutive patients (age ≥18 years) undergoing T cell-depleted allogeneic HSCT incorporating
Three gene expression signatures can help rheumatologists predict which patients are more likely to respond to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) or B-cell depletion therapies in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, according to new research findings presented this week at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Scientific Meeting in Washington.
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
0.75 x 6 x 2. Skin button made of latex. Semi-spherical shape with a tube coming out of the side. Same as #00.5A.4. Skin Buttons provided access to the body for tubes which led to and from the Thoracic Duct and made lymph dialysis possible. They were used in lymphocyte depletion prior to transplant. (See assorted papers in T.S. Hargests CV on lymphocyte drainage-skin buttons paper-#17. T.S. Hargest. CV) ...
BACKGROUND: The hallmark of HIV-1 pathogenesis is the progressive CD4(+) T cell depletion and high propensity of CD4(+) T cells to apoptosis. HIV-1 viral
The Sex Instinct and The Sex Appeal Today. The idea to write this book came to me during the time I have accessed on the networking when I was single.I have to admit that for a couple of years I was unhappy about sex when I was on my early kamammevobulxojetspeanodakhtappe.coinfo I was not abnormal.I was certain that the problem I have faced with the man,the woman I met on my kamammevobulxojetspeanodakhtappe.coinfo I am feeling something very interesting ...
Transplantation of 8 x 10(6) C57BL/6-Nu+/Nu+ (nude) bone marrow cells into C3H/HeJ recipients after conditioning with 8 Gy of total body irradiation has resulted in a markedly higher rate of graft rejection or graft failure compared to that found in recipients of normal C57BL/6 or C57BL/6-Bg+/Bg+ (beige) T-cell-depleted bone marrow. Mixing experiments using different numbers of nude bone marrow cells with or without mature thymocytes (unagglutinated by peanut agglutinin) revealed that engraftment of allogeneic T-cell-depleted bone marrow is T-cell dependent. To ensure engraftment, a large inoculum of nude bone marrow must be supplemented with a trace number of donor T cells, whereas a small bone marrow dose from nude donors requires a much larger number of T cells for engraftment. Marked enhancement of donor type chimerism was also found when F1 thymocytes were added to nude bone marrow cells, indicating that the enhancement of bone marrow engraftment by T cells is not only mediated by ...
The efficacy of B cell depletion therapies in diseases such as nephrotic syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis suggests a broader role in B cells in human disease than previously recognized. In some of these diseases, such as the minimal change disease subtype of nephrotic syndrome, pathogenic antibodies and immune complexes are not involved. We hypothesized that B cells, activated in the kidney, might produce cytokines capable of directly inducing cell injury and proteinuria. To directly test our hypothesis, we targeted a model antigen to the kidney glomerulus and showed that transfer of antigen-specific B cells could induce glomerular injury and proteinuria. This effect was mediated by IL-4, as transfer of IL-4-deficient B cells did not induce proteinuria. Overexpression of IL-4 in mice was sufficient to induce kidney injury and proteinuria and could be attenuated by JAK kinase inhibitors. Since IL-4 is a specific activator of STAT6, we analyzed kidney biopsies and demonstrated STAT6 activation in ...
Treatment with the chimerical monoclonal antibody rituximab results in CD20-directed B cell depletion. Although this depletion is almost complete in the peripheral blood of nearly all patients with...
I eat far more fresh vegetables and fruits than I do anything else, to the point of (especially during the summer months) often going through what seems ridiculous amounts of produce.. Although some people in the early stages of recovery from mold-related illness do not do well with a produce-heavy diet, for most people (including chronic illness sufferers who are further along in the recovery process) it seems to be a very good thing.. Although I am aware that fresh organic vegetables and fruits may have been grown using naturally derived pesticides, they tend to feel pretty clean to me across the board - even when produced by large growers and sold through regular grocery stores.. However, I do feel like a lot of organic supermarket produce can be lacking in terms of nutrient density, compared to some other produce that I have encountered from certain smaller growers.. Even if a farm is growing food truly organically, soil depletion may cause it to have far lower levels of minerals, ...
Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD52 to deplete circulating T and B lymphocytes; lymphocyte depletion is followed by a distinctive pattern of T- and B-cell repopulation, changing the balance of the immune system. This review reports the efficacy and safety findings of the phase 2 CAMMS223 trial and the phase 3 CARE-MS I and II trials investigating alemtuzumab for the treatment of active relapsing-remitting MS. Alemtuzumab, administered intravenously, was shown to improve relapse rate versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in patients who were treatment-naive (CAMMS223 and CARE-MS I) or had relapsed on prior therapy (CARE-MS II), and to reduce sustained accumulation of disability (CAMMS223 and CARE-MS II ...
Host preconditioning with lymphodepletion augments the antitumor activity of infused IFNγ+CD8+ T cells (Tc0) in mice and in humans with melanoma. Yet, the extent to which lymphodepletion affects the fate of antitumor IL17A+CD8+ T (Tc17) cells-an emerging subset showing great promise in ACT murine models-remains unknown. To address this, we polarized pmel-1 CD8+ T cells to secrete IL17A or IFNγ and infused them into melanoma-bearing mice that were either (i) not lymphodepleted (0 Gy TBI) or lymphodepleted with (ii) a nonmyeloablative (5 Gy TBI) or (iii) myeloablative (9 Gy TBI requiring HSC) preparative regimen. We found that Tc17 cells regressed melanoma in myeloablated mice to a greater extent than in lymphoreplete or nonmyeloablated mice (Fig. 1A-C). Moreover, Tc17 cells, but not Tc0 cells, mediated curative responses in myeloablated mice. Additional investigation revealed that Tc17 cells converted from mainly IL17A producers into IL17A+IFNγ+ double producers 2 days after transfer into ...
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076104. an infection. Hence, the VX-765 (Belnacasan) activation of NK cells, essential mediators from the innate immune system response, by treatment with an IL-15 superagonist boosts their anti-HIV activity and allows these to potently suppress severe HIV-1 an infection. These results indicate that activation of NK cells might represent a fresh immunotherapeutic method of suppress severe HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Epidemiological research have got indicated that NK cells donate to the control of HIV-1 an infection, and research have got demonstrated that NK cells may wipe out HIV-1-infected cells selectively. We showed that activation of NK cells by treatment with an IL-15 superagonist that potently stimulates the antitumor activity of NK cells markedly inhibited severe HIV-1 an infection in humanized mice, even though activation of NK cells by IL-15 superagonist treatment is normally postponed until 3 times after HIV-1 inoculation. NK cell depletion from PBMCs ahead ...
GenWay offers the transferring protein depletion column to dig deeper into the proteome. Visit the GenWay website to learn more about the transferring depletion column and other serum protein depletion column products currently available.
There is depletion of lymphocytes in lymph nodes and necrosis and destruction of the intestinal crypts. Anaerobic bacteria that ...
PCV-2 (first isolated in 1997) causes PMWS, which over time results in significant depletion of lymphocytes; postmortem ...
To investigate the possible influence of dietary protein type on the supply of B lymphocytes, bone marrow lymphocyte production ... Depletion of tumor GSH in vivo decreases the rate of cellular proliferation and inhibits cancer growth. In practice it is ... normalization of haemoglobin and peripheral lymphocyte counts and a sustained drop of lymphocyte GSH levels towards normal. Two ... Lymphocyte GSH was used as a marker of tissue GSH. There were no baseline differences (age, ht, wt, %ideal wt, peak power, 30-s ...
"B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo ... with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients ... lymphocyte function-associated antigen). It elicits shedding of CD23. It downregulates the B cell receptor. It induces ... and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma. This also includes Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, a type of NHL. ...
... leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as ...
"CD4 depletion in HIV-infected haemophilia patients is associated with rapid clearance of immune complex-coated CD4+ lymphocytes ... The severe reactions in humans could have only occurred, they believe, in those with memory T lymphocytes. Animals raised in a ...
... following therapeutic lymphocyte depletion with alemtuzumab (Campath-1H)". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 119 (7): 2052-61 ...
May 2019). "B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double- ... "B-cell depletion using several infusions of rituximab over 12 months was not associated with clinical improvement in patients ...
Liao K, Hung S, Hsiao Y, Bennett M, Chu R (2003). "Canine transmissible venereal tumor cell depletion of B lymphocytes: ...
