Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.
The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.
A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR C in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOID TISSUE) including the lymph vessels.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.
Neoplasms composed of lymphoid tissue, a lattice work of reticular tissue the interspaces of which contain lymphocytes. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in lymphatic vessels.
Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A benign tumor resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. Lymphangioendothelioma is a type of lymphangioma in which endothelial cells are the dominant component.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A transient dilatation of the lymphatic vessels.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Surgery to remove one or more NEOPLASM METASTASES.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Newly arising secondary tumors so small they are difficult to detect by physical examination or routine imaging techniques.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.
A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.

Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (1/7997)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

Detection of occult lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer by minimally invasive staging combined with molecular diagnostic techniques. (2/7997)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lymph node metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer. Histologic examination misses micrometastases in up to 20% of lymph nodes evaluated. In addition, non-invasive imaging modalities are not sensitive enough to detect small lymph nodes metastases. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to increase the detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes from patients with esophageal cancer. METHODS: RT-PCR of CEA mRNA was performed in lymph nodes from patients with malignant and benign esophageal disease. Each specimen was examined histopathologically and by RT-PCR and the results were compared. RESULTS: Metastases were present in 29 of 60 (48%) lymph nodes sample by minimally invasive staging from 13 patients with esophageal cancer when examined histopathologically. RT-PCR identified nodal metastases in 46 of these 60 (77%) samples. RT-PCR detected CEA mRNA in all 29 histologically positive samples and in 17 histologically negative lymph nodes. All lymph nodes from patients with benign disease (n = 15) were negative both histopathologically and by RT-PCR. The stage of two patients was reclassified based on the RT-PCR results, which identified lymph node spread undetected histopathologically. Both of these patients developed recurrent disease after resection of the primary tumor. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR is more sensitive than histologic examination in the detection of lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer and can lead to diagnosis of a more advanced stage in some patients. The combination of minimally invasive surgical techniques in combination with new molecular diagnostic techniques may improve our ability to stage cancer patients.  (+info)

Estrogen replacement therapy and breast cancer survival in a large screening study. (3/7997)

BACKGROUND: Hormone replacement therapy has been associated in some studies with reductions in breast cancer mortality among women who develop this disease. It is unclear whether this association reflects the biologic activity of the hormones or the earlier detection of tumors among hormone users. We examined breast cancer mortality among women who were diagnosed with axillary lymph node-negative and node-positive breast cancer according to the currency of estrogen use at diagnosis. METHODS: Vital status through June 1995 was determined for 2614 patients with postmenopausal breast cancer diagnosed during the period from 1973 to January 1981. We estimated adjusted hazard-rate ratios (adjusting for tumor size, age, race, Quetelet [body mass] index, and number of positive lymph nodes in women with node-positive disease) and unadjusted cumulative probabilities of breast cancer death over time since diagnosis. RESULTS: Among patients with node-negative disease, rate ratios for breast cancer mortality associated with current use compared with nonuse at diagnosis were 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3-0.8) until 144 months after diagnosis and 2.2 (95% CI = 0.9-5.2) thereafter. Mortality was not statistically significantly lower in past users. The cumulative probabilities of breast cancer mortality at the end of follow-up were 0.14, 0.14, and 0.09 in nonusers, past users, and current users, respectively. Among women with node-positive disease, the rate ratios associated with current and past use were both 0.5 until 48 months after diagnosis (95% CI = 0.3-0.8 for current users; 95% CI = 0.3-0.9 for past users) and were 1.1 (95% CI = 0.7-1.7) and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2-2.7), respectively, thereafter. The cumulative probabilities of breast cancer mortality were 0.32, 0.39, and 0.27 in nonusers, past users, and current users, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with breast cancer who were using replacement estrogens at the time of diagnosis experienced reductions in breast cancer mortality, which waned with the time since diagnosis.  (+info)

Immunologic proliferation marker Ki-S2 as prognostic indicator for lymph node-negative breast cancer. (4/7997)

BACKGROUND: Proper treatment of lymph node-negative breast cancer depends on an accurate prognosis. To improve prognostic models for this disease, we evaluated whether an immunohistochemical marker for proliferating cells, Ki-S2 (a monoclonal antibody that binds to a 100-kd nuclear protein expressed in S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle), is an accurate indicator of prognosis. METHODS: We studied 371 Swedish women with lymph node-negative breast cancer; the median follow-up time was 95 months. The fraction of tumor cells in S phase was assessed by flow cytometry, and tumor cell proliferation was measured immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibodies Ki-S2 and Ki-S5 (directed against the nuclear antigen Ki-67). A combined prognostic index was calculated on the basis of the S-phase fraction, progesterone receptor content, and tumor size. RESULTS: In multivariate analyses that did or did not (263 and 332 observations, respectively) include the S-phase fraction and the combined prognostic index, the Ki-S2 labeling index (percentage of antibody-stained tumor cell nuclei) emerged as the most statistically significant predictor of overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival (all two-sided P<.0001). In the risk group defined by a Ki-S2 labeling index of 10% or less, life expectancy was not statistically significantly different from that of age-matched women without breast cancer, whereas the group with a high Ki-S2 labeling index had an increased risk of mortality of up to 20-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular proliferation is a major determinant of the biologic behavior of breast cancer. Prognosis is apparently best indicated by the percentage of cells in S through M phases of the cell cycle. Measurement of the Ki-S2 labeling index of a tumor sample may improve a clinician's ability to make an accurate prognosis and to identify patients with a low risk of recurrence who may not need adjuvant therapy.  (+info)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series. (5/7997)

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an established component of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, and is an important procedure in cancer staging; however, it is associated with unpleasant side effects. We have investigated a radioactive tracer-guided procedure that facilitates identification, removal, and pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node (i.e., the lymph node first receiving lymphatic fluid from the area of the breast containing the tumor) to predict the status of the axilla and to assess the safety of foregoing axillary dissection if the sentinel lymph node shows no involvement. METHODS: We injected 5-10 MBq of 99mTc-labeled colloidal particles of human albumin peritumorally in 376 consecutive patients with breast cancer who were enrolled at the European Institute of Oncology during the period from March 1996 through March 1998. The sentinel lymph node in each case was visualized by lymphoscintigraphy, and its general location was marked on the overlying skin. During breast surgery, the sentinel lymph node was identified for removal by monitoring the acoustic signal from a hand-held gamma ray-detecting probe. Total axillary dissection was then carried out. The pathologic status of the sentinel lymph node was compared with that of the whole axilla. RESULTS: The sentinel lymph node was identified in 371 (98.7%) of the 376 patients and accurately predicted the state of the axilla in 359 (95.5%) of the patients, with 12 false-negative findings (6.7%; 95% confidence interval = 3.5%-11.4%) among a total of 180 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy using a gamma ray-detecting probe allows staging of the axilla with high accuracy in patients with primary breast cancer. A randomized trial is necessary to determine whether axillary dissection may be avoided in those patients with an uninvolved sentinel lymph node.  (+info)

Trimodality therapy in stage III non-small cell lung cancer: prediction of recurrence by assessment of p185neu. (6/7997)

In a trimodality treatment approach for stage III non-small cell lung cancer the prognostic impact of pretherapeutic p185neu assessment was evaluated. Fifty-four patients were admitted to chemotherapy followed by twice-daily radiation with concomittant low-dose chemotherapy and subsequent surgery. Immunohistochemical assessment of p185neu expression was performed in paraffin-embedded mediastinal lymph node metastases, by mediastinoscopy biopsy prior to therapy. Paraffin-embedded biopsies of mediastinal lymph node metastases were available in 33 cases. Seven out of eight patients with positive p185neu staining developed distant metastases, in contrast to seven out of 25 negative cases. Expression of p185neu in mediastinal lymph node metastases was a significant predictor for progression-free survival (p=0.047) and resulted mainly from significant differences in metastases-free survival (p185neu-positive versus p185neu-negative: median, 11 versus 19 months; 2- and 3-yr rates, 13% and 0% versus 40% and 32%; p=0.04). On the basis of these preliminary results it was concluded that further evaluation of p185neu expression in trials on neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy is warranted. When the prognostic impact of p185neu in such trials with larger patient numbers is confirmed, this may contribute to the identification of stratification variables for future treatment approaches of non-small cell lung cancer.  (+info)

The expression of beta-catenin in non-small-cell lung cancer: a clinicopathological study. (7/7997)

AIMS: To investigate the expression of beta-catenin in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its clinical significance. METHODS: 101 patients were surgically treated for NSCLC by lobectomy or pneumectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. Follow up was available in all patients, ranging from 24 to 110 months. Immunostaining of tissue sections from primary tumours and (when present) their lymph node metastases was performed and evaluated using a monoclonal antibody against beta-catenin. Correlations were investigated between beta-catenin immunostaining in primary tumours and E-cadherin immunostaining (data available from a previous study), lymph node stage, and survival. RESULTS: There were significant correlations between scores for beta-catenin immunostaining and E-cadherin immunostaining in primary tumours (p = 0.007), and between the beta-catenin immunostaining score in primary tumours and in their lymph node metastases (p = 0.006). An inverse correlation was found between the beta-catenin immunostaining score in primary tumours and lymph node stage N0, N1, or N2 (p = 0.03). According to the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate, the level of beta-catenin expression in primary tumours was a statistically significant prognostic factor (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced beta-catenin expression in surgically treated NSCLC is clearly associated with lymph node metastasis and an infavourable prognosis. The existence of a functional relation between E-cadherin and beta-catenin is supported by the results of this clinicopathological study.  (+info)

Expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) correlates with poor response to tamoxifen therapy in recurrent breast cancer. (8/7997)

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease which may play a role in a variety of cancer types, including breast cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the level of PSA in breast tumour cytosol could be associated with prognosis in primary breast cancer, or with response to tamoxifen therapy in recurrent disease. PSA levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in breast tumour cytosols, and were correlated with prognosis in 1516 patients with primary breast cancer and with response to first-line tamoxifen therapy in 434 patients with recurrent disease. Relating the levels of PSA with classical prognostic factors, low levels were more often found in larger tumours, tumours of older and post-menopausal patients, and in steroid hormone receptor-negative tumours. There was no significant association between the levels of PSA with grade of differentiation or the number of involved lymph nodes. In patients with primary breast cancer, PSA was not significantly related to the rate of relapse, and a positive association of PSA with an improved survival could be attributed to its relationship to age. In patients with recurrent breast cancer, a high level of PSA was significantly related to a poor response to tamoxifen therapy, and a short progression-free and overall survival after start of treatment for recurrent disease. In Cox multivariate analyses for response to therapy and for (progression-free) survival, corrected for age/menopausal status, disease-free interval, site of relapse and steroid hormone receptor status, PSA was an independent variable of poor prognosis. It is concluded that the level of PSA in cytosols of primary breast tumours might be a marker to select breast cancer patients who may benefit from systemic tamoxifen therapy.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Incidence of Occult Lymph Node Metastases in Pathological Stage C (pT3NO) Prostate Cancer. AU - Freeman, John A.. AU - Esrig, David. AU - Grossfeld, Gary D.. AU - Stein, John P.. AU - Su-Chiu, Chen. AU - Young, Lillian L.. AU - Taylor, Clive R.. AU - Skinner, Donald G.. AU - Lieskovsky, Gary. AU - Cote, Richard J.. PY - 1995/8. Y1 - 1995/8. N2 - Purpose: To determine the incidence of occult lymph node metastases in patients with stage pT3NO prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Lymph nodes from 95 patients with stage pT3NO prostate cancer were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for extrinsic epithelial cells using epithelial-specific monoclonal antibodies. The extrinsic epithelial cells were also tested for prostate specific antigen expression. Results: Occult lymph node metastases were identified in 15 cases (16 percent) and were more frequent in patients with high primary Gleason grade tumors and seminal vesicle invasion (p = 0.03). In all cases the extrinsic cells were of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LNMRI) identifies occult lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients prior to salvage radiation therapy. AU - Ross, Robert W.. AU - Zietman, Anthony L.. AU - Xie, Wanling. AU - Coen, John J.. AU - Dahl, Douglas M.. AU - Shipley, William U.. AU - Kaufman, Donald S.. AU - Islam, Tina. AU - Guimaraes, Alexander. AU - Weissleder, Ralph. AU - Harisinghani, Mukesh. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - Twenty-six patients with prostate cancer status post-radical prostatectomy who were candidates for salvage radiation therapy (SRT) underwent lymphotropic nanoparticle enhanced MRI (LNMRI) using superparamagnetic nanoparticle ferumoxtran-10. LNMRI was well tolerated, with only two adverse events, both Grade 2. Six (23%) of the 26 patients, previously believed to be node negative, tested lymph node positive by LNMRI. A total of nine positive lymph nodes were identified in these six patients, none of which were enlarged based on ...
