Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.
Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A novel member of the tumor-necrosis factor receptor family that can also mediate HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 entry into cells. It has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14 and the homotrimeric form of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA. The receptor is abundantly expressed on T-LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte activation. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (1/28979)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (2/28979)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex formation of Cbl-b upon T cell receptor stimulation. (3/28979)

Cbl-b, a mammalian homolog of Cbl, consists of an N-terminal region (Cbl-b-N) highly homologous to oncogenic v-Cbl, a Ring finger, and a C-terminal region containing multiple proline-rich stretches and potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we demonstrate that upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR), endogenous Cbl-b becomes rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated. In heterogeneous COS-1 cells, Cbl-b was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by both Syk- (Syk/Zap-70) and Src- (Fyn/Lck) family kinases, with Syk kinase inducing the most prominent effect. Syk associates and phosphorylates Cbl-b in Jurkat T cells. A Tyr-316 Cbl-binding site in Syk was required for the association with and for the maximal tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl-b. Mutation at a loss-of-function site (Gly-298) in Cbl-b-N disrupts its interaction with Syk. Cbl-b constitutively binds Grb2 and becomes associated with Crk-L upon TCR stimulation. The Grb2- and the Crk-L-binding regions were mapped to the C-terminus of Cbl-b. The Crk-L-binding sites were further determined to be Y655DVP and Y709KIP, with the latter being the primary binding site. Taken together, these results implicate that Cbl-b is involved in TCR-mediated intracellular signaling pathways.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (4/28979)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression.  (+info)

Activation-dependent transcriptional regulation of the human Fas promoter requires NF-kappaB p50-p65 recruitment. (5/28979)

Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (CD95L) are an interacting receptor-ligand pair required for immune homeostasis. Lymphocyte activation results in the upregulation of Fas expression and the acquisition of sensitivity to FasL-mediated apoptosis. Although Fas upregulation is central to the preservation of immunologic tolerance, little is known about the molecular machinery underlying this process. To investigate the events involved in activation-induced Fas upregulation, we have examined mRNA accumulation, fas promoter activity, and protein expression in the Jurkat T-cell line treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin (P/I), pharmacological mimics of T-cell receptor activation. Although resting Jurkat cells express Fas, Fas mRNA was induced approximately 10-fold in 2 h upon P/I stimulation. Using sequential deletion mutants of the human fas promoter in transient transfection assays, we identified a 47-bp sequence (positions -306 to -260 relative to the ATG) required for activation-driven fas upregulation. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized composite binding site for both the Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors at positions -295 to -286. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and supershift analyses of this region documented constitutive binding of Sp1 in unactivated nuclear extracts and inducible binding of p50-p65 NF-kappaB heterodimers after P/I activation. Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factor binding was shown to be mutually exclusive by EMSA displacement studies with purified recombinant Sp1 and recombinant p50. The functional contribution of the kappaB-Sp1 composite site in P/I-inducible fas promoter activation was verified by using kappaB-Sp1 concatamers (-295 to -286) in a thymidine kinase promoter-driven reporter construct and native promoter constructs in Jurkat cells overexpressing IkappaB-alpha. Site-directed mutagenesis of the critical guanine nucleotides in the kappaB-Sp1 element documented the essential role of this site in activation-dependent fas promoter induction.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (6/28979)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (7/28979)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

RFLAT-1: a new zinc finger transcription factor that activates RANTES gene expression in T lymphocytes. (8/28979)

RANTES (Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted) is a chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) important in the generation of inflammatory infiltrate and human immunodeficiency virus entry into immune cells. RANTES is expressed late (3-5 days) after activation in T lymphocytes. Using expression cloning, we identified the first "late" T lymphocyte associated transcription factor and named it "RANTES Factor of Late Activated T Lymphocytes-1" (RFLAT-1). RFLAT-1 is a novel, phosphorylated, zinc finger transcription factor that is expressed in T cells 3 days after activation, coincident with RANTES expression. While Rel proteins play the dominant role in RANTES gene expression in fibroblasts, RFLAT-1 is a strong transactivator for RANTES in T cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils bearing Ia antigens can induce T lymphocyte proliferative response to the syngeneic or semisyngeneic antigen-primed T lymphocytes. AU - Okuda, K.. AU - Tani, K.. AU - Ishigatsubo, Y.. AU - Yokota, S.. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils from mouse peritoneal cavities displayed a remarkable level of lymphocyte proliferative activities to antigen-primed T lymphocytes. Genetic mapping studies demonstrated that compatibility at the I-A, as well as I-E/C, subregions of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was essential for effective presentation of the lysozyme antigen. These antigen-presenting activities were remarkably inhibited by anti-Ia sera. Inhibition tests revealed that neutrophil immune-associated (Ia) antigens seem to be essential for antigen presentation during the initial 8 hr. Elimination studies of antigen-pulsed neutrophils with alloantisera plus complement revealed these antigen-presenting ...
Results Exogenously added IL-7 did not activate B cells directly, in line with the absence of surface IL-7R. However, in the presence of T cells, IL-7 activated both T and B cells (Ki67+ CD4 cells from 1.1±0.2% to 14.4±3.7%, p,0.01 and Ki67+ B cells from 1.9±0.3% to 4.1±0.9%, p,0.05). TLR7A induced B cell activation, as measured by increased proliferation (%Ki67 from 1.2±0.2% to 9.3±1.4%) and up regulation of activation markers on B cells, which was facilitated in the presence of monocytes. TLR7-induced B cell activation in T/B or T/B/monocyte co-cultures was not associated with T cell activation. IL-7 added to TLR7A synergistically increased both B cell (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 9.3±1.4% vs. 33.4±7.3%) and T cell proliferation (IL-7 vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 0.8±0.1% vs. 29.2±5.2%), which for B cells again was further increased by monocytes (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 30.2±8.9% vs. 63.0±8.0%). Similar results were observed for activation marker expression on B cells (CD19, HLA-DR CD25) and on T cells ...
Background/Aims: In vitro constant calcitriol [1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub|] inhibits healthy individuals T lymphocyte proliferation at supraphysiological concentrations. In contrast, among hemodialysis patients, intravenous 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| pulse therapy of secondary hyperparathyroidism has been shown to be even immunostimulatory. We studied the effect of in vitro constant and intermittent 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| on lymphocyte antigen response of hemodialysis patients. Methods: Twelve hemodialysis patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/l) or tetanus toxoid (TT; 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Lf/l, limit of flocculation) for 7 days. Constant 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| was added to all cultures at concentrations of 0, 10|sup|-10|/sup| or 0.25 × 10|sup|-9|/sup| mol/l (0, 42 and 105 ng/l) and to half of the cultures additionally as a 0.75 × 10|sup|-9|/sup| mmol/l (315-ng/l)
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Presence of the T-cell activation marker OX-40 on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and draining lymph node cells from patients with melanoma and head and neck cancers. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Interleukin (IL)-4 is considered to be essential for T helper (Th)2 cell development, yet in areas of primary T cell activation, CD4+ cells are its only source. This implies that other signals must drive the initial expression of IL-4 production. The role of CD28 co-stimulation in Th2 subset development has been described. However, in mice deficient for CD28, Th2 responses are diminished, but not abrogated. Cytokines produced within the lymphoid tissue, e.g. IL-7, may be important in the primary activation of naive CD4+ cells. We have found that human naive CD4+ cells purified from umbilical cord blood express the IL-7 receptor and respond vigorously to IL-7 during primary stimulation. Naive CD4+ cells grown in IL-4, in the presence or absence of IL-2, fail to produce Th2 cytokines upon restimulation. In contrast, IL-7 induces development of a population of T cells that produce large amounts of IL-4. Growth in IL-7 also increases IL-2-induced production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 production. IL
by Barbara Stranger, Ye CJ, Feng T, Kwon HK, Raj T, Wilson MT, Asinovski N, McCabe C, Lee MH, Frohlich I, Paik HI, Zaitlen N, Hacohen N, De Jager P, Mathis D, Regev A, Benoist C. T lymphocyte activation by antigen conditions adaptive immune responses and immunopathologies, but we know little about its variation in humans and its genetic or environmental roots. We analyzed gene expression in CD4(+) T cells during unbiased activation or in T helper 17 (T(H)17) conditions from 348 healthy participants representing European, Asian, and African ancestries. We observed interindividual variability, most marked for cytokine transcripts, with clear biases on the basis of ancestry, and following patterns more complex than simple T(H)1/2/17 partitions. We identified 39 genetic loci specifically associated in cis with activated gene expression. We further fine-mapped and validated a single-base variant that modulates YY1 binding and the activity of an enhancer element controlling the autoimmune-associated ...
Download this application note to discover a turnkey solution for studying T cell activation and associated metabolic reprogramming.
DCs are believed to initiate the CD8+ T cell response in the draining LN by providing signals through the TCR and CD28. Beyond this initiation phase, however, the role of DCs and CD28 costimulation during later phases and at the effector site is largely unexplored. Previous studies have suggested that CD8+ T cells responses are programmed during priming and do not require Ag beyond initiation (1-3); however, these conclusions were based on short 3-6 d in vivo expansion or survival of CD8+ T cells (1-3). In these studies, in vitro-activated T cells were transferred in uninfected mice, and it was showed that the cells undergo divisions in the absence of Ag for up to 6 d after transfer into uninfected mice. Our studies show that in the context of a viral infection such as influenza, effector CD8+ T cells fail to fully expand when transferred into uninfected recipients or animals infected with an influenza virus that does not express cognate peptide (Fig. 4B, 4C). Based on the above, it appears that ...
Biochemical experiments have established that the metabolism of inositol phospholipids by phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) and lipid-phosphatases is triggered by many receptors that control T lymphocyte function, including antigen-receptors, costimulatory molecules, cytokines and chemokines. Novel …
IL-2-regulated genes in PBMCs. Pre-activated, rested human PBMCs were left untreated or restimulated for 4 hr with IL-2, and RNA probes were prepared for hybrid
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Nabila Seddiki, Laura Cook, Denise C Hsu, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Kai Brown, Yin Xu, Stephen J Kerr, David A Cooper, C Mee Ling Munier, Sarah Pett, Jintanat Ananworanich, John Zaunders, Anthony D Kelleher].
Specificity of T lymphocyte activation ... Molecular rearrangements w/synapse formation ... Two different MAP Kinase pathways are involved in receptor signaling ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on - id: 229ace-ZTQ4Y
Germain, R N.; Mayer, S V.; and Mescher, M F., Role of i-region gene products in t cell activation. I. Stimulation of t lymphocyte proliferative responses by subcellular membrane preparations containing ia alloantigens. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 16 ...
An adoptive transfer system was used to monitor physically the behavior of a trace population of TCR transgenic T cells in vivo. After subcutaneous injection of antigen in adjuvant, the antigen-specific cells accumulated first in the paracortical region of the draining lymph nodes, proliferated ther …
Inflammatory reactions are believed to be triggered by innate signals and have a major protective role by recruiting innate immunity cells, favoring lymphocyte activation and differentiation, and thus contributing to the sequestration and elimination of the injurious stimuli. Although certain lymphocyte types such as TH17 cells co-participate in inflammatory reactions, their generation from the naïve pool requires the pre-existence of an inflammatory milieu. In this context, inflammation is always regarded as beginning with an innate response that may be eventually perpetuated and amplified by certain lymphocyte types. In contrast, we here show that even in sterile immunizations or in MyD88 deficient mice, CD8 T cells produce a burst of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These functions follow opposite rules to the classic CD8 effector functions since they are generated prior to cell expansion and decline before antigen elimination. As few as 56 CD8+ inflammatory effector cells in a lymph node
Doenhoff, M J.; Janossy, G; Greaves, M F.; Gomer, K J.; and Snajdr, J, Lymphocyte activation. VI. A re-evaluation of factors affecting the selectivity of polyclonal mitogens for mouse t and b cells. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1563 ...