Within the lymphocyte pool, cladribine targets B cells more than T cells. Both HCL and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia are ... with a peak level of cell depletion 4-8 weeks after treatment[14] ... As a purine analogue, it is taken up into rapidly proliferating cells like lymphocytes to be incorporated into DNA synthesis. ... As a purine analog, it is a synthetic chemotherapy agent that targets lymphocytes and selectively suppresses the immune system ...
"Antibody-mediated depletion of lymphocyte-activation gene-3 (LAG-3(+) )-activated T lymphocytes prevents delayed-type ... "Depletion of LAG-3 positive cells in cardiac allograft reveals their role in rejection and tolerance". Transplantation. 84 (11 ...
"Antibody-mediated depletion of lymphocyte-activation gene-3 (LAG-3+)-activated T lymphocytes prevents delayed-type ... Triebel F (May 1990). "LAG-3, a novel lymphocyte activation gene closely related to CD4". J. Exp. Med. 171 (5): 1393-405. doi: ... PMID 20653948.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Li B (2008). "Lymphocyte activation gene-3 fusion protein increases the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Casati C (March 2008). "Human lymphocyte activation gene-3 molecules expressed by ...
Prior to death the dogs also showed rapid and shallow respiration, while in rats labored respiration and lymphocyte depletion ...
STIM1 is a crucial component of the CRAC influx mechanism in lymphocytes, acting as a sensor of low Ca2+ concentration in the ... STIM proteins sense the depletion of luminal Ca2+ from the ER and trigger activation of CRAC channels in the surface membrane ... Yarkoni and Cambier (2011) reported that STIM1 expression differs in murine T and B lymphocytes; mature T cells express about 4 ... The primary mechanism of extracellular Ca2+ entry in lymphocytes involves CRAC channels. ...
... is increased in T lymphocytes, due to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and depletion of ATP.[64] ... Necrosis is increased in T lymphocytes.. Tingible body macrophages (TBMs) - large phagocytic cells in the germinal centers of ... B and T cell tolerance for apoptotic cells is abrogated, and the lymphocytes get activated by these autoantigens; inflammation ... The cytokines B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLys), interleukin 6, interleukin 17, interleukin 18, type I interferons, and tumor ...
The first mechanism is based on tryptophan depletion from the tumor microenvironment. The second mechanism is based on the ... production of catabolic products called kynurenins, that are cytotoxic for T lymphocytes and NK cells. Overexpression of human ...
"B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo ... Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.[12] This also includes ...
The cytokines B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLys, also known as B-cell activating factor (BAFF), interleukin 6, interleukin 17, ... and depletion of ATP. Impaired clearance of dying cells is a potential pathway for the development of this systemic autoimmune ... B and T cell tolerance for apoptotic cells is abrogated, and the lymphocytes get activated by these autoantigens; inflammation ... Necrosis is increased in T lymphocytes. Tingible body macrophages (TBMs) - large phagocytic cells in the germinal centers of ...
Later, Slavin introduced the concept of post-transplant depletion of host-vs-graft and graft-vs-host reactive lymphocytes with ... Sep 1984). "Elimination of graft-versus-host disease by in-vitro depletion of alloreactive lymphocytes with a monoclonal rat ... Prigozhina TB, Elkin G, Khitrin S, Slavin S (Nov 2004). "Depletion of donor-reactive cells as a new concept for improvement of ... Slavin S (Jul 1993). "Depletion of donor-reactive cells as a new concept for improvement of mismatched bone marrow engraftment ...
However, the depletion of the CD4 lymphocytes made it very difficult to isolate the virus in patients with the disease later ... Barré-Sinoussi and her colleagues decided to add lymphocytes from a blood donor in order to save the culture and it proved ... "Naive T-Cell Depletion Related to Infection by X4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Poor Immunological Responders to ... began and clinical observations suggested that the disease attacked immune cells because of the significant CD4 cell depletion ...
Experiments on ALS that confirmed its efficacy in lymphocyte depletion led to testing of different types of preparations ... Since the discovery of a link between antilymphocyte serum (ALS) and lymphocyte depletion by Metchnikoff in 1899, various ... of ATG can induce lysis of T lymphocytes through the classical complement pathway along with B cell and NK cell depletion as ... While these antibodies have a variety of specificities, their main mechanism of immunosuppression is through depletion of T ...
Kv1.3 has been reported to be expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane in lymphocytes. The apoptotic protein Bax has been ... Franco R, DeHaven WI, Sifre MI, Bortner CD, Cidlowski JA (December 2008). "Glutathione depletion and disruption of ... DeCoursey TE, Chandy KG, Gupta S, Cahalan MD (1984). "Voltage-gated K + channels in human T lymphocytes: a role in mitogenesis ... Matteson DR, Deutsch C (1984). "K channels in T lymphocytes: a patch clamp study using monoclonal antibody adhesion". Nature. ...
Guinea pigs and injected it into normal mice he observed a marked depletion in the number of circulating mouse lymphocytes. ... Temporary depletion of the T-cell population at the time of the transplant also risks delayed acute rejection, which may be ... A similar trial of anti-lymphocyte globulin showed a trend in reduction of aGVH that was not statistically significant, but a ... A rabbit anti-T lymphocyte globulin made by Neovii Pharmaceuticals is marketed outside of the United States under the name ...
"Crk-associated substrate lymphocyte type is required for lymphocyte trafficking and marginal zone B cell maintenance". J. ... NEDD9 depletion sensitizes breast tumor cell lines to the Aurora A inhibitor alisertib. Consideration of NEDD9 as a biomarker ... In lymphocytes, integrin or TCR signaling induces NEDD9 phosphorylation by tyrosine kinases Fyn and Lck (SRC family kinases), ... Ice RJ, McLaughlin SL, Livengood RH, Culp MV, Eddy ER, Ivanov AV, Pugacheva EN (2013). "NEDD9 depletion destabilizes Aurora A ...
... lymphocyte depletion MeSH E02.095.520.450.800 - transplantation conditioning MeSH E02.095.520.750 - radioimmunotherapy MeSH ... lymphocyte transfusion MeSH E02.095.135.140.650 - platelet transfusion MeSH E02.095.135.164 - blood transfusion, autologous ...
... and macrophages that attack mainly steroid-producing cells and eventually result in follicular depletion. In some women FSH may ... examination almost always confirms the presence of an autoimmune oophoritis in which follicles are infiltrated by lymphocytes, ...
... lymphocyte depletion MeSH E05.478.610.800 - transplantation conditioning MeSH E05.490.630.569 - microscopy, phase-contrast MeSH ... lymphocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.595.500.150 - cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.595.500.150.160 - cd4-cd8 ... lymphocyte culture test, mixed MeSH E05.478.550.520 - immunization, passive MeSH E05.478.550.520.050 - adoptive transfer MeSH ...
T lymphocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes. In this case, alloreactive T cells are stimulated by donor APCs which express both the ... but usually subsides with depletion of passenger cells while indirect recognition contributes to continuing graft damage and ... Allospecific T lymphocytes may be stimulated by three major pathways: direct recognition, indirect recognition or semidirect ... Second route of allorecognition mimics normal antigen mechanism of T lymphocytes stimulation by nominal antigens. In this case ...
Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection ... "CD4+ T cell depletion during all stages of HIV disease occurs predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract". J. Exp. Med. 200 ... "Primary HIV-1 infection is associated with preferential depletion of CD4+ T cells from effector sites in the gastrointestinal ...
Unusually, CASS4 depletion had a bimodal affect, causing some cells to have lower velocity and others to have higher velocity ... These are compatible with regulation relevant to lymphocytes and deregulation in cancer. ...
Oh CK, Oh MC, Kim SH (2004). "The Depletion of Sodium Nitrite by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi". Journal of ... as well as increasing the proportion of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.[96][97] LAB products might aid in the treatment ...
... especially depletion of complement factors 2 and 4, may indicate deficiency of C1-inhibitor. HAE type III is a diagnosis of ...
Bulk bacterial studies typically apply general rRNA depletion to overcome the lack of polyadenylated mRNA on bacteria, but at ... "High-throughput targeted long-read single cell sequencing reveals the clonal and transcriptional landscape of lymphocytes" ...
... especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the ... primary and metastatic disease or nutritional depletion.[77][78] Anaerobic exercise has been found to be beneficial in reducing ...