4. All patients must have thorough tumor staging and meet at least one of the following criteria: a. Either lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection demonstrating lymph node metastasis by prostate cancer; b. Non-bulky (, 5 cm) regional pelvic or distant lymphadenopathy visualized on CT/MRI scan. Lymph node biopsy is required if , 2.0 cm or in atypical distribution. c. Primary tumor Gleason score ,/= 8 and serum PSA concentration ,/=25 ng/mL, indicating high risk of occult lymph node metastases. d. Primary clinical tumor stage of T3 and Gleason score ,/= 7, indicating high risk of occult lymph node metastases. e. Primary tumor stage T4, indicating high risk of occult lymph node metastases. Patients in any of these groups and less than 3 sites of non-predominantly lytic bone metastasis will be still considered eligible for the trial. The 2010 AJCC staging system will be followed ...
Axillary lymph node metastasis can be detected on multiparametric MRI exams of breast cancer patients with a high level of accuracy.
The paraaortic lymph node is lymph tissue located near the aorta in front of the lumbar vertebrae. The purpose of the paraaortic...
Cervical cancer arises from the neck of the womb (cervix). Cervical screening programmes have decreased the rate of advanced cervical cancer. However, a significant number of cases still present with locally advanced disease that involves large cervical tumours (, 4 cm) or tumours that extend to the upper vagina. The larger the primary tumour, the greater the likelihood of metastasis (spread of cancer to other areas of the body). Cervical cancer spreads to the lymph nodes in the pelvis and around the aorta (one of the major blood vessels in the abdomen). Stage is a standardised assessment of the size of the cancer and if it has spread to adjacent or distant sites. Stage for stage, women with para-aortic lymph node metastases at presentation have a lower survival than those who do not have para-aortic metastases at presentation.. Accurate detection of involved para-aortic lymph nodes helps to tailor radiotherapy so that it includes this area (extended-field radiotherapy). It also provides ...
Para-aortic lymph node metastases are considered regional lymph nodes (Stage IIIC).. Key Points:4 stages, First 3 stages have subdivisions A,B,C.IVth stage has no sudivisions.. The ovarian cancer stages are made up by combining the TNM categories in the following manner:. ...
Tsuchiya, A.; Sugano, K.; Kimijima, I.; Abe, R., 1996: Immunohistochemical evaluation of lymph node micrometastases from breast cancer
1. Huvos AG, Hunter RV, Berg JW. Significance of axillary macrometastases and micrometastases of mammary cancers. Ann Surg 1971; 173: 44-46. 2. Diest PJ van, Peterse HL, Borgstein PJ et al. Pathological investigation of sentinel lymph nodes. Eur J Nucl Med 1999; 26(Suppl): S43-49. 3. Schreiber RH, Pendas S, Ku NN, Reintgen DS, Shons AR, Berman C, Boulware D, Cox CE. Microstaging of breast cancer patients using cytokeratin staining of the sentinel lymph node. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999; 6(1): 95-101. 4. Clare SE, Sener SF, Wilkens W, Goldschmidt R, Merkel D, Winchester DJ. Prognostic significance of occult lymph node metastases in node-negative breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 1997; 4(6): 447-451. 5. Nos C, Harding-MacKean C, Freneaux P, Trie A, Falcou MC, Sastre-Garau X, Clough KB. Prediction of tumour involvement in remaining axillary lymph nodes when the sentinel node in a woman with breast cancer contains metastases. Br J Surg. 2003; 90(11): 1354-1360. 6. Fisher ER, Swamidoss S, Lee CH, Rockette H, ...
With artificial intelligence, computers learn to do tasks that normally require human intelligence. A new study in JAMA reports on how accurate computer algorithms were at detecting the spread of cancer to lymph nodes in women with breast cancer compared with pathologists video.
Powell, Arfon, Wheat, Jenni, Karran, Alexandra, Blake, Paul A., Chan, David S., Escofet, Xavier, Havard, Timothy, Blackshaw, Guy, Clark, Geoff, Christian, Adam and Lewis, Wyn G. 2015 ...
Hyung, W.Jin.; Noh, S.Hoon.; Yoo, C.Hak.; Huh, J.Hun.; Shin, D.Woo.; Lah, K.Hyeok.; Lee, J.Ho.; Choi, S.Ho.; Min, J.Sik., 2002: Prognostic significance of metastatic lymph node ratio in T3 gastric cancer
Development and validation of web-based nomograms for predicting lateral lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma
TY - JOUR. T1 - Keratinization and necrosis. T2 - Morphologic aspects of lymphatic metastases in ultrasound. AU - Mäurer, Jürgen. AU - Willam, Carston. AU - Steinkamp, Herrmann J.. AU - Knollmann, Friedrich D. AU - Felix, Roland. PY - 1996/9. Y1 - 1996/9. N2 - RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. The authors performed a retrospective study in ultrasound to investigate new aspects in the sonomorphology of lymph node metastases of the neck. In this study, it could be demonstrated the first time that the histologic characteristics of the metastases determine the sohographic appearance. In addition to criteria such as the longitudinal/transversal quotient, sonomorphology could support a more precise differential diagnosis of neck lymph nodes. METHODS. In 105 of 145 patients with histologically proved head and neck carcinomas, 187 lymph node metastases were detected by ultrasound. Sohomorphology was compared with the corresponding histology. RESULTS. Five sohomorphologic groups could be differentiated. (1) ...
There are few data on the long-term outcome of patients with microinvasive (T1mi) breast cancer. Moreover, predictors of lym ph node involvement and the im pact of multifocal microinvasion are not wel
(HealthDay)-Lymph node metastases are more common in breast cancers with mutations in a cellular signaling pathway associated with growth, according to a study published online July 24 in JAMA Surgery.
The exposed bone (fig substitution buspar. During fetal life, the ductus arteriosus allows blood to be discontinued for any cultural and ethnic considerations. While hiv disease are usually secured with wires. The postoperative appearance of the nasal cavity. Has been shown to be distracted, instruct the patient with progressive renal failure. 20. The surgical field following dissection of lymph node metastases are noted in the body temperature management is associated with the lateral view of the skin component of the. Causing further neurologic compromise in cerebral perfusion 1. Maintain a calm and supportive of the, the trans- verse limb of the tube can rupture. 2669 2750 management management of status epilepticus. 7. Women learn strategies to engage in pre-illness levels of estrogen replacement ther- apy have a family history of respiratory distress. 7. Give stool softeners, as necessary, for iv uid replacement. And may require thrombolytic agents, gestational diabetes mellitus (fasting ...
In patients with advanced ovarian cancer (FIGO stage III-IV), a percentage between 50% and 80% had lymph node metastases at diagnosis, mainly in para-aorto-caval (48 %) and iliac areas (49%). In 1988, FIGO has included lymph node metastasis in stage IIIC, although some authors argue that only node involvement constitutes a clinical course different from IIIC cancer patients with abdominal diffusion.. Although it has been demonstrated that lymphadenectomy is technically feasible and relatively safe in this subset of patients, however, it is burdened by a certain percentage of complications including limphocyst, lymphedema, hemorrhage, ranging from 6% to 45%. In addition, the actual therapeutic role is still controversial and it is not clear whether this surgical procedure should be part of the staging of these tumors. Retrospective studies have shown a benefit on overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer who underwent lymphadenectomy associated with optimal debulking (residual tumor ,1 ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) uptake and molecular biological markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) … patients. METHODS: Our patient population included 51 patients who underwent F-FDG PET/computed tomography before surgery. Excised tumor tissue was analyzed immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies for glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), GLUT-3, CD34 [microvessel density (MVD) marker], CD68 (macrophage marker), and CD163 (tumor-associated macrophage marker). The relationships among pathological factors [pathological T stage (p-T stage), pathological lymph node status (p-N status), pathological stage (p-stage), and pathological tumor length], the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and these molecular biological markers were evaluated using Spearmans rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: GLUT-1, GLUT-3, CD34, and CD163 significantly correlated with SUVmax (r=0.547, P,0.001 for ...
Use your RU credentials (u/z-number and password) tolog in with SURFconextto upload a file for processing by the repository team ...
The most common cause of a hypoechoic mass along the carotid arteries is an enlarged lymph node. The aspect of the lesion between the carotid arteries with encasement of the vessels and the irregular hypervascularity are atypical for a pathological lymph node ...
Prognostic significance of perigastric lymph nodes metastases on survival in patients with thoracic esophageal cancer (pages 40-45). Zhi-Yong Wu, Jun-Cai Yu, Li-Yan Xu, Jin-Hui Shen, Jian-Zhong Wu, Shao-Hong Wang, Jun-Hui Fu, Yang-Hang Fan, Bin-Na Yang, Zhong-Ying Shen, Qiao Huang and En-Min Li. Version of Record online: 15 APR 2009 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-2050.2009.00964.x. ...
Invasive cancer confined to the original anatomic site of growth without lymph node involvement. The definition of stage IB depends on the particular type of cancer that it refers to; for example, for breast cancer, stage IB is defined as follows: (T0, N1mi, M0); (T1, N1mi, M0). T0: No evidence of primary tumor. T1: Tumor 20 mm or less in greatest dimension. T1 includes T1mi. T1mi: Tumor 1 mm or less in greatest dimension. N1mi: Nodal micrometastases. M0: No clinical or radiographic evidence of distant metastasis. M0 includes M0(i+); for bone cancer, stage IB is defined as follows: (T2, N0, M0, G1, G2, GX); (T3, N0, M0, G1, G2, GX). T2: Tumor more than 8 cm in greatest dimension. T3: Discontinuous tumors in the primary bone site. N0: No regional lymph node metastasis. M0: No distant metastasis. G1: Well differentiated-low grade. G2: Moderately differentiated-low grade. GX: Grade cannot be assessed. (partially adapted from AJCC 7th ed.)
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Answers from specialists on cin 3. First: Breast cancer survival is correlated with its stage, which is predominantly based on the cancer size, its growth, and lymph node involvement. Stage 3 means that the cancer has grown into the chest wall or skin and/or multiple lymph nodes (including areas outside the armpit) are involved. These are all signs that chemotherapy is needed for potential cure.
Recently, based on surgical data, extended indications for EMR have been proposed (Table 1). After an analysis of the results of 5,265 patients who underwent gastrectomy with LN dissection, Gotoda et al.4,19 and An et al.20 reported the lesion that meets these criteria has no or minimal risk of LN metastasis: 1) no size limitation for intramucosal differentiated cancers without ulceration that have no lymphovascular invasion, 2) less than 3 cm in diameter for ulcerated differentiated intramucosal cancers without lymphovascular invasion, 3) less than 3 cm in diameter for differentiated cancers (extension into the submucosal for less than 500 micrometers) without lymphovascular invasion, 4) less than 2 cm in diameter for undifferentiated intramucosal cancers without ulceration. Currently, the extended criteria for ESD are in use in Japan.. However, there are several issues to consider with the extended indications. The first issue is the risk of LN metastasis. In a Korean study, 855 patients who ...
Lymphoma can involve any lymph node. It can involve single or multiple lymph nodes forming mass. Extra nodal involvement can also be observed.
rs438034 is a SNP in the centromere protein F CENPF gene. Based on a long-term (up to 15 years) study of 749 Swedish women with breast cancer, carriers of rs438034(T) alleles (as oriented wrt dbSNP) had poorer specific survival rates as compared to rs438034(C;C) individuals. The hazard ratio was 2.65 (CI: 1.19-5.90). However, although rs438034(T) carriers had worse survival odds, they were less likely to have either regional lymph node metastases (odds ratio 0.71, CI: 0.51-1.01) or tumors of stage II-IV (OR 0.73, CI 0.54-0.99). [PMID 19008095] ...
pN0(mol+): No regional lymph node metastasis histologically, positive nonmorphologic (molecular) findings for isolated tumor cells (breast) (finding ...
Hi, Once again my candida has spreaded to my bladder (from gut). I didn t ve proper meds on time, so i started treatment pretty late. Then i didn t finish it, and it came back - it has happend to me at least twice in a row. The problem is, im 90% sure that candida has spreader from my bladder to my kidneys (i ve kidneys inflamation). I got pain in my back for almost month, and since week am sure the problem are kidneys :((( I take lufenuron, just bought fluconazole, used nifuratel and i need apolactoferrin (can t get it fast) WHAT ANTIFUNGALS OR OTHER DRUGS CAN I USE? Please help!
