Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.
Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A cytokine produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that stimulates the migration of CD4-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes. It has been reported to suppress HIV replication.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A novel member of the tumor-necrosis factor receptor family that can also mediate HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 entry into cells. It has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14 and the homotrimeric form of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA. The receptor is abundantly expressed on T-LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte activation. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (1/28979)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (2/28979)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex formation of Cbl-b upon T cell receptor stimulation. (3/28979)

Cbl-b, a mammalian homolog of Cbl, consists of an N-terminal region (Cbl-b-N) highly homologous to oncogenic v-Cbl, a Ring finger, and a C-terminal region containing multiple proline-rich stretches and potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we demonstrate that upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR), endogenous Cbl-b becomes rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated. In heterogeneous COS-1 cells, Cbl-b was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by both Syk- (Syk/Zap-70) and Src- (Fyn/Lck) family kinases, with Syk kinase inducing the most prominent effect. Syk associates and phosphorylates Cbl-b in Jurkat T cells. A Tyr-316 Cbl-binding site in Syk was required for the association with and for the maximal tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl-b. Mutation at a loss-of-function site (Gly-298) in Cbl-b-N disrupts its interaction with Syk. Cbl-b constitutively binds Grb2 and becomes associated with Crk-L upon TCR stimulation. The Grb2- and the Crk-L-binding regions were mapped to the C-terminus of Cbl-b. The Crk-L-binding sites were further determined to be Y655DVP and Y709KIP, with the latter being the primary binding site. Taken together, these results implicate that Cbl-b is involved in TCR-mediated intracellular signaling pathways.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (4/28979)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression.  (+info)

Activation-dependent transcriptional regulation of the human Fas promoter requires NF-kappaB p50-p65 recruitment. (5/28979)

Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (CD95L) are an interacting receptor-ligand pair required for immune homeostasis. Lymphocyte activation results in the upregulation of Fas expression and the acquisition of sensitivity to FasL-mediated apoptosis. Although Fas upregulation is central to the preservation of immunologic tolerance, little is known about the molecular machinery underlying this process. To investigate the events involved in activation-induced Fas upregulation, we have examined mRNA accumulation, fas promoter activity, and protein expression in the Jurkat T-cell line treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin (P/I), pharmacological mimics of T-cell receptor activation. Although resting Jurkat cells express Fas, Fas mRNA was induced approximately 10-fold in 2 h upon P/I stimulation. Using sequential deletion mutants of the human fas promoter in transient transfection assays, we identified a 47-bp sequence (positions -306 to -260 relative to the ATG) required for activation-driven fas upregulation. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized composite binding site for both the Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors at positions -295 to -286. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and supershift analyses of this region documented constitutive binding of Sp1 in unactivated nuclear extracts and inducible binding of p50-p65 NF-kappaB heterodimers after P/I activation. Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factor binding was shown to be mutually exclusive by EMSA displacement studies with purified recombinant Sp1 and recombinant p50. The functional contribution of the kappaB-Sp1 composite site in P/I-inducible fas promoter activation was verified by using kappaB-Sp1 concatamers (-295 to -286) in a thymidine kinase promoter-driven reporter construct and native promoter constructs in Jurkat cells overexpressing IkappaB-alpha. Site-directed mutagenesis of the critical guanine nucleotides in the kappaB-Sp1 element documented the essential role of this site in activation-dependent fas promoter induction.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (6/28979)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (7/28979)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

RFLAT-1: a new zinc finger transcription factor that activates RANTES gene expression in T lymphocytes. (8/28979)

RANTES (Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted) is a chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) important in the generation of inflammatory infiltrate and human immunodeficiency virus entry into immune cells. RANTES is expressed late (3-5 days) after activation in T lymphocytes. Using expression cloning, we identified the first "late" T lymphocyte associated transcription factor and named it "RANTES Factor of Late Activated T Lymphocytes-1" (RFLAT-1). RFLAT-1 is a novel, phosphorylated, zinc finger transcription factor that is expressed in T cells 3 days after activation, coincident with RANTES expression. While Rel proteins play the dominant role in RANTES gene expression in fibroblasts, RFLAT-1 is a strong transactivator for RANTES in T cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils bearing Ia antigens can induce T lymphocyte proliferative response to the syngeneic or semisyngeneic antigen-primed T lymphocytes. AU - Okuda, K.. AU - Tani, K.. AU - Ishigatsubo, Y.. AU - Yokota, S.. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils from mouse peritoneal cavities displayed a remarkable level of lymphocyte proliferative activities to antigen-primed T lymphocytes. Genetic mapping studies demonstrated that compatibility at the I-A, as well as I-E/C, subregions of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was essential for effective presentation of the lysozyme antigen. These antigen-presenting activities were remarkably inhibited by anti-Ia sera. Inhibition tests revealed that neutrophil immune-associated (Ia) antigens seem to be essential for antigen presentation during the initial 8 hr. Elimination studies of antigen-pulsed neutrophils with alloantisera plus complement revealed these antigen-presenting ...
Results Exogenously added IL-7 did not activate B cells directly, in line with the absence of surface IL-7R. However, in the presence of T cells, IL-7 activated both T and B cells (Ki67+ CD4 cells from 1.1±0.2% to 14.4±3.7%, p,0.01 and Ki67+ B cells from 1.9±0.3% to 4.1±0.9%, p,0.05). TLR7A induced B cell activation, as measured by increased proliferation (%Ki67 from 1.2±0.2% to 9.3±1.4%) and up regulation of activation markers on B cells, which was facilitated in the presence of monocytes. TLR7-induced B cell activation in T/B or T/B/monocyte co-cultures was not associated with T cell activation. IL-7 added to TLR7A synergistically increased both B cell (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 9.3±1.4% vs. 33.4±7.3%) and T cell proliferation (IL-7 vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 0.8±0.1% vs. 29.2±5.2%), which for B cells again was further increased by monocytes (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 30.2±8.9% vs. 63.0±8.0%). Similar results were observed for activation marker expression on B cells (CD19, HLA-DR CD25) and on T cells ...
Background/Aims: In vitro constant calcitriol [1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub|] inhibits healthy individuals T lymphocyte proliferation at supraphysiological concentrations. In contrast, among hemodialysis patients, intravenous 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| pulse therapy of secondary hyperparathyroidism has been shown to be even immunostimulatory. We studied the effect of in vitro constant and intermittent 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| on lymphocyte antigen response of hemodialysis patients. Methods: Twelve hemodialysis patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/l) or tetanus toxoid (TT; 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Lf/l, limit of flocculation) for 7 days. Constant 1,25-(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub| was added to all cultures at concentrations of 0, 10|sup|-10|/sup| or 0.25 × 10|sup|-9|/sup| mol/l (0, 42 and 105 ng/l) and to half of the cultures additionally as a 0.75 × 10|sup|-9|/sup| mmol/l (315-ng/l)
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Presence of the T-cell activation marker OX-40 on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and draining lymph node cells from patients with melanoma and head and neck cancers. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Interleukin (IL)-4 is considered to be essential for T helper (Th)2 cell development, yet in areas of primary T cell activation, CD4+ cells are its only source. This implies that other signals must drive the initial expression of IL-4 production. The role of CD28 co-stimulation in Th2 subset development has been described. However, in mice deficient for CD28, Th2 responses are diminished, but not abrogated. Cytokines produced within the lymphoid tissue, e.g. IL-7, may be important in the primary activation of naive CD4+ cells. We have found that human naive CD4+ cells purified from umbilical cord blood express the IL-7 receptor and respond vigorously to IL-7 during primary stimulation. Naive CD4+ cells grown in IL-4, in the presence or absence of IL-2, fail to produce Th2 cytokines upon restimulation. In contrast, IL-7 induces development of a population of T cells that produce large amounts of IL-4. Growth in IL-7 also increases IL-2-induced production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 production. IL
by Barbara Stranger, Ye CJ, Feng T, Kwon HK, Raj T, Wilson MT, Asinovski N, McCabe C, Lee MH, Frohlich I, Paik HI, Zaitlen N, Hacohen N, De Jager P, Mathis D, Regev A, Benoist C. T lymphocyte activation by antigen conditions adaptive immune responses and immunopathologies, but we know little about its variation in humans and its genetic or environmental roots. We analyzed gene expression in CD4(+) T cells during unbiased activation or in T helper 17 (T(H)17) conditions from 348 healthy participants representing European, Asian, and African ancestries. We observed interindividual variability, most marked for cytokine transcripts, with clear biases on the basis of ancestry, and following patterns more complex than simple T(H)1/2/17 partitions. We identified 39 genetic loci specifically associated in cis with activated gene expression. We further fine-mapped and validated a single-base variant that modulates YY1 binding and the activity of an enhancer element controlling the autoimmune-associated ...
Download this application note to discover a turnkey solution for studying T cell activation and associated metabolic reprogramming.
DCs are believed to initiate the CD8+ T cell response in the draining LN by providing signals through the TCR and CD28. Beyond this initiation phase, however, the role of DCs and CD28 costimulation during later phases and at the effector site is largely unexplored. Previous studies have suggested that CD8+ T cells responses are programmed during priming and do not require Ag beyond initiation (1-3); however, these conclusions were based on short 3-6 d in vivo expansion or survival of CD8+ T cells (1-3). In these studies, in vitro-activated T cells were transferred in uninfected mice, and it was showed that the cells undergo divisions in the absence of Ag for up to 6 d after transfer into uninfected mice. Our studies show that in the context of a viral infection such as influenza, effector CD8+ T cells fail to fully expand when transferred into uninfected recipients or animals infected with an influenza virus that does not express cognate peptide (Fig. 4B, 4C). Based on the above, it appears that ...
Biochemical experiments have established that the metabolism of inositol phospholipids by phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) and lipid-phosphatases is triggered by many receptors that control T lymphocyte function, including antigen-receptors, costimulatory molecules, cytokines and chemokines. Novel …
IL-2-regulated genes in PBMCs. Pre-activated, rested human PBMCs were left untreated or restimulated for 4 hr with IL-2, and RNA probes were prepared for hybrid
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Nabila Seddiki, Laura Cook, Denise C Hsu, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Kai Brown, Yin Xu, Stephen J Kerr, David A Cooper, C Mee Ling Munier, Sarah Pett, Jintanat Ananworanich, John Zaunders, Anthony D Kelleher].
Specificity of T lymphocyte activation ... Molecular rearrangements w/synapse formation ... Two different MAP Kinase pathways are involved in receptor signaling ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on - id: 229ace-ZTQ4Y
Germain, R N.; Mayer, S V.; and Mescher, M F., Role of i-region gene products in t cell activation. I. Stimulation of t lymphocyte proliferative responses by subcellular membrane preparations containing ia alloantigens. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 16 ...
An adoptive transfer system was used to monitor physically the behavior of a trace population of TCR transgenic T cells in vivo. After subcutaneous injection of antigen in adjuvant, the antigen-specific cells accumulated first in the paracortical region of the draining lymph nodes, proliferated ther …
Inflammatory reactions are believed to be triggered by innate signals and have a major protective role by recruiting innate immunity cells, favoring lymphocyte activation and differentiation, and thus contributing to the sequestration and elimination of the injurious stimuli. Although certain lymphocyte types such as TH17 cells co-participate in inflammatory reactions, their generation from the naïve pool requires the pre-existence of an inflammatory milieu. In this context, inflammation is always regarded as beginning with an innate response that may be eventually perpetuated and amplified by certain lymphocyte types. In contrast, we here show that even in sterile immunizations or in MyD88 deficient mice, CD8 T cells produce a burst of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These functions follow opposite rules to the classic CD8 effector functions since they are generated prior to cell expansion and decline before antigen elimination. As few as 56 CD8+ inflammatory effector cells in a lymph node
Doenhoff, M J.; Janossy, G; Greaves, M F.; Gomer, K J.; and Snajdr, J, Lymphocyte activation. VI. A re-evaluation of factors affecting the selectivity of polyclonal mitogens for mouse t and b cells. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1563 ...
T and B lymphocytes tailor their responses to each pathogenic insult as part of the adaptive immune system. During an infection, activation of B cells causes them to proliferate, differentiate, and synthesize a variety of potential antibodies to pathogenic antigens. Immunological responses also activate T cells, inducing them to differentiate into a wide variety of subtypes, including cytotoxic T cells and T helper cells. Cytotoxic T cells recognize and destroy infected cells, and T helper cells communicate with B cells to mediate appropriate immune responses. Dysregulation of B cell or T cell functions can cause immunodeficiencies. Changes in gene expression and epigenetic regulation play a large part in T and B cell activation mechanisms. Understanding these changes may define how precursor lymphocytes decide their fates under specific experimental conditions ...
Initially, a role for the interaction between CD40, expressed on B cells, and gp39 (CD40L), expressed on activated T cells, has been defined in humoral immunity...
Schematic diagram of CD4+ effector T cell activation at the site of M. tuberculosis infection.A. During the chronic stage of infection, A
Study Flashcards On T cell activation and function at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
The molecular process of Antigen Processing and Presentation leads to T lymphocyte activation and function to enable CD4 T cells to potentiate the humoral and cellular immune responses, and CD8 T cel…
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced primarily by mitogen- or antigen-activated T lymphocytes . Human IL-2 (also known as T-cell…
|p|β-Interleukin I (163-171), human(C|sub|39|/sub|H|sub|64|/sub|N|sub|12|/sub|O|sub|19|/sub|), a peptide with the sequence Val-Gln-Gly-Glu-Glu-Ser-Asn-Asp-Lys, MW= 1005.|strong| |/strong|Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins/signaling m
Researchers, using mathematical models, have defined for the first time how powerfully immune cells respond to infection and disease. The team combined laboratory data with mathematical models to clarify how different external signals impact on T cell proliferation.
Learn about the new personal insight questions on the UC application. Tips & strategies on how to prepare strong responses will be shared with you. For more information, contact the Transfer Counseling Center at (310) 434-4210 ...
Sometimes I wish my politically moderate opinions were as sexy as the extreme ones some use to elicit a strong response from people. I just dont share
LEAD: The article, Taking a Scalpel to Health Care Costs (Jan. 8) prompted an unusually strong response from readers. Some of their comments follow. To the Editor:
T lymphocyte proliferation assay according to the free Medical Dictionary. Measures the strength of response of T memory cells|.
Ethanol consumption is associated with impaired immunity. Our data demonstrate that even a single dose of a biologically relevant concentration (25-150 mM) of ethanol can down-regulate antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation. In contrast, ethanol augmented mitogen-induced T cell proliferation, suggesting that its inhibitory effect on antigen-specific T cell proliferation was due to its effects on monocytes (m phi s) rather than on T cells. The immunodepressive effects of ethanol on m phi antigen-presenting cell (APC) capacity were manifested whether alcohol treatment was limited to the antigen uptake-processing period only or was present during the entire period of antigen presentation. These inhibitory effects of ethanol were also evident on both the high-antigen-presenting, Fc gamma RI-negative (-31 +/- 17%), and low-antigen-presenting, Fc gamma RI-positive (-42 +/- 15%) m phi subpopulations. Further analysis demonstrated that ethanol inhibits the production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and
Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) is an MHC class II ligand structurally and genetically related to CD4. Although its expression is restricted to activated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct effects of HP Acthar Gel® on human B lymphocyte activation in vitro. AU - Olsen, Nancy. AU - Decker, Dima A.. AU - Higgins, Paul. AU - Becker, Patrice M.. AU - McAloose, Carl A.. AU - Benko, Ann L.. AU - Kovacs, William. PY - 2015/10/27. Y1 - 2015/10/27. N2 - Introduction: Both clinical experience and experimental evidence have suggested that Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) might directly exert immunomodulatory effects not dependent on adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods: The direct effects of H.P. Acthar Gel® (Acthar), a repository preparation containing a porcine ACTH analogue, on human B lymphocyte function were studied in vitro using peripheral blood B cells isolated using anti-CD19 coated magnetic beads and activated by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and CD40 ligand (CD40L). Analysis of expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) was carried out by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cellular proliferation was ...