T and B lymphocytes tailor their responses to each pathogenic insult as part of the adaptive immune system. During an infection, activation of B cells causes them to proliferate, differentiate, and synthesize a variety of potential antibodies to pathogenic antigens. Immunological responses also activate T cells, inducing them to differentiate into a wide variety of subtypes, including cytotoxic T cells and T helper cells. Cytotoxic T cells recognize and destroy infected cells, and T helper cells communicate with B cells to mediate appropriate immune responses. Dysregulation of B cell or T cell functions can cause immunodeficiencies. Changes in gene expression and epigenetic regulation play a large part in T and B cell activation mechanisms. Understanding these changes may define how precursor lymphocytes decide their fates under specific experimental conditions ...
Initially, a role for the interaction between CD40, expressed on B cells, and gp39 (CD40L), expressed on activated T cells, has been defined in humoral immunity...
Schematic diagram of CD4+ effector T cell activation at the site of M. tuberculosis infection.A. During the chronic stage of infection, A
Study Flashcards On T cell activation and function at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
The molecular process of Antigen Processing and Presentation leads to T lymphocyte activation and function to enable CD4 T cells to potentiate the humoral and cellular immune responses, and CD8 T cel…
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced primarily by mitogen- or antigen-activated T lymphocytes . Human IL-2 (also known as T-cell…
|p|β-Interleukin I (163-171), human(C|sub|39|/sub|H|sub|64|/sub|N|sub|12|/sub|O|sub|19|/sub|), a peptide with the sequence Val-Gln-Gly-Glu-Glu-Ser-Asn-Asp-Lys, MW= 1005.|strong| |/strong|Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins/signaling m
Researchers, using mathematical models, have defined for the first time how powerfully immune cells respond to infection and disease. The team combined laboratory data with mathematical models to clarify how different external signals impact on T cell proliferation.
Learn about the new personal insight questions on the UC application. Tips & strategies on how to prepare strong responses will be shared with you. For more information, contact the Transfer Counseling Center at (310) 434-4210 ...
Sometimes I wish my politically moderate opinions were as sexy as the extreme ones some use to elicit a strong response from people. I just dont share
LEAD: The article, Taking a Scalpel to Health Care Costs (Jan. 8) prompted an unusually strong response from readers. Some of their comments follow. To the Editor:
T lymphocyte proliferation assay according to the free Medical Dictionary. Measures the strength of response of T memory cells|.
Ethanol consumption is associated with impaired immunity. Our data demonstrate that even a single dose of a biologically relevant concentration (25-150 mM) of ethanol can down-regulate antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation. In contrast, ethanol augmented mitogen-induced T cell proliferation, suggesting that its inhibitory effect on antigen-specific T cell proliferation was due to its effects on monocytes (m phi s) rather than on T cells. The immunodepressive effects of ethanol on m phi antigen-presenting cell (APC) capacity were manifested whether alcohol treatment was limited to the antigen uptake-processing period only or was present during the entire period of antigen presentation. These inhibitory effects of ethanol were also evident on both the high-antigen-presenting, Fc gamma RI-negative (-31 +/- 17%), and low-antigen-presenting, Fc gamma RI-positive (-42 +/- 15%) m phi subpopulations. Further analysis demonstrated that ethanol inhibits the production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and
OX40 is really a T cell costimulatory molecule that belongs to the TNFR superfamily. exhausted Treg phenotype can be prevented by exogenous IL-2, as both OX40 and IL-2 agonists drive further expansion of Tregs in vivo. Importantly, Tregs expanded by both OX40 and IL-2 agonists are potent suppressor cells, and in a heart transplant model, they promote long-term allograft survival. Our data uncover a novel role for buy Bedaquiline (TMC-207) OX40 in buy Bedaquiline (TMC-207) promoting immune tolerance and may have important clinical implications. strong class=kwd-title Keywords: Costimulation, Transplantation, Tolerance, OX40, Foxp3 Introduction Foxp3+ Tregs and conventional T cells (Tconv) express a plethora of cell surface molecules including T cell costimulatory molecules that potentially influence their survival, function, and homeostasis; some of these molecules are constitutively expressed by both Tregs and Tconv (e.g., CD27, CD28, CD39), while others are preferentially expressed by Tregs, ...
Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) is an MHC class II ligand structurally and genetically related to CD4. Although its expression is restricted to activated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct effects of HP Acthar Gel® on human B lymphocyte activation in vitro. AU - Olsen, Nancy. AU - Decker, Dima A.. AU - Higgins, Paul. AU - Becker, Patrice M.. AU - McAloose, Carl A.. AU - Benko, Ann L.. AU - Kovacs, William. PY - 2015/10/27. Y1 - 2015/10/27. N2 - Introduction: Both clinical experience and experimental evidence have suggested that Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) might directly exert immunomodulatory effects not dependent on adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods: The direct effects of H.P. Acthar Gel® (Acthar), a repository preparation containing a porcine ACTH analogue, on human B lymphocyte function were studied in vitro using peripheral blood B cells isolated using anti-CD19 coated magnetic beads and activated by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and CD40 ligand (CD40L). Analysis of expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) was carried out by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cellular proliferation was ...
Effects of Polysaccharide Extracted from Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs on Lymphocyte Transformation Rate and AI-HI Antibody Titer in Chicks
Effects of Polysaccharide Extracted from Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs on Lymphocyte Transformation Rate and AI-HI Antibody Titer in Chicks
The mixed leucocyte reaction, (MLR), has been applied successfully to peripheral blood leucocytes of the mouse. Before harvest, the leucocytes were mobilized into the peripheral blood by a single intravenous injection of the mice with pertussis vaccine. Mixtures, (50-50), of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse leucocytes were cultured in medium containing low amounts of mouse plasma and supplemented with foetal bovine serum. DNA-synthetic activities at selected times were determined by liquid scintillation counting following pulse labeling of the cell populations with 3H-TdR. DNA synthesis in the mixed cultures attained a maximum value at the 5th to 7th day (7,500 cpm), as contrasted with maximum control values of 200-1000 cpm). Considerable DNA synthesis (1000-2000 cpm), also was observed at zero time, and then declined to low levels (200-300 cpm) at the 18th hour. DNA synthesis did not occur in the mixed leucocyte cultures when the culture medium was supplemented with dog plasma in place of foetal bovine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigation of K+ channel expression in human peripheral lymphocytes of healthy donors by means of flow cytometry. AU - Krjukova, J.. AU - Osna, N.. AU - Pilmane, M.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Evaluation of different types of K+ channel expression was performed in resting and PHA (phytohemagglutinine)-activated human peripheral lymphocytes (HPL) of healthy donors by means of flow cytometry. In resting peripheral lymphocytes, the application of kaliotoxin (a selective blocker for voltage-dependent K+ (K(V)) channels), K(V) resulted in pronounced depolarization of lymphocyte membrane potential, with further promotion in the presence of thapsigargin (compound discharging Ca(i) from endoplasmic reticulum). In activated HPL, the expression of various types of K+ channels was estimated utilizing cell-cycle analysis data. In contrast to the resting cells, kaliotoxin-induced depolarization of membrane potential in PHA-activated lymphocytes of the G0/G1 phase was not enhanced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporin A inhibits initiation but not progression of human T cell proliferation triggered by phorbol esters and calcium ionophores. AU - Kumagai, N.. AU - Benedict, S. H.. AU - Mills, G. B.. AU - Gelfand, E. W.. PY - 1988/12/1. Y1 - 1988/12/1. N2 - Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a potent inhibitor of T lymphocyte proliferation induced by Ag and mitogens. In an attempt to further delineate the mechanism of action of CsA, we have examined its effects on T cell proliferation induced by the combination of the phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB), and the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. T cells were rendered competent as the result of a 30-min initial incubation with both drugs, after which the drugs were washed out. Competence is defined as the ability to subsequently proliferate in response to exogenously added IL-2 or PDB in the second phase of the culture, but not to synthesize IL-2 or proliferative without these additions. Addition of CsA (1 μg/ml) to the cells in the ...
We show in this study that Tregs functionally inhibit DC activation in an Ag-dependent manner involving the interaction of LAG-3 and its ligand, MHC II. This LAG-3/MHC II molecular interaction provides a novel tolerogenic pathway that may endow Tregs the capacity to enforce tolerance by inhibiting DC function. The ability of Ag-specific Tregs to modulate DC function would potentially allow limited numbers of Ag-specific Tregs to inhibit many potential responding T effectors.. Expression in T cells of LAG-3 lacking its cytoplasmic tail was sufficient to confer regulatory activity, consistent with the notion that reverse signaling through MHC II in DCs, rather than LAG-3 signaling in T cells, was responsible for inhibition of DCs. Furthermore, inhibition of DC maturation required cell contact and bystander DCs were only modestly affected, indicating that release of inhibitory cytokines by regulatory cells were not primarily responsible. Prior studies have shown that LAG-3 engagement inhibits T ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of the age-related refractoriness of T-lymphocyte reactivity in humans. AU - Bátory, Gabriella. AU - Ónody, Clara. AU - Petrányi, G. Gy. PY - 1981/4. Y1 - 1981/4. N2 - Aged individuals could be divided into two groups according to their T-lymphocyte transformation values. The relationship between the PHA (phytohemagglutinin) stimulation indices and spontaneous thymidine incorporation; the PHA dose-response type distribution and the relative number of resting T lymphocytes was similar to the control group in aged subjects of seemingly intact T lymphocyte transformation values. However, their B cell compartment was found to be reduced. On the other hand, the ratio between the stimulation indices and spontaneous thymidine incorporation values of aged subjects of impaired T lymphocyte reactivity deviated from that of the control group. This group had an increased frequency of subjects giving maximal transformation values at relatively high PHA doses (hyposensitives) at ...
Malaria infection has been shown to induce alterations in immune reactivity. This report describes the effect of serum obtained from Plasmodium falciparum infected patients on in vitro proliferation of human blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) isolated from healthy individuals. Serum obtained before initiation of treatment suppressed the in vitro lymphocyte proliferative response to both Plasmodium-derived antigens and an unrelated antigen (PPD-tuberculin). The suppressive effect was lost if the serum was incubated at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and the effect was not HLA-restricted since the inhibition was seen on both autologous and heterologous BMNC. The degree of suppression was not correlated to the duration of the disease, the degree of parasitemia, or the use of chemoprophylaxis. Sera from 7 patients before and from 3 patients 30 days after initiation of treatment were pooled and fractionated. It was found that the strongest suppressive activity was in the serum fraction containing molecules from ...
Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and highly purified CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Our experiments explicitly show that: (a) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen induces significant proliferation independent of co-stimulatory signals (e.g., accessory cells, recombinant lymphokines, or tumor promoter), (b) F(ab)2 fragments of mAb directed at the TCR and F(ab)2 anti-CD2, crosslinked with F(ab)2 fragments of rabbit anti-mouse IgG, promote the proliferation of highly purified T cells, (c) a prompt and sustained increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration results from crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, (d) T cell proliferation induced by this novel approach is curtailed by EGTA and by direct or competitive inhibitors of PKC, (e) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen ...