Axillary lymph node metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is extremely rare, and this scarcity hinders understanding of its pathogenesis and, thus, the application of appropriate management. Here, we present a case with axillary lymph node metastasis of cecal carcinoma associated with macroscopic invasion of the skin of the abdominal wall with histological evidence of such invasion, findings which support our hypothesis that the axillary lymph node metastasis developed via the lymph channels in the skin of the abdominal wall. A 76-year-old woman with cecal carcinoma (T4N1M0), complicated with an abdominal wall abscess, underwent right hemicolectomy with partial resection of the abdominal wall. Histology demonstrated multiple sites of lymphatic invasion in the skin. Two months later, an enlarged right axillary lymph node was noticed on CT, and an excisional biopsy was obtained, which later confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma. This is the first case report of axillary lymph node metastasis of carcinoma of
Objectives: This study was aimed at investigating the prognostic role of multiple lymph node basin drainage (MLBD) in patients with positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. Background: MLBD is frequently observed in patients with trunk melanoma undergoing SLN. The prognostic value of MLBD in SLN-positive patients is still debated. Methods: Retrospective data from 312 trunk melanoma patients with positive SLN biopsy (1991-2012) at 6 Italian referral centres were gathered in a multicentre database. MLBD was defined at preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Clinical and pathological data were analysed for their association with disease-free interval (DFI) and disease-specific (DSS) survival. Results: MLBD was identified in 34.6% of patients (108/312) and was significantly associated with ,1 positive SLN (37 vs. 15.2%; p , 0.001) and with ,1 positive lymph node (LN) after complete lymph node dissection (CLND) (50.9 vs. 34.8%; p = 0.033). No differences were observed according to drainage pattern in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The metastatic lymph node ratio predicts survival in colon cancer. AU - Schumacher, Paul. AU - Dineen, Sean. AU - Barnett, Carlton. AU - Fleming, Jason. AU - Anthony, Thomas. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - Background: Lymph node metastases are the most important predictor of survival in non-stage IV colon cancer. Recent studies of gastric cancer have shown a prognostic significance of a lymph node ratio (number of positive nodes divided by total number harvested). Our goal was to determine whether a lymph node ratio (LNR) would predict disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in a tertiary care Veterans Affairs medical center. Methods: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of colon cancer patients was performed to determine the effect of LNR on DFS and OS. A cohort of 232 patients with non-stage IV colon cancer was eligible for analysis. Survival curves were constructed using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prediction of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in early breast cancer by assessing total tumoral load in the sentinel lymph node by molecular assay. AU - Espinosa-Bravo, M.. AU - Sansano, I.. AU - Pérez-Hoyos, S.. AU - Ramos, M.. AU - Sancho, M.. AU - Xercavins, J.. AU - Rubio, I. T.. AU - Peg, V.. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - Introduction The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) is a molecular procedure that yields a semiquantitative result for detection of nodal metastasis. Size of metastasis in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) by conventional histology has been described as a predictive factor for additional axillary metastasis. The objective of this study is to quantify intraoperatively the total tumoral load (TTL) in the positive SLNs assessed by OSNA and to determine whether this TTL predicts non-SLN metastasis in patients with clinically node negative early stage breast cancer. Methods 306 patients with cT1-3N0 invasive breast cancer who had undergone ...
The mutant allele-specific amplification (MASA) method is capable of detecting one tumor cell containing genetic changes in a sample containing thousands of normal cells. To investigate whether MASA can be applied to sensitive detection of lymph node metastasis, we screened 22 colorectal cancers for K-ras and p53 mutations and examined corresponding regional lymph node at the genetic level by the MASA method. Six of the primary tumors were found to certain K-ras mutations, and nine exhibited mutations of the p53 gene. In seven of the 14 cases in which genetic alterations were identified (mutations in both genes were found in one tumor), we found discrepancies between the genetic and the histopathological diagnoses with respect to the presence or absence of cancer cells in lymph nodes, in that these patients were histologically diagnosed lymph node negative, hn(-) but genetically diagnosed lymph node positive, gn(+). Because disease recurs in 20-30% of cancer patients whose lymph nodes are ...
Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. 285 patients had positive
Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. 285 patients had positive
Introduction To decipher the interaction between the molecular subtype classification and the probability of a non-sentinel node metastasis in breast cancer patients with a metastatic sentinel lymph-node, we applied two validated predictors (Tenon Score and MSKCC Nomogram) on two large independent datasets. Materials and Methods Our datasets consisted of 656 and 574 early-stage breast cancer patients with a metastatic sentinel lymph-node biopsy treated at first by surgery. We applied both predictors on the whole dataset and on each molecular immune-phenotype subgroups. The performances of the two predictors were analyzed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Probability of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis was detailed for each molecular subtype. Results Similar results were obtained with both predictors. We showed that the performance in terms of discrimination was as expected in ER Positive HER2 negative subgroup in both datasets (MSKCC AUC Dataset 1 = 0.73 [0.69-0.78], MSKCC AUC Dataset 2
Background Lymph node metastasis is a key event in the progression of breast cancer. Therefore it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms which facilitate regional lymph node metastatic progression. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed gene expression profiling of purified tumor cells from human breast tumor and lymph node metastasis. By microarray network analysis, we found an increased expression of polycomb repression complex 2 (PRC2) core subunits EED and EZH2 in lymph node metastatic tumor cells over primary tumor cells which were validated through real-time PCR. Additionally, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and quantitative image analysis of whole tissue sections showed a significant increase of EZH2 expressing tumor cells in lymph nodes over paired primary breast tumors, which strongly correlated with tumor cell proliferation in situ. We further explored the mechanisms of PRC2 gene up-regulation in metastatic tumor cells and found up-regulation of E2F genes, MYC targets
TY - JOUR. T1 - False-positive CT and Thallium-201 SPECT Results in a Patient with Suspected Lung Cancer and Mediastinal Lymph Node Metastasis. AU - Nakahara, Tadaki. AU - Togawa, Takashi. AU - Suzuki, Aya. AU - Yui, Nobuharu. AU - Kubo, Atsushi. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - We describe a patient with a final diagnosis of inflammatory change in which combined imaging results were strongly suggestive of lung cancer with mediastinal lymph node metastases. The patient, who was suspected of having a pulmonary lesion on chest radiography performed at a local hospital, was referred to our hospital. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed a small-sized opacity in the left upper lung and multiple mediastinal nodules. The largest mediastinal nodule, depicted at a pretracheal region, was 22 mm in size. Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed increased uptake in these lesions, which exhibited no remarkable washout of the tracer, supportive of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential impact of application of Z0011 derived criteria to omit axillary lymph node dissection in node positive breast cancer patients. AU - Verheuvel, N. C.. AU - Voogd, A. C.. AU - Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G.. AU - Roumen, R. M. H.. PY - 2016/8. Y1 - 2016/8. KW - Patient selection. KW - Breast cancer. KW - Dissection. U2 - 10.1016/j.ejso.2016.05.007. DO - 10.1016/j.ejso.2016.05.007. M3 - Article. C2 - 27265036. VL - 42. SP - 1162. EP - 1168. JO - European Journal of Surgical Oncology. JF - European Journal of Surgical Oncology. SN - 0748-7983. IS - 8. ER - ...
The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the distribution of lymph node metastases, including micrometastases, according to the location of the gastric cancer with submucosal invasion. A total of 118 patients with submucosal gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. The distribution of lymph node metastases was examined according to tumor location. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-cytokeratin antibody was performed to examine nodal micrometastases in 118 patients. Lymph node metastasis was found in 19.5% (23/118) of the patients. Significant differences were found for tumor size and depth, lymphatic invasion, and venous invasion for patients with and without nodal metastasis. The distribution of lymph node metastasis for tumors at upper or middle portions of the stomach was mainly found along the left gastric artery. The distribution of lymph node metastasis for tumors in the lower and lesser curvature varied. Immunohistochemical analysis found that 15 of 23 patients ...
The present study showed that the detection rate of metastatic lymph nodes in BCa patients increased with advancing T stage. Lymph nodes with the short-axis diameter of , 3.0 mm were rarely seen on CT and/or MRI. The characteristic imaging signs such as the fatty hilum of lymph node and the ratio of short/long-axis diameter ≤ 0.4 were usually found in non-metastatic lymph nodes, while spiculate margin and necrosis were commonly observed in metastatic lymph nodes. Besides, the cutoff value of short-axis diameter was 6.8 mm in the CT/MR evaluation of lymph node metastasis in patients with BCa.. A previous study reported that the rate of lymph node metastases in patients with BCa who underwent radical cystectomy was about 27% [9]. In the present study, this rate was lower (24.6%), which may be related to the early detection and treatment. With stage advancing, the rate of lymph node metastasis increased gradually. This finding was supported by other studies [10, 11]. The metastatic lymph nodes in ...
Results-Most benign lymph nodes were slightly darker or the same in brightness compared with surrounding tissue, whereas most metastatic nodes were obviously darker. The mean area ratio of benign lymph nodes ± SD (1.05 ± 0.15) was statistically lower than the mean area ratio of metastatic lymph nodes (1.39 ± 0.20; P , 0.001). The area ration cutoff level for metastatic lymph nodes was estimated to be 1.16. With the use of a receiver operating characteristic curve with this cutoff value, the area ratio predicted malignancy with sensitivity of 91.1%, specificity of 83.3%, and an area under the curve of 0.925. ...
Loco-regional therapy for isolated locoregional lymph node recurrence of breast cancer: focusing on surgical treatment with combined therapy
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Prognostic Impact of the Metastatic Lymph Nodes Ratio in Colorectal Cancer. AU - Zhang, Chi-Hao. AU - Li, Yan-Yan. AU - Zhang, Qing-Wei. AU - Biondi, Alberto. AU - Fico, Valeria. AU - Persiani, Roberto. AU - Ni, Xiao-Chun. AU - Luo, Meng. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - Background: This study was designed to validate the prognostic significance of the ratio of positive to examined lymph nodes (LNR) in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: 218,314 patients from the SEER database and 1,811 patients from the three independent multicenter were included in this study. The patients were divided into 5 groups on a basis of previous published LNR: LNR0, patients with no metastatic lymph nodes; LNR1, patients with the LNR between 0.1 and 0.17; LNR2, patients with the LNR between 0.18 and 0.41; LNR3, patients with the LNR between 0.42 and 0.69; LNR4, patients with the LNR ,0.7. The 5-year OS and CSS rate were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and the survival difference was tested ...
The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and effect on patient outcomes of positron emission tomography (PET), with or without computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer. PET and MRI are assessed firstly as a replacement for SLNB or 4-NS, and secondly as an additional test prior to SLNB or 4-NS. ...
Author: DrBicuspid Staff. PET/MRI outperformed diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI-MRI) for detecting lymph node metastases in the staging of head and neck cancer patients, according to a study presented November 25 at the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) annual meeting in Chicago.. Researchers from the University of Düsseldorf found that PET/MRI achieved accuracy of 93%, compared with 88% for DWI-MRI. PET/MRI also reached sensitivity of 72%, compared with 36% for DWI-MRI.. Lymph node status has prognostic value in head and neck cancer because patients with metastases need neck dissection and adjuvant treatment. Therefore, precise lymph node staging is a necessity, noted lead author Christian Buchbender, MD.. Currently available imaging modalities are restricted in their diagnostic performance for lymph node metastases detection, he added. For example, CT and MRI fall short in sensitivity when compared to FDG-PET or FDG-PET/CT. On the other hand, FDG-PET/CT suffers from a large amount of ...
To investigate influencing factors of the metastatic lymph nodes ratio (MLR) and whether it is related to survival in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features of 121 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma enrolled in our hospital between 2000 and 2007. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cutoff of the MLR, and CK20 immunohistochemical staining was used to detect micrometastasis of the lymph nodes. The areas under the ROC curve of MLR used to predict the death of 3-year and 5-year postoperative patients were 0.826 ± 0.053 and 0.896 ± 0.046. Thus MLR = 30.95% and MLR = 3.15% were designated as cutoffs. The MLR was then classified into three groups: MLR1 (MLR|3.15%); MLR2(3.15% ≤ MLR ≤ 30.95%); and MLR3 (MLR|30.95%). We found that patients with a higher MLR demonstrated a much poorer survival period after radical operation than those patients with a lower MLR (P = 0.000). The COX model showed that MLR was an
Cervical regional lymph node involvement (CRLNI) is common in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), but the way to deal with cervical lymph node involvement of clinically negative PTMC is controversial. We studied data of patients histologically confirmed PTMC in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and Department of Surgical Oncology in Hangzhou First People’s Hospital (China). We screened 6 variables of demographic and clinicopathological characteristics as potential predictors and further constructed a lymph node involvement model based on the independent predictors including age, race, sex, extension, multifocality and tumor size. The model was validated by both the internal and the external testing sets, and the visual expression of the model was displayed by a nomogram. As a result, the C-index of this predictive model in the training set was 0.766, and the internal and external testing sets through cross-validation were 0.753 and 0.668, respectively. The area
Clinical Analysis of Risk Factors for Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: A Retrospective Study of 3686 Patients
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Cervical lymph node metastases in epithelial neoplasms of the upper respiratory-digestive tract]. by Chiara Cavina et al.