Effects of Polysaccharide Extracted from Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs on Lymphocyte Transformation Rate and AI-HI Antibody Titer in Chicks
Effects of Polysaccharide Extracted from Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs on Lymphocyte Transformation Rate and AI-HI Antibody Titer in Chicks
The mixed leucocyte reaction, (MLR), has been applied successfully to peripheral blood leucocytes of the mouse. Before harvest, the leucocytes were mobilized into the peripheral blood by a single intravenous injection of the mice with pertussis vaccine. Mixtures, (50-50), of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse leucocytes were cultured in medium containing low amounts of mouse plasma and supplemented with foetal bovine serum. DNA-synthetic activities at selected times were determined by liquid scintillation counting following pulse labeling of the cell populations with 3H-TdR. DNA synthesis in the mixed cultures attained a maximum value at the 5th to 7th day (7,500 cpm), as contrasted with maximum control values of 200-1000 cpm). Considerable DNA synthesis (1000-2000 cpm), also was observed at zero time, and then declined to low levels (200-300 cpm) at the 18th hour. DNA synthesis did not occur in the mixed leucocyte cultures when the culture medium was supplemented with dog plasma in place of foetal bovine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigation of K+ channel expression in human peripheral lymphocytes of healthy donors by means of flow cytometry. AU - Krjukova, J.. AU - Osna, N.. AU - Pilmane, M.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Evaluation of different types of K+ channel expression was performed in resting and PHA (phytohemagglutinine)-activated human peripheral lymphocytes (HPL) of healthy donors by means of flow cytometry. In resting peripheral lymphocytes, the application of kaliotoxin (a selective blocker for voltage-dependent K+ (K(V)) channels), K(V) resulted in pronounced depolarization of lymphocyte membrane potential, with further promotion in the presence of thapsigargin (compound discharging Ca(i) from endoplasmic reticulum). In activated HPL, the expression of various types of K+ channels was estimated utilizing cell-cycle analysis data. In contrast to the resting cells, kaliotoxin-induced depolarization of membrane potential in PHA-activated lymphocytes of the G0/G1 phase was not enhanced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporin A inhibits initiation but not progression of human T cell proliferation triggered by phorbol esters and calcium ionophores. AU - Kumagai, N.. AU - Benedict, S. H.. AU - Mills, G. B.. AU - Gelfand, E. W.. PY - 1988/12/1. Y1 - 1988/12/1. N2 - Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a potent inhibitor of T lymphocyte proliferation induced by Ag and mitogens. In an attempt to further delineate the mechanism of action of CsA, we have examined its effects on T cell proliferation induced by the combination of the phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB), and the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. T cells were rendered competent as the result of a 30-min initial incubation with both drugs, after which the drugs were washed out. Competence is defined as the ability to subsequently proliferate in response to exogenously added IL-2 or PDB in the second phase of the culture, but not to synthesize IL-2 or proliferative without these additions. Addition of CsA (1 μg/ml) to the cells in the ...
We show in this study that Tregs functionally inhibit DC activation in an Ag-dependent manner involving the interaction of LAG-3 and its ligand, MHC II. This LAG-3/MHC II molecular interaction provides a novel tolerogenic pathway that may endow Tregs the capacity to enforce tolerance by inhibiting DC function. The ability of Ag-specific Tregs to modulate DC function would potentially allow limited numbers of Ag-specific Tregs to inhibit many potential responding T effectors.. Expression in T cells of LAG-3 lacking its cytoplasmic tail was sufficient to confer regulatory activity, consistent with the notion that reverse signaling through MHC II in DCs, rather than LAG-3 signaling in T cells, was responsible for inhibition of DCs. Furthermore, inhibition of DC maturation required cell contact and bystander DCs were only modestly affected, indicating that release of inhibitory cytokines by regulatory cells were not primarily responsible. Prior studies have shown that LAG-3 engagement inhibits T ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of the age-related refractoriness of T-lymphocyte reactivity in humans. AU - Bátory, Gabriella. AU - Ónody, Clara. AU - Petrányi, G. Gy. PY - 1981/4. Y1 - 1981/4. N2 - Aged individuals could be divided into two groups according to their T-lymphocyte transformation values. The relationship between the PHA (phytohemagglutinin) stimulation indices and spontaneous thymidine incorporation; the PHA dose-response type distribution and the relative number of resting T lymphocytes was similar to the control group in aged subjects of seemingly intact T lymphocyte transformation values. However, their B cell compartment was found to be reduced. On the other hand, the ratio between the stimulation indices and spontaneous thymidine incorporation values of aged subjects of impaired T lymphocyte reactivity deviated from that of the control group. This group had an increased frequency of subjects giving maximal transformation values at relatively high PHA doses (hyposensitives) at ...
Malaria infection has been shown to induce alterations in immune reactivity. This report describes the effect of serum obtained from Plasmodium falciparum infected patients on in vitro proliferation of human blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) isolated from healthy individuals. Serum obtained before initiation of treatment suppressed the in vitro lymphocyte proliferative response to both Plasmodium-derived antigens and an unrelated antigen (PPD-tuberculin). The suppressive effect was lost if the serum was incubated at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and the effect was not HLA-restricted since the inhibition was seen on both autologous and heterologous BMNC. The degree of suppression was not correlated to the duration of the disease, the degree of parasitemia, or the use of chemoprophylaxis. Sera from 7 patients before and from 3 patients 30 days after initiation of treatment were pooled and fractionated. It was found that the strongest suppressive activity was in the serum fraction containing molecules from ...
Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and highly purified CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Our experiments explicitly show that: (a) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen induces significant proliferation independent of co-stimulatory signals (e.g., accessory cells, recombinant lymphokines, or tumor promoter), (b) F(ab)2 fragments of mAb directed at the TCR and F(ab)2 anti-CD2, crosslinked with F(ab)2 fragments of rabbit anti-mouse IgG, promote the proliferation of highly purified T cells, (c) a prompt and sustained increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration results from crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, (d) T cell proliferation induced by this novel approach is curtailed by EGTA and by direct or competitive inhibitors of PKC, (e) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen ...
NFAT2 null mutant mice die in utero of cardiac failure, precluding analysis of the role of NFAT2 in lymphocyte responses. Only the NFAT2-/-/Rag-1-/- chimeric mice model gave insight into the role of NFAT2 transcription factor in T lymphocyte development, activation and differentiation. As reports are mainly focused on the role of NFAT2 in CD4+ T lymphocytes activation and differentiation, we decided to investigate NFAT2s impact on CD8+ T lymphocytes responses. We report that NFAT2 is phosphorylated and inactive in the cytoplasm of naive CD8+ T cells, and upon TCR stimulation is dephosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus. To study the role of NFAT2 in CD8+ T responses we employed NFAT2fl/flCD4-Cre mice with NFAT2 deletion specifically in T cells. Interestingly, the absence of NFAT2 in T cells resulted in increased percentage of nonconventional innate-like CD8+ T cells. These cells were CD122+, rapid producer of IFN-γ and had characteristics of conventional memory CD8+ T cells. We also observed
ABSTRACT. In this in vitro study, T cell responses induced by breast tumor cell lysate pulsed monocyte-derived DCs were analyzed in terms of proliferation, specific cytotoxicity and cytokine-release in order to use in immunotherapeutic settings. Nylon wool enriched T lymphocytes from 5 patients with breast cancer stimulated in vitro with tumor cell lysate pulsed monocyte-derived DCs and their proliferation response were analyzed by [3H] thymidine uptake test. Specific cytotoxic activity of tumor antigen primed T cells after three rounds weekly stimulation was evaluated by flow cytometry, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) cytokines release assay was carried out 24 hours after last stimulation in the supernatant of primed T cells using commercially available ELISA kits. T cell proliferation assay revealed that tumor cell lysate pulsed DCs could stimulate autologous T cell proliferation response with stimulation indices 4.9 - 30. T cell mediated cytotoxicity assay demonstrated ...
Acute phase samples (9) and post-recovery samples (14) from cases of SJS or TEN to LTG were provided by the RegiSCAR-study group. Controls were persons never exposed to LTG (12), patients exposed without reaction (6), and patients who developed a mild eruption to LTG (6). LTT was performed by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation after 3 days of incubation with phytohemmaglutinin, LTG (10 μg/mL) or medium. Stimulation index ≥ 2 was considered positive. In 16 cases LTT was redone after depletion of T-reg by fluorescence activated cell sorting. ...
A simple in vitro experimental system was devised to reflect the in vivo generation of a T cell anamnestic response so that T cell differentiation could be examined at the level of lymphokine gene expression. Comparison of neonatal and adult T cells revealed that both populations expressed the genes for interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor, but only adult T cells were capable of transcribing mRNAs for IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, interferon gamma, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. However, neonatal T cells could be induced to undergo functional differentiation in vitro, thereby acquiring the capacity to express the lymphokine gene repertoire characteristic for adult T cells. These data suggest that the T cells generated from neonatal blood by a primary stimulation in vitro are functionally indistinguishable from the T cells in adult blood that presumably have undergone primary stimulation in vivo. Therefore, we propose that the term memory cell be applied to those T cells that ...
To order B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2) Polyclonal Antibody , please use the Cat. Nr. CAU27021 and submit your purchase order by email or by fax. A discount is available for larger or bulk quantities, please contact us for more information ...
The close similarity of the reported findings with nicotine on immune function (Caggiula et al., 1992; McAllister et al., 1994) with the results of the studies conducted in our laboratory with morphine led us to further explore the relationship between nicotinic and opioid-induced alterations in immune function. The results (Figs.1-3) with acute systemic morphine, nicotine and epibatidine treatment presented here demonstrated that each of these compounds produce: 1) antinociception, 2) decreased magnitude of peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation responses to mitogen without altering the sensitivity of the lymphocytes, 3) no alteration of either splenic or thymic proliferation responses, and 4) an elevation of circulating corticosterone levels. Collectively, these results indicate that the effects of systemic morphine are largely mimicked by both nicotine and epibatidine treatment.. Although considerable evidence supports the involvement of a central site of action for systemic morphine on ...
Another test, Lymphocyte transformation test, is available from Pharmasan and others. This test measures a different kind of immune response. It is based on FDA approved, commercially available TB tests. The test measures the innate immune response. An initial response which predates acquired immune responses which lead to antibody production. Immune cells patrolling our blood and tissues have the ability to recognize patterns which shouldnt be there (Pattern Recognition Receptors). Killer T cell lymphocytes are the first line of defense. Killer T cells attack offending antigen (Lyme) and turn on other immune responses including the production of cytokines, modulators of immune regulation. When this reaction occurs it leaves behind permanent T memory cells. These memory cells, when exposed to Lyme antigens react by releasing gamma interferon, a potent cytokine. This reaction can be measured. This test may be considered a complement to other tests, such as the Western Blot test. It is somewhat ...
The experiments described in this thesis document the development of two in vivo models, to investigate the effect of competition for peptide-MHC and factors independent of MHC on T cell proliferation, differentiation, generation of memory cells and affinity maturation. The first model made use of 3 strains of T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic (tg) mice of varying specificity for antigen-MHC class II. To determine the effect of antigen specific and non-specific competition on the early stages of the T cell response, the efficiency with which naïve antigen-specific CD4+ T cells were recruited into an ongoing immune response was investigated. Recruitment into cell division and cytokine production was shown to decrease with an increasing time delay between two cell cohorts of the same specificity, leading to a significant drop in recruitment with a delay of only 24 hours. Injection of additional antigen could partially compensate for this decrease, suggesting that lack of available antigen limited ...
Signaling through CD27 plays a role in T cell activation and memory. However, it is currently unknown how this costimulatory receptor influences CD4 effector T (Teff) cells in inflamed tissues. In the current study, we used a murine model of inducible self-antigen expression in the epidermis to elucidate the functional role of CD27 on autoreactive Teff cells. Expression of CD27 on Ag-specific Teff cells resulted in enhanced skin inflammation when compared with CD27-deficient Teff cells. CD27 signaling promoted the accumulation of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells in skin draining lymph nodes in a cell-intrinsic fashion. Surprisingly, this costimulatory pathway had minimal effect on early T cell activation and proliferation. Instead, signaling through CD27 resulted in the progressive survival of Teff cells during the autoimmune response. Using BH3 profiling to assess mitochondrial cell priming, we found that CD27-deficient cells were equally as sensitive as CD27-sufficient cells to mitochondrial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CD40 ligand expressed by human B cells costimulates B cell responses. AU - Grammer, A. C.. AU - Bergman, M. C.. AU - Miura, Y.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The possibility that activated B cells might express a ligand for CD40 that was of functional importance for B cell responses was examined by using highly purified human peripheral blood B cells, as well as a variety of B lymphoblastoid cell lines and hybridomas. Following stimulation with the combination of a calcium ionophore and a phorbol ester, human B cells bound a soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular portion of CD40 and the Fc region of lgG1 (CD40.lg). A variety of B cell lines and hybridomas also bound CD40.1g, either constitutively or after activation. In addition, CD40.Ig specifically immunoprecipitated a 33-kDa glycoprotein from surface 125I-labeled activated B cells. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the CD40 ligand mRNA ...
In this report, the Global Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 Protein Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the e
The relationship between T-cell metabolism and T cell effector function is little studied for human T cells. A recent publication by K. Renner et al. now reports about investigations of the group with human CD4 and CD8 T cells.. The authors used the CASY, to accurately and reliably determine the cell number and cell volume in proliferation assays and metabolic restriction experiments.. Read the publication here:. Metabolic plasticity of human T cells: Preserved cytokine production under glucose deprivation or mitochondrial restriction, but 2-deoxy-glucose affects effector functions. Kathrin Renner, Anna-Lena Geiselhöringer, Matthias Fante, Christina Bruss, Stephanie Dyer, Gabriele Saeed hammer, Katrin Peter, Katrin singer, Reinhard Andreesen, Petra Hoffmann, Peter Abubakar, Wolfgang Mr, Marina Kreutz.. Eur J Immunol. 2015 Sep;45(9):2504-16. two: 10.1002/eji.201545473. ...
The CD2 antigen (LFA-2) is a monomeric 50 kDa glycoprotein. It was formerly described as the sheep red blood cell receptor, causing T-cell rosetting, and has been identified as the ligand for CD58 (LFA-3). It is also a receptor for CD48, CD59 and CD15, which binds to the multimeric form of CD2. CD2 is present on the majority of normal human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and a high percentage of NK cells. It is also expressed by all thymocytes ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Here, we reported the identification of a PIP2-derived signaling amplification loop for the initiation of B cell activation (fig. S7). Specifically, we observed that there is a highly dynamic spatial-temporal change of PIP2 within the immunological synapse during B cell activation: PIP2 is efficiently depleted inside the BCR microclusters but is regenerated outside the BCR microclusters. Both events are important for the sustained initiation of B cell activation. Mechanistically, the hydrolysis of PIP2 inside the BCR microclusters induced a positive feedback mechanism for its synthesis outside the BCR microclusters.. The positive feedback nature of the PIP2-derived amplification loop is achieved by the unique Brownian mobility of PIP2 metabolic products. DAG, the product of PIP2 hydrolysis within the BCR microclusters, exhibits high Brownian mobility, which ensures its efficient interaction with DGKζ outside the BCR microclusters. PA, converted from DAG by DGKζ, drastically facilitates the ...
Un metodo per espandere γδ cellule T dalle cellule mononucleate del sangue periferico (PBMC) è descritta. PBMC cellule derivate γδ T...