NFAT2 null mutant mice die in utero of cardiac failure, precluding analysis of the role of NFAT2 in lymphocyte responses. Only the NFAT2-/-/Rag-1-/- chimeric mice model gave insight into the role of NFAT2 transcription factor in T lymphocyte development, activation and differentiation. As reports are mainly focused on the role of NFAT2 in CD4+ T lymphocytes activation and differentiation, we decided to investigate NFAT2s impact on CD8+ T lymphocytes responses. We report that NFAT2 is phosphorylated and inactive in the cytoplasm of naive CD8+ T cells, and upon TCR stimulation is dephosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus. To study the role of NFAT2 in CD8+ T responses we employed NFAT2fl/flCD4-Cre mice with NFAT2 deletion specifically in T cells. Interestingly, the absence of NFAT2 in T cells resulted in increased percentage of nonconventional innate-like CD8+ T cells. These cells were CD122+, rapid producer of IFN-γ and had characteristics of conventional memory CD8+ T cells. We also observed
ABSTRACT. In this in vitro study, T cell responses induced by breast tumor cell lysate pulsed monocyte-derived DCs were analyzed in terms of proliferation, specific cytotoxicity and cytokine-release in order to use in immunotherapeutic settings. Nylon wool enriched T lymphocytes from 5 patients with breast cancer stimulated in vitro with tumor cell lysate pulsed monocyte-derived DCs and their proliferation response were analyzed by [3H] thymidine uptake test. Specific cytotoxic activity of tumor antigen primed T cells after three rounds weekly stimulation was evaluated by flow cytometry, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) cytokines release assay was carried out 24 hours after last stimulation in the supernatant of primed T cells using commercially available ELISA kits. T cell proliferation assay revealed that tumor cell lysate pulsed DCs could stimulate autologous T cell proliferation response with stimulation indices 4.9 - 30. T cell mediated cytotoxicity assay demonstrated ...
Acute phase samples (9) and post-recovery samples (14) from cases of SJS or TEN to LTG were provided by the RegiSCAR-study group. Controls were persons never exposed to LTG (12), patients exposed without reaction (6), and patients who developed a mild eruption to LTG (6). LTT was performed by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation after 3 days of incubation with phytohemmaglutinin, LTG (10 μg/mL) or medium. Stimulation index ≥ 2 was considered positive. In 16 cases LTT was redone after depletion of T-reg by fluorescence activated cell sorting. ...
A simple in vitro experimental system was devised to reflect the in vivo generation of a T cell anamnestic response so that T cell differentiation could be examined at the level of lymphokine gene expression. Comparison of neonatal and adult T cells revealed that both populations expressed the genes for interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor, but only adult T cells were capable of transcribing mRNAs for IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, interferon gamma, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. However, neonatal T cells could be induced to undergo functional differentiation in vitro, thereby acquiring the capacity to express the lymphokine gene repertoire characteristic for adult T cells. These data suggest that the T cells generated from neonatal blood by a primary stimulation in vitro are functionally indistinguishable from the T cells in adult blood that presumably have undergone primary stimulation in vivo. Therefore, we propose that the term memory cell be applied to those T cells that ...
To order B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2) Polyclonal Antibody , please use the Cat. Nr. CAU27021 and submit your purchase order by email or by fax. A discount is available for larger or bulk quantities, please contact us for more information ...
The close similarity of the reported findings with nicotine on immune function (Caggiula et al., 1992; McAllister et al., 1994) with the results of the studies conducted in our laboratory with morphine led us to further explore the relationship between nicotinic and opioid-induced alterations in immune function. The results (Figs.1-3) with acute systemic morphine, nicotine and epibatidine treatment presented here demonstrated that each of these compounds produce: 1) antinociception, 2) decreased magnitude of peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation responses to mitogen without altering the sensitivity of the lymphocytes, 3) no alteration of either splenic or thymic proliferation responses, and 4) an elevation of circulating corticosterone levels. Collectively, these results indicate that the effects of systemic morphine are largely mimicked by both nicotine and epibatidine treatment.. Although considerable evidence supports the involvement of a central site of action for systemic morphine on ...
Another test, Lymphocyte transformation test, is available from Pharmasan and others. This test measures a different kind of immune response. It is based on FDA approved, commercially available TB tests. The test measures the innate immune response. An initial response which predates acquired immune responses which lead to antibody production. Immune cells patrolling our blood and tissues have the ability to recognize patterns which shouldnt be there (Pattern Recognition Receptors). Killer T cell lymphocytes are the first line of defense. Killer T cells attack offending antigen (Lyme) and turn on other immune responses including the production of cytokines, modulators of immune regulation. When this reaction occurs it leaves behind permanent T memory cells. These memory cells, when exposed to Lyme antigens react by releasing gamma interferon, a potent cytokine. This reaction can be measured. This test may be considered a complement to other tests, such as the Western Blot test. It is somewhat ...
The experiments described in this thesis document the development of two in vivo models, to investigate the effect of competition for peptide-MHC and factors independent of MHC on T cell proliferation, differentiation, generation of memory cells and affinity maturation. The first model made use of 3 strains of T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic (tg) mice of varying specificity for antigen-MHC class II. To determine the effect of antigen specific and non-specific competition on the early stages of the T cell response, the efficiency with which naïve antigen-specific CD4+ T cells were recruited into an ongoing immune response was investigated. Recruitment into cell division and cytokine production was shown to decrease with an increasing time delay between two cell cohorts of the same specificity, leading to a significant drop in recruitment with a delay of only 24 hours. Injection of additional antigen could partially compensate for this decrease, suggesting that lack of available antigen limited ...
Signaling through CD27 plays a role in T cell activation and memory. However, it is currently unknown how this costimulatory receptor influences CD4 effector T (Teff) cells in inflamed tissues. In the current study, we used a murine model of inducible self-antigen expression in the epidermis to elucidate the functional role of CD27 on autoreactive Teff cells. Expression of CD27 on Ag-specific Teff cells resulted in enhanced skin inflammation when compared with CD27-deficient Teff cells. CD27 signaling promoted the accumulation of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells in skin draining lymph nodes in a cell-intrinsic fashion. Surprisingly, this costimulatory pathway had minimal effect on early T cell activation and proliferation. Instead, signaling through CD27 resulted in the progressive survival of Teff cells during the autoimmune response. Using BH3 profiling to assess mitochondrial cell priming, we found that CD27-deficient cells were equally as sensitive as CD27-sufficient cells to mitochondrial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CD40 ligand expressed by human B cells costimulates B cell responses. AU - Grammer, A. C.. AU - Bergman, M. C.. AU - Miura, Y.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The possibility that activated B cells might express a ligand for CD40 that was of functional importance for B cell responses was examined by using highly purified human peripheral blood B cells, as well as a variety of B lymphoblastoid cell lines and hybridomas. Following stimulation with the combination of a calcium ionophore and a phorbol ester, human B cells bound a soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular portion of CD40 and the Fc region of lgG1 (CD40.lg). A variety of B cell lines and hybridomas also bound CD40.1g, either constitutively or after activation. In addition, CD40.Ig specifically immunoprecipitated a 33-kDa glycoprotein from surface 125I-labeled activated B cells. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the CD40 ligand mRNA ...
In this report, the Global Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 Protein Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the e
The relationship between T-cell metabolism and T cell effector function is little studied for human T cells. A recent publication by K. Renner et al. now reports about investigations of the group with human CD4 and CD8 T cells.. The authors used the CASY, to accurately and reliably determine the cell number and cell volume in proliferation assays and metabolic restriction experiments.. Read the publication here:. Metabolic plasticity of human T cells: Preserved cytokine production under glucose deprivation or mitochondrial restriction, but 2-deoxy-glucose affects effector functions. Kathrin Renner, Anna-Lena Geiselhöringer, Matthias Fante, Christina Bruss, Stephanie Dyer, Gabriele Saeed hammer, Katrin Peter, Katrin singer, Reinhard Andreesen, Petra Hoffmann, Peter Abubakar, Wolfgang Mr, Marina Kreutz.. Eur J Immunol. 2015 Sep;45(9):2504-16. two: 10.1002/eji.201545473. ...
The CD2 antigen (LFA-2) is a monomeric 50 kDa glycoprotein. It was formerly described as the sheep red blood cell receptor, causing T-cell rosetting, and has been identified as the ligand for CD58 (LFA-3). It is also a receptor for CD48, CD59 and CD15, which binds to the multimeric form of CD2. CD2 is present on the majority of normal human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and a high percentage of NK cells. It is also expressed by all thymocytes ...
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Here, we reported the identification of a PIP2-derived signaling amplification loop for the initiation of B cell activation (fig. S7). Specifically, we observed that there is a highly dynamic spatial-temporal change of PIP2 within the immunological synapse during B cell activation: PIP2 is efficiently depleted inside the BCR microclusters but is regenerated outside the BCR microclusters. Both events are important for the sustained initiation of B cell activation. Mechanistically, the hydrolysis of PIP2 inside the BCR microclusters induced a positive feedback mechanism for its synthesis outside the BCR microclusters.. The positive feedback nature of the PIP2-derived amplification loop is achieved by the unique Brownian mobility of PIP2 metabolic products. DAG, the product of PIP2 hydrolysis within the BCR microclusters, exhibits high Brownian mobility, which ensures its efficient interaction with DGKζ outside the BCR microclusters. PA, converted from DAG by DGKζ, drastically facilitates the ...
Un metodo per espandere γδ cellule T dalle cellule mononucleate del sangue periferico (PBMC) è descritta. PBMC cellule derivate γδ T...
DREAM is a multifunctional protein able to specifically interact with DNA and/or other proteins to execute defined functions in different cell compartments. In this study, we show that in T lymphocytes DREAM regulates the expression of three cytokine genes, IL‐2, IL‐4 and IFNγ. The proposed repressor mechanism involves recognition and binding to specific DREs located in their promoters. As previously shown for other Ca2+‐activated genes like c‐fos, ICER and AA‐NAT (Carrion et al, 1999; Link et al, 2004), in IL‐2 and IL‐4 promoters DREAM binds to a doublet with one direct and one inverted DRE repeat located downstream from the transcription initiation site and downregulates their activity. In the case of the IFNγ gene, like for the prodynorphin and the fra‐2 promoters, binding of DREAM to a single DRE site downstream from the TATA box is enough to repress transcription (Carrion et al, 1998, 1999; Link et al, 2004). Binding of DREAM or EFmDREAM to DRE sites downstream from the ...
Aqua Bio Stem Cell Activator Injeksi Peremajaan Kulit, Ragamkosmetika - Informasi dan Review Seputar Produk Kecantikan: Aqua Bio Stem Cell Activator Injeksi Peremajaan Kulit, Ragamkosmetika - Informasi dan Review Seputar Produk Kecantikan
In the absence of foreign antigen, peripheral naive T cells continuously recirculate between different lymphoid organs, in which they interact frequently and shortly with self. We and others have shown that such interactions are required for the long-term survival of naïve T cells. In addition, these TCR/MHC interactions and the resulting associated signaling increase quantitatively T-cell responsiveness towards foreign antigens and influence their function and/or differentiation into effector or memory cells in response to stimulation. Our project is based on our recent data showing that peripheral ab and gd T cells can be subdivided into various subsets according to Ly-6C expression. Interestingly, in CD4 ab T cells, Ly-6C expression inversely correlates with the ability of these cells to interact with self, defining Ly-6C as a new sensor of T cell self-reactivity. In parallel, we are exploring the regulation of T-cell self-reactivity in the context of cancer. Indeed, T cells specific for ...
low lymphocytes - MedHelps low lymphocytes Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for low lymphocytes. Find low lymphocytes information, treatments for low lymphocytes and low lymphocytes symptoms.
Learn how to measure T Cell activation in minutes using the Agilent Seahorse XF Hu T Cell Activation Assay Kitt. It measures human (Hu) T cell activation response within several minutes of stimulation using Seahorse XF Analyzers.