LymphocytesEdit. Main article: Lymphocyte. T and B lymphocytes are the cells of the adaptive immune system. The human body has ... perhaps by a process of active nutrient depletion.[2] A more modern explanation for this induction of tolerance is that ... In jawless fishes, two subsets of lymphocytes use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen binding.[33] Diversity is ... CD8+ T lymphocytes and cytotoxicityEdit. Main article: Cytotoxic T cell. Cytotoxic T cells (also known as TC, killer T cell, or ...
CD25+ cell depletion hastens the onset of severe disease in collagen-induced arthritis. „Arthritis Rheum". 48 (5), s. 1452-1460 ... A new I subregion (I-J) marked by a locus (Ia-4) controlling surface determinants on suppressor T lymphocytes. „J Exp Med". 144 ... Regulatory T cells inhibit dendritic cells by lymphocyte activation gene-3 engagement of MHC class II. „J Immunol". 180 (9), s ... The prognostic value of FoxP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in cancer: a critical review of the literature. „Clin Cancer Res ...
... of the human immunodeficiency virus infection into AIDS is due primarily to the depletion of CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes in a ... In a healthy individual, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes is in balance with the cells generated by the bone marrow; however, in ... In the case of HIV, CD4+ lymphocytes die at an accelerated rate through uncontrolled apoptosis, when stimulated. At the ... HIV's cytotoxic activity toward CD4+ lymphocytes is classified as AIDS once a given patient's CD4+ cell count falls below 200.[ ...
Lymphocytes, which were previously activated by antigens in the vessel wall of the graft, activate macrophages to secrete ... depletion of anti-galactose antibodies (XNAs) by techniques such as immunoadsorption, to prevent endothelial cell activation, ... and is mediated by natural killer cells which accumulate in and damage the xenograft and T-lymphocytes which are activated by ...
Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, et al., Generation of lymphocytes in bone marrow and thymus, "Immunobiology: The Immune ... Barbu-Tudoran L, Gavriliuc OI, Paunescu V, Mic FA., Accumulation of tissue macrophages and depletion of resident macrophages in ... Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, et al., Generation of lymphocytes in bone marrow and thymus, "Immunobiology: The Immune ... P.G. Isaacson, A.J. Norton, B.J. Addis, THE HUMAN THYMUS CONTAINS A NOVEL POPULATION OF B LYMPHOCYTES, The Lancet, 330. ...
February 2008). "B-cell depletion with rituximab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis". N Engl J Med. 358 (7): 676-88. ... Selective blockade of T lymphocyte K(+) channels ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple ...
Research done using phage display technology on lymphocytes from immunoinfertile men led to the isolation, characterization, ... murine cytomegalovirus expressing murine zona pellucida 3 causes permanent infertility in BALB/c mice due to follicle depletion ...
Moller, A (2013). "Sperm Competition, Sperm Depletion, Paternal Care, and Relative Testis Size in Birds". The University of ... In song sparrows, males with large repertoires had larger HVCs, better body condition and lower heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios ...
The depletion of CD4 T cells and the development of chronic inflammation are signature processes in HIV pathogenesis that ... These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... commonly lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in chronic inflammation and cytokine release. Antibodies do not play a direct ...
... lymphocytes). Poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas contain more pleomorphic cells and no keratinization.[32] ... "the effect of local stratospheric ozone depletion and the time lag from sun exposure to melanoma development."[58] ...
This protein is common to all HIV variants as it is the attachment point for B lymphocytes and subsequent compromising of the ... This novel cell-based therapy uses irradiated SupT1 cells as a decoy target for HIV to prevent CD4+ T cell depletion as well as ... Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1, colored green, budding from a cultured lymphocyte. ...
A T cell is a type of lymphocyte which develops in the thymus gland and plays a central role in the immune response. T cells ... T cell exhaustion is reverted after depletion of Treg cells and blockade of PD1.[58] T cell exhaustion can also occur during ... T helper cells (TH cells) assist other lymphocytes, including maturation of B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells, and ... The T lymphocyte activation pathway: T cells contribute to immune defenses in two major ways; some direct and regulate immune ...
Depletion of CD8+ T cells from VL PBMC stopped endogenous IL-10 secretion but increased leishmania antigen specific IL-10 ... All of these lymphocytes act, at least in part, by secreting IL-10 and other suppressive cytokines. ... 1994). "Restoration of IFN-gamma Production and Lymphocyte Proliferation in Visceral Leishmaniasis". J. Immunol. 15 (12): 5949- ... Depletion of B cells increased CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion but decreased IL-10 secretion. Blocking IL-10 or ...
Fetal lymphocyte lines may survive in women even decades after giving birth.[citation needed] ... Although other explanations for this phenomenon exist, such as genetic load, resource depletion or maternal regulation of ...
... promotes sodium absorption through the small intestine of mammals.[27] Sodium depletion, however, does not affect ... Palacios R, Sugawara I (January 1982). "Hydrocortisone abrogates proliferation of T cells in autologous mixed lymphocyte ... a unique lymphokine made by normal T lymphocytes and a T cell hybridoma". Journal of Immunology. 132 (2): 821-7. PMID 6228602. ...
Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection ... T cell depletion during all stages of HIV disease occurs predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract". J. Exp. Med. 200 (6): ... "Primary HIV-1 infection is associated with preferential depletion of CD4+ T cells from effector sites in the gastrointestinal ...
... of the human immunodeficiency virus infection into AIDS is due primarily to the depletion of CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes in a ... In a healthy individual, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes is in balance with the cells generated by the bone marrow; however, in ... In the case of HIV, CD4+ lymphocytes die at an accelerated rate through uncontrolled apoptosis, when stimulated. At the ... Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (July 2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus ...
Hale, G; Waldmann, H (1994). "Control of graft-versus-host disease and graft rejection by T cell depletion of donor and ... including lymphocytes) within.[24] ... T-cell Depletion Trial): A multi-centre, randomised phase II- ...
In mammals, the only exception for this global CpG depletion resides in a specific category of GC- and CpG-rich sequences ... Two of the cell types targeted for DNA methylation polymorphisms are monocytes and lymphocytes, which experience an overall ... "CpG island methylation in human lymphocytes is highly correlated with DNA sequence, repeats, and predicted DNA structure" ...
The finding that B lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes may open a new pathway for exploration in the ... Rituximab, B-lymphocyte depletion, and preservation of beta-cell function N Engl J Med. 2009 Nov 26;361(22):2143-52. doi: ... It is possible to achieve selective depletion of B lymphocytes with rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. This phase 2 ... However, there is growing evidence that B lymphocytes play a role in many T-lymphocyte-mediated diseases. ...
B lymphocyte return preceded relapse in all patients. There was a … ... Following B lymphocyte depletion in patients with RA, a positive clinical response occurred in correlation with a significant ... Serologic changes following B lymphocyte depletion therapy for rheumatoid arthritis Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Aug;48(8):2146-54. ... Methods: B lymphocyte depletion was attained using combination therapy based on the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. ...
An open study of B lymphocyte depletion in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 2673-7.. Direct Link: ... Marks, S. D., Patey, S., Brogan, P. A., Hasson, N., Pilkington, C., Woo, P. and Tullus, K. (2005), B lymphocyte depletion ... B cell depletion in autoimmune disease. Arthritis Res Ther 2003; 5 Suppl 4: S17-21.. *CrossRef, ... B cell depletion as a novel treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus: a phase I/II dose-escalation trial of rituximab. ...
Lymphocyte Depletion and Stem Cell Transplantation to Treat Severe Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The safety and scientific ... The absolute lymphocyte count test was performed to investigate immuno... Description The absolute lymphocyte count test was ...
Lymphocyte Depletion and Stem Cell Transplantation to Treat Severe Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The safety and scientific ... Absolute Lymphocyte Count [ Time Frame: Day -7, day 0, 1 3, and 6 months, 1 year, 18 months, 2 years and 3 years. ]. The ... It is called an autoimmune disease because the patients lymphocytes (white blood cells that normally protect against invading ... absolute lymphocyte count test was performed to investigate immunological efficacy and mechanisms of response after ...