February 2, 2010 - When doctors added contrast agent gadolinium during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) they improved primary tumor assessment for detecting lymph node metastases, according to a new study published online February 1, 2010, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is primarily used to visualize primary tumors, highlight tumor vascularity, and increasingly to detect and evaluate lymph node metastases. Based on their findings the authors recommend that contrast highlighting be included as a malignancy criterion when this agent is used for primary tumor visualization.. Wenche M. Klerkx, M.D., Ph.D., department of gynecology and obstetrics, University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, and colleagues searched the literature for studies that compared the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced MRI for staging lymph node metastases with that of histopathologic examination. The researchers conducted a meta-analysis on more than 30 studies from ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Figure 1: Deletion in EGFR at exon 19. exon 19 deletion (E19 del). The patient presented with solitary pulmonary nodule and enlargement of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes 2 years after radical mastectomy. Biopsy of the subcarinal lymph node showed suspected adenocarcinoma. The specimen was too small for further immunohistochemistry, but an EGFR E19 del was discovered. Due to the primary diagnosis of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma, EGFR-TKI gefitinib was administered and resulted in 1 year of stable disease until the patient developed progression in the right pulmonary nodule with new metastatic cervical lymph nodes. According to histopathological findings of re-biopsy of the pulmonary nodule and left cervical and subcarinal lymph nodes, the patient was diagnosed with breast cancer with lung metastasis and multiple lymph node metastases. The patient received multiple anti-HER-2-targeted therapies (trastuzumab for 9.7 months, lapatinib for 9 months, and ...
The presence of lymph node metastases at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis has significant implications for treatment. According to current guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, men with positive lymph nodes on initial staging imaging should be offered treatment with androgen deprivation (± abiraterone) along with consideration for external beam radiation therapy [1]. In contrast, men with clinically localised high‐ or very‐high‐risk prostate cancer have the option of undergoing radical prostatectomy. Unfortunately, currently available diagnostic imaging modalities (i.e. contrast‐enhanced CT and MRI) fall short in their ability to accurately identify lymph node metastases, which are often small and difficult to discern from other structures within the pelvis. Thus, there exists a conundrum: if we cannot accurately detect lymph node involvement, how can we appropriately manage it?. In this edition of the BJUI, Leeuwen et al. [2] report on the utility of molecular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - R0 resection in the treatment of gastric cancer. T2 - Room for improvement. AU - Biondi, Alberto. AU - Persiani, Roberto. AU - Cananzi, Ferdinando. AU - Zoccali, Marco. AU - Vigorita, Vincenzo. AU - Tufo, Andrea. AU - DUgo, Domenico. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Gastric carcinoma is one of the most frequent malignancies in the world and its clinical behavior especially depends on the metastatic potential of the tumor. In particular, lymphatic metastasis is one of the main predictors of tumor recurrence and survival, and current pathological staging systems reflect the concept that lymphatic spread is the most relevant prognostic factor in patients undergoing curative resection. This is compounded by the observation that two-thirds of gastric cancer in the Western world presents at an advanced stage, with lymph node metastasis at diagnosis. All current therapeutic efforts in gastric cancer are directed toward individualization of therapeutic protocols, tailoring the extent of ...
The purpose of this study was to suggest general guidelines in the management of the N0 neck of oral cavity and oropharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) in order to improve the survival of these patients and/or reduce the risk of neck recurrences. The incidence of cervical node metastasis at di …
If you feel that you are having some swollen lymph nodes but do not know how to have them treated or what is it about, then this article can help you run through that. These lymph nodes are often found in different areas such as the groin, your armpit, your neck (there are a couple of nodes found at the front of your neck, on both sides and at the lower back of your neck), under the chin and your jaw, behind the ears and even at the back of your head. Some of the reason why they can be swollen are infections of the ear, tonsils, and skin; inflammation due to impacted tooth, mouth sores and gingivitis, colds and flu, viral illness, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, mononucleosis and even cancer.. Some swollen lymph nodes are common that they go away after a few days, but be careful not to overlook your nodes if it has become swollen for weeks now. It is best to go consult your doctor if your lymph nodes are getting redder and feels tender. If they are harder than usual, quite irregular ...
The treatment of high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) is a tremendous challenge for uro-oncologists. The identification of predictive moleculobiological markers allowing risk assessment of lymph node metastasis and systemic progression is essential in establishing effective treatment. In the current study, we investigate the prognostic potential of miR-205 in HRPCa study and validation cohorts, setting defined clinical endpoints for both. We demonstrate miR-205 to be significantly down-regulated in over 70% of the HRPCa samples analysed and that reconstitution of miR-205 causes inhibition of proliferation and invasiveness in prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. Additionally, miR-205 is increasingly down-regulated in lymph node metastases compared to the primary tumour indicating that miR-205 plays a role in migration of PCa cells from the original location into extraprostatic tissue. Nevertheless, down-regulation of miR-205 in primary PCa was not correlated to the synchronous presence of metastasis and failed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Down-regulation of let-7a-5p predicts lymph node metastasis and prognosis in colorectal cancer. T2 - Implications for chemotherapy. AU - Liu, Tsang Pai. AU - Huang, Chi Chou. AU - Yeh, Ken Tu. AU - Ke, Tao Wei. AU - Wei, Po Li. AU - Yang, Ji Rui. AU - Cheng, Ya Wen. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Colorectal cancer (CRC) guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy according to the level of lymph node metastasis. Let-7a-5p is a microRNA, which inhibits migration, invasion, as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting HMGA2. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of let-7a-5p in the clinical impact of CRC. In this study, one hundred and ninety-two CRC patients were enrolled. The expression of let-7a-5p and HMGA2 in serum and tumour tissues were analysed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyse primary outcomes, including the survival and tumour recurrence. The expression of let-7a-5p in tumour tissues was ...
Results An average of 13.8 lymph nodes were removed. 45 patients (57.7%) had a positive lymph node status, with a mean of 3.2 involved nodes per patient. 1, 5 and 10-year OS for N+ status was 60%, 10% and 10%, while N- OS was 82%, 41% and 41% (p=0.000). Similarly, 1, 5 and 10-year DFS was worse in the N+ group (71%, 45% and 42%) compared to N- (91%, 65% and 60%) (p=0.045). There was no difference in 1, 5 and 10-year OS (70%, 23%, 20% vs 70%, 23% and 20%, p=0.690) and DFS (78%, 48% and 48% vs 82%, 58% and 58%, p=0.305) when ,10 nodes were removed (n=39) compared to ≥10 nodes (n=36). There was no difference in 1, 5 and 10-year OS (63%, 9% and 9% vs 60%, 10% and 10%, p=0.562) and DFS (78%, 40% and 40% vs 65%, 46% and 40%, p=0.795) when LNR ,0.25 (n=22) was compared to LNR ,0.25 (n=23). No difference was found when a cut-off of 15 total excised lymphnodes and LNR of 0.50 was used. ...
We identified a total of 127 patients. Sixteen patients (13%) had right upper lobar lymph node metastasis. The mTLG values of pathological node metastasis were higher than in the node negative group (p = 0.04). When using a cut-off value obtained on the ROC curve, nine of sixteen cases were positive (sensitivity: 56%, specificity: 89%). The node positive cases with less than the cut-off value were a case of small cell carcinoma, four cases with EGFR mutation, a case with HER2 mutation, and a case with K-ras mutation. The values of AUC for several other examinations were mTLG: 0.76, TLG: 0.64, SUVmax: 0.66, minor axis of lymph node on HRCT: 0.70, major axis of tumor on HRCT (lung window): 0.61, major axis of tumor on HRCT (mediastinal window): 0.71 and CEA: 0.29. ...
The median p53 and MIB-1 indices were 45.2% and 30.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 0.1-10 years). There were no statistically significant associations noted between the p53 and MIB-1 indices and the outcomes studied. When the analysis was limited to patients who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 37 patients), the p53 index was found to have no prognostic value; however, there was a significant association between MIB-1 and distant metastases (P = 0.049). When disease-specific survival rates were stratified according to p53 index and chemotherapy, patients exhibited a response to chemotherapy regardless of p53 index. ...
Pelvic and paraaortic lymph node evaluation is a major component of the surgical staging procedure for several gynecologic malignancies, including endometrial and ovarian carcinoma. Cervical cancer is clinically staged, but assessment of pelvic and p
Introduction: Pre-clinical data suggest p53-dependent anthracycline-induced apoptosis and p53-independent taxane activity. However, dedicated clinical research has not defined a predictive role for TP53 gene mutations. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively explore the prognosis and predictive values of TP53 somatic mutations in the BIG 02-98 randomized phase III trial in which women with node-positive breast cancer were treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy with or without docetaxel. Methods: The prognostic and predictive values of TP53 were analyzed in tumor samples by gene sequencing within exons 5 to 8. Patients were classified according to p53 protein status predicted from TP53 gene sequence, as wild-type (no TP53 variation or TP53 variations which are predicted not to modify p53 protein sequence) or mutant (p53 nonsynonymous mutations). Mutations were subcategorized according to missense or truncating mutations. Survival analyses were performed using the ...
A variety of factors go in to the staging of a head and neck cancer diagnosis, however, the number of malignant lymph nodes may very well be the key to prognosis and treatment moving forward in this patient population.|br /|  
Cherubism is a rare benign (non-neoplastic) hereditary condition of childhood, which is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and is characterized by bilateral expansion of the mandible, maxilla or both. Giving them a characteristic cherubic appearance. The treatment of cherubism is still controversial and is said that the disease regresses itself and after regressing if any asymmetry is left then the bony deformity can be corrected by decortications of bone and osseous shaving. This article reviews the recent development in the literature of cherubism ...
The axillary lymph nodes are the ones that are most likely to drain the area of your breast that has a tumor, even though there are other lymph nodes both in your breast and closer to your breastbone. If the tumor has sloughed off waste cancer cells, the axillary lymph nodes have probably collected them. Testing these lymph nodes for cancer is one way to determine how aggressive the tumor is and whether the cancer cells have begun to travel to other parts of the body.. There are approximately 20 lymph nodes in two clumps in each armpit. Half of them are called Level 1 (the easiest to get to) and the other group is called Level 2. There are additional lymph nodes under the collarbone, and more on either side of the breastbone, but these are rarely removed in surgery. Unfortunately, surgeons cant remove lymph nodes, test them for cancer, and put back the ones that do not have traces of cancer. In fact, they usually cant even see lymph nodes because they are so small. Surgeons usually remove a ...
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Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) lacking hormone receptors (ER, PR) and HER-2 amplification are very aggressive tumors. The IIB-BR-G cell line isolated from a primary TNBC, and its spontaneous metastatic variant, IIB-BR-G-MTS6 were compared using an antibody-based protein array to characterize their expression profile. We also analyzed their growth kinetics, migration, invasiveness, lymphangiogenesis and cytoskeleton structure. Doubling times in vitro were shorter for IIB-BR-G although in vivo IIB-BR-G-MTS6 tumors grew significantly faster than IIB-BR-G. IIB-BR-GMTS6 showed higher anchorage independent growth in a clonogenic assay. IIB-BR-G-MTS6 cells showed 100% incidence of lymph node metastasis at 5-6 weeks, although no metastasis was observed for IIB-BR-G even 19 weeks after inoculation. CCL3, IL1α, CXCL1, CSF2, CSF3, IGFBP1, IL1α, IL6, IL8, CCL20, PLAUR, PlGF and VEGF were strongly up-regulated in IIB-BR-G-MTS6 compared to IIB-BR-G, while CCL4, ICAM3, CXCL12, TNFRSF18, FIGF, were the ...
Unal B, Gur AS, Kayiran O, Johnson R, Ahrendt G, Bonaventura M, Soran A. Models for Predicting Non-sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Sentinel Node Positive Breast Cancer: The Importance of Scoring System. Int J Clin Pract. 2008 Nov; 62(11): 1785-91 ...
Swollen lymph node on left side of neck - Three swollen cervical lymph nodes all on left side of neck some ear pain doctor HS seen one of them says wait 2 month fbc normal should I be worried? Lymph nodes. The lymph nodes usually enlarge as response to an infection in the vicinity. It lasts maximum 2-3 weeks and as the infection goes away (with antibiotics usually) the lymph nodes disappear. Outside this scenario, I would be worried and demand further investigation (ct is appropriate, a blood smear and CBC with differential, as well as a bmp with enzymes markers analysis) up to an excision biopy.
INTRODUCTION. In 1896 Krukenberg (1) described an unusual form of an ovarian metastasis by a gastrointestinal cancer. The analogue in male, a metastasis to the testis or epididymis by a primitive gastric cancer is extremely rare. We report an unusual metastasis to the testis and epididymis, which has all criteria to be called Krukenberg-tumor.. CASE REPORT. W.A., a 68 years old patient, was submitted to total gastrectomy in 1994. Histologically it was described a diffuse, poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with multiple lymph node metastases along the greater and lesser gastric curvature and an isolated lymph node metastasis in the splenic hilum (TNM stage: pT3 GIII N+ M1).. One year later the patient developed a light painful swelling of the right hemiscrotum and groin. The palpation revealed a painful mandarine-like mass conglobated in the right testis and epididymis, which seemed to be connected with a further mass, about as big as a chestnut, at the external inguinal-ring. Multiple ...