DREAM is a multifunctional protein able to specifically interact with DNA and/or other proteins to execute defined functions in different cell compartments. In this study, we show that in T lymphocytes DREAM regulates the expression of three cytokine genes, IL‐2, IL‐4 and IFNγ. The proposed repressor mechanism involves recognition and binding to specific DREs located in their promoters. As previously shown for other Ca2+‐activated genes like c‐fos, ICER and AA‐NAT (Carrion et al, 1999; Link et al, 2004), in IL‐2 and IL‐4 promoters DREAM binds to a doublet with one direct and one inverted DRE repeat located downstream from the transcription initiation site and downregulates their activity. In the case of the IFNγ gene, like for the prodynorphin and the fra‐2 promoters, binding of DREAM to a single DRE site downstream from the TATA box is enough to repress transcription (Carrion et al, 1998, 1999; Link et al, 2004). Binding of DREAM or EFmDREAM to DRE sites downstream from the ...
In the absence of foreign antigen, peripheral naive T cells continuously recirculate between different lymphoid organs, in which they interact frequently and shortly with self. We and others have shown that such interactions are required for the long-term survival of naïve T cells. In addition, these TCR/MHC interactions and the resulting associated signaling increase quantitatively T-cell responsiveness towards foreign antigens and influence their function and/or differentiation into effector or memory cells in response to stimulation. Our project is based on our recent data showing that peripheral ab and gd T cells can be subdivided into various subsets according to Ly-6C expression. Interestingly, in CD4 ab T cells, Ly-6C expression inversely correlates with the ability of these cells to interact with self, defining Ly-6C as a new sensor of T cell self-reactivity. In parallel, we are exploring the regulation of T-cell self-reactivity in the context of cancer. Indeed, T cells specific for ...
low lymphocytes - MedHelps low lymphocytes Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for low lymphocytes. Find low lymphocytes information, treatments for low lymphocytes and low lymphocytes symptoms.
Learn how to measure T Cell activation in minutes using the Agilent Seahorse XF Hu T Cell Activation Assay Kitt. It measures human (Hu) T cell activation response within several minutes of stimulation using Seahorse XF Analyzers.
Preclinical experiments with allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells11 have opened up a new treatment paradigm and have made the use of allogeneic hCPC via cell banks a more realistic proposition, assuming that cryopreserved cells retain their original characteristics and are immunologically safe. In the present study, we provide the first detailed description of T-cell responses to cryopreserved allogeneic hCPC. We show that cryopreserved hCPC retain their primitive pluripotent and early cardiac lineage-committed phenotype. Tailored immune assays showed that these cells are hypoimmunogenic because, whether under inflammatory conditions or not, they lack the costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86 required for conventional Th1 or Th2 type T-cell responses. In contrast, the hCPC express the costimulatory molecule PD-L1, which endows them with the capacity to drive significant allogeneic Treg responses and to attenuate an ongoing immune response.. Patients who experience heart failure after MI have ...
We describe here the potent specific immunosuppression obtained in vitro by LO-CD2a, a rat mAb directed against the human CD2 molecule. Addition of low dose LO-CD2a (40 ng/ml) at the time of mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) initiation inhibits 80% of the proliferation and, more impressive, addition of the mAb 4 days after culture initiation at a similar concentration still suppresses 50% of the MLC. When responder T cells previously treated with LO-CD2a are challenged a second time by the same donor or third party allogeneic cells, hyporesponsiveness occurs in both cases, although reactivity to T cell mitogenic stimulation persists. Finally, the low production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IFN-gamma after incubation of human T cells with LO-CD2a suggests the absence of T cell activation. These results demonstrate that LO-CD2a mAb has a significant immunosuppressive effect and induces hyporesponsiveness in vitro, thereby suggesting potential efficacy in vivo for the treatment ...
You will need to recognize lymphocytes in tissues.. You can find them nearly anywhere. Often they are simply standing watch.. Resting lymphocytes have scanty cytoplasm, since they are not really doing anything but remembering. Resting lymphocytes nuclei always have a preponderance of heterochromatin. It is always clumpy, separated by thin strips of euchromatin.. Plasma cells make antibodies. They have:. ...
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
Cytokine-induced NK and Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation[edit]. Cytokines play a crucial role in NK cell activation. As ... granular lymphocytes known today as NK cells. The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were ... Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells ... A functional marker of human non-T lymphocytes". Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 21 (2): 226-35. PMC 1538269. PMID 810282 ...
"Lymphocyte activation antigens. I. A monoclonal antibody, anti-Act I, defines a new late lymphocyte activation antigen". The ... "Lymphocyte activation antigens. I. A monoclonal antibody, anti-Act I, defines a new late lymphocyte activation antigen". J. ... Although the antibody did not block primary activation of T-lymphocytes, it appeared late after activation with a number of ... This was part of a program to analyze the molecular basis of lymphocyte activation. An antibody was isolated that reacted with ...
Role in T-lymphocyte activation". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 439-48. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02898.x. PMID 9389317. Soares ... 1995). "V7, a novel leukocyte surface protein that participates in T cell activation. I. Tissue distribution and functional ... 1995). "V7, a novel leukocyte surface protein that participates in T cell activation. II. Molecular cloning and ...
Lymphocyte development and activation * Tumour immunology. 45: 132-140. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2017.03.005. ISSN 0952-7915. Allman D ... Lymphocyte development and activation * Tumour immunology. 45: 126-131. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2017.03.003. PMID 28359033. Gatto D, ... Lymphocyte development and activation * Tumour immunology. 45: 97-102. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2017.03.006. PMID 28319733. Taylor JJ ... Lymphocyte development and activation * Tumour immunology. 45: 89-96. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2017.03.004. PMC 7126224. PMID 28319732 ...
Complement activation. Mixed lymphocyte reaction T-cell receptors. Phagocyte function. First to fully describe IgA deficiency. ... 16, 301-310 Versey, J.M.B., Slater, L., Hobbs, J.R. Activation of complement in relation to disease, (1975) J.Clin.Path. 28, ... 6. 38-44 Yamamura, M., Nikbin, B., Hobbs, J.R. Standardisation of the mixed lymphocyte reaction (1976) Journal of Immunological ... 219-317 Foroozanfar, N., Yamamura, M. and Hobbs, J.R. Standardization of lymphocyte transformation to candida immunogen, (1974 ...
"Helper T Cells and Lymphocyte Activation". Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Chandra, Vivek; Bortnick, Alexandra; Murre, ... The levels of surface expression of IgD isotype has been associated with differences in B cell activation status but their role ... Class switching is mediated by the enzyme AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) and occurs after the B cell binds an ... and activation of complement cascade. As IgM antibodies are expressed early in a B cell response, they are rarely highly ...
"Helper T Cells and Lymphocyte Activation". Grewal IS, Flavell RA (1998). "CD40 and CD154 in cell-mediated immunity". Annual ... Helper T cell activation also requires longer duration of engagement with an antigen-presenting cell. The activation of a ... T cell activation is tightly controlled and generally requires a very strong MHC/antigen activation signal, or additional ... B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes and are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. B ...
"Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (CD223) regulates the size of the expanding T cell population following antigen activation in vivo ... "T Lymphocytes infiltrating various tumour types express the MHC class II ligand lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3): role of ... "Maturation and activation of dendritic cells induced by lymphocyte activation gene-3 (CD223)". Journal of Immunology. 168 (8): ... "Maturation and activation of dendritic cells induced by lymphocyte activation gene-3 (CD223)". Journal of Immunology. 168 (8): ...
Kornfeld H, Cruikshank WW, Pyle SW, Berman JS, Center DM (1988). "Lymphocyte activation by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein". Nature ... Activation of the receptor increases proliferation of CD8+ effector T cells. IL2RB has been shown to interact with: CISH, HGS, ... "Functional activation of Jak1 and Jak3 by selective association with IL-2 receptor subunits". Science. 266 (5187): 1045-7. doi: ... "The role of interleukin-2 during homeostasis and activation of the immune system". Nat Rev Immunol. 12 (3): 180-190. doi: ...
Okkenhaug K, Vanhaesebroeck B (April 2003). "PI3K in lymphocyte development, differentiation and activation". Nature Reviews. ... August 2005). "Sequential activation of class IB and class IA PI3K is important for the primed respiratory burst of human but ... Lee C, Liu QH, Tomkowicz B, Yi Y, Freedman BD, Collman RG (November 2003). "Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4- ... Deane JA, Fruman DA (2004). "Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: diverse roles in immune cell activation". Annual Review of Immunology. ...
Sharfe N, Dadi HK, O'Shea JJ, Roifman CM (June 1997). "Jak3 activation in human lymphocyte precursor cells". Clinical and ... Activation by IL-2 led to tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent interactions between Jak3 and p52ShcA only at lower concentrations ... Though constitutive activation of Janus kinase 3 (Jak3) leads to different cancers, the mechanism of trans-molecular regulation ... Jak3 expression and activation provide protection against development of CLGI and associated health complications. Studies in ...
... complexes in lymphocyte activation". Journal of Cell Biology. 166 (2): 173-178. doi:10.1083/jcb.200309044. PMC 2172307. PMID ... Such changes may be able to enhance or inhibit the activation of these signaling proteins. An example is the Ste5 scaffold in ... Signaling pathways are often inactivated by enzymes that reverse the activation state and/or induce the degradation of ... Clapéron, A.; Therrien, M. (May 2007). "KSR and CNK: two scaffolds regulating RAS-mediated RAF activation". Oncogene. 26 (22): ...
DeFranco, Anthony (2008). "Chapter 8: B Lymphocyte Signaling Mechanisms and Activation". In Paul, William (ed.). Fundamental ... Depending on the specific subfamily in question, activation can be highly variable. Activation by either Gαq or Gβγ G-protein ... Members of the Rho GTPase family (e.g., Rac1, Rac2, Rac3, and cdc42) have been implicated in their activation by binding to an ... Binding of its substrate PIP2 to the N-terminal PH domain is highly specific and functions to promote activation of the ...
2004). "Discs large (Dlg1) complexes in lymphocyte activation". J. Cell Biol. 166 (2): 173-8. doi:10.1083/jcb.200309044. PMC ...
Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation XI. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. pp. 155-62. doi: ... They are preferentially expressed by B lymphocytes. Unlike the classical Fc receptors, there is no strong evidence that ... "Isolation and purification of an early pregnancy factor-like molecule from culture supernatants obtained from lymphocytes of ...
Patterson HC, Kraus M, Kim YM, Ploegh H, Rajewsky K (Jul 2006). "The B cell receptor promotes B cell activation and ... It is also present in abnormal lymphocytes associated with some cases of Hodgkins disease. Because even on B-cell precursors, ... Flaswinkel H, Reth M (Jan 1994). "Dual role of the tyrosine activation motif of the Ig-alpha protein during signal transduction ... Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annual Review of Immunology. 10 (1): 97-121. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy. ...
Reif K, Cyster J (2002). "The CDM protein DOCK2 in lymphocyte migration". Trends Cell Biol. 12 (8): 368-73. doi:10.1016/S0962- ... Lu M, Ravichandran KS (2006). "Dock180-ELMO cooperation in Rac activation". Methods Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. 406: 388- ...
Syk kinase is specific of lymphocytes B and Zap-70 is present in T cells. After activation of these enzymes, some adaptor ... like activation o PI3 Kinase. PIP3 then is responsible for activation of several proteins, like vav (leads to activation of JNK ... Therefore, Lyn and Lck, in lymphocytes B and T, respectively, phosphorylate immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs ... "Signal Transduction Events Involved in Lymphocyte Activation and Differentiation". Retrieved 8 January 2014. Le Gallou, S; ...
Lu XW, Yin JY, Cui LX (2004). "[Cloning of human B lymphocyte activation-related novel gene]". Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue ...
Bacon, K.B. (1997). Analysis of signal transduction following lymphocyte activation by chemokines. Methods Enzymol. Methods in ... For example, lymphocytes can migrate away from a high concentration of the chemokine SDF-1 rather than be attracted by lower ... 2001). "Activation of RhoA and ROCK are essential for detachment of migrating leukocytes". Mol. Biol. Cell. 12 (7): 2137-2145. ... 2004). "Lymphocyte egress from thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs is dependent on S1P receptor 1". Nature. 427 (6972): 355- ...
Kornfeld H, Cruikshank WW, Pyle SW, Berman JS, Center DM (September 1988). "Lymphocyte activation by HIV-1 envelope ... Lymphocytes expressing the common gamma chain can form functional receptors for these cytokine proteins, which transmit signals ... The common gamma chain partners with other proteins to direct blood-forming cells to form lymphocytes (a type of white blood ... The γc glycoprotein is a member of the type I cytokine receptor family expressed on most lymphocyte (white blood cell) ...
... also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic activation molecule 2 (SLAMF2) is a protein ... Staunton DE, Thorley-Lawson DA (December 1987). "Molecular cloning of the lymphocyte activation marker Blast-1". EMBO J. 6 (12 ... signaling lymphocyte activation molecules) proteins, such as CD84, CD150, CD229 and CD244. CD48 is found on the surface of ... lymphocytes and other immune cells, dendritic cells and endothelial cells, and participates in activation and differentiation ...
Bruniquel, D; Borie, N; Hannier, S; Triebel, F (1998). "Regulation of expression of the human lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG ... Hannier, S; Tournier, M; Bismuth, G; Triebel, F (1998). "CD3/TCR complex-associated lymphocyte activation gene-3 molecules ... "Characterization of the lymphocyte activation gene 3-encoded protein. A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II ... a novel lymphocyte activation gene closely related to CD4". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 171 (5): 1393-405. doi: ...
Lopes-Carvalho T, Foote J, Kearney JF (2005). "Marginal zone B cells in lymphocyte activation and regulation". Curr Opin ... MZ B cells also display a lower activation threshold than their FO B cell counterparts, with a heightened propensity for plasma ... Cerutti A, Cols M, Puga I (February 2013). "Marginal zone B cells: virtues of innate-like antibody-producing lymphocytes". ... Hardy, Richard (2008). "Chapter 7: B Lymphocyte Development and Biology". In Paul, William (ed.). Fundamental Immunology (Book ...
... a phosphorylated human lymphocyte differentiation and activation antigen". Eur J Immunol. 20 (11): 2417-23. doi:10.1002/eji. ... Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. This gene encodes an intracellular F- ... "Entrez Gene: LSP1 lymphocyte-specific protein 1". Jongstra-Bilen J, Young AJ, Chong R, Jongstra J (1990). "Human and mouse LSP1 ... 1993). "Human lymphocyte-specific pp52 gene is a member of a highly conserved dispersed family". Genomics. 15 (3): 515-20. doi: ...
The T lymphocyte activation pathway. T cells contribute to immune defenses in two major ways: some direct and regulate immune ... LymphocytesEdit. Main article: Lymphocyte. T and B lymphocytes are the cells of the adaptive immune system. The human body has ... The B lymphocyte activation pathway. B cells function to protect the host by producing antibodies that identify and neutralize ... In jawless fishes, two subsets of lymphocytes use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen binding.[33] Diversity is ...
Schneider P (2005). "The role of APRIL and BAFF in lymphocyte activation" (PDF). Curr. Opin. Immunol. 17 (3): 282-9. doi: ... B lymphocytes (B cells), which are part of the normal immune response, are also responsible for the over-aggressive response ... B-cell activating factor (BAFF), also called B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), is required for the development and survival of B ... BR3-Fc, a recombinant fusion protein built with the extracellular ligand-binding portion of BAFF-R, blocks activation of this ...
Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation IX: Homeostasis and Lymphocyte Traffic. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 113 ... Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation IX: Homeostasis and Lymphocyte Traffic. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 113 ... "Induction of the activation of innate and adaptive immunity by lipidated peptide vaccine: robust and enduring protective memory ... "CD40 Signaling Synergizes with TLR-2 in the BCR Independent Activation of Resting B Cells". PLOS ONE. 6 (6): e20651. Bibcode: ...