Preclinical experiments with allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells11 have opened up a new treatment paradigm and have made the use of allogeneic hCPC via cell banks a more realistic proposition, assuming that cryopreserved cells retain their original characteristics and are immunologically safe. In the present study, we provide the first detailed description of T-cell responses to cryopreserved allogeneic hCPC. We show that cryopreserved hCPC retain their primitive pluripotent and early cardiac lineage-committed phenotype. Tailored immune assays showed that these cells are hypoimmunogenic because, whether under inflammatory conditions or not, they lack the costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86 required for conventional Th1 or Th2 type T-cell responses. In contrast, the hCPC express the costimulatory molecule PD-L1, which endows them with the capacity to drive significant allogeneic Treg responses and to attenuate an ongoing immune response.. Patients who experience heart failure after MI have ...
We describe here the potent specific immunosuppression obtained in vitro by LO-CD2a, a rat mAb directed against the human CD2 molecule. Addition of low dose LO-CD2a (40 ng/ml) at the time of mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) initiation inhibits 80% of the proliferation and, more impressive, addition of the mAb 4 days after culture initiation at a similar concentration still suppresses 50% of the MLC. When responder T cells previously treated with LO-CD2a are challenged a second time by the same donor or third party allogeneic cells, hyporesponsiveness occurs in both cases, although reactivity to T cell mitogenic stimulation persists. Finally, the low production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IFN-gamma after incubation of human T cells with LO-CD2a suggests the absence of T cell activation. These results demonstrate that LO-CD2a mAb has a significant immunosuppressive effect and induces hyporesponsiveness in vitro, thereby suggesting potential efficacy in vivo for the treatment ...
"Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (CD223) regulates the size of the expanding T cell population following antigen activation in vivo ... "T Lymphocytes infiltrating various tumour types express the MHC class II ligand lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3): role of ... "Maturation and activation of dendritic cells induced by lymphocyte activation gene-3 (CD223)". Journal of Immunology. 168 (8): ... "Maturation and activation of dendritic cells induced by lymphocyte activation gene-3 (CD223)". Journal of Immunology. 168 (8): ...
The signalling lymphocyte activation molecule family (SLAMF) is a group of cell surface receptors that modulates the activation ...
Lymphocyte homing occurs in four steps leading to extravasation into target tissue; Rolling, activation, activation-dependent " ... Two other well known examples are CD34 and GLYCAM-1. B lymphocyte T lymphocyte Lymphocyte+homing+receptors at the US National ... Lymphocyte homing refers to adhesion of the circulating lymphocytes in blood to specialized endothelial cells within lymphoid ... Lymphocyte homing receptors are cell adhesion molecules expressed on lymphocyte cell membranes that recognize addressins on ...
October 1984). "Lymphocyte activation antigens. I. A monoclonal antibody, anti-Act I, defines a new late lymphocyte activation ... October 1984). "Lymphocyte activation antigens. I. A monoclonal antibody, anti-Act I, defines a new late lymphocyte activation ... Although the antibody did not block primary activation of T-lymphocytes, it appeared late after activation with a number of ... This was part of a program to analyze the molecular basis of lymphocyte activation. An antibody was isolated that reacted with ...
Chemokines stimulate the activation process of LFA-1. The activation process begins with the activation of Rap1, an ... Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is an integrin found on lymphocytes and other leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a key ... The conformational change stimulates a recruitment of proteins to form an activation complex. The activation complex further ... "Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1): a surface antigen distinct from Lyt-2,3 that participates in T lymphocyte- ...
Role in T-lymphocyte activation". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 439-48. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02898.x. PMID 9389317. Soares ... 1995). "V7, a novel leukocyte surface protein that participates in T cell activation. I. Tissue distribution and functional ... 1995). "V7, a novel leukocyte surface protein that participates in T cell activation. II. Molecular cloning and ...
Lymphocyte development and activation * Tumour immunology. 45: 126-131. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2017.03.003. PMID 28359033. Gatto D, ... Lymphocyte development and activation * Tumour immunology. 45: 97-102. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2017.03.006. PMID 28319733. Taylor JJ ... Lymphocyte development and activation * Tumour immunology. 45: 132-140. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2017.03.005. PMID 28363157. Allman D ... Lymphocyte development and activation * Tumour immunology. 45: 89-96. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2017.03.004. PMC 7126224. PMID 28319732 ...
Complement activation. Mixed lymphocyte reaction T-cell receptors. Phagocyte function. First to fully describe IgA deficiency. ... 16, 301-310 Versey, J.M.B., Slater, L., Hobbs, J.R. Activation of complement in relation to disease, (1975) J.Clin.Path. 28, ... 6. 38-44 Yamamura, M., Nikbin, B., Hobbs, J.R. Standardisation of the mixed lymphocyte reaction (1976) Journal of Immunological ... 219-317 Foroozanfar, N., Yamamura, M. and Hobbs, J.R. Standardization of lymphocyte transformation to candida immunogen, (1974 ...
"Helper T Cells and Lymphocyte Activation". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Chandra, Vivek; Bortnick, ... The levels of surface expression of IgD isotype has been associated with differences in B cell activation status but their role ... Class switching is mediated by the enzyme AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) and occurs after the B cell binds an ... and activation of complement cascade. As IgM antibodies are expressed early in a B cell response, they are rarely highly ...
... and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3). Soluble molecules such as cytokines IL-10 or TGF-β are also able to trigger ... This coupled with NFAT signaling allows for complete activation of the IL-2 gene. While in most cases activation is dependent ... "Helper T Cells and Lymphocyte Activation". Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). Kondo, Motonari (December 2016). "One Niche ... Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells. The first signal is provided by binding ...
"Helper T Cells and Lymphocyte Activation". Grewal IS, Flavell RA (1998). "CD40 and CD154 in cell-mediated immunity". Annual ... Helper T cell activation also requires longer duration of engagement with an antigen-presenting cell. The activation of a ... T cell activation is tightly controlled and generally requires a very strong MHC/antigen activation signal, or additional ... B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes and are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. B ...
Kornfeld H, Cruikshank WW, Pyle SW, Berman JS, Center DM (1988). "Lymphocyte activation by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein". Nature ... Activation of the receptor increases proliferation of CD8+ effector T cells. IL2RB has been shown to interact with: CISH, HGS, ... "Functional activation of Jak1 and Jak3 by selective association with IL-2 receptor subunits". Science. 266 (5187): 1045-7. ... "The role of interleukin-2 during homeostasis and activation of the immune system". Nat Rev Immunol. 12 (3): 180-190. doi: ...
Okkenhaug K, Vanhaesebroeck B (April 2003). "PI3K in lymphocyte development, differentiation and activation". Nature Reviews. ... August 2005). "Sequential activation of class IB and class IA PI3K is important for the primed respiratory burst of human but ... Lee C, Liu QH, Tomkowicz B, Yi Y, Freedman BD, Collman RG (November 2003). "Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4- ... Deane JA, Fruman DA (2004). "Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: diverse roles in immune cell activation". Annual Review of Immunology. ...
Kornfeld H, Cruikshank WW, Pyle SW, Berman JS, Center DM (September 1988). "Lymphocyte activation by HIV-1 envelope ... Lymphocytes expressing the common gamma chain can form functional receptors for these cytokine proteins, which transmit signals ... The common gamma chain partners with other proteins to direct blood-forming cells to form lymphocytes (a type of white blood ... The γc glycoprotein is a member of the type I cytokine receptor family expressed on most lymphocyte (white blood cell) ...
Sharfe N, Dadi HK, O'Shea JJ, Roifman CM (June 1997). "Jak3 activation in human lymphocyte precursor cells". Clinical and ... Activation by IL-2 led to tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent interactions between Jak3 and p52ShcA only at lower concentrations ... Though constitutive activation of Janus kinase 3 (Jak3) leads to different cancers, the mechanism of trans-molecular regulation ... Jak3 expression and activation provide protection against development of CLGI and associated health complications. Studies in ...
... complexes in lymphocyte activation". Journal of Cell Biology. 166 (2): 173-178. doi:10.1083/jcb.200309044. PMC 2172307. PMID ... Such changes may be able to enhance or inhibit the activation of these signaling proteins. An example is the Ste5 scaffold in ... Signaling pathways are often inactivated by enzymes that reverse the activation state and/or induce the degradation of ... Clapéron, A.; Therrien, M. (May 2007). "KSR and CNK: two scaffolds regulating RAS-mediated RAF activation". Oncogene. 26 (22): ...
DeFranco, Anthony (2008). "Chapter 8: B Lymphocyte Signaling Mechanisms and Activation". In Paul, William (ed.). Fundamental ... Depending on the specific subfamily in question, activation can be highly variable. Activation by either Gαq or Gβγ G-protein ... Members of the Rho GTPase family (e.g., Rac1, Rac2, Rac3, and cdc42) have been implicated in their activation by binding to an ... Binding of its substrate PIP2 to the N-terminal PH domain is highly specific and functions to promote activation of the ...
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Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation XI. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. pp. 155-62. doi: ... They are preferentially expressed by B lymphocytes. Unlike the classical Fc receptors, there is no strong evidence that ... "Isolation and purification of an early pregnancy factor-like molecule from culture supernatants obtained from lymphocytes of ...
Patterson HC, Kraus M, Kim YM, Ploegh H, Rajewsky K (Jul 2006). "The B cell receptor promotes B cell activation and ... It is also present in abnormal lymphocytes associated with some cases of Hodgkins disease. Because even on B-cell precursors, ... Flaswinkel H, Reth M (Jan 1994). "Dual role of the tyrosine activation motif of the Ig-alpha protein during signal transduction ... Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annual Review of Immunology. 10 (1): 97-121. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy. ...
Reif K, Cyster J (2002). "The CDM protein DOCK2 in lymphocyte migration". Trends Cell Biol. 12 (8): 368-73. doi:10.1016/S0962- ... Lu M, Ravichandran KS (2006). "Dock180-ELMO cooperation in Rac activation". Methods Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. 406: 388- ...
Syk kinase is specific of lymphocytes B and Zap-70 is present in T cells. After activation of these enzymes, some adaptor ... like activation o PI3 Kinase. PIP3 then is responsible for activation of several proteins, like vav (leads to activation of JNK ... Therefore, Lyn and Lck, in lymphocytes B and T, respectively, phosphorylate immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs ... "Signal Transduction Events Involved in Lymphocyte Activation and Differentiation". Retrieved 8 January 2014. Le Gallou, S; ...
and activation of important signaling cascades within the lymphocyte. These include the Ras-MEK-ERK pathway, which goes on to ... In these pathologies, the dysfunctional activation of the lck leads to T cell activation failure. Many pathologies are linked ... This binding leads to the activation of TCR signaling cascade in which the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs ( ... Lck (or lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is a 56 kDa protein that is found inside specialized cells of the immune ...
"Myricetin-induced oxidative stress suppresses murine T lymphocyte activation". Cell Biology International. 42 (8): 1069-1075. ... It was discovered that myricetin may prevent T-lymphocyte stimulation in a mouse model by binding to anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 ... Polyphenols such as myricetin may prevent oxidative stress-induced platelet activation/aggregation. Thus, consumption of ... polyphenols such as myricetin may target other platelet activation pathways, limiting fibrinogen's ability to bind platelet ...
Lu XW, Yin JY, Cui LX (2004). "[Cloning of human B lymphocyte activation-related novel gene]". Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue ...