Diagnostic Tests for Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkins disease including blood tests, urine tests, swabs, diagnostic tests, lab ... Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkins disease: Introduction. *Symptoms of Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkins disease *Home Diagnostic ... Diagnostic Tests for Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkins disease. *Home Diagnostic Testing for Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkins ... Prognosis of Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkins disease. *Doctors and Medical Specialists for Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkins ...
Lymphocyte homeostasis following therapeutic lymphocyte depletion in multiple sclerosis. Eur. J. Immunol. 35:3332-3342. View ... Alemtuzumab induces a T cell lymphopenia. A single dose of alemtuzumab resulted in the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes ... The concept is that, first, therapeutic lymphocyte depletion and, second, genetically restricted overproduction of IL-21 leads ... IL-21 drives secondary autoimmunity in patients with multiple sclerosis, following therapeutic lymphocyte depletion with ...
T regulatory lymphocytes were shown to be partly responsible for immune tolerance to cancer cells. In that respect these cells ... Controlled and Selective Depletion of Regulatory T-cell for Cancer Treatment, Efficacy and Safety Study. Trial Phase:. Phase 1/ ... The procedures for ex vivo regulatory T cell depletion has been validated in a. previous study - AFSSAPS- TC 192) ;. 2. A ... purification of regulatory T cells on the one hand and T lymphocytes depleted from. regulatory T cells (effectors T-cells) on ...
... during cancer chemotherapy in a patient with synchronous CFS and lymphoma spurred a pilot study of B-lymphocyte depletion using ... Conclusion The delayed responses starting from 2-7 months after Rituximab treatment, in spite of rapid B-cell depletion, ...
B-lymphocyte Depletion Using Rituximab in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalopathy (CFS/ME). A Randomized Phase-III ... B-lymphocyte Depletion Using the Monoclonal Anti-CD20 Antibody Rituximab in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalopathy ( ... Benefit from B-lymphocyte depletion using the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in chronic fatigue syndrome. A double-blind and ... B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo ...
Antibody isotype-specific engagement of Fcγ receptors regulates B lymphocyte depletion during CD20 immunotherapy. Yasuhito ... As a result, lymph node B cell depletion in FcγRIIB−/− mice was as efficient as spleen B cell depletion in CD20 mAb-treated ... Roles for activating FcγRs in B cell depletion. The roles of individual FcγRs in B cell depletion by CD20 mAbs were assessed by ... Role for FcγRs in B cell subset depletion. Subtle effects of FcγR deficiencies on B cell subset depletion were also observed ( ...
... by Public Library of Science ... B-lymphocyte depletion using the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in chronic fatigue syndrome. ... Citation: B-lymphocyte depletion using the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in chronic fatigue syndrome (2011, October 20) ... 2011) Benefit from B-Lymphocyte Depletion Using the Anti-CD20 Antibody Rituximab in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. A Double-Blind ...
Simultaneous depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes is required to reactivate chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii.. R ... Simultaneous depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes is required to reactivate chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii. ... Simultaneous depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes is required to reactivate chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii. ... Simultaneous depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes is required to reactivate chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii. ...
Neutrophil content predicts lymphocyte depletion and anti-PD1 treatment failure in NSCLC. ... Neutrophil content predicts lymphocyte depletion and anti-PD1 treatment failure in NSCLC. ... Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of anti-PD1 and SX-682 (CXCR1/2 inhibitor) displayed relocation of lymphocytes ...
... ... Catastrophic NAD+ Depletion in Activated T Lymphocytes Through Nampt Inhibition Reduces Demyelination and Disability in EAE. ... Catastrophic NAD+ Depletion in Activated T Lymphocytes Through Nampt Inhibition Reduces Demyelination and Disability in EAE. ... Catastrophic NAD Depletion in Activated T Lymphocytes through Nampt Inhibition Reduces Demyelination and Disability in EAE. ...
A and B) Blood lymphocytes from a naive (A) or a CD25-depleted (B) mouse were stained 21 d after CD25 depletion, with APC- ... Synergism of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4 Blockade and Depletion of Cd25+ Regulatory T Cells in Antitumor ... Synergism of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4 Blockade and Depletion of Cd25+ Regulatory T Cells in Antitumor ... Since the negative effect of CD25 depletion is less profound than CD4 depletion, it is likely that T cell help provided by CD4+ ...
Phase II clinical trials revealed that the lymphocyte-depleting humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) is ... IL-21 drives secondary autoimmunity in patients with multiple sclerosis, following therapeutic lymphocyte depletion with ... arose in those patients with greater T cell apoptosis and cell cycling in response to alemtuzumab-induced lymphocyte depletion ... Phase II clinical trials revealed that the lymphocyte-depleting humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) is ...
The CD4+ T-cell depletion was reflected in a decline in the CD4/CD8 ratios in IEL, LPL, PBMC, and Ax-LN and Ms-LN lymphocytes ( ... Gastrointestinal T Lymphocytes Retain High Potential for Cytokine Responses but Have Severe CD4+ T-Cell Depletion at All Stages ... 1997) Selective depletion of rectal lamina propria rather than lymphoid aggregate CD4 lymphocytes in HIV infection. Clin. Exp. ... Gastrointestinal T Lymphocytes Retain High Potential for Cytokine Responses but Have Severe CD4+ T-Cell Depletion at All Stages ...
S1). The CD25 magnetic depletion led to a CD3+CD25+, as well as CD4+FoxP3+, cell depletion rate of 96 ± 7% and 98 ± 5% (mean ± ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cell Depletion Improves the Graft-Versus-Tumor Effect of Donor Lymphocytes After Allogeneic ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cell Depletion Improves the Graft-Versus-Tumor Effect of Donor Lymphocytes After Allogeneic ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cell Depletion Improves the Graft-Versus-Tumor Effect of Donor Lymphocytes After Allogeneic ...
Early monocyte depletion prevents lymphocyte infiltration into the brain.C57BL/6 mice were left either untreated or infected ... pone.0124080.g004: Early monocyte depletion prevents lymphocyte infiltration into the brain.C57BL/6 mice were left either ... pone.0124080.g004: Early monocyte depletion prevents lymphocyte infiltration into the brain.C57BL/6 mice were left either ... CD45hi lymphocytes (CD45hiCD11b-). Bars show mean ± SEM from n = 4-5 mice per group from 1 out of 3 independent depletion- ...
Depletion of L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes prevents development of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice.. F G Araujo ... Depletion of L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes prevents development of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice. ... Depletion of L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes prevents development of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice. ... Depletion of L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes prevents development of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice. ...
The effect of t lymphocyte subpopulation depletion on the cellular immune response to hsv 1 and the development of corneal ... Selective lymphocyte depletion during the early stage of the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in swine ... Selective lymphocyte depletion during the early stage of the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in pigs ... The effect of t lymphocyte depletion and regeneration on susceptibility of mice to hsv 1 corneal stromal disease. Investigative ...
Human autoimmunity after lymphocyte depletion is caused by homeostatic T-cell proliferation ... Human autoimmunity after lymphocyte depletion is caused by homeostatic T-cell proliferation ...
Haplocompatible Transplant Using TCRα/β Depletion Followed by CD45RA-Depleted Donor Lymphocyte Infusions for Severe Combined ... Haplocompatible Transplant Using TCRα/β Depletion Followed by CD45RA-Depleted Donor Lymphocyte Infusions for Severe Combined ... Haplocompatible Transplant Using TCRα/β Depletion Followed by CD45RA-Depleted Donor Lymphocyte Infusions for Severe Combined ... Haplocompatible Transplant Using TCRα/β Depletion Followed by CD45RA-Depleted Donor Lymphocyte Infusions for Severe Combined ...
We used flow-cytometry to assess circulating lymphocyte levels and phenotypes in 88 primary breast cancer patients before ... yet little is known about influences of current regimens on circulating lymphocyte levels and phenotypes. Similarly, clinico- ... B cells demonstrated particularly dramatic depletion, falling to 5.4 % of pre-chemotherapy levels. Levels of all cells ... Differences in chemotherapy regimen and patient smoking were associated with significant differences in depletion extent or ...
This newly arising subset did not substitute for CD4+ T lymphocytes in providing help to B lymphocytes, and was also not ... First, an antiviral response of the CD8 subset of T lymphocytes could be not only initiated but also maintained for a long ... Second, no function in the defense against infection could be ascribed as yet to CD4-CD8- T lymphocytes, which were seen to ... accumulate to a new subset as a result of depletion of the CD4 subset. ...