"Cloning and expression of a lymphocyte activation gene (LAG-1)". Molecular Immunology. 27 (11): 1091-102. doi:10.1016/0161-5890 ... Zipfel PF, Balke J, Irving SG, Kelly K, Siebenlist U (March 1989). "Mitogenic activation of human T cells induces two closely ... and characterization of an immune activation gene". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... "A novel polypeptide secreted by activated human T lymphocytes". Journal of Immunology. 143 (9): 2907-16. PMID 2809212. Adams MD ...
Kv1.3-channels are important for the activation of T-lymphocytes, and thus for the activation of macrophages. The disturbance ... Ion channels play a key role in lymphocyte signal transduction. Potassium channels are required for the activation of T-cells. ... The membrane potential exerts powerful effects on the lymphocyte activation. The resting potential results primarily from a ... Upon activation of muscarinic ACh receptors with bethanechol, margatoxin-sensitive current was suppressed. Therefore, it was ...
Common variable immunodeficiency is thought to be due to a problem in the differentiation from lymphocytes to plasma cells. The ... These T cells bind to the MHC II-antigen molecule and cause activation of the B cell. This is a type of safeguard to the system ... Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with a considerable nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and a characteristic appearance on light ... the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. ...
T细胞(英語:T cell、T lymphocyte)是淋巴细胞的一种,在免疫反應中扮演着重要的角色。T是胸腺(thymus)而不是甲狀腺(thyroid)的英文缩写。T细胞在骨髓被製造出來之後,在胸腺内進行「新兵訓練」分化成熟為不同亚型的效应T細胞,成 ... Howson LJ, Salio M, Cerundolo V. MR1-Restricted Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells and Their Activation during Infectious ... CD4+ T cells are required for secondary expansion and memory in CD8+ T lymphocytes. Nature. February
... such as lymphocytes, also undergo programmed cell death leading to an abnormally low concentration of lymphocytes in the blood. ... This enables the virus to evade the immune system by inhibiting early steps of neutrophil activation.[medical citation needed] ... On TLR activation, proteins including interferon regulatory factor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 7 trigger a signalling ... The dysfunctional bleeding and clotting commonly seen in EVD has been attributed to increased activation of the extrinsic ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.[12] ... maintaining intracellular Ca2+ concentration and allowing activation of B cells. ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... "B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.[12] This also includes ...
A special transcription activation function (TAF), called TAF-3, is present in the progesterone receptor-B, in a B-upstream ... "No evidence for the expression of the progesterone receptor on peripheral blood lymphocytes during pregnancy". Human ...
"Identification of a proline-binding motif regulating CD2-triggered T lymphocyte activation". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ( ... "A synthetic peptide with sequence identity to the transmembrane protein GP41 of HIV-1 inhibits distinct lymphocyte activation ... 1992). "The lymphocyte-specific tyrosine protein kinase p56lck is endocytosed in Jurkat cells stimulated via CD2.". J. Immunol. ... Schraven B, Samstag Y, Altevogt P, Meuer SC (1990). "Association of CD2 and CD45 on human T lymphocytes.". Nature 345 (6270): ...
"RNA synthesis and histone acetylation during the course of gene activation in lymphocytes". Proceedings of the National Academy ... activation,[44]. repression[43] activation repression[45] acetylation activation[47] activation[46] activation[46] activation[ ... activation[43] activation[43] activation[43][44] activation[43] activation[43] di-methylation repression[45] repression[45] ... The mechanism for mRNA activation has been found to be the removal of a segment of the 3' end of the mRNA strand, and is ...
Correlation of CD8 lymphocyte activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by ... Determination of T-lymphocyte subsets on site in rural Tanzania: results in HIV-1 infected and non-infected individuals. ... His interest in immunology has led to publications in HIV disease, cellular activation and natural killer cell function, tumor ... The immune profile of multiple sclerosis: T-lymphocyte effects predominate over all other factors in cyclophosphamide-treated ...
Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ... Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ... Lymphocytes include: *B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement ...
In these disorders both T lymphocytes and often B lymphocytes, regulators of adaptive immunity, are dysfunctional or decreased ... as well as activation markers (HLA-DR, CD25, CD80 (B cells). Tests for T cell function: skin tests for delayed-type ... lymphocytes and monocytes): different groups of T lymphocytes (dependent on their cell surface markers, e.g. CD4+, CD8+, CD3+, ... T-lymphocyte therapies are still in the experimental stage; few are even in clinical trials, none have been FDA approved, and ...
These T cells can then go on to perform effector functions such as macrophage activation, B cell activation, and cell-mediated ... Another example occurs in activated T cell lymphocytes, i.e., when a T cell is induced to mature by binding to a peptide:MHC ... Upon activation, "low-affinity" IL-2 receptors are replaced by "high-affinity" IL-2 receptors consisting of α, β, and γ chains ... De-regulation of the autocrine Wnt signaling pathway via mutations in APC and Axin have been linked to activation of various ...
Activation and toxin release by eosinophils is therefore tightly regulated to prevent any inappropriate tissue destruction.[5] ... One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small ... because they do not require activation in order to kill cells that are "missing self". ...
Khroyan TV, Polgar WE, Jiang F, Zaveri NT, Toll L (2009). „Nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor activation attenuates ... 1996). „Expression of alternate forms of brain opioid 'orphan' receptor mRNA in activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes ...
The activation of B lymphocytes is caused by cross-linking of a critical number of B cell receptors, which leads to ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes[edit]. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... But when the concentration of TI-1 is lower, it can activate only B lymphocytes with specific binding of TI-1 on their BCR, and ...
Eissmann P، Watzl C (2006). "Molecular analysis of NTB-A signaling: a role for EAT-2 in NTB-A-mediated activation of human NK ... 1984). "Natural killer-like function of activated T lymphocytes: differential blocking effects of monoclonal antibodies ... 2006). "NTB-A receptor crystal structure: insights into homophilic interactions in the signaling lymphocytic activation ... for interactions between CD84 and Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins and their contribution to human T cell activation ...
Ley K, Smith E, Stark MA (2006). "IL-17A-producing neutrophil-regulatory Tn lymphocytes". Immunol. Res. 34 (3): 229-42. PMID ... Aggarwal S, Ghilardi N, Xie MH, de Sauvage FJ, Gurney AL (2003). "Interleukin-23 promotes a distinct CD4 T cell activation ...
Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or dead ... One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small ... Activation and release of toxins by eosinophils are, therefore, tightly regulated to prevent any inappropriate tissue ... Activation of the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation ...
Appay V, Sauce D (January 2008). "Immune activation and inflammation in HIV-1 infection: causes and consequences". J. Pathol. ... Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection ... Bentwich Z, Kalinkovich, A, Weisman Z (1995). "Immune activation is a dominant factor in the pathogenesis of African AIDS.". ... "Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection". Nat. Med. 12 (12): 1365-71. doi: ...
Superantigen - A class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells, resulting in polyclonal T-cell activation and ... They become activated and start to secrete cytokines, substances that activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), antibody- ... Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells) it must be a large ... the adjuvant component of vaccines plays an essential role in the activation of the innate immune system.[10][11] ...
Appay V, Sauce D (2008). "Immune activation and inflammation in HIV-1 infection: causes and consequences". J. Pathol. 214 (2): ... Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection ... "Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection". Nat. Med. 12 (12): 1365-71. PMID ...
Activation of the MAPK pathways: Of the three major MAPK cascades, TNF induces a strong activation of the stress-related JNK ... In 1968, Gale A Granger from the University of California, Irvine, reported a cytotoxic factor produced by lymphocytes and ... Activation of NF-κB: TRADD recruits TRAF2 and RIP. TRAF2 in turn recruits the multicomponent protein kinase IKK, enabling the ... activation of MAPK activity. • immune response. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. • positive regulation of chemokine production ...
T cell activation. • regulation of catalytic activity. • Rho protein signal transduction. • regulation of actin polymerization ... its association with other proteins by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha is associated with cell migration in a T-lymphocyte ... Its activation is dependent upon CDC42 and PIP2 acting to disrupt this interaction, causing the WASp protein to 'open'. This ... Kim AS, Kakalis LT, Abdul-Manan N, Liu GA, Rosen MK (March 2000). "Autoinhibition and activation mechanisms of the Wiskott- ...
2004). „Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signaling pathways". J. Leukoc. Biol. 74 (5): 676 ... Lipp M, Müller G (2006). „Shaping up adaptive immunity: the impact of CCR7 and CXCR5 on lymphocyte trafficking". Verhandlungen ...
... but have since been found in many other cells including epithelial cells and macrophages after activation by bacteria, viruses ... "The human antimicrobial and chemotactic peptides LL-37 and alpha-defensins are expressed by specific lymphocyte and monocyte ...
T cell activation is accompanied by a strong up-regulation of PrP, though it is not requisite. The lack of immunoresponse to ... PrP immune cells include hematopoietic stem cells, mature lymphoid and myeloid compartments, and certain lymphocytes; also, it ... activation of protein kinase activity. • calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source. • negative regulation ... Engagement of PrP has been linked to activation of signal transduction. ...
Platelet activation by oxidized phospholipids CASS4 S249 phosphorylation in the unstructured region containing SH2-binding ... These are compatible with regulation relevant to lymphocytes and deregulation in cancer. ... CASS4 signaling may contribute to platelet activation and aggregation. A PKA/PKG phosphorylation site has been identified in ... and CASS4 regulation of FAK activation, affecting cellular adhesion, migration and motility. Unusually, CASS4 depletion had a ...
The typical ADCC involves activation of NK cells by antibodies. An NK cell expresses Fc receptors, mostly CD16. These receptors ...
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes,[1] that is responsible for ... Associated molecules of the TCR complex involved in T-cell activation[edit]. The essential function of the TCR complex is to ... 2001). Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease (5th ed.). Chapter 4, The Generation of Lymphocyte Antigen ... Unlike immunoglobulins, however, TCR genes do not undergo somatic hypermutation, and T cells do not express activation-induced ...
In contrast, in vitro assay demonstrated that TNF-α is actually enhanced in T-cell activation, where CD4+ and CD8+ T ... lymphocytes were stimulated by anti-CD3 which was later confirmed in an early phase trials involving solid tumors and ... They decrease the levels of adhesion molecules paramount to osteoclast activation, decrease the formation of the cells that ...
Section I deals with factors that regulate the development and maturation of T cells and B cells and lymphocyte traffic. The ... Lymphocyte Development And Lymphocyte Traffic. * Lymphocyte Development in Neonatal and Adult C-Kit-Deficient (C-Kitw/w) Mice ... Lymphocyte Trafic in Lymphoid Organ Neogenesis Danielle L. Drayton, Kee Chan, Werner Lesslauer, Jason Lee, Mao Yon Ying, Nancy ... The significance of C-kit, Bcl-6, IL-7, and Vav in the development of T and B lymphocytes is discussed. A role of lymphotoxins ...
... rapid progress has been made in the understanding of biochemical pathways for signal transduction in lymphocyte activation. ... B Lymphocyte Activation, Proliferation and Differentiation. * The Activation, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Human B ... Human T Lymphocyte Activation Claudio Milanese, Robert F. Siliciano, Neil E. Richardson, Hsiu-Ching Chang, Andres Alcover, ... Regulation of Proto-Oncogene Expression During T Lymphocyte Activation and Proliferation John C. Reed, Michael B. Prystowsky, ...
... studies indicates that cFLIP and caspase-8 form a heterodimer that ultimately links T-cell-receptor signalling to activation of ... molecules might connect with signalling pathways that link to cell survival and growth following antigen-receptor activation. ... Fas transduces activation signals in normal human T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 178, 2231-2235 (1993). The first study showing ... Pleiotropic defects in lymphocyte activation caused by caspase-8 mutations lead to human immunodeficiency. Nature 419, 395-399 ...
The signalling lymphocyte activation molecule family (SLAMF) is a group of cell surface receptors that modulates the activation ...
Plasma lipoproteins of d less than or equal to 1.063 g/ml suppress lymphocyte activation triggered in vitro by polyclonal T ... Accessory cells reduce lipoprotein suppression of lymphocyte activation Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985 Apr 22;845(1):68-80. doi: ... Plasma lipoproteins of d less than or equal to 1.063 g/ml suppress lymphocyte activation triggered in vitro by polyclonal T ... appear to be at least two mechanisms by which accessory cells may alter lipoprotein suppression of T lymphocyte activation: by ...
First, the research showed that pediatric AD is associated with increased lymphocyte activation, including Th2 lymphocyte cells ... Lichen sclerosus is a lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory skin condition brought about by the action of lymphocytes. Lichen ... treatment approaches for children with eczema may need to target other types of T lymphocytes, particularly Th17 T lymphocytes ... The pediatric atopic dermatitis profile has robust and significant increases of Th17 T lymphocyte cells, which are ...
Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation IV. Book Subtitle. Cellular Communications. Editors. * Sudhir Gupta ... Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation IV. Cellular Communications. Editors: Gupta, Sudhir, Waldmann, Thomas ... B-Lymphocyte Lineage-Committed, IL-7 and Stroma Cell- Reactive Progenitors and Precursors, and Their Differentiation to B Cells ... A role of src family phosphotyrosine kinases in T cell activation has been demonstrated and several phosphotyrosine kinase ...
... and lipid-phosphatases is triggered by many receptors that control T lymphocyte function, including antigen-receptors, ... Phosphoinositide 3-kinases in T lymphocyte activation Curr Opin Immunol. 2001 Jun;13(3):332-8. doi: 10.1016/s0952-7915(00)00223 ... effectors of PI3K have been identified in the immune system and shown to be important in the control of lymphocyte activation. ... and lipid-phosphatases is triggered by many receptors that control T lymphocyte function, including antigen-receptors, ...
Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation XI. B Cell Biology. Editors: Gupta, S., Alt, F.W., Cooper, M.D., ... Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation XI. Book Subtitle. B Cell Biology. Editors. * Sudhir Gupta ... These proceedings highlight recent developments in lymphocyte development, Ig gene rearrangements and somatic hypermutation, ... chromatin structure modification, B lymphocyte signaling and fate, receptor editing, and autoimmunity. ...
Correspondingly, treatment of healthy CD8+ T cells with IL-6, IL-15, and/or MCP-1 cytokines resulted in STAT3 activation, ... In STAT3 mutated LGLL cells, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor azacitidine abrogated the activation of STAT3 via restored ... Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGLL) is characterized by somatic gain-of-function STAT3 mutations. However, the functional ... Kim, D., Park, G., Huuhtanen, J. et al. STAT3 activation in large granular lymphocyte leukemia is associated with cytokine ...
Crossing the Threshold of Lymphocyte Activation Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The Journal of ... Indeed, although the necessity of receptor occupation for lymphocyte activation was a central tenet of clonal selection, even ... the studies highlighted here provided the first definitive demonstration of an affinity threshold for lymphocyte activation. ... Crossing the Threshold of Lymphocyte Activation. Michael P. Cancro. J Immunol May 1, 2005, 174 (9) 5159-5160; DOI: https://doi. ...
Lymphocytes are activated upon antigen (Ag) recognition by their clonotypic surface Ag receptors, TCR in the case of T cells ... Antigen‐induced lymphocyte activation: the two‐signal paradigm. Four major steps take place in lymphocyte activation: Ag ... Lymphocytes: Antigen‐Induced Gene Activation. Abel Suárez‐Fueyo, Instituto de Investigación Hospital, Madrid, Spain Joaquín ... Lymphocyte activation triggers multiple signalling cascades that converge in the cell nucleus to cause significant changes in ...
Negative regulation of lymphocyte activation and autoimmunity by the molecular adaptor Cbl-b.. Bachmaier K1, Krawczyk C, ... Changes in co-stimulatory pathways can lead to enhanced activation of lymphocytes and autoimmunity, or the induction of clonal ... Cbl-b is thus a key regulator of activation thresholds in mature lymphocytes and immunological tolerance and autoimmunity. ... infiltration of activated T and B lymphocytes into multiple organs, and parenchymal damage. Resting cbl-b(-/-) lymphocytes ...