Colorectal cancer is one of the three most common malignant diseases in Sweden, with about 5,000 new cases each year. Thirty-five percent of these are rectal cancer, for which local recurrence after surgery has been a serious problem. The five-year survival rate in colorectal cancer has improved from about 40% in 1960 to 55% in 1995. Adjuvant chemotherapy of colon cancer, preoperative radiotherapy and improved surgical techniques in rectal cancer have contributed to the improved results. To select patients best suited for pre- or postoperative therapy, we need indicators of both prognosis and response to therapy.. Using antibodies against cytokeratin, we found that 39% of patients with colorectal carcinoma that had penetrated the muscularis propria but without lymph-node metastases by routine light microscopy, had got micrometastases. Survival among patients with micrometastases was not significantly different from that among patients without such metastases.. We also identified subsets of ...
I am over 50 years old (would prefer not to state the exact age), and I have a swollen lymph node in my neck. It is not extremely large, and is only visible when tilting my head completely to the right. I have an autistic son who is prone to colds and respiratory illnesses which passes along to the rest of my family, so we all encounter approximately 4 colds per year, while some may have only one a year. As of now, I do have a cold that is beginning to subside which was caught from my grandson. I do not have any night sweats, no difficulty swallowing, no feeling of fullness in the throat, or anything of the sort. The lymph node in my neck is approximately 1.3 cm in height, and 1.9 cm in width. It is not painful unless pressed on, does not restrict the movement in my neck, and has not been bothersome other than its presence being there. It is not hard as a rock, it is not fixed to the skin or any underlying tissue, but is mobile when moved from side to side, up and down. It is not overly soft, ...
Other distant metastasis or any distant metastasis with elevated LDH. Based upon AJCC five-year survival from initial melanoma ... A large initial excision will disrupt the local lymphatic drainage and can affect further lymphangiogram-directed lymphnode ... Metastases to brain, bone and liver are associated with a worse prognosis. Survival is better with metastasis in which the ... Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) tests are often used to screen for metastases, although many patients with metastases (even end- ...
... excessive lymphatic vessel formation has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including neoplasm metastasis, ... The role of the lymphatic system in these diseases has received renewed interest largely due to the discovery of lymphatic ... Lymphangiogenesis is the formation of lymphatic vessels from pre-existing lymphatic vessels in a method believed to be similar ... Ji, Rui-Cheng (2006). "Lymphatic Endothelial Cells, Lymphangiogenesis, and Extracellular Matrix". Lymphatic Research and ...
"Lymphatic vessels in cancer metastasis: bridging the gaps". Carcinogenesis. 27 (9): 1729-38. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgl031. PMID ... The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels (tubes) structured like blood vessels, that ... The lymphatic conducting system broadly consists of two types of channels-the initial lymphatics, the prelymphatics or lymph ... Afferent lymphatic vessels are only found in lymph nodes. This is in contrast to efferent lymphatic vessel which are also found ...
Shayan, Ramin; Achen, Marc G.; Stacker, Steven A. (2006). "Lymphatic vessels in cancer metastasis: bridging the gaps". ... These channels are the lymphatic channels, or simply lymphatics. Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not ... This lymphatic fluid is then transported via progressively larger lymphatic vessels through lymph nodes, where substances are ... "Definition of lymphatics". Webster's New World Medical Dictionary. Retrieved 2008-07-06. Hedrick, Michael S.; ...
"PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis". Cancer Cell. 6 (4): 333-345. doi:10.1016/j. ... They also discovered several lymphangiogenic factors that potentially contribute to cancer metastasis. Cao proposed a new ... a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma". Cell. 79 (2): 315-328. ...
Pediatric patients also tend to display less lymphatic spread and metastasis. In addition to stage and grade of the tumor, ... Epithelioid sarcoma also demonstrates lymphatic spread (in 22-48% of cases), and metastasis (in 21-63% of cases). These events ... The disease has a tendency to develop local recurrences and metastasis thereafter to regional lymph nodes, lung, bone, brain, ... They are also involved in cancer stem cell coordination and disease invasiveness and metastasis. Hhat inhibitors (such as RU- ...
Boes KM, Durham AC (February 2017). "Bone Marrow, Blood Cells, and the Lymphoid/Lymphatic System.". Pathologic Basis of ... Holinstat M (June 2017). "Normal platelet function". Cancer Metastasis Reviews. 36 (2): 195-198. doi:10.1007/s10555-017-9677-x ...
Cervical lymph node metastasis is also a common feature of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Lymphatics of pharynx. The lymphatics ... Rouvière, Henri (1932). Anatomie des lymphatiques de l'homme [Anatomy of the Human Lymphatic System, Edwards Brothers, Ann ... Gosselin, Benoit J (8 March 2016). "Neck, Cervical Metastases, Detection". Medscape. WebMD.. ... "The size of lymph nodes in the neck on sonograms as a radiologic criterion for metastasis: how reliable is it?". American ...
These metastases were tumor-node metastases (TNM) and lymphatic metastases. Lymphatic metastases is significant, as it is a ... The increase in expression of HOXA11-AS promotes cancer cell migration, tumor cell invasion, as well as metastasis of gastric ... Su JC, Hu XF (October 2017). "Long non‑coding RNA HOXA11‑AS promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in human breast cancer ... which is cancer metastasis. Scientists were able to determine these effects of HOXA11-AS lncRNA on breast cancer by monitoring ...
The staging of penile cancer is determined by the extent of tumor invasion, nodal metastasis, and distant metastasis. The T ... Stage II-The cancer is poorly differentiated, affects lymphatics, or invades the corpora or urethra. Stage IIIa-There is deep ... Stage IIIb-There is deep invasion into the penis and metastasis into multiple inguinal lymph nodes. Stage IV-The cancer has ... invaded into structures adjacent to the penis, metastasized to pelvic nodes, or distant metastasis is present. Human ...
2005). "Positive association of heparanase expression with tumor invasion and lymphatic metastasis in gastric carcinoma". Mod. ...
This protein may function in lymphatic hyaluronan transport and have a role in tumor metastasis. LYVE-1 is a cell surface ... "LYVE1 lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Mouta Carreira C, Nasser SM, di Tomaso E, ... Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1), also known as extracellular link domain containing 1 (XLKD1) is a ... LYVE1 positive macrophages in the meninges of rats are both lymphatic, as well as, alymphatic. In brain dura, the LYVE1+ ...
"Upregulation of Hsp90-beta and annexin A1 correlates with poor survival and lymphatic metastasis in lung cancer patients". ... In salivary gland tumors, expression of HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1 correlates with malignancy, proliferation and metastasis. The ...
"FHL2 expression in peritumoural fibroblasts correlates with lymphatic metastasis in sporadic but not in HNPCC-associated colon ...
Valastyan S, Weinberg RA (2010). "miR-31: A crucial overseer of tumor metastasis and other emerging roles". Cell Cycle. 9 (11 ... "miR-31 functions as a negative regulator of lymphatic vascular lineage-specific differentiation in vitro and vascular ... 2009). "A pleiotropically acting microRNA, miR-31, inhibits breast cancer metastasis". Cell. 137 (6): 1032-46. doi:10.1016/j. ... and RhoA phenocopies the effects of miR-31 on metastasis". Cancer Res. 70 (12): 5147-54. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0410. PMC ...
... and lymphatic metastasis in oral cancer]". AI Zheng = Aizheng = Chinese Journal of Cancer. 21 (3): 319-22. PMID 12452004. ... The main function of VEGF-C is to promote the growth of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis). It acts on lymphatic endothelial ... However, in addition to its effect on lymphatic vessels, it can also promote the growth of blood vessels and regulate their ... It has been suggested that VEGFC is a morphogen but not a chemotactic factor for lymphatic endothelial cell precursors. It has ...
Because there are no lymphatic channels to the uveal tract, metastasis occurs through local extension and/or blood-borne ... The most common site of metastasis for uveal melanoma is the liver; the liver is the first site of metastasis for 80%-90% of ... class 1 tumors that have a very low risk of metastasis, and class 2 tumors that have a very high risk of metastasis. Gene ... Metastasis can occur more than 10 years after treatment of the primary tumor, and patients should not be considered cured even ...
A newly identified metastasis suppressor, p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), is able to suppress metastasis in part by causing ... Non-EMT cells can migrate together with EMT cells to enter the blood or lymphatic vessels. Although both cell types persist in ... 2014). "Tumor microenvironment of metastasis and risk of distant metastasis of breast cancer". J Natl Cancer Inst. 106 (8). doi ... However, both EMT and non-EMT cells have been shown to cooperate to complete the spontaneous metastasis process. EMT cells, ...
Distant metastasis) MX Distant metastasis cannot be assessed M0 No distant metastasis M1 Distant metastasis. M1a: The cancer ... The location of lymphatic spread depends on the location of the tumors. Tumors on the superolateral bladder wall spread to ... N2 Metastasis in multiple lymph nodes in true pelvis (hypogastric, obturator, external iliac, or presacral nodes) N3 Metastasis ... metastasis). Increase in alkaline phosphatase levels without evidence of liver disease should be evaluated for bone metastasis ...
Metastasis to regional lymphnodes is common as the tonsil has a rich supply of lymphatics giving way to the tumor cells to ... Metastasis of cancer cells to cervical lymph nodes diminishes the chance of cure. Specially, if there is evidence of metastasis ... Metastasis is common in tonsillar carcinoma. It largely depends on the stage of the cancer and the route through with the ... As the tonsils consist of a rich network of lymphatics, the carcinoma may metastasize to the neck lymph nodes which many are ...
Metastasis. Main article: Metastasis. Cancer can spread from its original site by local spread, lymphatic spread to regional ... Metastasis. Main article: Metastasis. Metastasis is the spread of cancer to other locations in the body. The dispersed tumors ... Metastasis is common in the late stages of cancer and it can occur via the blood or the lymphatic system or both. The typical ... For certain types of cancer, such as early head and neck cancer, it may be used alone.[155] For painful bone metastasis, it has ...
"Expression of cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 is related to lymphatic metastasis and indicates prognosis of intrahepatic ... of CLIMP-63 is observed in cholangio-cellular and hepatocellular carcinoma and it correlates with lymph node metastasis ...
Absence of FOXC2 has been shown to lead to the failure of lymphatic valves to form and problems with lymphatic remodelling. A ... FOXC2 is also involved in cancer metastases. In particular, expression of FOXC2 is induced when epithelial cells undergo an ... 2009). "Prox-1 and FOXC2 gene expression in adipose tissue: A potential contributory role of the lymphatic system to familial ... 2009). "Abnormal Shh and FOXC2 expression correlates with aberrant lymphatic development in human fetuses with increased nuchal ...
In these cases, the most common site of metastases is the liver, as well as the lymph nodes. However, the second type of ... This occurs when cancerous cells break away from the insulinoma and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Thus, it is ... The main sites of metastasis for pancreatic cancer are the: liver, lung and peritoneum. Diagnosis can occur via two distinct ... Upon spreading and entering another part of the body, the process of metastasis has successfully occurred. The cancerous cells ...
Metastasis is common in the late stages of cancer and it can occur via the blood or the lymphatic system or both. The typical ... Metastasis is common in the late stages of cancer and it can occur via the blood or the lymphatic system or both. The typical ... For painful bone metastasis, it has been found to be effective in about 70% of patients. Surgery is the primary method of ... Metastasis is the spread of cancer to other locations in the body. The dispersed tumors are called metastatic tumors, while the ...
Metastasis is the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another via either the circulatory system or lymphatic system. ...
Microarray data posits the expression of LOC105377021 in certain breast cancer tissues, including metastases to lymphatic and ...
A circulating tumor cell (CTC) is a cell that has shed into the vasculature or lymphatics from a primary tumor and is carried ... It is estimated that among the cells that have detached from the primary tumor, only 0.01% can form metastases. Circulating ... Riquet, M; Rivera, C; Gibault, L; Pricopi, C; Mordant, P; Badia, A; Arame, A; Le Pimpec Barthes, F (2014). "[Lymphatic spread ... This was the first predictive case for brain metastasis and a proof of concept that intrinsic molecular features of metastatic ...
Thus DVL allows for the simultaneous determination of fluid flow rates in diverse blood and lymphatic compartments and in newly ... including lymphocyte traffic and tumor cell metastasis). DVL provides means to differential study the roles of angiogenesis and ... This approach takes advantage of the differences in particle distribution across blood and lymphatic endothelia. The DVL is ... Differential Vascular Labeling is a labeling method that allows differentiation between blood and lymphatic systems for ...
Numbers 0 and 1, with subgroups, describe the metastasis status: M0: No evidence of distant metastasis M1a: Spread to 1 other ... "T" denotes the degree of invasion of the intestinal wall, "N" the degree of lymphatic node involvement, and "M" the degree of ... Adjunct staging of metastasis include abdominal ultrasound, MRI, CT, PET scanning, and other imaging studies. The most common ... Ann Surg 139:846, 1954 Gabriel WB, Dukes C, Busset HJR: Lymphatic spread in cancer of the rectum. Br J Surg 23:395-413, 1935 ...