Bacon, K.B. (1997). Analysis of signal transduction following lymphocyte activation by chemokines. Methods Enzymol. Methods in ... For example, lymphocytes can migrate away from a high concentration of the chemokine SDF-1 rather than be attracted by lower ... 2001). "Activation of RhoA and ROCK are essential for detachment of migrating leukocytes". Mol. Biol. Cell. 12 (7): 2137-2145. ... 2004). "Lymphocyte egress from thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs is dependent on S1P receptor 1". Nature. 427 (6972): 355- ...
... also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic activation molecule 2 (SLAMF2) is a protein ... Staunton DE, Thorley-Lawson DA (December 1987). "Molecular cloning of the lymphocyte activation marker Blast-1". EMBO J. 6 (12 ... signaling lymphocyte activation molecules) proteins, such as CD84, CD150, CD229 and CD244. CD48 is found on the surface of ... lymphocytes and other immune cells, dendritic cells and endothelial cells, and participates in activation and differentiation ...
Bruniquel, D; Borie, N; Hannier, S; Triebel, F (1998). "Regulation of expression of the human lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG ... Hannier, S; Tournier, M; Bismuth, G; Triebel, F (1998). "CD3/TCR complex-associated lymphocyte activation gene-3 molecules ... "Characterization of the lymphocyte activation gene 3-encoded protein. A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II ... a novel lymphocyte activation gene closely related to CD4". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 171 (5): 1393-405. doi: ...
Lopes-Carvalho T, Foote J, Kearney JF (2005). "Marginal zone B cells in lymphocyte activation and regulation". Curr Opin ... MZ B cells also display a lower activation threshold than their FO B cell counterparts, with a heightened propensity for plasma ... Cerutti A, Cols M, Puga I (February 2013). "Marginal zone B cells: virtues of innate-like antibody-producing lymphocytes". ... Hardy, Richard (2008). "Chapter 7: B Lymphocyte Development and Biology". In Paul, William (ed.). Fundamental Immunology (Book ...
Lymphocytes are the antibody-producing cells of the body, and are thus the main agents of humoral immunity. A larger number of ... The activation of the stress system (and resulting increase in cortisol and Th2 shift) seen during an infection is believed to ... In other words, when RANKL binds to OPG, no response occurs as opposed to the binding to RANK which leads to the activation of ... In the short term, activation of the HPA axis in response to stress is adaptive. However, long-term stress promoting chronic ...
Donlon TA, Krensky AM, Clayberger C (1990). "Localization of the human T lymphocyte activation gene 519 (D2S69E) to chromosome ... Krensky AM (February 2000). "Granulysin: a novel antimicrobial peptide of cytolytic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells". ... Dotiwala F, Lieberman J (October 2019). "Granulysin: killer lymphocyte safeguard against microbes". Current Opinion in ... is a protein expressed in most mammals which functions as an antimicrobial peptide released by killer lymphocytes in cytotoxic ...
This activity is usually attributed to the role of proteasomes in the activation of NF-κB which further regulates the ... Madani N, Kabat D (Dec 1998). "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the ... "HIV-1 tat inhibits the 20 S proteasome and its 11 S regulator-mediated activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 ( ...
B and T lymphocytes are tested for their affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes before leaving the primary lymphoid organs and ... It is possible for B cells with high self affinity to go undeleted because they require activation signals and stimulation from ... B lymphocytes can also participate in light chain receptor editing, VH gene replacement, or be released and later undergo ... There is a large diversity of epitopes recognized and, as a result, it is possible for some B and T lymphocytes to develop with ...
These processes are influenced by microvesicles derived from platelets, which can contribute to the activation of fibroblast- ... lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, dendritic cells and platelets, create an inflammatory environment in the synovium, ...
Ling X, Ma G, Sun T, Liu J, Arlinghaus RB (January 2003). "Bcr and Abl interaction: oncogenic activation of c-Abl by ... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". J. ... Shaul Y (2000). "c-Abl: activation and nuclear targets". Cell Death Differ. 7 (1): 10-6. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400626. PMID ... through the activation loop". FEBS Lett. 469 (1): 72-6. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01242-4. PMID 10708759. Yano H, Cong F, Birge ...
Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... 1999). "Inherited human Caspase 10 mutations underlie defective lymphocyte and dendritic cell apoptosis in autoimmune ... "In vitro activation of CPP32 and Mch3 by Mch4, a novel human apoptotic cysteine protease containing two FADD-like domains". ...
NK cells and B lymphocytes. A 359T>C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the extracellular leucine rich repeat domain is ... leading to a pro-inflammatory cytokine production and activation of innate immune response. TLR6 has also been designated as ... family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from ...
Sur, E; Celik, İ (2003). "Effects of aflatoxin B1on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid ... "Aflatoxin genotoxicity is associated with a defective DNA damage response bypassing p53 activation". Liver International. 31 (4 ...
May 2017). "Dectin 1 activation on macrophages by galectin 9 promotes pancreatic carcinoma and peritumoral immune tolerance". ... is a novel eosinophil chemoattractant produced by T lymphocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (27): 16976-84. doi: ...
Early-T-lymphocyte-activation-1; Osteopontin) gene: Definition of a novel T-cell dependent response associated with genetic ... Cantor's early studies focused on the development and function of lymphocytes derived from the thymus (T-lymphocytes or T cells ... Nabel G, Fresno M, Chessman A, Cantor H. Use of cloned populations of mouse lymphocytes to analyze cellular differentiation. ... Harvey Cantor is an American immunologist known for his studies of the development and immunological function of T lymphocytes ...
Schulman BA, Harper JW (May 2009). "Ubiquitin-like protein activation by E1 enzymes: the apex for downstream signalling ... "Isolation of a polypeptide that has lymphocyte-differentiating properties and is probably represented universally in living ... The process of ubiquitination is a tightly regulated three-step sequence: activation, performed by ubiquitin-activating enzymes ...
... was identified as a protein which is highly expressed in Germinal center B lymphocytes. Subsequent RT-PCR analysis ... Sinha S, Yang W (November 2008). "Cellular signaling for activation of Rho GTPase Cdc42". Cellular Signalling. 20 (11): 1927-34 ... a novel CZH protein selectively induced by interleukin-4 in human B lymphocytes". Molecular Immunology. 45 (12): 3411-8. doi: ... DOCK180-related Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor expressed predominantly in lymphocytes". FEBS Letters. 579 (5): 1039- ...
Myelin and lymphocyte protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAL gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Köhler C, Håkansson A, Svanborg C, Orrenius S, Zhivotovsky B (Jun 1999). "Protease activation in apoptosis induced by MAL". ... "The MAL proteolipid is a component of the detergent-insoluble membrane subdomains of human T-lymphocytes". The Biochemical ... "Rafts in adult peripheral nerve myelin contain major structural myelin proteins and myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL) and ...
Typically, the infiltrating cells observed in allergic reactions contain a high proportion of lymphocytes, and especially, of ... which together result in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes from the blood into the site of the allergic reaction. ...
Another function of IL-25 is the activation of natural lymphoid cells 2 (ILC2). IL-25 and IL-33 are the most potent activators ... B-lymphocyte hyperplasia, and altered antibody production". Blood. 100 (7): 2330-40. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-01-0012. PMID ... This cytokine can induce NF-κB activation, and stimulate the production of IL-8 (named also CXCL8), which is the major ...
Distinct domains for nuclear factor-kappaB activation and association with tumor necrosis factor signaling proteins". J. Biol. ... latent membrane protein 1 engages the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated death domain protein to mediate B lymphocyte ... Distinct domains for nuclear factor-kappaB activation and association with tumor necrosis factor signaling proteins". J. Biol. ... "Critical roles of TRAF2 and TRAF5 in tumor necrosis factor-induced NF-kappa B activation and protection from cell death". J. ...
This activity is usually attributed to the role of proteasomes in the activation of NF-κB which further regulates the ... Madani N, Kabat D (Dec 1998). "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the ... "HIV-1 tat inhibits the 20 S proteasome and its 11 S regulator-mediated activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 ( ...
It can stimulate transcription factor c‑myc (activation of gene expression) and Ras pathway (suppression of apoptosis). In the ... in vitro induction of 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in splenic lymphocytes from athymic mice by a unique lymphokine". J ... "Mechanism of Activation of the GM-CSF, IL-3, and IL-5 Family of Receptors". Stem Cells. 16 (5): 301-313. doi:10.1002/stem. ... upregulated upon cell activation, under the induction of macrophage-secreted IL-1). The human IL-3 gene encodes a protein 152 ...
Flow cytometry may be used to examine markers on the cell surface or inside the lymphocytes. Additional tests such as computed ... The following signalling pathways have been implicated: CD154/CD40 Akt ubiquitination, p53 activation, cytochrome c release NF- ... An additional predictive factor is elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Of cancers involving the lymphocytes, 1% of ... A pathologist identifies the particular lymphocytes that indicate Waldenström macroglobulinemia. ...
TH2-type lymphocytes are activated, with an increase in T cells expressing CD25 (IL-2R), and B cells expressing CD 23, causing ... The activation of these receptors by acetylcholine will activate an intracellular G protein, that in turn will activate the ... The bronchial spasm is due to the activation of parasympathetic nervous system. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers will ...
... "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity" and Ralph Marvin Steinman (1943-2011)"for his discovery of ... who established that dendritic cells are responsible for imprinting the tissue-specific homing of T lymphocytes Fred Rosen ( ...
Diagnosis is confirmed by an aSMase activity less than 10% in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Caused by a mutation in the ... It has been shown that in response to thrombin induced platelet activation, S-SMase is released extracellulary and a parallel ... Inflammation induced S-SMase activation may contribute to insulin resistance through the increased generation of ceramide. ...
Girardin SE, Yaniv M (2001). "A direct interaction between JNK1 and CrkII is critical for Rac1-induced JNK activation". EMBO J ... a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes". J. ... "Interaction of hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 with adapter proteins Crk and CrkL leads to synergistic activation of c-Jun N- ... "Tyrosine 221 in Crk regulates adhesion-dependent membrane localization of Crk and Rac and activation of Rac signaling". EMBO J ...
This phosphatase is important for the regulation of cellular activation. Not only catalytic but also adaptor activities of this ... A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... Binding SHIP1 to phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIM) of FcγRIIB inhibits the activation of B ... A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ...
"Spinal cannabinoid receptor type 2 activation reduces hypersensitivity and spinal cord glial activation after paw incision". ... "Cannabinoid receptor CB2 modulates the CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis of T lymphocytes". Mol. Immunol. 43 (14): 2169-79. doi: ...
1994). "Activation and serine phosphorylation of the p56lck protein tyrosine kinase in response to antigen receptor cross- ... It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... "Entrez Gene: CD79B CD79b molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta". Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annu. ... linking in B lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 153 (6): 2369-80. PMID 8077654. Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple ...
"Modification of two distinct COOH-terminal domains is required for murine p53 activation by bacterial Hsp70". The Journal of ... and alpha-actinin-1 as novel phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in T lymphocytes". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
The signaling pathway within the monocyte downstream of P2Y receptor activation is still unknown. The ribosomal protein S19 has ... "CX3CL1/fractalkine is released from apoptotic lymphocytes to stimulate macrophage chemotaxis". doi:10.1182 ...
The outcome of AP-1 activation is dependent on the complex combinatorial patterns of AP-1 component dimers. The AP-1 complex ... Martins G, Calame K (2008). "Regulation and functions of Blimp-1 in T and B lymphocytes". Annual Review of Immunology. 26: 133- ... von Knethen A, Callsen D, Brüne B (February 1999). "NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation by nitric oxide attenuated apoptotic cell ... Lee W, Haslinger A, Karin M, Tjian R (January 1987). "Activation of transcription by two factors that bind promoter and ...