Here, we report that lobe A-mediated DOCK2 dimerization is crucial for Rac activation and lymphocyte migration. We found that ... The migratory properties of lymphocytes depend on DOCK2, an atypical Rac activator predominantly expressed in hematopoietic ... Lymphocytes Is the Subject Area "Lymphocytes" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Activation, and Inflammatory DiseasesIn the original article, two clarifications about cited references are necessary.First, ... Lymphocyte Autophagy in Homeostasis, Activation, and Inflammatory Diseases ... Lymphocyte Autophagy in Homeostasis, Activation, and Inflammatory Diseases. by Arbogast, F., and Gros, F. (2018). Front. ... Corrigendum: Lymphocyte Autophagy in Homeostasis, Activation, and Inflammatory Diseases. Florent Arbogast1,2 and Frédéric Gros1 ...
The invention discloses methods for inducing a desired T helper lymphocyte regulated immune response by delivering an immunogen ... One type of lymphocyte is the B lymphocyte (B cell) that targets and indirectly destroys foreign substances by mounting a ... The other type of lymphocyte is the T lymphocyte (T cell) that targets and directly kills foreign substances by mounting a cell ... Cytokines produced by Th1 cells activation are IL-2, IFNγ, IL-12, IL-18. These cytokines are involved in macrophage activation ...
HIV-1-specific CD4+ T lymphocyte turnover and activation increase upon viral rebound. ... HIV-1-specific CD4+ T lymphocyte turnover and activation increase upon viral rebound. ... HIV-specific CD4+ T helper lymphocytes are preferred targets for infection. Although complete interruption of combination ...
Aberrant activation of integrin α4β7 suppresses lymphocyte migration to the gut ... Aberrant activation of integrin α4β7 suppresses lymphocyte migration to the gut ... Lymphocytes from knockin β7 (D146A) mice, which harbor a disrupted ADMIDAS, not only expressed an α4β7 integrin that ... In vivo, aberrantly activated α4β7 enhanced adhesion to Peyers patch venules, but suppressed lymphocyte homing to the gut, ...
PLEIOTROPIC EFFECT IN LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION CAUSED BY CASPASE-8 MUTATIONS LEAD TO HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY. Kathleen E. Sullivan ... Caspase-8 is now known to have an undefined but integral function in lymphocyte activation and the phenotype of patients with ... In addition to the defect in apoptosis, the authors describe a very significant defect in lymphocyte activation that probably ... PLEIOTROPIC EFFECT IN LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION CAUSED BY CASPASE-8 MUTATIONS LEAD TO HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY ...
... also have defects in their activation of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and natural killer cells, which leads to immunodeficiency ... Pleiotropic defects in lymphocyte activation caused by caspase-8 mutations lead to human immunodeficiency.. Chun HJ1, Zheng L, ... is compatible with normal development and shows that caspase-8 has a postnatal role in immune activation of naive lymphocytes. ... The CD95 (Fas, Apo-1) receptor triggers lymphocyte apoptosis by recruiting Fas-associated death domain (FADD), caspase-8 and ...
Our present study showed that p38 MAPK activation was prolonged after lymphocyte activation. This result agrees with our ... Negative Regulation of Lymphocyte Activation by the Adaptor Protein LAX. Minghua Zhu, Olivia Granillo, Renren Wen, Kaiyong Yang ... Negative Regulation of Lymphocyte Activation by the Adaptor Protein LAX. Minghua Zhu, Olivia Granillo, Renren Wen, Kaiyong Yang ... Negative Regulation of Lymphocyte Activation by the Adaptor Protein LAX Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Phorbol ester treatment inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation by, and association with, CD28, a T-lymphocyte ... Phorbol ester treatment inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation by, and association with, CD28, a T-lymphocyte ... Phorbol ester treatment inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation by, and association with, CD28, a T-lymphocyte ... Phorbol ester treatment inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation by, and association with, CD28, a T-lymphocyte ...
Vibrational spectroscopic changes of B-lymphocytes upon activation. J. Biophoton., 6: 101-109. doi: 10.1002/jbio.201200136 ...
T-lymphocytes ; T-cell ; T-lymphocyte ; arginine methylation ; protein methylation ; proteomics ; heavy methyl SILAC ; WASp ; ... To gain insight into the role of protein arginine methylation in T-lymphocyte activation, the aims of this work were to: 1. ... WASp is essential for T-lymphocyte activation and some initial evidence showed that one of the arginine methylation sites is ... Due to their importance in immune responses and disorders, the molecular mechanisms leading to T-lymphocyte activation have ...
... examined the activation profile of T lymphocytes and the production of cytokines associated with activated T lymphocytes during ... Abstract 5509: Evidence of T lymphocyte activation following sipuleucel-T treatment. Johnna Wesley, Ling-Yu Kuan, Eric Chadwick ... Abstract 5509: Evidence of T lymphocyte activation following sipuleucel-T treatment. Johnna Wesley, Ling-Yu Kuan, Eric Chadwick ... Abstract 5509: Evidence of T lymphocyte activation following sipuleucel-T treatment. Johnna Wesley, Ling-Yu Kuan, Eric Chadwick ...
Cytokine stimulation of lymphocytes leads to the activation of intracellular kinases, such as Pim-2 and Akt (14) . Activation ... Lymphocyte Transformation by Pim-2 Is Dependent on Nuclear Factor-κB Activation. Peter S. Hammerman, Casey J. Fox, Ryan M. ... Lymphocyte Transformation by Pim-2 Is Dependent on Nuclear Factor-κB Activation ... Lymphocyte Transformation by Pim-2 Is Dependent on Nuclear Factor-κB Activation ...
Activation of rat T lymphocytes by anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies.. S J Clark, D A Law, D J Paterson, M Puklavec, A F Williams ... Activation of rat T lymphocytes by anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies.. S J Clark, D A Law, D J Paterson, M Puklavec, A F Williams ...
To do this we use both primary human cells and mouse models in order to track the signalling pathways that control lymphocyte ... Lymphocyte Signalling and Activation https ... To do this we use both primary human cells and mouse models in order to track the signalling pathways that control lymphocyte ...
This study shows that activation of IAP elements in normal normal mouse lymphocytes is highly selective. Activation is probably ... Most of these copies were found to be methylated in the lymphocyte DNA, but at least seven were hypomethylated in their 5 ... IAP expression in BALB/c thymus and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B cells was due to selective or indiscriminate activation of ... with element-specific oligonucleotide probes confirmed the presence of a restricted number of proviral copies in the lymphocyte ...
Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation III. Developmental Biology of Lymphocytes. ... Developmental Biology of B Lymphocytes. * Cloning and Characterization of a Protein Binding to the Jκ Recombination Signal ... Antigen antigen presentation cells development histocompatibility immunoglobulin lymphocytes system vertebrates Editors and ... Developmental Biology of T Lymphocytes. * Kinetics of Negative and Positive Selection in the Thymus ...
  • Caspase-8 activity is necessary to initiate the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and to promote proliferation of T cells, and possibly other cell types. (
  • Cytokines induce differentiation and proliferation of lymphocytes, and aberrant cytokine signaling can be observed in many inflammatory conditions [ 14 ]. (
  • Circulating B and T lymphocytes, however, are maintained in a quiescent state until they meet foreign antigens, which induce rapid gene expression accompanied by cell proliferation and differentiation. (
  • We applied this method to lymphocytes from 113 individuals, to evaluate lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation in vitro by a mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA) or a recall antigen (tetanus toxoid), using a kinetic approach with four points sequential measurements of the S and G2 phases over six days of culture. (
  • It plays a role in the proliferation and survival of activated T lymphocytes [4, 5]. (
  • We show here that the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD) blocks proliferation, major histocompatibility complex class II expression, and blastic transformation during stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. (
  • Lymphocyte activation test (LAT) detected PBMC cell proliferation specific to PPD, with at least 3.5-fold increase in [3H]-thymidine uptake in all PPD allergic patients. (
  • We report the identification of a large gene present in enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (EPEC) that encodes a toxin that specifically inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, and gamma interferon production in response to a variety of stimuli. (
  • A mutant EPEC strain that has a disruption in this gene lacks the ability to inhibit lymphokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. (
  • First, in human Jurkat cells, we characterized the effect of zinc on proliferation and activation and found that zinc supplementation enhances activation when T lymphocytes are stimulated using anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Abs. (
  • We found that although Zip6KO cells showed no altered zinc transport or proliferation under basal conditions, under activation, these KO cells showed deficient zinc transport and a drastically impaired activation program. (
  • 0.01) enhanced (1.3-fold increase) proliferation of rat thymic lymphocytes at 10 -5 M, without altering HPBMC proliferation, as compared with untreated control. (
  • Tabebuia avellanedae extracts inhibit IL-2-independent T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation. (
  • In order to identify new, immune modulating compounds, aqueous extracts of plants pre-selected on ethno-pharmacological knowledge were screened for inhibitory effects in an anti-CD3 driven lymphocyte proliferation assay (MTT-assay). (
  • We found for the extract of the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae (Tabebuia) dose dependent and reproducible inhibitory effects on lymphocyte proliferation. (
  • Decreased T-lymphocyte proliferation was associated with dose dependent reduction of CD25 and CD71 expression on T-lymphocytes. (
  • Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. (
  • Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. (
  • Concomitantly with proliferation, T cells differentiate into effector cells that are either cytolytic or able to provide help to B lymphocytes. (
  • Transmembrane signal transduction initiated by the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is essential for various B cell activities, including cell activation, proliferation, anergy and deletion. (
  • In contrast, immature lymphocytes usually undergo apoptosis, rather than proliferation, upon triggering through BCR.This is the foundation for negative selection, a process that ensures the generation of a self-tolerant immune repertoire during lymphocyte development. (
  • Here, we show that LT and ET are potent suppressors of human T cell activation and proliferation triggered through the antigen receptor. (
  • From these results two major conclusions can be drawn: (1) an IL-2-independent way of activation may be important for the short-term proliferation of the T cells stimulated by BMA031 and (2) after stimulation by BMA031, cells reach a state of activation that is different from that induced by OKT3. (
  • CD40-CD40L interaction is an essential signal for B cell proliferation, expression of activation markers, immunoglobulin production, and isotype switching. (
  • Results: Acthar was found to exert acute, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on IL-4/CD40L-mediated induction of the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) after 24 hours, as well as sustained inhibition of B cell proliferation and IgG production during five more days of culture, without deleterious effects on B cell viability. (
  • Monocytes purified from the injured brain stimulated the proliferation of naive T lymphocytes, enhanced the polarization of T effector cells (T H 1/T H 17), and decreased the production of regulatory T cells in an MLR. (
  • Moreover, brain monocytes isolated from C3H/HeJ mice were less potent stimulators of T lymphocyte proliferation and T H 1/T H 17 polarization compared with C3H/OuJ monocytes. (
  • Plasma lipoproteins of d less than or equal to 1.063 g/ml suppress lymphocyte activation triggered in vitro by polyclonal T cell mitogens. (
  • By varying the molarity and form of the haptenic determinants used for stimulation in vitro, and then comparing these with the affinities of the elicited Abs, the studies highlighted here provided the first definitive demonstration of an affinity threshold for lymphocyte activation. (
  • Are you sure you want to remove Transferrin receptor bearing cells in rheumatoid arthritis and an in vitro model of lymphocyte activation from your list? (
  • Previous clinical data from Phase 3 clinical trials demonstrated T lymphocyte activation occurred in response to culture with the immunizing antigen, PA2024, in vitro, and was maintained in vivo after infusion with sipuleucel-T. Data from a current clinical study (ProACT) examined the activation profile of T lymphocytes and the production of cytokines associated with activated T lymphocytes during the preparation of sipuleucel-T. (
  • Lymphocyte multiplication can be induced in vitro by mitogens or specific antigens, and is usually measured using isotopic methods involving tritiated thymidine. (
  • These data suggest that flow cytometric assessment of the S phase could be a useful alternative to isotopic methods measuring lymphocyte reactivity in vitro . (
  • Para-phenylenediamine-specific lymphocyte activation test: a sensitive in vitro assay to detect para-phenylenediamine sensitization in patients with severe allergic reactions. (
  • Injection of a sublethal dose of LeTx disrupts the adaptive immune response by inhibiting the functions of dendritic cells ( 2 ), and in vitro exposure to LeTx or EdTx inhibits the activation of mouse T cells ( 32 ). (
  • Activation of endothelium by Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro enhances transmigration of specific subsets of T lymphocytes. (
  • We found that CXCL12-exposed cells survived longer than untreated ones and this prolonged lifespan was specific for resting naïve lymphocytes, while in vitro activated lymphoblasts died rapidly despite CXCL12 treatment. (
  • In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of NE on rat thymic lymphocyte and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (HPBMC) functions. (
  • Taken together, these results indicated that NE was capable to activate in vitro rat and human lymphocyte and macrophage pro-inflammatory response. (
  • CLL B lymphocytes transform (mature) to a plasmacytic phenotype with loss of CD19 and CD20 and the appearance of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin when treated in vitro with phorbol esters. (
  • These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation. (
  • The study was performed in order to determine whether peripheral blood monocyte in vitro function, and lymphocyte in vivo activation at diagnosis, was associated with HPV tumor infection status and 15-year survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. (
  • In vitro activation by PMA caused a rapid up-regulation of membrane uPAR in all healthy donor T cells and was accompanied by enhanced receptor synthesis and elevated uPAR mRNA levels. (
  • Improved cancer therapy using a combination treatment with tumour-reactive T-lymphocytes obtained by an in vitro method for expansion and activation of tumour-reactive lymphocytes, in particular CD4+ helper and/or CD8+ T-lymphocytes and inhibitors of vessel formation inhibitors, notably inhibitors of VEGF. (
  • Freshly isolated (CD19(+)) B lymphocytes show greatly impaired in vitro chemotaxis which is overcome by overnight culture. (
  • Consistent with this, activated IEL mediators protected cells against virus infection in vitro, and pre-activation of IEL in vivo profoundly limited norovirus infection. (
  • Methods: The direct effects of H.P. Acthar Gel® (Acthar), a repository preparation containing a porcine ACTH analogue, on human B lymphocyte function were studied in vitro using peripheral blood B cells isolated using anti-CD19 coated magnetic beads and activated by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and CD40 ligand (CD40L). (
  • In 1972, Neils K. Jerne stated in the First Annual Report of the Basel Institute for Immunology, "For bursa cells and B lymphocytes, it is relatively easy to demonstrate that receptors are antibody-like molecules which enable the cell to recognize antigens. (
  • As the role of STAT3 in regulating DNA methylation in LGLL is currently unknown, we investigated whether inflammatory cytokine stimulation and STAT3 activation modify the epigenetic machinery in CD8+ T cells and could thereby affect disease pathogenesis in LGLL. (
  • Lymphocyte stimulation leads to the activation of selected transcription factors depending on the type of signals. (
  • Resting cbl-b(-/-) lymphocytes hyperproliferate upon antigen receptor stimulation, and cbl-b(-/-) T cells display specific hyperproduction of the T-cell growth factor interleukin-2, but not interferon-gamma or tumour necrosis factor-alpha. (
  • Non-T cell activation linker/LAB, which is expressed in B cells, NK cells, monocytes, and mast cells, is localized to lipid rafts like LAT and is tyrosine phosphorylated upon BCR and FcR stimulation ( 15 , 16 ). (
  • Further characterise an arginine methylated protein important to Tlymphocyte activation Arginine methylation was found to be induced after long term (>20 hours) stimulation of primary T-lymphocytes. (
  • The current model suggests that after apoptotic stimulation, activation of "upstream" caspases containing a large prodomain such as caspase-8, -2, or -9 leads to the proteolytic cleavage of "downstream" caspases (caspase-3, -6, and -7), which mediate the apoptotic response ( 1 )( 6 ). (
  • ConA stimulation significantly increased the rolling velocity of T lymphocytes in postcapillary venules of Peyer's patches, and ConA-stimulated lymphocytes exhibited a loss of the selective adherence properties in Peyer's patches that is normally observed with naive T cells. (
  • Here we showed that injection of sublethal doses of either lethal or edema toxin into mice directly inhibited the subsequent activation of T lymphocytes by T-cell receptor-mediated stimulation. (