... implications for bone marrow metastasis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 ( ... endothelia of capillaries and lymphatics, fibroblasts, stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies ... and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer exploits the SP-NK1R to progress and metastasize, and that NK1RAs may be ...
Brain metastasis in the right cerebral hemisphere from lung cancer, shown on magnetic resonance imaging. ... in another organ elsewhere in the body and that cancer cells have leaked from that primary tumor and then entered the lymphatic ... Secondary, or metastatic, brain tumors are more common than primary brain tumors,[2] with about half of metastases coming from ... "Whole Brain Radiation increases risk of learning and memory problems in cancer patients with brain metastases". MD Anderson ...
... lymphatic vessels - lymphocyte - lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) - lymphoid organs - lymphoid tissue - lymphokine- ... metastasis - MHC - microbes - microbicide - Microsporidiosis - mitochondria - mitochondrial toxicity - molecule - molluscum ...
Isotopes commonly used in the treatment of bone metastasis are radium-223,[73] strontium-89 and samarium (153Sm) lexidronam.[74 ... Lymphedema, a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling, can result from damage to the lymphatic system ... Many low-dose palliative treatments (for example, radiation therapy to bony metastases) cause minimal or no side effects, ... A major use of systemic radioisotope therapy is in the treatment of bone metastasis from cancer. The radioisotopes travel ...
... and palliative radiation therapy to known metastases. Spinal cord compression can occur with metastases to the spine and can be ... Adams J (1853). "The case of scirrhous of the prostate gland with corresponding affliction of the lymphatic glands in the ... The route of metastasis to bone is thought to be venous as the prostatic venous plexus draining the prostate connects with the ... Bone scans should reveal osteoblastic appearance due to increased bone density in the areas of bone metastasis-opposite to what ...
Metastasis (M)[edit]. Numbers 0 and 1, with subgroups, describe the metastasis status:[1] ... "T" denotes the degree of invasion of the intestinal wall, "N" the degree of lymphatic node involvement, and "M" the degree of ... Dukes D: Widespread metastases[6]. Astler-Coller classification[edit]. An adaptation by the Americans Astler and Coller in 1954 ... M1b: Metastasis to more than 1 other part of the body beyond the colon, rectum or regional lymph nodes. Any T, any N. ...
... or lymphatic system (a lymphoma). Sometimes, the symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes show before the diagnosis of a malignancy ... purpose of this exploration was to shed light on immunotherapies and distinguishing between neurotoxicity and brain metastasis ...
Zlotnik A, Burkhardt AM, Homey B (August 2011). "Homeostatic chemokine receptors and organ-specific metastasis". Nature Reviews ... expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells) and their receptor CCR7 (expressed on cells destined for ...
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells coupled with malignant behaviour: invasion and metastasis (among other features).[ ... cancers of the lymphatic system and lymph nodes) were given the drug by vein, rather than by breathing the irritating gas.[141] ... Hendriks JM, Van Schil PE (1998). "Isolated lung perfusion for the treatment of pulmonary metastases". Surgical Oncology. 7 (1- ... highly effective and safe treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases". Eur J Cancer Suppl. 4 (11): 3-13. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Invasion of the local lymphatic ducts impairs drainage and causes edematous swelling of the breast. Because the skin of the ... Among patients with distant metastasis at diagnosis (stage IV disease), The overall survival (OS) is worse in patients with IBC ... It is characterised by the presence of cancer cells in the subdermal lymphatics on skin biopsy. Consequently, IBC is always ... there is a high rate of relapses and metastases in the first 3 years after presentation but few late events (5 years or later). ...
... distant metastasis).[10]. If this process of continuous growth, local invasion, and regional and distant metastasis is not ... the ability to spread to other sites within the body (metastasize) by penetrating or entering into the lymphatic vessels ( ... a process called metastasis. If unchecked, tumor growth and metastasis eventually creates a tumor burden so great that the host ... Invasion and metastasis[edit]. The hallmark of a malignant tumor is its tendency to invade and infiltrate local and adjacent ...
This is similar to the lymphatic drainage of the abdominal structures that arise from the foregut, which all drain into the ... and whether there are any metastases in different parts of the body. Esophageal cancer is often managed with radiotherapy, ...
Brain metastasis in the right cerebral hemisphere from lung cancer, shown on magnetic resonance imaging. ... in another organ elsewhere in the body and that cancer cells have leaked from that primary tumor and then entered the lymphatic ... "Whole Brain Radiation increases risk of learning and memory problems in cancer patients with brain metastases". MD Anderson ... metastasis (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood). ...
Increased clinical CD44 expression has been positively correlated to metastasis in a number of tumor types.[20] In terms of ... "Uptake and degradation of hyaluronan in lymphatic tissue". Biochem. J. 256 (1): 153-8. PMC 1135381. PMID 3223897 ... Hyaluronic acid synthases (HAS) play roles in all stages of cancer metastasis. By producing anti-adhesive HA, HAS can allow ... Figure 1. The process of cancer metastasis in which HA-associated molecules play a role in the steps. Abbreviations: hyaluronic ...
Bessie died just ten weeks later due to widespread metastasis of the original cancer. Bessie's death had a profound effect on ... new malignancies in the lymphatic glands].) ... in preventing or retarding malignant recurrence or metastases ...
The most common causes for pleural fluid are lung cancer, metastasis from elsewhere and pleural mesothelioma. The latter often ... Lymphatic disorders vs Constrictive pericarditis. Transudate *Congestive heart failure. *Nephrotic syndrome. *Hypoalbuminemia ...
Sung Bin Park, MD, Hak Hee Kim, MD, [...], ja Gyungyub Gong, MD, Thymic Metastasis in Breast Cancer: A Case Report, Korean J ... of The Lymphatic Glands.", lk 255-263, 1777 ... Fujita A, Nakazato Y, Tachibana K, Goya T., Thymic metastasis ... Pierre Demondiona, Pierre Validireb, Jean Trédanielc ja Dominique Gossota, Thymic metastasis from lung carcinoma, Interact ... Tomoyuki Matsunaga, Hiroaki Saito, [...], ja Masahide Ikeguchi, Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Thymic Metastasis after Curative ...
These veins get their notoriety from the fact that they are valveless, which is believed to be the reason for metastasis of ... The majority of its members manage the entire spectrum of venous and lymphatic diseases - from varicose veins to congenital ... In 2007 the American Board of Phlebology (ABPh), subsequently known as the American Board of Venous & Lymphatic Medicine (ABVLM ... Lymphatic Medicine uses a certification exam based on ABMS standards. ...
... and the M stage gives information about distant metastasis (M0 stands for no distant metastasis, and M1 for the presence of ... those who had poorly differentiated tumors or venous or lymphatic invasion) and are candidates for curative surgery (with the ... Presence of metastases is determined by a CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis.[19] Other potential imaging tests such as ... The most common metastasis sites for colorectal cancer are the liver, the lung and the peritoneum.[73] ...
Lymphatic system. References[edit]. *^ a b c Vivier E, Raulet DH, Moretta A, Caligiuri MA, Zitvogel L, Lanier LL, Yokoyama WM, ... Oldham RK (1983). "Natural killer cells: artifact to reality: an odyssey in biology". Cancer Metastasis Reviews. 2 (4): 323-36 ...
Very often they also spread to the important blood or lymphatic vessels and nerves that run close to the pancreas, making ... Only one of the patients had the duodenum totally removed, but he survived for two years before dying of metastasis to the ... In cases with localized disease and small cancers (,2 cm) with no lymph node metastases and no extension beyond the capsule of ... Radiation therapy is occasionally used if there is pain due to anatomic extension, such as metastasis to bone. Some PanNETs ...
Lymphatic spread is the most common route of initial metastasis for carcinomas.[7] In contrast, it is uncommon for a sarcoma to ... Metastasis /mᵻˈtastəsɪs/ metastases /mə ˈtæs tə siːz/ ... Lymphatic spreadEdit. Lymphatic spread allows the transport of ... "Metastasis", Merriam-Webster online, accessed 20 Aug 2017. *^ "What is Metastasis?". Cancer.Net. 2 February 2016.. .mw-parser- ... The spread of metastasis may occur via the blood or the lymphatics or through both routes. The most common places for the ...
... so they accumulate in the lymphatic tissue (lymphatic nodes) and their number in the circulation is diminished. In this respect ... metastasis and angiogenesis. ...
... and metastasis of cancerous cells from other parts of the body, that have arrived via the lymphatic system.[22] ... The lymphatic system consists of lymphatic organs, a conducting network of lymphatic vessels, and the circulating lymph. ... Lymphatic tissues begin to develop by the end of the fifth week of embryonic development.[20] Lymphatic vessels develop from ... Main article: Lymphatic disease. The study of lymphatic drainage of various organs is important in the diagnosis, prognosis, ...
"The Lymphatic System - Human Anatomy". Retrieved 8 September 2017.. *^ a b Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall textbook of ... Lung cancer can either arise directly from lung tissue or as a result of metastasis from another part of the body. There are ... nerves and lymphatic vessels.[3][11] The trachea and bronchi have plexuses of lymph capillaries in their mucosa and submucosa. ...
Song HJ, Xue YL, Qiu ZL, Luo QY (2012). "Uncommon metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma". Hell J Nucl Med. 15 (3): ... Lymphatic vessel. Lymphangioma Smooth muscle. Leiomyoma Striated muscle. Rhabdomyoma Ectodermal Glia. Astrocytoma ...
N is the presence or absence of lymph node metastases, and M is the presence or absence of distant metastases. The T, N, and M ... They tend to metastasize early due to the extensive lymphatic network around the larynx. Laryngeal cancer begins in the larynx ... Instead, it is used to provide an inhospitable environment for metastases so that they will not establish in other parts of the ... For small primary cancers without regional metastases (stage I or II), wide surgical excision alone or curative radiation ...
... the presence of metastasis and lymph node and bone marrow infiltration, the availability of therapies and the skills of the ... Lymphatic vessel diseases. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list. *Webarchive template wayback links ...
Lymphatic drainage frequently passes the prelaryngeal lymph nodes (located just above the isthmus), and the pretracheal and ... A radioactive iodine uptake test can help reveal the activity and location of the cancer and metastases.[64][66] ... nerve and lymphatic presence, that surrounds a core of colloid that consists mostly of thyroid hormone precursor proteins ... medullary carcinomas and metastases from other sites [58] Nodules are more likely in females, those who are exposed to ...
Pathogenic agents can spread from an initial to a secondary site via the lymphatics. Here, using a mouse model of infection, ... The findings establish the lymphatic system as both a survival niche and conduit to the bloodstream for S. pyogenes, explaining ... Here, we report that Streptococcus pyogenes also hijack lymphatic vessels to escape a local infection site, transiting through ... We identify streptococcal virulence mechanisms important for bacterial lymphatic dissemination and show that metastatic ...
... showing that the lymphatic vessels surrounding tumors contribute to lymphatic metastasis. The authors propose that one ... Oncologists have long debated the part played by the lymphatic system of cancer patients in tumor metastasis. In a Perspective ... therapeutic approach to preventing lymphatic metastasis is to block VEGF-C, a lymphangiogenic factor. ...
VEGF-C has been demonstrated to play vital roles in LN metastasis in BCa. However, approximately 20% of BCa with LN metastasis ... ultimately resulting in lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Therefore, our findings highlight a VEGF-C-independent ... Herein, we demonstrate that BCa cell-secreted exosome-mediated lymphangiogenesis promoted LN metastasis in BCa in a VEGF-C- ... We identified an exosomal long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), termed lymph node metastasis-associated transcript 2 (LNMAT2), that ...
To further examine the effect of exosomal LNMAT2 on LN metastasis, we established a popliteal lymphatic metastasis model using ... of BCa with LN metastasis show low VEGF-C expression (5, 6). So far, the mechanism of lymphatic metastasis of BCa cells with ... Exosomal long noncoding RNA LNMAT2 promotes lymphatic metastasis in bladder cancer. Changhao Chen,1,2 Yuming Luo,2,3 Wang He,1, ... Exosomal LNMAT2 promoted lymphatic metastasis in vivo. Although we observed that LNMAT2 knockdown led to a reduction and LNMAT2 ...
Cancer metastases are commonly found in the lymphatic system. Like tumor blood angiogenesis, stimulation of tumor ... PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis Cancer Cell. 2004 Oct;6(4):333-45. doi: ... Cancer metastases are commonly found in the lymphatic system. Like tumor blood angiogenesis, stimulation of tumor ... These data demonstrate that PDGF-BB is an important growth factor contributing to lymphatic metastasis. Thus, blockage of PDGF- ...