An open study of B lymphocyte depletion in systemic lupus erythematosus. ARTHRITIS RHEUM , 46 (10) 2673 - 2677. 10.1002/art. ... This study provides sufficient evidence for the safety and possible efficacy of B lymphocyte depletion therapy in SLE to ... To gain preliminary evidence for the safety and efficacy of B lymphocyte depletion therapy in refractory systemic lupus ...
Lymphocyte transformation and serum agglutination tests showed that while cyclophosphamide (CPA) suppressed B lymphocytes, ... Immunosuppressive agents were used to determine the relative importance of T and B lymphocytes in conferring protection to mice ... The effect of T and B lymphocyte depletion on the protection of mice vaccinated with a Gal E mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. ... article{Morris1976TheEO, title={The effect of T and B lymphocyte depletion on the protection of mice vaccinated with a Gal E ...
Lymphocyte depletion. The most useful laboratory test in the setting of acute radiation exposure is the serial complete blood ... 18] Lymphocyte count serves as an indicator for prognosis and as an estimate for the dose of radiation received. Patients with ... At these doses, lymphocytes die from radiation-induced apoptosis, and precursor cells in the bone marrow are destroyed ... a minimal lymphocyte count (MLC) of 1000-1499/mm3 have an approximate absorbed dose of 0.5-1.9 Gy. Although these patients may ...
T-Lymphocyte Depletion. One goal of allogeneic stem cell transplant is to cause the T lymphocytes in the donors blood or ... The aim of T-lymphocyte depletion is to lessen GVHDs incidence and severity. However, it can also cause increased rates of ... This procedure, called T-lymphocyte depletion, is currently being studied by researchers. The technique involves treating the ... Unfortunately, T lymphocytes are the same cells that cause graft versus host disease (GVHD). Because of this serious and ...
  • The dependence of these phenomena, both pathologic and functional, on CD4+ T lymphocytes was investigated by in vivo depletion of CD4+ cells using the anti-CD4 mAb GK1.5. (elsevier.com)
  • In vivo depletion of O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase in lymphocytes and melanoma of patients treated with CB 10-277, a new DTIC analogue. (openrepository.com)
  • In vivo depletion of BoT4 (CD4) and of non-T4/T8 lymphocyte subsets in cattle with monoclonal antibodies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BoT2-, BoT4-, BoT8- (CD2-, CD4-, CD8-), that may be homologous to the CD4-, CD8- cells in man and rodents that synthesize the gamma/delta+ T cell receptor, was also used for in vivo depletion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In Vivo Depletion of T Lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo depletion of CD4- and CD8-specific T cells. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo depletion often uses monoclonal antibodies (eg, alemtuzumab) or heteroantisera. (wikipedia.org)
  • The in vivo depletion of regulatory T cells is hypothesized to occur via early apoptosis induction, which follow exposure to self Ags that arise during the flare. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the setting of donor lymphocyte infusion after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we postulated that T reg depletion could improve alloreactivity and likewise the graft-versus-tumor effect of donor T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The safety and efficacy of T reg -depleted donor lymphocyte infusion was studied in 17 adult patients with malignancy relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (sciencemag.org)
  • In haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, in vivo TCD suppressed lymphocytes early on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, recent reports have shown that several subsets of regulatory T (Treg) cells are involved in controlling autoreactive lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • A number of rat monoclonal antibodies of the IgG2b subclass have been used to deplete mice of T lymphocyte subsets. (ox.ac.uk)
  • B cell depletion had no direct effect on T cell subsets or the activation status of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in naive mice. (pnas.org)
  • Lymphotoxin (LT)-α is expressed by subsets of activated T and B cells, and studies in preclinical models demonstrated that targeted depletion of these cells with a mouse anti-LT-α monoclonal antibody (mAb) was efficacious in inhibiting inflammation and autoimmune disease. (mesoscale.com)
  • Phenotypic analysis of T lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry failed to show evidence of a robust immune response to the infection. (utmb.edu)
  • Apoptosis could be detected as early as day 2 postinfection among the CD8 + and CD16 + subsets of lymphocytes. (utmb.edu)
  • These data suggest that EBOV may block dendritic cell maturation after infection, thereby inhibiting activation of lymphocytes and eliminating those subsets that are most likely to be capable of mounting an effective response to the virus. (utmb.edu)
  • Apoptosis could be detected as early as day 2 postinfection among the CD8 + and CD16+ subsets of lymphocytes. (utmb.edu)
  • Serum BAFF and APRIL levels, T-lymphocyte subsets, and immunoglobulins after B-cell depletion using the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome. (uib.no)
  • CD8-positive T lymphocytes specific for murine cytomegalovirus immediate-early antigens mediate protective immunity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results demonstrate that the use of murine IgG2a MAbs to appropriate equine lymphocyte antigens will facilitate in vivo investigation of the role of T lymphocyte subpopulations in the control of EIA or other important equine diseases. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, B cell depletion impaired CD4 + T cell activation and clonal expansion in response to protein antigens and pathogen challenge, whereas CD8 + T cell activation was not affected. (pnas.org)
  • genetic implication Binds to CD20 antigens on the surface of specific lymphocytes producing antibody-mediated cytotoxicity and cell death due to ionizing radiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intestinal CD4 + T-cell depletion and the potential for cytokine responses were examined during SIV infection and compared with results for lymphocytes from lymph nodes and blood. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, CD4 + T-cell depletion was gradual in peripheral lymph nodes and blood. (asm.org)
  • Dynamic changes in intestinal T lymphocytes were not adequately represented in peripheral lymph nodes or blood. (asm.org)
  • The time course and severity of CD4 + T-cell depletion in intestinal mucosa compared to peripheral blood or peripheral lymph nodes are not known. (asm.org)
  • Recently, we reported that abortive HIV infection of resting human T lymphocytes up-regulated expression of CD62L, the receptor for homing to lymph nodes (LNs), and enhanced homing of these cells from the blood into the LNs (Wang et al. (utmb.edu)
  • Lymph (clear fluid) and lymphocytes travel through the lymph vessels and into the lymph nodes where the lymphocytes destroy harmful substances. (vicc.org)
  • It is possible to achieve selective depletion of B lymphocytes with rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. (nih.gov)
  • B lymphocyte depletion was attained using combination therapy based on the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. (nih.gov)
  • Phase II clinical trials revealed that the lymphocyte-depleting humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) is highly effective in the treatment of early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. (jci.org)
  • Benefit from B-Lymphocyte Depletion Using the Anti-CD20 Antibody Rituximab in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. (plos.org)
  • The hypothesis is that a subgroup of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome / Myalgic Encephalopathy ( CFS /ME) have a chronically activated immune system and may benefit from B-lymphocyte treatment using the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab with induction and maintenance treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The role of L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes in the resistance of mice of different haplotypes to Toxoplasma gondii was examined, using the monoclonal antibody GK 1.5. (asm.org)
  • Delayed-type hypersensitivity response and lymphocyte stimulation assays showed significantly reduced values compared with those of control mice inoculated with ME49 cysts but not treated with the monoclonal antibody. (asm.org)
  • First, an antiviral response of the CD8 subset of T lymphocytes could be not only initiated but also maintained for a long period of time despite a continued absence of the CD4 subset, whereas the production of antiviral antibody proved strictly dependent upon help provided by the CD4 subset. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Following filtration , lymphocyte depleted calves were incapable of producing primary antibody response when challenged with typhoid vaccine . (musc.edu)
  • Elimination of graft-versus-host disease by in-vitro depletion of alloreactive lymphocytes with a monoclonal rat anti-human lymphocyte antibody (CAMPATH-1). (ox.ac.uk)
  • A new monoclonal rat anti-human lymphocyte antibody (CAMPATH-1) which lyses cells with autologous human complement was used for depletion of T lymphocytes from human bone-marrow allografts in vitro before transplantation in 11 high-risk patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The immune control of chronic equine infectious anaemia (EIA) lentiviral infection was investigated by specifically depleting CD5 + T lymphocytes in vivo with monoclonal antibody (MAb) or by immunosuppression with corticosteroids. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • CD20 antibody depletion of B lymphocytes effectively ameliorates multiple T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases through mechanisms that remain unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Examining the effects of B cell depletion in mice with intact immune systems is possible by using mouse anti-mouse CD20 mAbs in which B cells are depleted in vivo by monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The failure of anti-CD20 antibody (Rituximab) as therapy for lupus may be attributed to the transient and incomplete B cell depletion achieved in clinical trials. (sciencemag.org)