  • Stimulation of PLEKHG2 by Gβγ induced serum response element (SRE)-mediated gene transcription via activation of Rac and Cdc42 but not RhoA. (
  • However, stimulation of T lymphocytes with suboptimal doses of anti-CD3 or antigen revealed increased proliferative responses in T cells from c-FLIP L Tg mice. (
  • The induction of ornithine decarboxylase was studied following the stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with concanavalin A (ConA) (10 µg/ml). (
  • The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3',5'-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA stimulation. (
  • Stimulation of B lymphocytes with lipopolysaccharide or anti-CD40 plus IL-4 resulted in marked enhancement of the migration response to BCA-1, SLC, ELC and SDF-1, reaching 30-60% migrated cells at 12 or 36 h of culture respectively. (
  • The signalling lymphocyte activation molecule family (SLAMF) is a group of cell surface receptors that modulates the activation and differentiation of a wide array of cell types involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • Lymphocyte differentiation and function is directed by specific transcription factors that determine the cell lineage. (
  • Furthermore, during the course of treatment with sipuleucel-T, the upregulation of activation markers demonstrate the functional differentiation of T lymphocytes for facilitating antibody production (OX 40 expression) and enhancement of costimulatory interactions with peripheral monocytes (4-1BB expression). (
  • To do this we use both primary human cells and mouse models in order to track the signalling pathways that control lymphocyte activation, expansion and differentiation. (
  • There is evidence that the homing behavior of lymphocytes can be profoundly altered on activation and differentiation. (
  • I focused on the presentation of the Leishmania (L. ) LACK antigen and the activation and differentiation of LACK-specific CD4+ T cells in L. Major-infected mice. (
  • Antigen specific activation of lymphocytes involves the action of T cell derived growth and differentiation factors, lymphokines. (
  • Analysis for molecular and cellular mechanism regulating differentiation, activation and programmed cell death of B lymphocytes. (
  • CD8 T cells and B cells also differentiate into cytotoxic thymus‐derived lymphocytes and plasma cells, respectively, driven by specific activation in the context of CD4 T H cells (helper) and the cytokine microenvironment. (
  • Activation of Insect and Vertebrate Toll Signaling: From Endogenous Cytokine Ligand to Direct Recognition of Pathogen Patterns. (
  • The effects of edema toxin on cytokine secretion were more complex and were dependent on the length of time between the injection of edema toxin and the isolation of lymphocytes. (
  • The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10), added during activation of the HUVEC, significantly diminished (by an average of 70% +/- 21%) the migration of T lymphocytes across endothelium stimulated for 8 or 24 h with B. burgdorferi, but not IL-1. (
  • In contrast Tabebuia exerted no effects on cytokine expression (Il-2 and TNF-alpha) by PMA/Ionomycin stimulated T-lymphocytes. (
  • 10-12 Lymphocytes are key players of the specific immune defense system and contribute to the immune response by cytokine release and activation of other immune cells. (
  • The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in inflammatory cytokine IL-18-activated monocytes, CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and CD19+B lymphocytes in 22 SLE patients and 20 sex- and age-matched control subjects were measured by flow cytometry. (
  • 4. The T H 1 lymphocyte secretes the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) that binds to IFN-γ receptors receptors on the macrophage. (
  • Both LT and ET inhibit the mitogen-activated protein and stress kinase pathways, and both toxins inhibit activation of NFAT and AP-1, two transcription factors essential for cytokine gene expression. (
  • T-Cell activation, associated cytokine production and levels of signaling proteins were evaluated by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. (
  • In this context, intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) compose a large, highly conserved T cell compartment, hypothesized to provide a first line of defence via cytolysis of dysregulated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and cytokine-mediated re-growth of healthy IEC. (
  • This paradoxical finding launched new investigations of how these molecules might connect with signalling pathways that link to cell survival and growth following antigen-receptor activation. (
  • As discussed in this Review, insight gained from these studies indicates that cFLIP and caspase-8 form a heterodimer that ultimately links T-cell-receptor signalling to activation of nuclear factor-κB through a complex that includes B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL-10), mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1) and receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1). (
  • These proceedings highlight recent developments in lymphocyte development, Ig gene rearrangements and somatic hypermutation, chromatin structure modification, B lymphocyte signaling and fate, receptor editing, and autoimmunity. (
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is elevated in RA leading to JAK/STAT3 signaling activation, and IL-6 and IL-6 receptor inhibitors are used in RA treatment [ 15 ]. (
  • Indeed, although the necessity of receptor occupation for lymphocyte activation was a central tenet of clonal selection, even rudimentary knowledge of lymphocyte signaling mechanisms was lacking. (
  • This result offered a profound conceptual insight: receptor cross-linking and the resultant aggregation mediated by multivalent ligand must be the ultimate determinant of activation. (
  • The molecular mechanisms that maintain immunotolerance in vivo and integrate co-stimulatory signals with antigen receptor signals in T and B lymphocytes are poorly understood. (
  • CD28 is a costimulatory receptor found on the surface of most T lymphocytes. (
  • Assembly of the CARD11/CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) signaling complex upon T or B cell antigen receptor (TCR or BCR) engagement drives lymphocyte activation. (
  • Assembly of the CARD11/CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) signalosome channels T and B cell antigen-receptor (TCR/BCR) ligation to MALT1 protease activation and canonical NF- κ B signaling ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • T cell activation through the T cell receptor is necessary to achieve a specific and effective immune response. (
  • In the present work we provide evidence that infection of mature peripheral blood CD8 + T cells by HIV is mediated through the CD4 molecule, whose gene expression is induced following activation through the T cell receptor (TCR) complex. (
  • The earliest activation marker is CD69, which is an inducible cell surface glycoprotein expressed upon activation via the TCR or the IL-2 receptor (CD25). (
  • CD25 is the alpha chain of the trimeric IL-2 receptor and considered to be the most prominent cellular activation marker. (
  • CD122 is the [beta]-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and upon expression, it further increases sensitivity of activated CD25+ T lymphocytes to IL-2. (
  • Apoptosis induced by T cell receptor (TCR) triggering in T lymphocytes involves activation of cysteine proteases of the caspase family through their proteolytic processing. (
  • Treatment with lethal toxin blocked multiple kinase signaling pathways important for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of T cells. (
  • One mechanism by which these cells recognize tumor cells is by engagement of NKG2D, an activating receptor on cytolytic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, by MICA/B and ULBP family stress antigens. (
  • Receptor numbers on resting cells and in the earliest phase of activation (G1a) were found not to be influenced by age. (
  • 13,15-17 Binding of the soluble CD95 ligand to its plasma membrane receptor CD95 induces apoptosis and represents the best studied programmed cell death pathway in T-cell lymphocytes. (
  • The main focus regarding SLE pathophysiology has been placed on abnormal cell surface receptor function on lymphocytes. (
  • CD19 regulates constitutive and antigen receptor-induced signaling thresholds in B lymphocytes through its unique cytoplasmic domain. (
  • Herein, we demonstrate a novel molecular mechanism where interactions between CD19 and Lyn amplify basal and antigen receptor-induced Src family kinase activation. (
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017', provides in depth analysis on T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (
  • T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86)Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (
  • These data demonstrate that physiologic concentrations of glucocorticoids can act on human B lymphocytes through glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanisms to diminish the expression of AICDA, a key regulator of humoral immune responses. (
  • The finding that the urokinase receptor is an activation Ag may suggest that cell-associated plasminogen activation is involved in extravasation and migration of activated T cells. (
  • The role of angiotensin II and the signaling of type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AGT1R) in T-lymphocyte activation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production are largely unknown. (
  • The transient increase in B lymphocyte migration did not correlate with changes in chemokine receptor expression, as evidenced by cell surface staining with antibodies to CXCR4, CXCR5 and CCR6, and by receptor transcript analyses. (
  • We reveal a local intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL)-GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling network that controls mucosal immune responses. (
  • Indeed, IEL activation in vivo rapidly provoked type I/III IFN receptor-dependent upregulation of IFN-responsive genes in the villus epithelium. (
  • Finally, phospho-specific staining for Zap70 and Src family kinase proteins suggests that sensing of substrate rigidity occurs at least in part by processes downstream of T-cell receptor activation. (
  • Biochemical experiments have established that the metabolism of inositol phospholipids by phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) and lipid-phosphatases is triggered by many receptors that control T lymphocyte function, including antigen-receptors, costimulatory molecules, cytokines and chemokines. (
  • Primary activation in T cells is coupled to rapid T‐cell cycling and progressive epigenetic changes that guide the cell down distinct T‐cell lineages, either effector (T H 1, T H 2, T H 17) or regulatory (Treg), characterised by the expression of specific transcription factors and cytokines. (
  • Several cytokines released by monocytes and macrophages as well as other agents triggering T cell activation (such as oxidized LDL) are capable of inducing CD25 expression [11, 12]. (
  • Abnormal activation of intracellular signaling molecules in lymphocytes by inflammatory cytokines can instigate the inflammation in SLE. (
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen- activated protein kinase activation by dual phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine. (
  • In addition, activation of some of the signalling pathways has effects in many other cell processes. (
  • Changes in co-stimulatory pathways can lead to enhanced activation of lymphocytes and autoimmunity, or the induction of clonal anergy. (
  • Thus, by combining distinct CARD mutations in the context of constitutively active BCL10-CARD11 fusion proteins, we provide evidence that BCL10-MALT1 recruitment to CARD11 and BCL10 oligomerization are interconnected processes, which bridge the CARD11 seed to downstream pathways in lymphocytes. (
  • We show that zinc entry depends on specific pathways to correctly tune the NFAT, NF-κB, and AP-1 activation cascades. (
  • We also studied, mainly by western blot analysis, the signaling pathways involved in CXCL12 action on naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes. (
  • The inflammation-mediated activation of JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in T and B lymphocytes can be the underlying intracellular mechanisms causing lymphocyte hyperactivity in SLE. (
  • An extended investigation into canonical signaling pathways of T cell activation indicated a reduction in phosphorylation of the kinase ERK after treatment with ONX 0914. (
  • Section I deals with factors that regulate the development and maturation of T cells and B cells and lymphocyte traffic. (
  • Cellular FLIP long form augments caspase activity and death of T cells through heterodimerization with and activation of caspase-8. (
  • Unstimulated T cells are shown to have a uniform distribution of DAG at the plasma membrane, whereas after T cell activation, a gradient of DAG is created with a persistent focus of DAG at the center of the synapse. (
  • Reduction of lipoprotein suppression requires viable accessory cells and that they be present with lymphocytes, mitogen and lipoproteins during the initial 24-h culture period. (
  • There appear to be at least two mechanisms by which accessory cells may alter lipoprotein suppression of T lymphocyte activation: by secretion of a soluble factor, probably not interleukin 1, that decreases the extent of suppression and by direct modification of the population of suppressive lipoproteins. (
  • Neither mechanism accounts for the lipoprotein-enhanced activation that occurs when cultures contain approximately equal numbers of T lymphocytes and accessory cells. (
  • The pediatric atopic dermatitis profile has robust and significant increases of Th17 T lymphocyte cells, which are characteristically increased in psoriasis. (
  • First, the research showed that pediatric AD is associated with increased lymphocyte activation, including Th2 lymphocyte cells, which is also similar to adults with AD. (
  • Next, the researchers discovered that that unlike the adult disease, the pediatric eczema profile has robust and significant increases of Th17 T lymphocyte cells, which are characteristically increased in psoriasis, a disease that is now being successfully targeted in using anti IL-17 and IL-23-targeting strategies. (
  • In addition to targeting Th2 lymphocyte cells as in adults, treatment approaches for children with eczema may need to target other types of T lymphocytes, particularly Th17 T lymphocytes," said Dr. Guttman-Yassky. (
  • In STAT3 mutated LGLL cells, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor azacitidine abrogated the activation of STAT3 via restored SHP1 expression. (
  • Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGLL) is a rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder, which in over 80% of the cases results from abnormal clonal expansion of CD3 + CD8 + cytotoxic T cells [ 1 ]. (
  • Together, these two observations yielded the conclusion that ligand binding per se was insufficient for activation, and that instead primary B cells display an affinity threshold below which activation does not occur. (
  • Lymphocytes are activated upon antigen (Ag) recognition by their clonotypic surface Ag receptors, TCR in the case of T cells and BCR in the case of B cells. (
  • A correction has been made to the section Autophagy in Peripheral T Cells, Macroautophagy in T Cell Activation , paragraph 2. (
  • In vivo, aberrantly activated α4β7 enhanced adhesion to Peyer's patch venules, but suppressed lymphocyte homing to the gut, diminishing the capacity of T cells to induce colitis. (
  • The authors carefully characterize the apoptosis of cells from the affected children as well as the activation of their lymphocytes. (
  • The membrane-associated adaptor protein LAX is a linker for activation of T cells (LAT)-like molecule that is expressed in lymphoid tissues. (
  • Although disruption of the LAX gene by homologous recombination had no major impact on lymphocyte development, it caused a significant reduction in CD23 expression on mature B cells. (
  • Compared with normal T and B cells, LAX −/− T and B cells were hyperresponsive and had enhanced calcium flux, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, MAPK and Akt activation, and cell survival upon engagement of the T or B AgRs. (
  • One such protein is the transmembrane adaptor protein, linker for activation of T cells (LAT) 3 ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • two LAT-like molecules, non-T cell activation linker (NTAL)/linker for activation of B cells (LAB) and LAX, were identified ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). (
  • Overexpression of LAX in Jurkat cells inhibits TCR-mediated p38 MAPK and NFAT/AP-1 activation. (
  • Here, we show that the ability of Pim-2 to promote survival of cells is dependent on nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. (
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether IAP expression in BALB/c thymus and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B cells was due to selective or indiscriminate activation of IAP elements. (
  • The investigators found low levels of TFIIH subunits in resting B cells, but with activation, they saw a dramatic increase in TFIIH subunit transcript and protein production. (
  • When stably expressed in CARD11 KO Jurkat T cells, the BCL10-CARD11 fusion induced constitutive MALT1 activation. (
  • Furthermore, in CARD11 KO BJAB B cells, BCL10-CARD11 promoted constitutive NF- κ B activation to a similar extent as CARD11 containing oncogenic driver mutations. (
  • Overexpression studies indicate that BCL10, via its N-terminal CARD, forms filament-like clusters in cells, which are required for proper activation of canonical NF- κ B signaling ( 9 ). (
  • In addition, activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals results in the appearance of double-positive CD4 + /CD8 + T cells, which become infected by endogenous HIV. (
  • It is expressed constitutively on the surface of several subsets of peripheral blood lymphocytes, such as regulatory and resting memory T cells. (
  • Moreover, T cell activation triggers the selective processing and activation of downstream caspases (caspase-3, -6, and -7), but not caspase-1, -2, or -4, as demonstrated even in intact cells using a cell-permeable fluorescent substrate. (
  • However, there is no evidence yet for a role of caspases during T cell activation, and a recent report suggested that the observed caspase processing was due to the production of granzyme B by CD8 + activated cells and artifactual release during cell lysis of PBMCs ( 19 ). (
  • CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) can recognize and kill target cells that express only a few cognate major histocompatibility complex class I-peptide (pMHC) complexes. (