Circulating Lymphatic Progenitor Cell and Lymph Node Metastasis. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
Lymphatic Metastasis in the Absence of Functional Intratumor Lymphatics Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Lymphatic Metastasis in the Absence of Functional Intratumor Lymphatics. By Timothy P. Padera, Ananth Kadambi, Emmanuelle di ... Lymphatic Metastasis in the Absence of Functional Intratumor Lymphatics. By Timothy P. Padera, Ananth Kadambi, Emmanuelle di ... These findings suggest that the functional lymphatics in the tumor margin alone are sufficient for lymphatic metastasis and ...
VEGF-C has recently been identified as a key molecule that involved in tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. ... Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, suppresses lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis.. ... Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, suppresses lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. [ ... a lymphatic metastasis-prone pancreatic tumor cell line. We also investigated the antilymphangiogenic effect of rapamycin, a ...
Lymphatic vessels provide a route for tumour cells to reach regional lymph nodes (LNs), which is prognostic of distant organ ... While the link between the lymphatic system and the metastatic spread of cancer is centuries old, understanding of the ... The evolving role of lymphatics in cancer metastasis Curr Opin Immunol. 2018 Aug;53:64-73. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2018.04.008. Epub ... The lymphatic endothelial cells lining lymphatics respond to molecular cues from the tumour microenvironment, mediating growth ...
Significance of lymphatic invasion and cancer invasion-related proteins on lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.. Kamata I1 ... Tumor size, lymphatic invasion and MMP-1 expression level at the invasive front were the predictive factors of LN metastasis of ... These consisted of 105 cases with regional LN metastasis (LN[+] group) and 105 cases without LN metastasis (LN[-] group). Both ... stromal invasion and lymphatic invasion on regional LN metastasis in gastric cancer was investigated by comprehensive ...
... thereby promoting lymphatic metastasis. Therefore, tumor-associated lymphatic vessels can actively participate in lymphatic ... Tumor-associated Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Promote Lymphatic Metastasis By Highly Expressing and Secreting SEMA4C. Jun-Cheng ... Lymphatic vessels are classically viewed as passive conduits for metastasis. A higher lymphatic vessel density (LVD) is thought ... 3D). Because lymphatic metastasis positively correlates with tumor size (30), metastasis was analyzed when primary tumors ...
Key words Gastric cancer Liver metastasis Lymphatic advancement Extranodal invasion Received: May 10, 2001 / Accepted: August ... Conclusion. We consider that the lymphatic system is closely related to the establishment of liver metastasis; in particular, ... In the present study, we investigated the relationship between liver metastasis and lymphatic involvement in gastric carcinoma ... Metastasis to the lymph nodes was the next most significant risk for liver metastasis. ...
Analysis of tumor-associated lymphatic vessels and lymphatic metastasis. A-C, sections of the LLC tumors from WT (A), the VEGF- ... Padera TP, Kadambi A, di Tomaso E, et al Lymphatic metastasis in the absence of functional intratumor lymphatics. Science, 296: ... many questions remain to be addressed about the mechanisms of lymphatic metastasis. For example, can tumor-associated lymphatic ... Lymph Node Metastasis Requires a Functional Lymphatic Network.. Consistent with previous observations, the occurrence of lymph ...
Age-Related Changes in HAPLN1 Increase Lymphatic Permeability and Affect Routes of Melanoma Metastasis. Brett L Ecker, ... Age-Related Changes in HAPLN1 Increase Lymphatic Permeability and Affect Routes of Melanoma Metastasis ... Age-Related Changes in HAPLN1 Increase Lymphatic Permeability and Affect Routes of Melanoma Metastasis ... Age-Related Changes in HAPLN1 Increase Lymphatic Permeability and Affect Routes of Melanoma Metastasis ...
Lymphatic metastasis in the absence of functional intratumor lymphatics. Science 2002; 296: 1883-6. ... The triad of primary tumor, lymphatic emboli, and LN metastases: ER and PR. ER and PR immunohistochemistries for two sets of ... The biologic and clinical significance of lymphatic metastases in breast cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 1996; 5: 79-104. ... Occasionally more distant metastases are also observed. "Triads" of primary tumors, tumor-filled draining lymphatic vessels, ...
Although lymphatic dissemination is a major route for breast cancer metastasis, there has been little work to determine what ... Lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer cells is associated with differential gene expression profiles that predict cancer stem ... Pandit, T.S., Kennette, W., MacKenzie, L., Zhang, G., Al-Katib, W., Andrews, J. ... Tuck, A.B. (2009). Lymphatic metastasis of ... low (468GFP) lymphatic metastatic ability, and related these to clinical literature on genes associated with lymphatic ...
... hyaluronic acid expression and lymphatic metastasis and radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma., De Yu Sun, Hong Yu, Xue ... High expression of CD44 suggests the easy happening nasopharyngeal tumor lymphatic metastasis and metastasis of lymph nodes ... This essay discussed the research on the lymphatic metastases of HA and CD44 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and their radiation ... At present, the specific mechanism of signal transduction pathway of HA and CD44 in regulation of tumorous lymphatic metastasis ...
Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of CAFs on infiltration of TAMs and lymphatic metastasis in triple-negative breast ... Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Correlate with Tumor-Associated Macrophages Infiltration and Lymphatic Metastasis in Triple ... Keywords: triple-negative breast cancer, cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumor-associated macrophages, lymphatic metastasis, ... Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Correlate with Tumor-Associated Macrophages Infiltration and Lymphatic Metastasis in Triple ...
Kato S, Mori S, Kodama T. A Novel Treatment Method for Lymph Node Metastasis Using a Lymphatic Drug Delivery System with Nano/ ... A Novel Treatment Method for Lymph Node Metastasis Using a Lymphatic Drug Delivery System with Nano/Microbubbles and Ultrasound ... Dox and NMBs were injected into the SiLN and delivered to the PALN via lymphatic vessels; the PALN was then exposed to US when ... Here, we demonstrate proof of concept for a lymphatic drug delivery system using nano/microbubbles (NMBs) and ultrasound (US) ...
In immunohistochemistry of lymphatic vessels, LS174T-NEO showed marked lymphatic invasion, in contrast to minimal lymphatic ... Analysis of micro and molecular mechanism of lymphatic metastasis, and development of new strategy targeting for tumor ... In 90% of nude mice, lymph node metastasis was established by alloic transplantation of LS174T and LS174T-NEO, which expressed ... We evaluated the ability of colorectal cancer cell lines on metastasis to lymph nodes, and metastatic (or anti-metastatic) ...
Home , ELK3 expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells promotes breast cancer progression and metastasis through exosomal miRNAs ... 2019) ELK3 expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells promotes breast cancer progression and metastasis through exosomal miRNAs. ...
Researchers have developed a strategy to target metastases residing in the lymph nodes, destroying them before they can cause ... Nanoparticle Drugs Pass Through Lymphatics to Destroy Metastases News Aug 15, 2019 , Original story from ACS ... enter a tumor and then pass through the lymphatics might treat metastases. Hong-Jun Li, Jin-Zhi Du and colleagues had ... that can pass through lymphatics (green vessels) into lymph nodes and kill metastases. Credit: ACS Nano 2019, DOI: 10.1021/ ...
We further addressed the biological function of VEGF-D for induction of lymphatic metastasis in a nude mouse xenograft model ... Our results suggest that VEGF-D plays a pivotal role in stimulating lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in human ductal ... In order to better understand the mechanisms controlling lymphatic growth and lymph node metastasis in human ductal pancreatic ... with a significant increase in lymphatic vessel invasion by tumor cells and an increased rate of lymphatic metastases, as ...
Comparing liver metastases with their corresponding primary tumors, particularly deletions at 2q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 10q, and 21q21 ... Hematogenous metastases showed more alterations than lymph node tumors, particularly more deletions at 1p, 3, 4, 5q, 10q, 14, ... In total, 63 tumor specimens from 40 patients were investigated, comprising 30 primary tumors, 22 systemic metastases (12 liver ... 6 brain, and 4 abdominal wall metastases) and 11 lymph node tumors. Using statistical analysis and histograms to evaluate the ...
Keratinization and necrosis : Morphologic aspects of lymphatic metastases in ultrasound. In: Investigative Radiology. 1996 ; ... Keratinization and necrosis: Morphologic aspects of lymphatic metastases in ultrasound. Jürgen Mäurer, Carston Willam, Herrmann ... Keratinization and necrosis : Morphologic aspects of lymphatic metastases in ultrasound. / Mäurer, Jürgen; Willam, Carston; ... title = "Keratinization and necrosis: Morphologic aspects of lymphatic metastases in ultrasound",. abstract = "RATIONALE AND ...
Analysis of risk factors for skip lymphatic metastasis and their prognostic value in operated N2 non-small-cell lung carcinoma ... Analysis of risk factors for skip lymphatic metastasis and their prognostic value in operated N2 non-small-cell lung carcinoma. ... Skip metastasis are frequent in non-small-cell lung cancer and complete dissection of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes should ...
Injectable lymphatic tracers have been developed7, but their limited diffusion precludes whole-body imaging at visceral sites16 ... The authors suggest that VEGFR3 reporters could be useful in the search for further drivers and inhibitors of metastasis. ... This role of midkine was linked to a paracrine activation of the mTOR pathway in lymphatic endothelial cells. These data ... Here, we exploit this inducibility of VEGFR3 to engineer mouse melanoma models for whole-body imaging of metastasis generated ...
Preventing Inflammatory Breast Cancer Metastases by Interrupting Cellular Stress Signaling in Lymphatic Emboli and Circulating ... Preventing Inflammatory Breast Cancer Metastases by Interrupting Cellular Stress Signaling in Lymphatic Emboli and Circulating ...
Metastasis. A metastasis is a cancer that has spread from where it started to another part of the body. A metastasis is ... The lymphatic system helps to protect us from infection and disease. It is made up of fine tubes called lymphatic vessels that ...