Rather, cell-mediated immunity is the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of ... T-bet activation is required for both interferon gamma and cytolytic potential. CCR5 and CXCR3 are the main chemokine receptors ... 1] The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity [2] Innate lymphocytes-lineage, localization and ... Kansler, Emily R.; Li, Ming O. (July 2019). "Innate lymphocytes-lineage, localization and timing of differentiation". Cellular ...
We investigated the mechanism by which WGA inhibits PHA-induced human lymphocyte proliferation with regard to the interleukin ... Effect of wheat germ agglutinin on the interleukin pathway of human T lymphocyte activation J Immunol. 1985 Jan;134(1):314-23. ... These results suggest that WGA inhibits lymphocyte proliferation by binding to and decreasing the number of high-affinity IL 2 ... We investigated the mechanism by which WGA inhibits PHA-induced human lymphocyte proliferation with regard to the interleukin ...
Purpose: Complex characterization of the effects of pseurotin D on human lymphocyte activation in order to understand the ... pseurotin; lymphocyte; STAT3; STAT5; proliferation Popis. Background: Pseurotins, a family of secondary metabolites of ... The Pseurotin D-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation was accompanied by the induction of the apoptosis of T cells. This ... The effects of pseurotin were tested on the basis of changes in cell viability, apoptosis, activation of signal transducers and ...
Mouse B lymphocytes contained 12,200+/-3200 of epibatidine-binding sites and 3130+/-750 of alpha-Bungarotoxin-binding sites per ... results indicate that signalling through nicotinic receptors affects both the pre-immune state and activation of B lymphocytes ... Anti-CD40-stimulated proliferation of B lymphocytes from beta2 knockout, but not wild-type mice was inhibited with nicotine. ... composed of either alpha7 or alpha4 and beta2 subunits is revealed in B lymphocytes by means of radioligand binding assay and ...
For slower off-rates, below the transition, the probability of CTL activation becomes sensitive to the numbers of DCs and T ... The simulations predict a sharp transition in the probability of CTL activation, which occurs with variation in the separation ... known as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). Cancer vaccines developed in the past have had limited success and the mechanisms ... agent-based model of vaccination-driven CTL activation within a clinical short-peptide vaccination context. ...
... after antigenic stimulation of antigen-regulated murine T lymphocyte clones, total IL-2-R expression decayed 10-50-fold, ... Interleukin 2-mediated induction of c-myb gene expression is dependent on T lymphocyte activation state. A M Churilla, A M ... Interleukin 2-mediated induction of c-myb gene expression is dependent on T lymphocyte activation state.. J Exp Med 1 July 1989 ... IL-2-dependent c-myb induction, however, is seen only early after activation but not in the late-activated population. Analysis ...
Naive CD4 T cells exhibited stronger activation, as measured by attachment and secretion of IL-2, with increasing substrate ... suggests that sensing of substrate rigidity occurs at least in part by processes downstream of T-cell receptor activation. The ... Naive CD4 T cells exhibited stronger activation, as measured by attachment and secretion of IL-2, with increasing substrate ... suggests that sensing of substrate rigidity occurs at least in part by processes downstream of T-cell receptor activation. The ...
Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation VI. Overview of attention for book ... Chapter 6 Cell Cycle Control of T Cell Apoptosis Induced by Activation Through the T Cell Antigen Receptor ... Chapter 15 Signals for survival and apoptosis in normal and neoplastic B lymphocytes. ... Chapter 24 Mature T Lymphocyte Apoptosis in the Healthy and Diseased Immune System ...
lymphocytes:. Metabolic activation:. without. Genotoxicity:. positive. Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:. ... Metabolic activation:. with and without. Metabolic activation system:. Aroclor induced rat liver S-9 mix. Test concentrations ... Metabolic activation:. with and without. Metabolic activation system:. Aroclor induced rat liver S9 mix. Test concentrations ... lymphocytes: human peripheral blood lymphocytes from one 31 year old male human volunteer. Details on mammalian cell type (if ...
lymphocyte/mouse. 6500 µg/L (+enzymatic activation step). SCIEAS 236,933,1987. sister chromatid exchange. ovary/hamster. 59 mg/ ...
T lymphocytes death was greatly increased at 3 days of activation, and Fas antigen expression on T lymphocytes was increased ... T lymphocytes death was greatly increased at 3 days of activation, and Fas antigen expression on T lymphocytes was increased ... T lymphocytes death was greatly increased at 3 days of activation, and Fas antigen expression on T lymphocytes was increased ... T lymphocytes death was greatly increased at 3 days of activation, and Fas antigen expression on T lymphocytes was increased ...
It inhibits T-lymphocyte activation. Some patients may benefit from tacrolimus topical or pimecrolimus. Patients may achieve ... The resulting complex inhibits phosphatase calcineurin, thus blocking T-cell activation and cytokine release. Cutaneous atrophy ...
The SH2D1A gene provides instructions for making a protein called signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) associated ... The SH2D1A gene provides instructions for making a protein called signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) associated ... lymphocytes). In particular, it helps regulate lymphocytes that destroy other cells (cytotoxic lymphocytes) and is necessary ... SAP also helps control immune reactions by triggering self-destruction (apoptosis) of lymphocytes when they are no longer ...
Lymphocyte Activation. *. Ann Haberman, PhD. Associate Professor of Immunobiology; Director, In Vivo Imaging Facility, Yale ...
T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80 / B7-1 (CD80) Antibody (Biotin). CD80 Antibody (Biotin) is a Mouse Monoclonal Antibody ...
In light of the immune checkpoint inhibition revolution in cancer therapy, we review eosinophil-lymphocyte interactions in the ... We also analyze potential interactions between eosinophils and lymphocyte subsets, including T cells, natural killer cells and ... TLR-stimulated eosinophils mediate recruitment and activation of NK cells in vivo. Scand. J. Immunol. 85, 417-424 (2017). ... Eosinophil-lymphocyte interactions in the tumor microenvironment and cancer immunotherapy. *Sharon Grisaru-Tal ORCID: ...
Since suramin cannot permeate the plasma membrane, it was necessary to microinject the drug into Fura-2 loaded T-lymphocytes. 2 ... as a second messenger in Jurkat T-lymphocytes upon stimulation of the T-cell receptor/CD3- complex (Guse et al., 1999). cADP- ... Pharmacological activation of the ryanodine receptor in Jurkat T-lymphocytes. Hohenegger M., Berg I., Weigl L., Mayr GW., ... Since suramin cannot permeate the plasma membrane, it was necessary to microinject the drug into Fura-2 loaded T-lymphocytes. 2 ...
Lymphocyte activation in lymphoid organs. Adaptive immune responses are initiated in secondary lymphoid organs through cellular ... T-cell activation by dendritic cells in the lymph node: lessons from the movies. ... This Review focuses on how this emerging field is changing our perception of T-cell activation by DCs. ...
... , T-Cell, T-Cell Activation, T-Cell Surface Receptor, T-Helper Cell, Helper T-Cell, CD4+ Cell, T-Cytotoxic Cell, ... t lymphocyte, t cells, t lymphocytes, t-lymphocytes, t-lymphocyte, t-cell, T Cell Lymphocyte, T lymphocyte, T cell, T-cell, T ... LYMPHOCYTES J, lymphocytes T cells, thymus-dependent lymphocyte, lymphocytes T cells (lab test), T cells, T-lymphocyte, thymus ... Lymphocytes, Thymus-Dependent, T Lymphocytes, T-Cells, T-Lymphocytes, Thymus Dependent Lymphocytes, Thymus-Dependent Lymphocyte ...
... very early activation antigen (VEA), and MLR3. It is a member of the C-type lectin family, expressed as a disulfide-linked ... CD69 is a 27-33 kD type II transmembrane protein also known as activation inducer molecule (AIM), ... Lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet activation, NK cell killing Cell Type B cells, Granulocytes, Langerhans cells, NK cells, ... Very Early Activation Antigen (VEA), Activation inducer molecule (AIM) Isotype Mouse IgG1, κ Barcode Sequence GTCTCTTGGCTTAAA ...
Activation process of macrophages after in vitro treatment of mouse lymphocytes with dodecylglycerol. S Homma, N Yamamoto ... Home > Publications > Activation process of macrophages after in vitro treatment of mouse lymphocytes with dodecylglycerol ... This signal transmission among these cells for the macrophage activation process is too rapid to allow time for synthesis of ... implying that macrophage activation requires a contribution of non-adherent cells. DDG-treated non-adherent cells were found to ...
The authors conclude, taking into consideration the characteristic temperature dependence of lymphocyte activation in vitro, ... lymphocyte activation; isothermal control; shortwave; microwave; mitogenic stimulation; biphasic dose dependence ... The authors suggest that RF radiation affects other blood leukocytes such as B-lymphocytes or macrophages. They do not rule out ... In vitro lymphocyte proliferation induced by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation under isothermal conditions. ...
Target Audience of the Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market in Market Study:. Key Consulting Companies & Advisors ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market Outlook Highlights Major Opportunities Likely to Steer Demand During Forecast ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market Outlook Highlights Major Opportunities Likely to Steer Demand During Forecast ... The report states that readers know exactly the major role they play in the global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market ...
Gene: [03q21/CD86] CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2, B7-2 antigen); antigen CD28 ligand 2 (T lymphocyte activation antigen ... Gene: [03q21/CD80] CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen); antigen CD28 ligand 1 (T lymphocyte activation antigen ...
... molecule is a T cell activation Ag closely related to CD4 at the gene and protein levels. We investigated whe ... The lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) molecule is a T cell activation Ag closely related to CD4 at the gene and protein ... CD3/TCR Complex-Associated Lymphocyte Activation Gene-3 Molecules Inhibit CD3/TCR Signaling Sigrid Hannier; Sigrid Hannier ... Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) is closely related to CD4 at the gene and protein levels. LAG-3 and CD4genes map in the ...
Categories: Lymphocyte Activation Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
T lymphocyte activation within the immune system. 1998. Mr N G C Smith. Biology & Biochemistry. The costs and consequences of ...
BIA-ALCL occurs in an inflammatory microenvironment with significant lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration and a prominent ... suggesting lymphocyte activation [85]. The outer envelope of Gram-negative bacteria contains lipopolysaccharides, which have ... gp130-mediated Stat3 activation in enterocytes regulates cell survival and cell-cycle progression during colitis-associated ... BIA-ALCL occurs in an inflammatory microenvironment with significant lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration and a prominent ...