  • Despite wide use of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of B cell lymphomas, the mechanism by which it causes B cell depletion remains a subject of controversy. (nih.gov)
  • The findings further suggest the importance of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and/or apoptosis induction via FcgammaRIIIa-expressing effector cells in the mechanism of B cell depletion by this widely used monoclonal antibody. (nih.gov)
  • We retrospectively analyzed peripheral lymphocyte phenotypes of renal transplant recipients who received induction therapy with a different antibody/combination: alemtuzumab(C1H), Thymoglobulin(rATG), daclizumab(Dac), rATG. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been shown that B lymphocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of MS and rituximab lyses B-cells via complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. (wiley.com)
  • Vigorous innate and virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to murine cytomegalovirus in the submaxillary salivary gland. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Depletion of murine CD4+ T lymphocytes prevents antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary eosinophilia. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Depletion of murine CD4+ T lymphocytes prevents antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary eosinophilia. (elsevier.com)
  • The activity of murine lymphocytes was measured with enzyme-linked immunospot and 51 Cr release assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lack of b lymphocyte depletion from murine spleen cell populations by " by M Karpf, M C. Gelfand et al. (jax.org)
  • Lack of b lymphocyte depletion from murine spleen cell populations by a human gamma-globulin, anti-human gamma-globulin column system. (jax.org)
  • and Schwartz, R H., "Lack of b lymphocyte depletion from murine spleen cell populations by a human gamma-globulin, anti-human gamma-globulin column system. (jax.org)
  • To evaluate how the depletion of inflammatory cell subpopulations in the periphery could influence cellular infiltration into the CNS in more detail, we further determined on day 6 p.i. the frequency and composition of infiltrating cells within the brains of PbTg-infected mice by flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
  • Monoclonal antibodies for the depletion of specific subpopulations of lymphocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus DV selectively depletes T-lymphocyte subpopulations responsible for helper and effector functions and spares suppressor T cells in the spleen of infected mice. (ias.ac.in)
  • The effect on certain immune responses of depleting two distinct lymphocyte subpopulations in vivo by inoculating calves with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) was examined. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To understand the molecular basis for these CD20 mAb subclass differences, B cell depletion was assessed in mice deficient or blocked for stimulatory FcγRI, FcγRIII, FcγRIV, or FcR common γ chain, or inhibitory FcγRIIB. (rupress.org)
  • C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with an avirulent strain (ME-49) of Toxoplasma gondii were used to study the mechanisms by which T lymphocytes and IFN-gamma prevent reactivation of latent infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • In additional experiments, full reactivation of infection was observed in mice treated with anti-CD4 plus anti-IFN-gamma indicating that CD4+ lymphocytes are not required for the pathology resulting from IFN-gamma neutralization. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of anti-PD1 and SX-682 (CXCR1/2 inhibitor) displayed relocation of lymphocytes from the tumor periphery into a malignant tumor, which was associated with induction of IFN-γ-responsive genes. (jci.org)
  • Early monocyte depletion prevents lymphocyte infiltration into the brain.C57BL/6 mice were left either untreated or infected with 5*104 PbTg iRBC (A). In addition, groups of infected mice were treated either with anti-Gr1 (B), anti-Ly6G (C) or anti-CCR2 (D) mAb on the day of PbTg-infection (day 0). (nih.gov)
  • Bars show mean ± SEM from n = 4-5 mice per group from 1 out of 3 independent depletion-infection experiments. (nih.gov)
  • When compared to naïve mice, PbTg infected animals exhibited in the brains strongly elevated frequencies of CD45+CD11b-lymphocytes as well as CD45+CD11b+ mononuclear cells (Fig 4A, upper and lower panel). (nih.gov)
  • Upon anti-Gr1 mAb treatment, we detected a decrease in infiltrating cells which included 3 fold less infiltrating CD45+CD11b+ cells and a massive reduction in infiltrating CD11b-CD45hi lymphocytes compared to WT infected control mice (Fig 4B), which correlates to our findings in peripheral depletion (Fig 2A) and the observed protection (Fig 2B and 2C) and previous studies [21]. (nih.gov)
  • Depletion of L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes prevents development of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes actively participate in the development of resistance to T. gondii and in the mechanisms controlling the formation of cysts of the parasite in the brains of mice. (asm.org)
  • The effect of T and B lymphocyte depletion on the protection of mice vaccinated with a Gal E mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immunosuppressive agents were used to determine the relative importance of T and B lymphocytes in conferring protection to mice vaccinated with a live gal E mutant of Salmonella typhimurium, strain G30D. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It has been possible to produce long-term depletion where antibodies are administered to mice thymectomized in their adult life, or short-term depletion in euthymic animals. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The antitumor efficacy of combined treatment was abrogated in scid/scid mice, and after depletion of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Following the i.c. inoculation of dengue type 2 virus (DV) the spleen weight of infected mice was reduced, as was the proportion of cells killed by ATS and complement (T lymphocytes) in spleen-cell suspensions. (ias.ac.in)
  • Induction of unresponsivenessErythrocyte\free of charge splenocytes were ready from ABH mice and SCH was chemically combined to splenocytes using 1\ethyl\3\(3\dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide for 1 hr as referred to previously18 and 25 107 SCHCantigen combined spleen cells (SCH\SC) in 01C02 ml of PBS had been injected intravenously in to the tail vein of every mouse.18 This is administered 1C3 weeks after CD4 T\cell depletion. (experiencefla.com)
  • RAG1-S723C homozygous mice exhibit impaired lymphocyte development and decreased V(D)J rearrangements. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This was confirmed in the LNs of SCID mice that were i.v. injected with HIV-exposed resting human lymphocytes. (utmb.edu)
  • Bone marrow failure in such mice could be reversed by depletion of CD4 + T lymphocytes or blocked by knockout of interferon -γ, suggesting a Th1-cell-mediated autoimmune mechanism. (haematologica.org)
  • B-lymphocyte Depletion Using Rituximab in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalopathy (CFS/ME). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Simultaneous depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes is required to reactivate chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together, these results suggest that CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes act additively or synergistically to prevent reactivation of chronic T. gondii infection probably through the production of IFN-gamma. (jimmunol.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated severe depletion of CD4 + CD8 − single-positive T cells and CD4 + CD8 + double-positive T cells in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) during primary SIV infection which persisted through the entire course of SIV infection. (asm.org)
  • Thus, severe depletion of CD4 + LPL and IEL in primary SIV infection accompanied by altered cytokine responses may reflect altered T-cell homeostasis in intestinal mucosa. (asm.org)
  • The CD4 + T-cell depletion was more pronounced in duodenal mucosa than peripheral blood in individuals with advanced HIV infection. (asm.org)
  • HIV infection is characterized by CD4 + T-cell depletion and depressed proliferative and cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to mitogenic or antigenic stimulations. (asm.org)
  • In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes. (nih.gov)
  • Ebola virus glycoprotein directly triggers T lymphocyte death despite of the lack of infection. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • Lymphocytes, sometimes referred to as "fighter cells," attack infection-causing microorganisms. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Lymphocytes are white blood cells whose function is to fight off infection. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Lymphocytopenia, the medical term for a low number of lymphocytes circulating in the blood, places individuals at a high risk for infection. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The occurrence of massive CD4+ T cell depletion is one of the most prominent characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection during acute phase, resulting in unrestorable destruction to the immune system. (virosin.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the roles in AIDS pathogenesis played by massive CD4+ T lymphocytes depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) during acute infection and abnormal immune activation emerging in the later part of chronic phase. (virosin.org)
  • We undertook this study to assess whether a preferential depletion of mucosal CD4 + T cells would be observed in HIV-1-infected subjects during the primary infection period, to examine the anatomic subcompartment from which these cells are depleted, and to examine whether suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy could result in complete immune reconstitution in the mucosal compartment. (scienceopen.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that a significant and preferential depletion of mucosal CD4 + T cells compared with peripheral blood CD4 + T cells is seen during primary HIV-1 infection. (scienceopen.com)
  • Both CD4 + and CD8 + lymphocyte counts decreased 60-70% during the first 4 days after infection. (utmb.edu)
  • In contrast, the number of CD20 + B lymphocytes in the blood did not significantly change during the course of the infection. (utmb.edu)
  • IgG1 CD20 mAbs induced B cell depletion through preferential, if not exclusive, interactions with low-affinity FcγRIII. (rupress.org)