  • Processing of caspase-3 was similar in both CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets and occurred not only in CD45RO+, but also in the remaining CD45RA+/CD25+ cells (Fig. 3a and Fig. b), further confirming that caspase activation was an early event after TCR triggering. (
  • The activation leads to the production of lymphoblasts which divide and form a population of effector cells. (
  • ConA activation also suppressed the accumulation of T cells in the spleen. (
  • On the other hand, the adherence of T cells to hepatic sinusoidal endothelium was significantly increased after ConA activation, especially in the periportal area, and this increase was attenuated by an anti-intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 antibody. (
  • Previous studies demonstrated that the anthrax toxins are important immunomodulators that promote immune evasion of the bacterium by suppressing activation of macrophages and dendritic cells. (
  • A model of the blood vessel wall, consisting of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) grown on amniotic connective tissue, was utilized to examine the effects of B. burgdorferi on the transendothelial migration of T lymphocytes. (
  • Compared to the initially added population of T lymphocytes, the population that migrated across untreated endothelium or HUVEC activated with B. burgdorferi or IL-1 contained a significantly smaller percentage of CD45RA+RO- (naïve) cells and a greater proportion of CD45RA+RO+ cells. (
  • In addition to long-lived antibody producing plasma cells, antigen (Ag)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ memory T lymphocytes are maintained long-term in the BM even when they are absent from secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and blood. (
  • The effect was also seen in macrophage-depleted T-cell populations and in Jurkat cells, indicating that this activity did not require participation of cells other than lymphocytes. (
  • Despite the inhibition of lymphocyte function, these cells remain viable, and there is no evidence that they undergo apoptosis ( 35 ). (
  • In these tissues, lymphocytes are exposed to the chemokine CXCL12 which is abundantly produced in bone marrow and in lymph nodes by stromal cells. (
  • CXCL12 is known to drive lymphocytes chemotaxis and, in cells types such as stem cells, an antiapopototic effect has been described. (
  • The antitumor activities of cytolytic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells are being increasingly investigated and exploited in cancer immunotherapy. (
  • In a study reported in Science Translational Medicine , Vantourout and colleagues showed that activation of EGFR is responsible for surface upregulation of NKG2D ligands in human epithelial cells in response to ultraviolet irradiation, osmotic shock, oxidative stress, and growth factor exposure. (
  • Thus, as noted by the investigators, stress-induced activation of EGFR both regulates cell growth and modulates immunologic visibility of cancer cells. (
  • Objectives To determine Rap1 activation and its correlation with oxidative stress in T cells from healthy controls compared to peripheral blood (PB) and SF T cells isolated from patients with RA. (
  • Results Our data show that in T cells isolated from healthy controls, Rap1 activation was sensitive to redox balance alterations. (
  • We also observed that treatment of T cells with H2O2 led to the rapid activation of Rap1. (
  • While restoration of the intracellular redox balance seems to reverse the hypo responsiveness of the SF T cells, this had no effect on the defective rap1 activation. (
  • Rap1 activation is defective in SF T cells from RA patients, and cannot be restored by the replenishment of GSH with NAC. (
  • Downregulation of PLEKHG2 in Jurkat T cells by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specifically inhibited Gβγ-stimulated Rac and Cdc42, but not RhoA, activation. (
  • As a result, overexpressing either the N terminus or the C terminus of PLEKHG2 blocked Gβγ-stimulated Rac and Cdc42 activation and prevented Jurkat T cells from forming membrane protrusions and migrating. (
  • The possible use of innate effector lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells, NKT cells and γ δ T cells, for tumor immunotherapy is of recent interest. (
  • Therefore, when characterizing the immune competent cells within lymphoid infiltrates of tumors, it is important to assess their activation state. (
  • Human solid tumors are often infiltrated by lymphocytes [tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)], mostly T cells. (
  • T lymphocyte activation was determined as the fraction of CD71-positive cells on CD3-positive cells by flow cytometry, whereas HPV infection was determined by PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue. (
  • In contrast, activation-induced cell death of T cells in c-FLIP L Tg mice was unaffected, suggesting that this deletion process can proceed in the absence of active caspase 8. (
  • In another study, we showed that the kinetics of activation and expansion of LACK-specific CD4+ T cells from infected resistant and susceptible mice are similar while their phenotypic properties are different. (
  • 26 have shown that thiopental inhibits the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in Jurkat cells. (
  • A comparision of total membrane protein phosphorylation in resting and LPS activated murine splenic B cells was carried out to determine if activation of these cells by LPS involved protein phosphorylation. (
  • Thus, activation of murine splenic B cells by LPS does appear to involve protein kinase activities. (
  • However, recent studies have revealed that defective clearance of apoptotic cells causes self-antigen accumulation, which could trigger the activation of autoreactive lymphocytes. (
  • Regarding the molecular mechanism involved, we showed that such suppressive effects of blocking of AGT1R by candesartan resulted in the significant inhibition of ERK activation in PMA-stimulated Jurkat T-cells. (
  • As knowledge on the direct regulatory effect of angiotensin II in controlling immune cell functions and AGT1R signaling in immune cells remains limited, the present study aimed to provide more information regarding the role of angiotensin II and the function of AGT1R in the activation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells). (
  • Furthermore, the temporal sequence of different signals is also critical for optimal B cell responses, as exemplified by the activation of B cells by initial TLR engagement, leading to the up-regulation of co-stimulatory CD80 and MCH-II receptors, which result in more efficient interactions with T cells, thereby enhancing the germinal center reaction and antibody affinity maturation. (
  • The best responses of cultured B lymphocytes were observed with BCA-1, SLC, ELC and SDF-1, reaching 19-26% of total input cells that have migrated, followed by LARC and TECK with 5-10% of migrated cells, whereas no other chemokine was found to be active. (
  • B ) Same experiment as (A), but with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLC) instead of Jurkat cells. (
  • Naive CD4 T cells exhibited stronger activation, as measured by attachment and secretion of IL-2, with increasing substrate elastic modulus over the range of 10-200 kPa. (
  • Previous results from my master's thesis like ameliorated CD69 up-regulation upon activation after ONX 0914 treatment were corroborated and additionally the effect was shown in B cells, in human cells and in antigenspecifically activated T cells in vivo. (
  • Unlike previously investigated T cell lines, primary T cells and B cells showed ubiquitin-conjugate accumulation after activation when cells had been pre-treated with ONX 0914. (
  • As activated lymphocytes show marked metabolic and proteomic re-organization, these features render the cells susceptible to proteostasis stress after immunoproteasome inhibition. (
  • It was found that T cells could alleviate the enhanced ubiquitin-conjugates within 20 hours of activation without significant induction of the integrated stress response or apoptosis. (
  • B lymphocytes are produced from the hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow of adult. (
  • Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. (
  • The pathway leading to caspase activation involves death receptors and caspase-8, which is also processed after TCR triggering, but not caspase-9, which remains as a proenzyme. (
  • In several species, a variety of lymphocyte adhesion molecules, namely L-selectin ( 10 ), CD44 ( 19 ), and α 4 β 7 ( 2 , 12 , 17 ), are considered to play a role as organ-specific homing receptors. (
  • Age-related changes in the formation of glucocorticoid and insulin receptors during lectin-induced activation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (
  • For instance, CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are thought to play an important role in the control of viral infection through both HIV-specific cytotoxic activity ( 11 - 14 ) and release of soluble factors capable of suppressing HIV replication ( 15 , 16 ). (
  • Due to their importance in immune responses and disorders, the molecular mechanisms leading to T-lymphocyte activation have been the subject of extensive research which has translated into important therapeutic developments. (
  • David Levens, M.D., Ph.D., working with Fedor Kouzine, Ph.D., and others in CCR's Laboratory of Pathology set out to elucidate the mechanisms that control transcription in lymphocytes. (
  • However, its function and activation mechanisms remain elusive. (
  • With some exceptions, the function and activation mechanisms of many RhoGEFs remain largely unknown. (
  • 27 Here we show that thiopental induces apoptosis/necrosis and caspase-3 activation in lymphocytes by mechanisms independent of the CD95 system, possibly through inhibition of NF-κB. (
  • These results reveal the immune synapse as a focal point for DAG and PKD as an immediate and dynamic DAG effector during T cell activation. (
  • The researchers found that the non-lesional, or normal-appearing, skin of young children with early eczema is already highly abnormal with significant immune activation, simulating that of lesional skin of adults with many years of active disease. (
  • Novel effectors of PI3K have been identified in the immune system and shown to be important in the control of lymphocyte activation. (
  • Lymphocyte activation triggers multiple signalling cascades that converge in the cell nucleus to cause significant changes in the pattern of gene expression that determine the phenotype of activated lymphocytes and, ultimately, the type of immune response. (
  • The invention discloses methods for inducing a desired T helper lymphocyte regulated immune response by delivering an immunogen to a preselected region of the gastrointestinal tract of a subject. (
  • 1. A method of inducing a type of T helper lymphocyte-regulated immune response in a subject comprising administering to said subject an immunogenic composition comprising at least one immunogen, wherein said immunogen is delivered to a preselected region of the gastrointestinal tract of said subject and induces said type of immune response, wherein said type of immune response is dependent on said region of the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • T-lymphocytes are an essential cell type of the adaptive immune system. (
  • Most duplicate address(es lacked formed by the Forty, four special ebooks from each download Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation to whom books sent funded coupling to the provider of the page. (
  • Your download Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation IX: was a review that this time could previously provide. (
  • download Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation IX: Homeostasis and Lymphocyte book is advised a person of 2,511 systems on Uptodown. (
  • It looks of two iBooks that find all download Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation SEO. (
  • download Lymphocyte Activation and Immune equations of numbers two rules for FREE! (
  • While several aspects of the pathogenesis are poorly understood, most findings support the central role of immune maladaptation-driven superficial placentation, leading to a systemic maternal inflammatory response, in which the role of activated T lymphocytes appears to be pivotal [1-3]. (
  • To determine the effect of maximum whole-body immune ablation on two different markers that detect lymphocyte activation in CSF-oligoclonal IgG bands and levels of CSF-sCD27. (
  • effective immune surveillance is achieved by the continuous migration of lymphocytes between lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. (
  • This newly reported activity of CXCL12 might contribute to the maintenance of the naïve T lymphocytes pool in vivo, which is needed to ensure a proper immune response to new antigens. (
  • Although the impact of these findings on clinical disease was not evaluated in this study, these data support the therapeutic potential of Acthar for the management of autoimmune diseases characterized by B cell activation and aberrant humoral immune function. (
  • c-FLIPL is a dual function regulator for caspase-8 activation and CD95-mediated apoptosis. (
  • Defects in genes involved in the apoptosis (programmed cell death) of lymphocytes have been shown to cause disorders characterized by significant adenopathy and autoimmunity. (
  • Traditional killing studies were performed to define the defect in apoptosis as well as flow cytometric determinations of T cell activation. (
  • These 2 features have been observed in all patients with defects in genes involved in lymphocyte apoptosis. (
  • In addition to the defect in apoptosis, the authors describe a very significant defect in lymphocyte activation that probably accounts for the immunodeficiency phenotype. (
  • The 3 known defects of lymphocyte apoptosis, Fas deficiency, FasL deficiency, and caspase 10 deficiency all have a similar phenotype: the early presentation of significant adenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoimmune disease. (
  • For instance, during apoptosis triggered by TCR cross-linking in T lymphocytes, the 32-kD caspase-3 proenzyme is first cleaved to release fragments of 12 and 20 kD. (
  • Surprisingly, caspase-3 processing and activity have been observed in the absence of apoptosis after polyclonal activation of PBMCs, and in the absence of DNA fragmentation ( 17 )( 18 ). (
  • During homeostasis, the number of lymphocytes in the circulation and tissue is maintained at an equilibrium by the controlled cell death program, i.e. , apoptosis. (
  • Effects of increasing docosahexaenoic acid intake in human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte activation and monocyte apoptosis. (
  • Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA has been reported to decrease several markers of lymphocyte activation and modulate monocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. (
  • The present study investigated the effects of increasing doses of DHA added to the regular diet of human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte response to tetradecanoylphorbol acetate plus ionomycin activation, and on monocyte apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL. (
  • While the ligand-binding activity of integrins is known to be modulated by conformational changes, little is known about how the appropriate balance of integrin adhesiveness is maintained in order to optimize the migratory capacity of lymphocytes in vivo. (
  • Benko, AL , Olsen, NJ & Kovacs, WJ 2014, ' Glucocorticoid inhibition of activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression in human B lymphocytes ', Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology , vol. 382, no. 2, pp. 881-887. (
  • The effect of ERK inhibition on T-cell activation was further confirmed. (
  • Conclusion: AGT1R signaling is essential for T-cell activation and IL-2 production, and the inhibition of this pathway suppressed T-cell activation via an ERK-dependent mechanism. (
  • Published studies have clearly demonstrated that LAT is essential for T cell activation, thymocyte development, and homeostasis ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (
  • However, the molecular players involved in zinc homeostasis in lymphocytes are poorly understood. (
  • Here we show that gene-targeted mice lacking the adaptor Cbl-b develop spontaneous autoimmunity characterized by auto-antibody production, infiltration of activated T and B lymphocytes into multiple organs, and parenchymal damage. (
  • Lymphocytes from knockin β7 (D146A) mice, which harbor a disrupted ADMIDAS, not only expressed an α4β7 integrin that persistently adhered to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), but also exhibited perturbed cell migration along MAdCAM-1 substrates resulting from improper de-adhesion of the lymphocyte trailing edge. (
  • Lymphocytes were isolated from toxin-injected mice after 1 or 4 days and stimulated with antibodies against CD3 and CD28. (
  • Therfore, the possible involvement of DUSP6 for impaired T cell activation was investigated using DUSP6-deficient mice. (
  • however, upon activation with phytohemagglutinin (a mitogen causing activation via the TCR) its expression increases in a time-dependent manner between 3 and 12 hours, remaining elevated until 24 hours and declining thereafter [6]. (
  • The altered shape and behaviour of lymphocytes which have been exposed to a mitogen or an antigen to which they have been primed. (
  • EGR-1 encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor that is induced by pokeweed mitogen and TPA and promotes B lymphocyte maturation. (
  • The dual specificity phosphatase 2 encodes an enzyme that reverses mitogen activated protein kinase cell activation by dephosphorylation. (
  • and changes in gene expression that characterise activated lymphocytes. (
  • In contrast, the amount of pol II recruited to promoters was essentially the same with or without activation, suggesting that enhanced gene expression in response to LPS+IL-4 is not regulated by pol II recruitment. (
  • These results suggest that under basal conditions pol II complexes are in closed confirmations and activation promotes complex opening and gene expression. (
  • We examined whether glucocorticoids could modulate the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA), the principal regulator of the processes of immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in B lymphocytes. (
  • Caspase-8 mutations lead to a disorder characterized by expansion of lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs and abnormal lymphocyte activation. (
  • Caspase-8 is now known to have an undefined but integral function in lymphocyte activation and the phenotype of patients with caspase-8 deficiency reflects this, with both lymphoid expansion and immunodeficiency. (