  • The effects of pseurotin were tested on the basis of changes in cell viability, apoptosis, activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways, production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by T cells, expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on T cells and Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR isotype (HLA-DR) on B cells, and the differentiation markers CD20, CD27, CD38, and immunoglobulin (Ig) D on B cells. (
  • The simulations predict a sharp transition in the probability of CTL activation, which occurs with variation in the separation rate (or off-rate) of tumour-specific immune response-inducing peptides (cognate antigen) from the major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) receptors of dendritic cells (DCs) originally at the vaccination site. (
  • We previously reported that with time, after antigenic stimulation of antigen-regulated murine T lymphocyte clones, total IL-2-R expression decayed 10-50-fold, commensurate with a decline in the ability of the cells to proliferate to IL-2. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To quantitate apoptosis and Fas antigen expression of T lymphocytes by activation in aplastic anemia (AA) and compare with that of normal controls and completely-recovered AA, and to investigate the apoptotic sensitivity to anti-fas antibody of activated T lymphocytes in AA. (
  • METHODS: We studied the expression of Fas antigen on fresh T lymphocytes of twenty patients with AA [13 newly diagnosed, 7 recorvered AA after immunosuppressive therapy (IST)], and investigated the activation-induced cell death (AICD) and Fas expression by activation [interleukin-2 (200 U/ml) and phytohemagglutinin (50 micrograms/ml)] in 5 newly-diagnosed AA, 5 normal controls and 5 AA in complete response (CR). (
  • RESULTS: There was no significant difference of Fas antigen expression on freshly-isolated T lymphocytes among newly-diagnosed severe AA, normal controls and patients with AA in CR after IST. (
  • In normal controls, T lymphocytes death was greatly increased at 3 days of activation, and Fas antigen expression on T lymphocytes was increased above baseline at day 1 of activation. (
  • In contrast, in newly-diagnosed AA, T lymphocytes showed delayed cell death, which correlated with a slowed increase of Fas antigen expression by activation. (
  • In completely recovered AA, these abnormal AICD and Fas antigen expressions by activation were recovered to normal range. (
  • The cellular response is mainly a lymphocyte-mediated reaction, whereas the humoral response includes production of antibodies against the antigen by the plasma cells. (
  • Immunoglobulins (Igs), the term is sometimes used interchangeably with "antibodies," are glycoprotein molecules produced by B lymphocytes and plasma cells in response to an immunogen or after recognition of specific epitopes on the antigen. (
  • CD69 is a 27-33 kD type II transmembrane protein also known as activation inducer molecule (AIM), very early activation antigen (VEA), and MLR3. (
  • The Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market report offers a complete overview of the market globally. (
  • The competitive landscape of the global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market is broadly studied in the report with large focus on recent developments, future plans of top players, and key growth strategies adopted by them. (
  • The report states that readers know exactly the major role they play in the global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market. (
  • The report includes an executive summary, world economic outlook, and overview section that provides a consistent analysis of the T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market. (
  • Further, Qu Spez-educated DC stimulated CD4+T cells in a allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction and activated melanoma antigen Melan-A/MART-1-specific M77-80 CD8+T cells as evidenced by increased secretion of TNF-α and IFNγ. (
  • More recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) have dramatically changed the management of both unresectable and metastatic melanoma as well as those at high risk for recurrence after resection ( Table I ) ( 14 - 16 ). (
  • When the cells are activated via antigen (foreign body substance from the outside, e.g. virus), a reaction with cytokine activation follows. (
  • The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). (
  • We investigated the mechanism by which WGA inhibits PHA-induced human lymphocyte proliferation with regard to the interleukin pathway. (
  • These results suggest that WGA inhibits lymphocyte proliferation by binding to and decreasing the number of high-affinity IL 2 receptors displayed on T cells, without impairing IL 2 production. (
  • Anti-CD40-stimulated proliferation of B lymphocytes from beta2 knockout, but not wild-type mice was inhibited with nicotine. (
  • Regulation of T lymphocyte proliferation. (
  • In vitro lymphocyte proliferation induced by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation under isothermal conditions. (
  • At the end of the culture period lymphocyte proliferation was assayed by 6 hours of pulse labeling with tritium labeled thymidine (3HTdR). (
  • The authors conclude, taking into consideration the characteristic temperature dependence of lymphocyte activation in vitro, that the biphasic, dose dependent effects of the radiation on lymphocyte proliferation were not dependent on heating. (
  • CD4 signaling results in the activation of a number of early events, similar to the ones induced by TCR stimulation, such as calcium mobilization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and enhanced T cell proliferation in response to the TCR. (
  • However, the T-cell receptor (TCR) activation and sustained proliferation required for retroviral vector transduction may impair the half-life and immune competence of transduced cells and reduce graft-versus-leukemia activity. (
  • In the present study, the MTT assay revealed that hinokitiol (1-5 μ M) alone did not affect cell viability of lymphocytes, but at the concentration of 5 μ M it could reduce ConA-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation. (
  • In addition, p21 deficiency was reported to enhance T lymphocyte activation and proliferation and to induce autoimmune manifestations [ 5 ]. (
  • Suppression of p21 promotes malignant T lymphocyte proliferation in malignant CD30 + T lymphocytes [ 6 ]. (
  • Thus, p21 may play a critical role in autoimmune diseases and tumorigenesis by regulating T lymphocyte activation and proliferation. (
  • HPS is characterized by uncontrolled activation and proliferation of normal lymphocytes and macrophages with multisystem involvement, and is associated with poor survival. (
  • Inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and suppresses de novo purine synthesis by lymphocytes, thereby inhibiting their proliferation. (
  • In T lymphocyte cells, which are needed to help induce the B-cell immune response, T-bet regulates the activation, proliferation, differentiation, lifespan and effector functions of those immune cells. (
  • STAT5 activation by EGF constitutes an important cascade for the regulation of cell proliferation and invasion in trophoblast cells. (
  • 4. Surface Immunoglobulin Ligands and Cytokines Differentially Affect Proliferation and Antibody Production by Human CD5+ and CD5- B Lymphocytes. (
  • The authors suggest that RF radiation affects other blood leukocytes such as B-lymphocytes or macrophages. (
  • However, treatment of adherent cells (macrophages) alone with DDG produced no significant enhancement of macrophage ingestion activity, implying that macrophage activation requires a contribution of non-adherent cells. (
  • The inflammatory component of a developing neoplasm may include a diverse leukocyte population such as neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes [12] [14]. (
  • It is expressed on hematopoietic cells include lymphocytes 1,2 , mast cells 3 , neutrophils 2 , eosinophils 4 , NK cells 5 , monocytes 1,2 , some dendritic cells 6 ,some hematopoietic progenitors 7 and macrophages 8 . (
  • vitamin D receptors are found in a number of immune cells, including lymphocytes and macrophages, maintaining healthy immune cell activation. (
  • Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) includes cell types such as macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. (
  • 2017. AhR activation increases IL-2 production by alloreactive CD4 T cells initiating the differentiation of mucosal-homing Tim3 Lag3 Tr1 cells. . (
  • This dynamic local regulation is currently poorly understood, although it appears essential in determining lymphocyte differentiation and activation. (
  • MicroRNAs not only participate in determining DCs phenotype and then naive T lymphocyte differentiation, but also participate in the regulation of airway inflammation and airway remodeling in asthma. (
  • The relationship between B cells and CD4 T cells has been carefully studied, revealing a collaborative effort in which B cells promote the activation, differentiation, and expansion of CD4 T cells while the so-called "helper" cells provide signals to B cells, influencing their class switching and fate. (
  • Results: Pseurotin D significantly inhibited the activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ human T cells complemented by the inhibition of TNF-alpha production without significant acute toxic effects. (
  • The Pseurotin D-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation was accompanied by the induction of the apoptosis of T cells. (
  • Conclusions: Our results advance the current mechanistic understanding of the pseurotin-induced inhibition of lymphocytes and suggest pseurotins as new attractive chemotypes for future research in the context of immune-modulatory drugs. (
  • In addition, the inhibition of IL-2-R-induced c-myb expression by 2-aminopurine and enhanced induction of c-myb via the TCR demonstrate that TCR activation and IL-2-R activation lead to induction of c-myb by different mechanisms. (
  • In light of the immune checkpoint inhibition revolution in cancer therapy, we review eosinophil-lymphocyte interactions in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • Potential targets for immune checkpoint inhibition are lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) and its ligands. (
  • Because PKRA7 can bind to both PKR1 and PKR2 [19], the noticed effect was most likely the consequence of inhibition of both from the PK2-PKR1 and PK2-PKR2 pathways, probably via suppression of neutrophil activation in the previous and macrophage infiltration in the second option. (
  • It inhibits T-lymphocyte activation. (
  • Rochat-Steiner V, Becker K, Micheau O, Schneider P, Burns K, Tschopp J: FIST/HIPK3: a Fas/FADD-interacting serine/threonine kinase that induces FADD phosphorylation and inhibits fas-mediated Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation. (
  • Tumour immunotherapy is dependent upon activation and expansion of tumour-targetting immune cells, known as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). (
  • For slower off-rates, below the transition, the probability of CTL activation becomes sensitive to the numbers of DCs and T cells that interact subsequent to DC migration to the draining lymph node of the vaccination site. (
  • Naive CD4 T cells exhibited stronger activation, as measured by attachment and secretion of IL-2, with increasing substrate elastic modulus over the range of 10-200 kPa. (
  • SAP interacts with other proteins called SLAM family receptors to activate signaling pathways that are involved in the control of immune cells (lymphocytes). (
  • In particular, it helps regulate lymphocytes that destroy other cells (cytotoxic lymphocytes) and is necessary for the development of specialized lymphocytes called natural killer T cells. (
  • In addition, cancers of immune system cells (lymphomas) may develop in affected individuals when defective lymphocytes are not properly destroyed by apoptosis. (
  • CD69 is involved in early events of lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet activation, and has a functional role in redirected lysis mediated by activated NK cells. (
  • Emerging data indicate that eosinophils infiltrate a variety of solid tumor types and have pleiotropic activities by at least two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms: direct interactions with tumor cells, and intricate cross-talk with lymphocytes. (
  • We also analyze potential interactions between eosinophils and lymphocyte subsets, including T cells, natural killer cells and innate lymphoid cells. (
  • This signal transmission among these cells for the macrophage activation process is too rapid to allow time for synthesis of inducible gene products. (
  • Importantly, IL-2 and IL-7, but not IL-15, stimulation preserved physiologic CD4/CD8 and naive-memory ratios in transduced cells with only minor induction of some activation markers. (
  • The ability of Qu Spez-educated DC to stimulate T cells was analyzed by allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction and activation of Melan-A/MART-1-specific M77-80 CD8+T cells. (
  • Activation by interleukin 2 and autologous tumor cells, and involvement of the T cell receptor. (
  • These results indicate that TIL from metastatic melanomas may have unique characteristics different from lymphocytes obtained from the other sources, and may contain precursor CTL sensitized in vivo to autologous tumor cells, and thus can be propagated in larger numbers with rIL-2 alone while retaining autologous tumor-specific CTL activity. (
  • Phase I Clinical Trial Using Autologous Ex Vivo Expanded NK Cells and Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes for Cancer Treatment in Vietnam. (
  • Ex vivo expansion of human peripheral blood natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes from lung cancer patients. (
  • C12-14 Alkyl ethoxylated glycidylether is not clastogenic or aneugenic in human lymphocytes (OECD 478) but was concluded positive in the in vitro mutagenicity assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells (MLA, OECD 490). (
  • Once potential genes involved in the pathology are known, functional genomic approaches will be developed to screen PTP and SOCS for regulators of cytokine signalling during activation of T and NK cells, which are involved in inflammatory disease development. (
  • The results suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated in DHF patients and TNF- is one of the factors which contributes to the activation. (
  • [2,3] levels of thrombomodulin and activation molecules released from endothelial cells in The absence of massive structural damage, the serum samples. (
  • Johns Hopkins scientists have pioneered ways to educate the immune system to detect, find and destroy skin cancer cells, by arming T lymphocytes with specific capabilities. (