  • Regardless, FcγRIV could mediate IgG2a/b/c CD20 mAb-induced depletion in the absence of FcγRI and FcγRIII. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, inhibitory FcγRIIB deficiency significantly increased CD20 mAb-induced B cell depletion by enhancing monocyte function. (rupress.org)
  • Although FcγR-dependent pathways regulated B cell depletion from lymphoid tissues, both FcγR-dependent and -independent pathways contributed to mature bone marrow and circulating B cell clearance by CD20 mAbs. (rupress.org)
  • Chimeric or radiolabeled mAb therapies directed against CD20 expressed by mature B lymphocytes represent an effective treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ( 8 - 12 ) and may treat rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic anemia, and other immune-mediated diseases ( 13 , 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • B cell depletion is CD20 mAb isotype specific, with IgG2a/c mAbs exhibiting the greatest potency ( 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • Sustained depletion of CD20 lymphocytes, with decreased progression of lymphoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reduced-intensity transplantation with in vivo T-cell depletion and adjuvant dose-escalating donor lymphocyte infusions for chemotherapy-sensitive myeloma: limited efficacy of graft-versus-tumor activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We prospectively evaluated the role of an approach incorporating in vivo T-cell depletion and subsequent adjuvant donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) as part of front-line therapy for chemotherapy-sensitive multiple myeloma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with T-lymphocyte autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we show that autoimmunity arose in those patients with greater T cell apoptosis and cell cycling in response to alemtuzumab-induced lymphocyte depletion, a phenomenon that is driven by higher levels of IL-21. (jci.org)
  • These results provide direct evidence that B cells contribute to T cell activation and expansion in vivo and offer insights into the mechanism of action for B cell depletion therapy in the treatment of autoimmunity. (pnas.org)
  • In these models, B cell depletion after disease onset is less beneficial, indicating a possible role for B cells in the early stages of autoimmunity during autoreactive T cell activation and/or expansion. (pnas.org)
  • The ability of T lymphocytes to produce cytokines in response to pathogenic organisms is crucial in inducing and maintaining effective innate as well as acquired immunity. (asm.org)
  • This problem is partially answered by more selective depletion, such as depletion of CD3+ or αβT-cell and CD19 B cell, which preserves other important cells of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesize that a subgroup of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalopathy (CFS/ME) have a chronically activated immune system involving B-lymphocytes, possibly a variant of an autoimmune disease, and that patients may benefit from B-cell depletion therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Chemotherapy also affects the adaptive immune system, and by contrast, there is evidence these effects may cause more long-lived changes to immunity, although studies in the context of modern chemotherapy regimens and particularly with respect to B lymphocytes are lacking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is therefore feasible to ablate a T lymphocyte subpopulation at any stage in the course of an immune response and to examine in detail the role of a particular subset in the induction or effector phases of that response. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 7. Younan P, Iampietro M, Bukreyev A. Disabling of lymphocyte immune response by Ebola virus. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • Lymphocytes are a vital component of the body's immune system. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The current approach incorporating T-cell depletion appears excessively immunosuppressive despite attempts to restore immune function with DLI. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans underlies the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. (unipd.it)
  • Furthermore, CTVT secreted a soluble, heat- and protease K-sensitive cytotoxic molecule(s) that destroyed peripheral blood B lymphocytes (PBBL) but spared other types of immune cells regardless of whether mitogens, such as IL-2 or Con A, were present. (nctu.edu.tw)
  • However, the identification of immune cells such as macrophages and T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic plaques sparked the interest of researchers in understanding the precise roles of these cells in atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • T-cell depletion (TCD) is the process of T cell removal or reduction, which alters the immune system and its response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depletion of regulatory T cells increase immune activation, the second hallmark of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used flow-cytometry to assess circulating lymphocyte levels and phenotypes in 88 primary breast cancer patients before chemotherapy and at time-points from 2 weeks to 9 months after chemotherapy completion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B lymphocyte percentages were assessed by flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
  • It is called an autoimmune disease because the patient's lymphocytes (white blood cells that normally protect against invading organisms), go out of control and attack the body's own tissues. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The effect of B cell depletion on T cell activation in vivo was therefore assessed to identify mechanisms by which B cell depletion ameliorates T cell-dependent autoimmune disease. (pnas.org)
  • These results highlight the potential variability of B cell depletion by rituximab in the treatment of autoimmune disease and indicate that Fc receptors are an important determinant of that variability. (nih.gov)
  • An mAb directed against a second numerically large bovine lymphocyte subpopulation i.e. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The results suggest this lymphocyte subpopulation has a nonspecific suppressor activity acting on B cell responses either directly or through an effect on T helper cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Rituximab serum concentrations and anti-rituximab antibodies during B-cell depletion therapy for myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome. (uib.no)
  • Therapeutic efficacy of a tumor cell-based vaccine against experimental B16 melanoma requires the disruption of either of two immunoregulatory mechanisms that control autoreactive T cell responses: the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 pathway or the CD25 + regulatory T (Treg) cells. (rupress.org)
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major barrier to successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and is largely mediated by activated donor lymphocytes. (mesoscale.com)
  • We demonstrate that upregulation of the NAD+-degrading enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) by activated T cells enhances their susceptibility to NAD+ depletion. (harvard.edu)
  • Combination of CTLA-4 blockade and depletion of CD25 + Treg cells results in maximal tumor rejection. (rupress.org)
  • The synergism in the effects of CTLA-4 blockade and depletion of CD25 + Treg cells indicates that CD25 + Treg cells and CTLA-4 signaling represent two alternative pathways for suppression of autoreactive T cell immunity. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, depletion of Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. (nih.gov)
  • B cells demonstrated particularly dramatic depletion, falling to 5.4 % of pre-chemotherapy levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lymphocyte transformation and serum agglutination tests showed that while cyclophosphamide (CPA) suppressed B lymphocytes, antilymphocyte sea (ALS) suppressed both T and B cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sometimes the T lymphocytes attack the cancer cells. (lls.org)
  • Unfortunately, T lymphocytes are the same cells that cause graft versus host disease (GVHD) . (lls.org)
  • Because of this serious and sometimes life-threatening side effect, doctors in certain cases want to decrease the number of T lymphocytes to be infused with the stem cells. (lls.org)
  • The technique involves treating the stem cells collected for transplant with agents that reduce the number of T lymphocytes. (lls.org)
  • This technique produces a large number of stem cells and fewer other cells, including T lymphocytes. (lls.org)
  • We have developed a new method of T-cell depletion (based on the physical elimination of mature T cells carrying α and β chains of the T-cell receptor), which permits to maintain mature donor-derived alloreactive Natural Killer cells and γδ + T cells in the graft. (elsevier.com)
  • Depletion of either NK cells or CD8 + T cells abrogated tumor growth inhibition, suggesting essential roles for each in the observed antitumor activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There are three major categories of lymphocytes: B-cells, T-cells and NK-cells. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The treatment, known as B-cell depletion therapy, involves removing B-cells. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Here we demonstrate that LT-α is also upregulated on activated human donor lymphocytes in a xenogeneic model of GVHD and targeted depletion of these donor cells ameliorated GVHD. (mesoscale.com)
  • As part of an ongoing phase I/II trial of rituximab in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we sought to determine whether the effectiveness of B cell depletion was influenced by polymorphisms of Fc receptors (FcR) on effector cells. (nih.gov)
  • 0.1 cell/microl) to 16% ( approximately 30 cells/microl) of the total peripheral blood lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Results We found that the immunomagnetic depletion of CD25+ cells had an unpredictable effect on outcome, with total yields of CMV-specific T cells either increasing or decreasing after the removal of these cells. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The depletion of CD25+ cells both removed a proportion of Ag-specific T cells and failed to eliminate a substantial population of Treg cells. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Discussion The depletion of CD25+ cells from the starting population has a variable effect on the total yield of Ag-specific T cells, a proportion of which invariably acquire FOXP3 expression and lose effector function. (cf.ac.uk)