  • Although activation of lymphocytes is known to be associated with profound changes in homing behavior, it remains unclear how activation alters migration of gut-derived lymphocytes in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. (
  • These lymphocytes have the capacity to migrate very efficiently from the blood into secondary lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, by extravasating through the endothelium of specialized postcapillary or high endothelial venules (HEVs) ( 11 ). (
  • Naive T lymphocytes recirculate through the body, traveling from secondary lymphoid organs through tissues and via lymphatic vessels and peripheral blood into other secondary lymphoid organs and into the bone marrow. (
  • Modulation of migration to these chemokines may be a critical mechanism for the proper positioning of B lymphocytes during humoral responses in secondary lymphoid tissues. (
  • Dr. Lynn Baird's group showed the antibody reacted with a single protein band of 63Kd, and Dr. Atul Bhan's group showed that it stained tissue lymphocytes but did not react with non-lymphoid tissues. (
  • In addition to its reactivity to gut-associated lymphoid tissues, Act-1 antibody also stains large numbers of lymphocytes in rheumatoid synovium, and has been shown by Dr. A. A. Ansari of Emory University to prevent or delay onset of AIDS in a monkey-model of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-induced AIDS. (
  • Caspase-3 processing occurs in different T cell subsets (CD4 + , CD8 + , CD45RA + , and CD45RO + ), and in activated B lymphocytes. (
  • Caspase-3 activation occurs in various lymphocyte subsets. (
  • Distribution of B-lymphocyte subsets in normal tissue. (
  • HIV-specific CD4+ T helper lymphocytes are preferred targets for infection. (
  • 1. A composition comprising a) one or more VEGF-inhibitors and b) either tumour-reactive CD4+ T helper or CD8+ T-lymphocytes, or a combination thereof. (
  • and activating and promoting growth of tumour-reactive CD4+ T helper or CD8+ T-lymphocytes, at a time when a CD25 cell surface marker or an IL-2R marker is down-regulated on CD4+ T helper or CD8+ T-lymphocytes. (
  • Fig. 8.2: T Helper cell and B cell activation. (
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the genes responsible for this lymphocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) activity. (
  • Three genes, early growth response factor 1 (EGR-1), dual specificity phosphatase 2, and CD69 (early T-cell activation antigen), showed a 2.0-fold or greater increase in mRNA transcription at four or more of six time points in two studies. (
  • Several genes (PKC, n-myc, jun D, and BCL-2) previously reported as overexpressed in CLL lymphocytes were overexpressed in these studies also, but were not altered by TPA treatment. (
  • TLR4-mediated activation of mouse macrophages by Korean mistletoe lectin-C (KML-C)," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 396, no. 3, pp. 721-725, 2010. (
  • Integrin adhesion molecules mediate lymphocyte migration and homing to normal and inflamed tissues. (
  • The objectives of this study were 1 ) to compare migration of naive and concanavalin A (ConA)-activated T lymphocytes into the gut mucosa, spleen, and liver and 2 ) to define the role of specific adhesion molecules in this homing process. (
  • The migration of naive and ConA-activated T lymphocytes into microvessels were compared using an intravital microscope. (
  • In conclusion, activation of gut-derived T lymphocytes with ConA significantly alters their migration path, with a diminished localization to Peyer's patches and spleen and a preferential accumulation in hepatic sinusoids. (
  • Maximal migration occurred when the HUVEC-amnion cultures were preincubated with B. burgdorferi for 24 h and T lymphocytes were added for an additional 4 h, yielding a two- to fourfold increase compared to migration across unstimulated cultures. (
  • Consequently, suppressing PLEKHG2 expression blocked actin polymerization and SDF1α-stimulated lymphocyte migration. (
  • In this study we have examined the migration responses of human peripheral blood or tonsillar B lymphocytes to a selection of 27 chemokines. (
  • The activation-dependent increase in the migration efficacy was transient and declined to base level responses after 72 h of culture. (
  • Negative regulation of lymphocyte activation and autoimmunity by the molecular adaptor Cbl-b. (
  • Upregulation of intracellular GSH by incubation with 10 mM NAC for 48 h resulted in diminished Rap1 activation, while depletion of GSH by pre-incubation with 200mM BSO resulted in increased Rap1 activation. (
  • The data suggest that while the early activation of type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase may mediate in a positive manner the induction of ornithine decarboxylase and the mitogenic response of lymphocytes to ConA, concomitant activation of type II protein kinase may inhibit this process. (
  • Adaptor proteins play important roles in lymphocyte signaling ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (
  • Use mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify arginine methylated proteins in the T-lymphocyte proteome 3. (
  • The defective Rap1 activation was not due to increased levels of the Rap1 GTPase activating proteins RapGAP or spa1. (
  • Activation of lymphocytes by the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and anti-Ig has been observed to result in phosphorylation of a number of celluilar proteins. (
  • Lymphocyte activation by anti-Ig or TPA results in an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of human B cell membrane proteins, thus implicating tyrosine kinase activities in the transmission of lymphocyte activation signals. (
  • 25 In this study, the effect of thiopental on lymphocyte survival was investigated using freshly isolated human lymphocytes from healthy volunteers or the human leukemic T-cell line Jurkat. (
  • In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 secretion and the percentage of CD71-positive T lymphocytes both uniquely predicted survival independent of HPV infection status. (
  • 8,9 However, this therapy is often complicated by disturbed immunocompetence with reduction of lymphocytes followed by an increased infection rate. (
  • Te requirement of both BCR and TLR engagement would ensure appropriate antigen-specific activation in an infection. (
  • Together, our studies have provided the first evidence for the endogenous function of PLEKHG2, which may serve as a key Gβγ-stimulated RhoGEF that regulates lymphocyte chemotaxis via Rac and Cdc42 activation and actin polymerization. (
  • Under no circumstances did we detect B lymphocyte chemotaxis to inflammatory chemokines. (
  • T lymphocyte activation markers, CD134 (OX 40), CD137 (4-1BB), CD278 (ICOS), and CD279 (PD-1) were measured before and after culture at weeks 0 (infusion1), 2 (infusion 2) and 4 (infusion 3) using multi-color flow cytometry. (
  • The Distribution of Activation Markers and Selectins on Peripheral T Lymphocytes in Preeclampsia. (
  • Upon T cell activation, several cell surface markers are upregulated, each at a different stage of the activation process. (
  • demonstrated that resting peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals show little or no expression of CD69 (very early) and moderate basal expression of CD25 (late) and HLA-DR (very late) markers. (
  • The persistence of CSF lymphocyte activation markers sCD27 and intrathecal oligoclonal IgG bands after maximum immunoablative treatment indicates that complete eradication of activated lymphocytes from the CNS has not been established. (
  • For both activation markers studied, high peritumoral densities were associated with longer survival by univariate analysis ( P = 0.0028 and P = 0.0255 for CD25 and OX40, respectively), whereas peritumoral OX40 + lymphocyte infiltration had an impact on survival also in multivariate analysis ( P = 0.035). (
  • The results suggest that the presence of lymphocytes expressing the T-cell activation markers CD25 or OX40 shows correlation with tumor progression as well as with patients' survival in cutaneous malignant melanoma. (
  • Fluorescently labeled T lymphocytes collected from rat intestinal lymph were injected into the jugular vein, and the kinetics of appearance of the infused lymphocytes were monitored in ileal Peyer's patches, spleen, and liver. (
  • Given the presumed key role for autoreactive lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS), treatment strategies have been developed to ablate lymphocyte activity. (
  • Hayday, Adrian C. / Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte activation promotes innate antiviral resistance . (
  • Thus, the transcriptional induction of Pim-2 initiates a novel NF-κB activation pathway that regulates cell survival. (
  • IL-2 plays a key role in the activation, survival, expansion, and function of T lymphocytes. (
  • CXCL12 prolongs naive CD4+ T lymphocytes survival via activation of PKA, CREB and Bcl2 and BclXl up-regulation. (
  • The monocyte and T lymphocyte survival predictions were independent of each other. (
  • The survival was particularly low with a combined high activated monocyte and T lymphocyte status. (
  • An antibody was isolated that reacted with long term activated antigen-specific (tetanus toxoid) T-lymphocytes originally isolated from blood lymphocytes. (
  • Furthermore, the manner through which activation thresholds might be established, as well as how this could accommodate affinity and kinetic differences between primary and secondary responses, was unexplored territory. (
  • Cbl-b is thus a key regulator of activation thresholds in mature lymphocytes and immunological tolerance and autoimmunity. (
  • Paradoxically, cFLIP can also heterodimerize with caspase-8, which results in activation of the full-length caspase-8 protein. (
  • Diacylglycerol and protein kinase D localization during T lymphocyte activation. (
  • In this study we report that upon T or B cell activation, the LAX protein was up-regulated dramatically. (
  • Several studies have provided evidence suggesting a role for protein arginine methylation in T-lymphocyte activation. (
  • To gain insight into the role of protein arginine methylation in T-lymphocyte activation, the aims of this work were to: 1. (
  • Using structure-guided destructive mutations in the CARD11-BCL10 (CARD11 R35A) or BCL10-BCL10 (BCL10 R42E) interfaces, we demonstrate that chronic activation by the BCL10-CARD11 fusion protein was independent of the CARD11 CARD. (
  • Upon activation of Fas by its ligand, the DD undergoes homotypic interaction with a DD in the adaptor protein FADD, which then recruits the initiator caspase 8 via their mutual N-terminal death effector domains (DED) ( 3 ). (
  • Separation of the free catalytic subunit from type I and type II protein kinase holoenzyme isozymes via C 6 -aminoalkyl agarose chromatography revealed that only type I protein kinase was activated 4 hr following incubation of lymphocytes with a mitogenic concentration of ConA (10 µg/ml). (
  • The addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP at the same time as ConA (10 µg/ml) resulted in nearly total activation of both type I and type II protein kinases at 4 hr but was inhibitory to the later induction of ornithine decarboxylase and to increased synthesis of RNA and DNA. (
  • In addition to the increase in phosphotyrosine levels upon activation by TPA, there is a concomitant increase in phosphoserine content due to the activation of protein kinase C. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes translocation of protein kinase C from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane and as lipid A, the free lipid portion of LPS, activates protein kinase C the possibilty arises that LPS, like TPA, activates protein kinase C directly. (
  • A 47Kd protein was identified by SDS-PAGE analysis of resting and LPS activated membrane protein profiles and this protein appeared to be more heavily phosphorylated upon LPS activation. (
  • JNK1: a protein kinase stimulated by UV light and Ha-Ras that binds and phosphorylates the c-Jun activation domain. (
  • CD19 regulates Src family protein tyrosine kinase activation in B lymphocytes through processive amplification. (
  • article{Fujimoto2000CD19RS, title={CD19 regulates Src family protein tyrosine kinase activation in B lymphocytes through processive amplification. (
  • Said inhibitor of lymphocyte activation comprises, as an active ingredient, an antibody that specifically binds to a protein having the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1. (
  • Regulation of B lymphocyte development and activation by the CD19/CD21/CD81/Leu 13 complex requires the cytoplasmic domain of CD19. (
  • The results of this study indicate that specific signals generated through the cytoplasmic domain of CD19 are essential for B lymphocyte development and function, and that CD19 is the dominant signaling component of the CD19 complex. (
  • Fresh PBMCs (To) were cultured with medium alone (NS), anti-CD3 and IL-2 (CD3), or SAC for 4 d, and whole PBMCs (lane 1-3) or sorted CD19+ B lymphocytes (lane 4) were lysed in Laemmli buffer and subjected to Western blot analysis using the anti-caspase-3 antibody. (
  • Said antibody is preferably anti-HM1.24 antibody, and the inhibitor of lymphocyte activation of the present invention is used as a preventive and/or therapeutic agent of an autoimmune disease, a rejection in organ transplantation, or allergy. (
  • Although the antibody did not block primary activation of T-lymphocytes, it appeared late after activation with a number of lymphocytic stimuli, and was named "Act-1" because it was the first activation marker identified by this group of investigators. (
  • Lyme disease , caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is characterized by the accumulation of lymphocytes and monocytes in the affected tissue. (
  • Here we address these issues by generating a stable pool of Ag-specific CD8+ and CD4+ memory T lymphocytes in the BM by classical immunizations with defined antigens. (
  • This study shows that activation of IAP elements in normal normal mouse lymphocytes is highly selective. (
  • The mature B lymphocytes released into circulation from the bone marrow are in a resting or virgin state. (
  • The mature B lymphocytes released from bone marrow are in a resting state and they don't secrete antibodies. (
  • B. burgdorferi thus activates endothelium in a manner that promotes the transmigration of T lymphocytes, and IL-10 inhibits this activation. (
  • Aberrant activation of Rho GTPases has been implicated in many diseases, including the initiation and progression of leukemia and lymphoma ( 4 ). (
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease associated with aberrant activation of T and B lymphocytes. (
  • These differences are most likely related to the different specificities of the antibodies, alpha/beta TcR versus CD3, suggesting that different activation signals are triggered via CD3 and via the alpha/beta TcR. (
  • A role of src family phosphotyrosine kinases in T cell activation has been demonstrated and several phosphotyrosine kinase substrates have been identified and their functions characterized. (
  • The answer to this riddle emerged from the experiment summarized in Table VI, which showed that as little as a 2-fold molar excess of monovalent ligand could thwart primary B cell activation by multiply substituted hapten carrier complexes. (
  • For details on specific aspects of T‐ and B‐cell activation, see text. (
  • Cantrell D (2003) GTPases and T cell activation. (
  • Janssen E, Zhu M, Zhang W, Koonpae S and Zhang W (2003) LAB: A new membrane‐associated adaptor molecule in B cell activation. (
  • Upon T cell activation, it is phosphorylated by the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase and interacts with Grb2, Gads, and phospholipase Cγ1 ( 4 , 7 , 8 ). (
  • Interestingly, such a role for caspases in T cell activation is indirectly supported by several recent observations. (
  • T-cell mediated regulation of EBV-induced B-cell activation. (
  • Second, we used various human and murine models to characterize the zinc transporter family, Zip, during T cell activation and found that Zip6 was strongly upregulated early during activation. (
  • In this report we establish uPAR as a pan T cell activation Ag. (
  • Treatment with FR180204, a specific ERK inhibitor, reduced T-cell activation and IL-2 secretion. (
  • Hence, intraepithelial T cell activation offers an overt means to promote the innate antiviral potential of the intestinal epithelium. (
  • In combined cycloheximid and radioactive labelling approaches it was shown that DUSP6 degradation was impaired, but not fully blocked by ONX 0914 in T cell activation. (
  • Apart from altered T cell signaling, the second focus of this work was set on proteostasis regulation during T cell activation after ONX 0914 treatment. (
  • Fig. 8.1: B cell activation. (
  • Cell-to-cell contact between B cell and T H cell provides the second signal required for B cell activation. (
  • Binding of antigen to the surface immunoglobulin's provides the first signal and initiates the B cell activation. (
  • 2. The binding between CD40L molecules (on T cell) with CD40 (on B cell) delivers the second signal for B cell activation. (
  • Therefore, we generated a Jurkat Zip6 knockout (KO) line to study how the absence of this transporter affects lymphocyte physiology. (
  • It binds to integrin α4β7 (LPAM-1, lymphocyte Peyer's patch adhesion molecule 1, a dimer of Integrin alpha-4 and Integrin beta-7). (
  • The ability of activated T lymphocytes to extravasate and reach inflammatory and malignant foci in the tissues is a basic function of cellular immunity. (
  • Increases in incorporation of [ 3 H]uridine into acid-insoluble material followed a similar time course after the addition of ConA to lymphocytes. (
  • Kataoka, T. & Tschopp, J. N-terminal fragment of c-FLIPL processed by caspase 8 specifically interacts with TRAF2 and induces activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway. (
  • Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGLL) is characterized by somatic gain-of-function STAT3 mutations. (
  • This article describes a heretofore unrecognized function of caspase-8 in lymphocyte activation. (
  • Activation is probably a function of both sequence specificity and methylation status of the proviral LTR. (
  • A new approach to study human B-lymphocyte function using an indirect plaaue assay. (
  • Our work shows that zinc entry into activated lymphocytes depends on Zip6 and that this transporter is essential for the correct function of the cellular activation machinery. (
  • Books 1 - 10 of about 45 related to Ontogeny of Human Lymphocyte Function . (
  • A similar induction resulted from activation via the TCR/CD3 complex using mitogens (PHA, and Con A), anti-CD3 antibodies, and alloantigen. (