  • MPTP-induced expression of gp91phox and iNOS activation in the glial cells of SN was also completely blocked by diapocynin. (
  • Several reports have demonstrated the activation of microglial cells and astroglial cells in close proximity to the damaged or dying dopaminergic neurons in SN [ 5 ]. (
  • Also, while CD8 + T cell activation and function in the brain were not affected by stress, the number of CD8 + T cells in the superficial cervical lymph nodes (SCLN) was decreased in stressed mice via GR-mediated mechanisms. (
  • The capacity to discriminate between dangerous foreign Ags and benign self-Ags relies on the APCs, their state of activation, and the recognition capacity of the naive T and B cells. (
  • They recommended that all mononuclear cells, including lymphocytes and plasma cells in intratumoral stroma, be scored as a percentage of the area occupied over the total intratumoral stromal area. (
  • iNKT cells are a distinct class of T lymphocytes and recognize lipid antigens on the surface of the tumor. (
  • Despite the important role the antibody-producing B lymphocytes play both in protection from infection and in autoimmunity, we know remarkably little about these B-cells," said Lund, of the research, which is published in the journal Immunity . (
  • B lymphocytes, or B-cells, have to go through a developmental change as they transform from B-cells to antibody-secreting cells. (
  • In fact, B-cells that have a genetic mutation and are unable to efficiently express T-bet are transformed into inflammatory effector cells following activation with Th1 cells. (
  • Background: Galectin-9 is a member of the family of lectin proteins and crucially regulates human immune responses, particularly because of its ability to suppress the anticancer activities of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. (
  • Upon T cell activation of human peripheral blood T cells, we found that the majority of cAMP was generated in T cell lipid rafts followed by activation of protein kinase A. However, upon TCR and CD28 coligation, beta-arrestin in complex with cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) was recruited to lipid rafts which down-regulated cAMP levels. (
  • Once harvested, separated, activated by photo-activation and combined with powerful growth factors harvested from your own platelets, the cells are returned to the body. (
  • Results and Dialogue Following the exclusion of useless Mitoxantrone distributor cells and/or particles (D) on ahead (FSC) versus (vs.) part scatter (SSC) plots, lymphocytes (L), monocytes (M) and granulocytes (G) had been selected by Compact disc45-APC vs. SSC plots (Fig. 1). (
  • Identicication of CD20 PE human B cells associated approximately 10% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. (
  • Activation of Dense Human Tonsilar B Cells. (
  • Kyn activation of AhR promotes motility of glioma cells. (
  • Effects of continuous wave (CW) radiofrequency (RF) radiation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. (
  • No other rIL-2-activated lymphocytes from peripheral blood, lymph nodes with melanoma metastasis, or TIL from sarcoma or renal cell carcinoma had autologous tumor-specific CTL activity. (
  • The clinical features included patient's basic profiles, and neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet count in the peripheral blood at the time of diagnosis. (
  • The aqueous and solid fractions of the initial substrate (IS), the fermented substrate (FS), and the Trametes versicolor mycelium (TvM) were tested for immune-activating and modulating activities on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures, to examine expression of the CD69 activation marker on lymphocytes versus monocytes, and on the T, NKT, and NK lymphocyte subsets. (
  • Liu C, Cheng J, Mountz JD: Differential expression of human Fas mRNA species upon peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation. (
  • Nicotinic receptors regulate B lymphocyte activation and immune response. (
  • The presence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nicotinic receptors) composed of either alpha7 or alpha4 and beta2 subunits is revealed in B lymphocytes by means of radioligand binding assay and Cell ELISA. (
  • Our results indicate that signalling through nicotinic receptors affects both the pre-immune state and activation of B lymphocytes in the immune response, possibly via CD40-dependent pathway. (
  • Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) (LIGHT) is an interesting costimulatory molecule associated with T lymphocyte activation, and it mainly exerts its biological effects by binding to its receptors herpesvirus invasion mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin-ß receptor. (
  • The CD4 coreceptor interacts with nonpolymorphic regions of MHC class II molecules on APC and contributes to T cell activation through increased cell adhesion and signal transduction. (
  • Carries out a dual signal transduction and activation of transcription. (
  • Interleukin 2-mediated induction of c-myb gene expression is dependent on T lymphocyte activation state. (
  • Vinyl acetate was negative in bacterial gene mutation assays using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, with and without rat liver S-9 activation. (
  • Vinyl acetate was shown to be negative in bacterial gene mutation assays using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, with and without rat liver S-9 activation. (
  • The SH2D1A gene provides instructions for making a protein called signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) associated protein (SAP). (
  • The lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) molecule is a T cell activation Ag closely related to CD4 at the gene and protein levels. (
  • Gene transfer into T lymphocytes is currently being tested for the treatment of lymphohematologic disorders. (
  • We previously showed that suicide gene transfer into donor lymphocytes infused to treat leukemic relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation allowed control of graft-versus-host disease. (
  • One such checkpoint is LAG-3 (lymphocyte activation gene-3). (
  • Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Bone Marrow Failure Diseases. (
  • SAP also helps control immune reactions by triggering self-destruction (apoptosis) of lymphocytes when they are no longer needed. (
  • Although the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of these diseases are not entirely clear, studies have proposed that increased lymphocyte cycling or defective apoptosis may cause breakdown of immune tolerance and autoimmunity as well as lymphoma generation [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Fast' activation of innate-like lymphocytes? (
  • Although hinokitiol has been reported to inhibit inflammation, its immunological regulation in lymphocytes remains incomplete. (
  • Although hinokitiol has been reported to engage in multiple biological activities, the regulation of lymphocytes by hinokitiol has not been fully investigated. (
  • Biochemical data have established the role of the conserved DH domain in Rho GTPase interaction and activation, and the role of the tandem PH domain in intracellular targeting and/or regulation of DH domain function. (
  • To elucidate these mechanisms, we developed a human-parametrized, in silico, agent-based model of vaccination-driven CTL activation within a clinical short-peptide vaccination context. (
  • He maintains a research laboratory that studies various mechanisms of lymphocyte activation that relate to immune tolerance and adoptive immunotherapy for cancer and chronic infection. (
  • Correction: Synergistic activation of pro-inflammatory type-2 CD8 + T lymphocytes by lipid mediators in severe eosinophilic asthma. (
  • Engagement of GPI-linked CD48 contributes to TCR signals and cytoskeletal reorganization: a role for lipid rafts in T cell activation. (
  • Environmental allergens trigger type 2 inflammation through ripoptosome activation. (
  • These findings indicate that stress-induced hypocellularity is mediated by the GR while NMDA receptor activation is responsible for enhancing CNS inflammation. (
  • IL-2-dependent c-myb induction, however, is seen only early after activation but not in the late-activated population. (
  • Both aqueous and solid fractions of TvM triggered robust induction of CD69 on lymphocytes and monocytes, whereas FS only triggered minor induction of CD69, and IS had no activating effect. (
  • Tumor infiltrated lymphocytes (TILs) are central to the development of an anti-tumor immune response and a subset of TILs demonstrate cytolytic activity against autologous tumors in melanoma patients ( Fig. 1 ) ( 6 ). (
  • The prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has been determined in breast cancers. (
  • Progress in immunotherapy has provided novel insights into the roles of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in cancer. (
  • Lymphocyte morphology or viability recorded no detectable effects of RF radiation exposure. (
  • Several factors may explain melanoma cell susceptibility to immune system activation including high tumor mutational load due to ultraviolet light exposure, expression of cancer testis antigens and mimicry of melanocyte lineage proteins with pathogen-associated antigens ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • 1 Recently, we provided evidence for cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose, cADP-ribose, as a second messenger in Jurkat T-lymphocytes upon stimulation of the T-cell receptor/CD3- complex (Guse et al. (
  • This can contribute to the activation of transcription factors such as nuclear-factor-kappa-B and nuclear- factor-interleukin-6 which, in turn, stimulate inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Down-regulated transcripts included pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation-related immediate-early genes. (
  • Currently, Dr. Alexander Zhovmer is developing projects studying allergenic imprinting of the immune system, including immunotherapies for food allergy as well as the biophysics, therapeutic implications, and reverse-engineering of lymphocyte trafficking in tissues. (
  • This leads to the activation and expansion of important immune system components and primes and boosts an adaptive immune attack against cancer. (
  • That interferes with the activation of the immune system in a way that it will not attack its own tissue. (
  • The immune system includes B and T lymphocytes that produce factors to protect the body from pathogens. (
  • Purpose: Complex characterization of the effects of pseurotin D on human lymphocyte activation in order to understand the potential of pseurotin to modulate immune response in humans. (
  • Homogenates of rat (or human) liver (S9 mix) were added directly to petri plates to evaluate the need for metabolic activation. (
  • In the present study, we examine the hypothesis that the VA preparations induce activation of human DC that facilitates effective tumor regression. (
  • The VA preparations stimulate the maturation and activation of human DCs, which may facilitate anti-tumoral immune responses. (
  • Autologous tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the infiltrate of human metastatic melanomas. (
  • Larson RA, Kluskens LE, Yachnin S. The DNA synthetic response of normal and abnormal human lymphocytes to mevalonic acid: the role of granulocytes as a helper population. (
  • CD28-mediated costimulation is necessary for the activation of T cell receptor-gamma delta+ T lymphocytes. (
  • Ligation of the TCR along with the coreceptor CD28 is necessary to elicit T cell activation in vivo, whereas TCR triggering alone does not allow a full T cell response. (
  • An in silico model of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation in the lymph node following short peptide vaccination. (
  • The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes. (
  • We studied a) mitogen lectin (PHA) evoked changes of Na+/K+-ATPase activity in functionally different lymphocytes or brain cor. (
  • Diverse populations of functionally mature but naive lymphocytes are generated in the absence of foreign Ags in the primary lymphoid organs (thymus, fetal liver, and bone marrow). (
  • Also, anti-Fas antibody sensitivity of activated T lymphocytes was decreased in newly-diagnosed AA. (
  • Stabilizes lysosomal membranes and also suppresses lymphocytes and antibody production. (
  • Antibodies can be found on the surface of lymphocytes as an integral part of the cell membrane protein or can be freely circulating in the blood or be part of one of the body's gland secretion. (
  • To study the dependence upon lymphocytes in vascular stiffening, we compared an angiotensin II-model of vascular stiffening in normal C57BL/6J mice with lymphocyte-deficient RAG 1 −/− mice and additionally characterized the component of vascular stiffness due to vasoconstriction vs. vascular remodeling. (
  • Adoptive transfer of CD4 + T helper lymphocytes restored the angiotensin II-mediated aortic stiffening in the RAG 1 −/− mice. (
  • Thus, we determined the effects of hinokitiol on concanavalin A- (ConA-) stimulated T lymphocytes from the spleens of mice. (
  • Hinokitiol also reduced interferon gamma (IFN- γ ) secretion from ConA-activated T lymphocytes, as detected by an ELISA assay. (
  • A dose dependent, statistically significant increase in the uptake of 3HTdR was noted in PHA activated or unstimulated lymphocytes following exposure to radiation at either frequency at specific absorption rates (SARs) below 50 watts per kilogram (W/kg). (
  • CD4 triggering is unable to induce IL-2 activation alone, and its effect at the level of late events can be traced only in the presence of the TCR complex-derived signals. (
  • Although intracellular phosphorylation levels are essential for normal lymphocyte activation while preventing disease, the significance of phosphorylated SOCS species in these processes is poorly understood, and the PTP that regulate their levels are unknown. (
  • Function of the Src-family kinases, Lck and Fyn, in T-cell development and activation. (
  • Together, these results show that CD3/TCR complex-associated LAG-3 molecules can play an active role in negatively regulating the CD3/TCR activation pathway. (
  • In addition, CD4 also has a negative regulatory role in T cell activation in some instances. (
  • This study supports the pivotal role of the CD4 + T-lymphocytes in angiotensin II-mediated vascular stiffening and that angiotensin II-mediated aortic stiffening is due to the additive effect of active vascular smooth muscle vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. (
  • We will further screen PTP for regulators of SOCS phosphorylation to understand their role in lymphocyte activation. (
  • Neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet are players in cancer growth and have a potential role as predictors of survival in our HCC patients. (
  • The TCR may be used in an adoptive cell therapy approach utilizing genetically engineered lymphocytes to treat HPV-positive malignancies. (