  • An mAb directed against the BoT4 antigen (the bovine homologue of CD4) effectively removed the BoT4+ lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM). (ox.ac.uk)
  • These non-T4/T8 cells may thus be, or contain, an intraepithelial lymphocyte population with a suppressor function. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings indicate that HIV-induced homing of resting CD4 + lymphocytes to LNs results in death of many of these cells. (utmb.edu)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) production from latently infected T lymphocytes can be induced with compounds that activate the cells to secrete lymphokines. (scienceopen.com)
  • Among CD8 + lymphocytes, this decline was greatest among the CD8 lo population, which was composed mostly of CD3 - CD16 + NK cells. (utmb.edu)
  • Among CD8+ lymphocytes, this decline was greatest among the CD8lo population, which was composed mostly of CD3 - CD16+ NK cells. (utmb.edu)
  • Immunotoxin-Mediated Depletion of CD5+ T Cells from Bone Marrow for Graft-vs.-Host Disease Prophylaxis (Joseph H. Antin, Howard J. Weinstein, and Barbara Bierer). (routledge.com)
  • CAR T-cell therapy is a precision cancer treatment wherein each treatment dose is individually manufactured for the patient using their own T-cells, a type of white blood cell known as a lymphocyte. (cms.gov)
  • Lymph: Colorless, watery fluid that carries white blood cells called lymphocytes through the lymph system. (rexhealth.com)
  • In a mammary carcinoma model, depletion of CD25+ regulatory T cells increase the amount of CD8+CD11c+PD110, which target and kill the tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, depletion of regulatory T cells results in more intense flares of systemic lupus erythematosus. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two main types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical and nodular lymphocyte-predominant. (vicc.org)
  • To gain preliminary evidence for the safety and efficacy of B lymphocyte depletion therapy in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Methods. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This study provides sufficient evidence for the safety and possible efficacy of B lymphocyte depletion therapy in SLE to justify a formal controlled trial. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The FcgammaRIIIa genotype was a significant independent predictor of the efficacy of B cell depletion (P = 0.019). (nih.gov)
  • One goal of allogeneic stem cell transplant is to cause the T lymphocytes in the donor's blood or marrow to take hold (engraft) and grow in the patient's marrow. (lls.org)
  • We have published a case series of pilot patient observations with B-cell depletion in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalopathy (CFS/ME) (Fluge and Mella, BMC Neurol, 2009). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since intestinal T lymphocytes are localized at functionally distinct sites, including intestinal epithelium and lamina propria, it will be important to examine isolated cell populations for their cytokine responses. (asm.org)
  • Stem cell selection is another technique being studied in clinical trials that can reduce the number of T lymphocytes that a patient receives. (lls.org)
  • However, the mechanisms leading to T-cell depletion remain largely unknown. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • A combination of drugs are used to accomplish B-cell depletion. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Results of B-cell depletion therapy have been promising. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Most importantly, B cell depletion inhibited antigen-specific CD4 + T cell expansion in both collagen-induced arthritis and autoimmune diabetes mouse models. (pnas.org)
  • Despite the benefits of this immunotherapy, the cellular and molecular basis for the protective effect mediated by B cell depletion is unknown ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • B Cell Depletion Does Not Affect Serum Cytokine Levels and T Cell Phenotypes or Functional Capacity. (pnas.org)
  • Here, using an alternative approach, we report that complete and sustained CD19 + B cell depletion is a highly effective therapy in lupus models. (sciencemag.org)
  • The relationship of FcgammaRIIIa genotype to degree of B cell depletion by rituximab in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. (nih.gov)
  • During rituximab treatment of 12 SLE patients, B cell depletion was monitored as a function of the serum rituximab level and FcgammaRIIa and FcgammaRIIIa genotypes at baseline and at 1 month and 2 months after treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Endogenous antitumor immunity elicited by adoptively transferred lymphocytes through CCL5 and CD40L signaling, and dendritic cell depletion. (dartmouth.edu)
  • now experts in the field present detailed descriptions and evaluations of methods for marrow harvesting, evaluation (including tumor infiltration, flow cytometric analysis, and colony assays), comparative methods for automated nucleated cell separation and enumeration, tumor cell purging, T cell depletion, stem cell selection, gene transfer, and cytopreservation. (routledge.com)
  • T Cell Depletion of Allogeneic Human Bone Marrow Grafts by Soybean Lectin Agglutination and either Sheep Red Blood Cell Rosetting or Adherence on the CD5/CD8 Cellector' (Nancy H. Collins, Nancy A. Kernan, Sharon A. Blean, and Richard J. O'Reilly). (routledge.com)
  • The percentage of T-lymphocytes was decreased, but T-cell response to mitogens was normal. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunologic studies showed elevated serum concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM, decreased percentage of T-lymphocytes, and impaired T-cell function in vitro. (cdc.gov)
  • Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell . (vicc.org)
  • Current clinical trials are evaluating the role of rituximab as a B-cell depletion therapy in the treatment of RRMS. (wiley.com)
  • T cell depletion methods can be broadly categorized into either physical or immunological. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4+ T cell depletion is one of two hallmarks of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocyte filtration produced a reversal in the blood lymphocyte neutrophil ratio . (musc.edu)
  • These antigenically modulated CD5 - T lymphocytes responded normally in vivo to intradermal inoculation with phytohaemagglutinin and in vitro to allogeneic leukocyte stimulation in one-way mixed lymphocyte reactions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We demonstrate that such minimally modified stHIV-1 strains are capable of high levels of replication in vitro in pig-tailed macaque ( Macaca nemestrina ) lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we show that secondary signaling through the homing receptors (CD62L, CD44, CD11a) of abortively infected resting CD4 + T lymphocytes induced apoptosis. (utmb.edu)
  • Apoptosis did not occur after secondary signaling through some other receptors (CD26, CD4, CD45, and HLA class I) or in HIV-exposed resting CD8 + lymphocytes signaled through the homing receptors. (utmb.edu)
  • Lymphocyte Dose Modification of the Bone Marrow Allograft Using Elutriation (Stephen J. Noga, Janice M. Davis, and Albert D. Donnenberg). (routledge.com)
  • B-lymphocyte depletion in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (uib.no)
  • Much less is known about whether, when and how lymphocyte populations recover in the longer-term, and what is known is often conflicting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the whole cohort, graft-versus-host disease induction through T reg depletion was associated with improved survival. (sciencemag.org)
  • Many recent studies have reported therapeutic activities of macrophage depletion by clodronate liposome treatment in different pathological conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study aimed to adapt and to apply of the digital analysis of the lymphoid depletion system (ADDL) in the thymus in order to obtain a more accurate analysis . (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, it was possible to adopt objective criteria to evaluate thymic lymphoid depletion with the ADDL system. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fifty-five bursa of Fabricius (BF) were evaluated by optical microscopy for three different avian histopathologists (H1, H3 and H4) to determine the degree of lymphoid depletion. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggest that T reg -depleted donor lymphocyte infusion is a safe, feasible approach that induces graft-versus-host or graft-versus-tumor effects in alloreactivity-resistant patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • This has implications for counseling those patients with multiple sclerosis who are considering lymphocyte-depleting therapy with alemtuzumab. (jci.org)
  • Overall, with extensive and persistent lymphocyte suppression by a simple administration of agents, single-dose rATG. (elsevier.com)
  • Complete suppression of lymphocyte ATase activity occurred in two patients whose pre-treatment ATase levels were low. (openrepository.com)
  • The finding that B lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes may open a new pathway for exploration in the treatment of patients with this condition. (nih.gov)
  • Although these observations are consistent with a role for B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of RA, the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Specific depletion of Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes prevents immunopathology in experimental cerebral malaria. (nih.gov)
  • All but one had previously failed to respond to at least one standard donor lymphocyte infusion, and none had experienced graft-versus-host disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Two of the 17 patients developed graft-versus-host disease after their first T reg -depleted donor lymphocyte infusion and experienced a long-term remission of their malignancy. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2. Donor Lymphocyte Infusion (CD45depleted DLI product): Participants, other than those who undergo matched sibling HCT transplant, will receive one dose of CD45RA depleted DLI infusion post TCRα/β/CD19-depleted graft infusion. (checkorphan.org)