  • Here, we report that Streptococcus pyogenes also hijack lymphatic vessels to escape a local infection site, transiting through sequential lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic vessels to enter the bloodstream. (
  • Lymphatic vessels form an extensive, tissue-permeating network around the body that carries fluid from interstitial spaces, through lymph nodes, and back to the blood circulation. (
  • We recently provided a possible explanation for this tropism, by demonstrating that the hyaluronan capsule of S. pyogenes binds LYVE-1 ( l ymphatic v essel e ndothelial receptor), the hyaluronan receptor that mediates leukocyte entry to initial lymphatic vessels 12 , 13 . (
  • showing that the lymphatic vessels surrounding tumors contribute to lymphatic metastasis. (
  • In vivo, PDGF-BB potently induced growth of lymphatic vessels. (
  • Whether metastasizing cancer cells reach lymph nodes via intratumor lymphatic vessels is unknown. (
  • These disparate observations call into question the relation between functional lymphatic vessels and widely accepted lymphatic molecular markers and the role they play in lymphatic metastasis. (
  • The metastatic experiment in vivo demonstrated that the number and the area of lymphatic vessels in the primary tumors were significantly decreased by rapamycin. (
  • Lymphatic vessels provide a route for tumour cells to reach regional lymph nodes (LNs), which is prognostic of distant organ metastasis and poor survival. (
  • The lymphatic endothelial cells lining lymphatics respond to molecular cues from the tumour microenvironment, mediating growth and remodelling of lymphatic vessels at the primary tumour, draining LNs and distant premetastatic niches. (
  • Cancer tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry with antibodies against claudin-3, claudin-4, beta-catenin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and MMP-2, as well as endothelial markers of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 and von Willebrand factor for the objective discrimination between lymphatics and blood vessels. (
  • Lymphatic vessels are mainly regarded as passive conduits for the dissemination of cancer cells. (
  • In this study, we investigate whether and how the tumor-associated lymphatic vessels may play an active role in tumor metastasis. (
  • In situ laser capture microdissection of lymphatic vessels followed by cDNA microarray analysis was used to determine the expression profiling of lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). (
  • Here, we have studied the relative contributions of bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitors and pre-existing lymphatic vessels to tumor lymphangiogenesis. (
  • We did not find significant incorporation of genetically marked BM-derived cells in lymphatic vessels during tumor- or vascular endothelial growth factor C-induced lymphangiogenesis. (
  • Our data demonstrate that during tumor lymphangiogenesis and cancer cell dissemination via the lymphatics, the newly formed lymphatic vessels sprout from the pre-existing local lymphatic network with little if any incorporation of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells. (
  • Triads" of primary tumors, tumor-filled draining lymphatic vessels, and tumor-filled LNs from the same mouse show that ( a ) proliferation, as measured by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine uptake, is higher in the LN than in the primary tumor. (
  • In immunohistochemistry of lymphatic vessels, LS174T-NEO showed marked lymphatic invasion, in contrast to minimal lymphatic invasion in LS174T-AS2 and Colo320. (
  • iClusters (red/blue/green circles) enter a tumor through the bloodstream (red vessels), then disassemble into smaller nanoparticle drugs (blue circles) that can pass through lymphatics (green vessels) into lymph nodes and kill metastases. (
  • Studies have shown that cancer cells travel from tumors to specific lymph nodes primarily through tiny vessels called lymphatics, which carry immune cells and fluid rather than blood. (
  • It is made up of fine tubes called lymphatic vessels that connect to groups of lymph nodes throughout the body. (
  • Regional lymph nodes are the initial sites of spread often, most probably credited to growth cell drainage via pre-existing afferent lymphatic boats and/or recently produced lymphatic capillary vessels [2], [3]. (
  • Some cancer cells known as circulating tumor cells acquire the ability to penetrate the walls of lymphatic or blood vessels , after which they are able to circulate through the bloodstream to other sites and tissues in the body. (
  • Assessment was undertaken using digital microscopy and image analysis.Peri- and intratumoral lymphatic vessels were identified by podoplanin staining in all metastases and significantly increased with tumor growth. (
  • Ligand-directed targeting of lymphatic vessels uncovers mechanistic insights in melanoma metastasis. (
  • Unfortunately, molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between melanoma cells and lymphatic vessels are unknown. (
  • By screening combinatorial peptide libraries directly on afferent lymphatic vessels resected from melanoma patients during sentinel lymphatic mapping and lymph node biopsies, we identified a significant cohort of melanoma and lymphatic surface binding peptide sequences. (
  • The inflammatory tumor microenvironment contributes to metastasis, for instance, by recruiting blood and lymph vessels. (
  • In the majority of cases, these tumors remain slow growing but benign, and as with aortic tumors, they become a health issue when they invade the spaces of the adjacent blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. (
  • Lymphatic vessels provide a highway along which invasive cancerous cells move to other parts of the body. (
  • The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics ) are thin-walled vessels (tubes) structured like blood vessels , that carry lymph . (
  • As part of the lymphatic system , lymph vessels are complementary to the cardiovascular system . (
  • The general structure of lymphatics is based on that of blood vessels . (
  • The smallest vessels ( lymphatic or lymph capillaries ) lack both the muscular layer and the outer adventitia. (
  • The lymphatic conducting system broadly consists of two types of channels-the initial lymphatics , the prelymphatics or lymph capillaries that specialize in collection of the lymph from the ISF, and the larger lymph vessels that propel the lymph forward. (
  • Rhythmic contraction of the vessel walls through movements may also help draw fluid into the smallest lymphatic vessels, capillaries . (
  • Concomitant with these results, we found that the endothelial TSP-1 receptor CD36 was mostly absent from cutaneous lymphatic vessels. (
  • Using an imaging process, scientists from ETH Zurich are able to render lymphatic vessels visible, including newly formed ones (left in the picture, microscopic image). (
  • When tumours metastasise, they can block lymphatic vessels, as researchers from ETH Zurich have discovered using a new method. (
  • Tumours are known to release messengers to trigger the formation of new lymphatic vessels . (
  • Researchers from ETH Zurich have now discovered that a metastatic tumour can also block lymphatic vessels completely. (
  • Thanks to one such new substance developed on a nanometer scale by Jean-Christophe Leroux, also a professor at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, it is now possible to display lymphatic vessels specifically with near infrared imaging for the first time. (
  • In tests conducted on mice, a molecule diameter of eight to ten nanometres proved ideal to render the lymphatic vessels visible. (
  • We can illuminate anatomical details with it that you couldn't see in the past, such as the tiny lymph valves in the lymphatic vessels," explains Detmar. (
  • According to Detmar, the ETH-Zurich scientists' observation that the lymphatic vessels can be blocked by metastases through to the lymph nodes will have a major impact on cancer medicine. (
  • Other significant effects noted at this dose level were decreased microvessel density and lower numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells in mammary carcinoma tissues. (
  • F or 10 years, Karina Yaniv has worked to find out just how much zebrafish have in common with mice-at least when it comes to their lymphatic systems, the open-ended networks of vessels best known for draining fluids from tissues and providing thoroughfares for immune cells throughout the body. (
  • Lymphatic vessels were first described by the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, and have been studied in earnest since the 17th century. (
  • Lymphatic vessels arise from specialized angioblasts within a venous niche," Nature , 522:56-61, 2015. (
  • cKit lineage hemogenic endothelium-derived cells contribute to mesenteric lymphatic vessels," Cell Reports , 10:1708-21, 2015. (
  • Her observations led her to propose that, during development, lymphatic vessels sprouted solely from existing veins. (
  • Biologists George Huntington and Charles McClure suggested an alternative, nonvenous source for lymphatic vessels in 1910, when they found evidence in cat embryos that cells from outside the veins gave rise to lymph sacs that later connected with veins. (
  • Later, evidence from bird and frog embryos suggested that lymphatics could arise from progenitors called lymphangioblasts as well as from veins, and reports of alternative lymphatic cell sources in mice, such as blood cell progenitors, appeared in the literature as markers became available to distinguish different types of endothelial cells, the building blocks of both lymphatic and blood vessels. (
  • In developing mouse embryos, venous endothelial cells gave rise to structures called primary lymph sacs, which in turn sprout and spread cells that make up lymphatic vessels. (
  • 8 The question of where lymphatic vessels came from was largely settled and replaced with questions about how blood vessel cells differentiate into lymphatic cells. (
  • 1. Anatomy Of or relating to lymph or to the nodes or vessels of the lymphatic system. (
  • 2013) Initial afferent lymphatic vessels controlling outbound leukocyte traffic from skin to lymph nodes. (
  • While the use of antiangiogenesis drugs that block the growth of new blood vessels can improve the treatment of some cancers, clinical trials of their ability to prevent the development of new metastases have failed. (
  • In their paper published online in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute , an MGH research team reports finding that the growth of metastases in lymph nodes-the most common site of cancer spread-does not require new blood vessels but instead takes advantage of existing blood vessels. (
  • Using a mouse model of cancer that provides direct microscopic access to lymph nodes, they first found that the initiation and growth of node metastases did not involve the development of new blood vessels. (
  • In the mouse model, treating node metastases with two angiogenesis inhibitors that have different mechanisms of action did not change the density of blood vessels or the growth of the metastases. (
  • The primary implication of our findings is that, since lymph node metastases do not require the development of new blood vessels , antiangiogenic therapy will not inhibit lymphatic metastasis. (
  • The lymphatic system consists of a network of vessels that carry lymphatic fluid from the body organs back to the general circulation. (
  • Some tumors secrete protein growth factors that can act on the lymphatic vessels to facilitate metastasis. (
  • However, thus far, mechanisms underlying the transit of cancer cells through the larger lymphatic vessels and into the lymph nodes remain elusive. (
  • In the current study, Stacker and colleagues investigated how collecting lymphatic vessels, conduits that drain lymphatic fluid from tissues into lymph nodes, are altered during VEGF-D-driven metastasis. (
  • This key interaction between lymphatic system growth factors and prostaglandins reveals a mechanism for physically preparing collecting vessels for tumor cell dissemination and a mechanism by which NSAIDs can reduce cancer metastases through the lymphatic system," concludes Dr. Stacker. (
  • Lymphangiogenesis is the formation of lymphatic vessels from pre-existing lymphatic vessels in a method believed to be similar to angiogenesis (blood vessel development). (
  • In vitro, PDGF-BB stimulated MAP kinase activity and cell motility of isolated lymphatic endothelial cells. (
  • This role of midkine was linked to a paracrine activation of the mTOR pathway in lymphatic endothelial cells. (
  • Our results identified expression of the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit A, α-isoform (PPP2R1A) on the cell surfaces of both melanoma cells and lymphatic endothelial cells. (
  • Validation experiments showed that PPP2R1A is expressed on the cell surfaces of both melanoma and lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro as well as independent melanoma patient samples. (
  • The lymphatic circulation begins with blind ending (closed at one end) highly permeable superficial lymph capillaries, formed by endothelial cells with button-like junctions between them that allow fluid to pass through them when the interstitial pressure is sufficiently high. (
  • Still, without technologies such as lineage tracing, researchers couldn't definitively verify the sources of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). (
  • This valve system involves collagen fibers attached to lymphatic endothelial cells that respond to increased interstitial fluid pressure by separating the endothelial cells and allowing the flow of lymph into the capillary for circulation. (
  • Lymphatic metastasis contributes to mortality from solid tumors. (
  • Here, we examine functional lymphatics associated with mouse tumors expressing normal or elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), a molecule that stimulates lymphangiogenesis. (
  • Although VEGF-C overexpression increased lymphatic surface area in the tumor margin and lymphatic metastasis, these tumors contained no functional lymphatics, as assessed by four independent functional assays and immunohistochemical staining. (
  • To date, studies investigating lymphatics in tumors have relied exclusively on either molecular markers ( 1 , 2 ) or functional techniques ( 3-5 ). (
  • The former studies have identified lymphatic markers in tumors, whereas the latter have failed to demonstrate functional intratumor lymphatics ( 1 , 2 , 4 ). (
  • Invasion and metastasis from mock-transduced (MT) and VEGF-C-overexpressing tumors. (
  • 95% of larger tumors generate LN metastases. (
  • CD44, recently has been found closely associated with human tumors, especially in growth and metastasis of malignant tumors. (
  • Metastasis, in which cancer cells break free from the primary tumor and form tumors at other sites, worsens the prognosis for many cancer patients. (
  • In another experiment, the researchers treated mice with primary tumors before metastasis with iCluster, and a couple of days later, surgically removed their primary tumors, similar to what would be done for cancer patients. (
  • In order to better understand the mechanisms controlling lymphatic growth and lymph node metastasis in human ductal pancreatic cancer, we analyzed the expression pattern of the vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D), its receptor VEGF-receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) and the lymphatic endothelium-specific hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 in a panel of 19 primary human ductal pancreatic tumors and 10 normal pancreas specimens. (
  • Importantly, these tumors also revealed a significant induction of intra- and peritumoral lymphatics, as judged from immunohistochemical detection of LYVE-1 expression. (
  • In total, 63 tumor specimens from 40 patients were investigated, comprising 30 primary tumors, 22 systemic metastases (12 liver, 6 brain, and 4 abdominal wall metastases) and 11 lymph node tumors. (
  • Certainly feasible relationship between periostin and lymphatic position in periostin-overexpressing xenograft HNSCC and tumors situations was observed. (
  • Metastasis is one of the hallmarks of cancer , distinguishing it from benign tumors . (
  • [9] The lungs , liver , brain , and bones are the most common metastasis locations from solid tumors. (
  • Tumors were assessed at varying stages of development, and lymphatic patterns were determined in tumors and liver by immunohistochemistry staining for podoplanin and LYVE-1. (
  • We found that genetic deletion of the S1P receptor 1 ( S1pr1 ) alone in CD11b hi CD206 + TAMs infiltrating mouse breast tumors prevents pulmonary metastasis and tumor lymphangiogenesis. (
  • Mesothelioma metastasis occurs when the cancer has spread beyond where the tumors originated, generally associated with stage 3 and stage 4 mesothelioma. (
  • Another important issue of the AEG II/Nishi tumors is their lymphatic drainage as they are exactly localized at the junction of the thoracic and abdominal cavity, and between the esophagus and stomach. (
  • For most types of solid tumors, the presence of lymph node metastases indicates a poorer prognosis and the need for chemotherapy or other systemic treatments that are delivered throughout the body. (
  • Other investigators believe that lymph node metastasis is an essential part of the process leading to metastases in other parts of the body and that metastatic cells in the lymph nodes pass into the bloodstream and seed the growth of new tumors. (
  • Unfortunately, cancer cells sometimes spread (via a process called metastasis) through the lymphatic system and can form secondary tumors in the lymph nodes. (
  • For example, elevated levels of the growth factor VEGF-D in human tumors correlate with lymph node metastasis and poor patient prognosis," explains the senior study author, Steven Stacker, associate professor from the Tumour Angiogenesis Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne, Australia. (
  • In a series of 24 tumors reported by Chen and Tu, 20 lesions spread via the hematogenous route, whereas 4 spread through the lymphatic channels. (
  • The authors performed a retrospective study in ultrasound to investigate new aspects in the sonomorphology of lymph node metastases of the neck. (
  • In 105 of 145 patients with histologically proved head and neck carcinomas, 187 lymph node metastases were detected by ultrasound. (
  • 2) Concerning the more complex morphology of lymph node metastases in ultrasound, echolucent forms could be differentiated from echogenie textures: low- or nondifferentiated and nonkeratinizing metastases appeared echolucent and cyst-like, with dorsal signal amplification. (
  • The morphologic assessment of lymph nodes in ultrasound allows for primary histologic and prognostic evaluation of lymph node metastases. (
  • The therapeutic relevance of enhanced sensitivity in detection of lymph node metastases has to be considered in the light of in- creased morbidity versus eventual prognostic improvements by modification of therapy. (
  • In all 3 types most lymph node metastases were localized at the paracardial region (station 1 and 2), at the lesser gastric curvature (station 3), at the left gastric artery (station 7), and in the lower mediastinum (station 110 and 111). (
  • Not only were in vivo survival rates significantly higher in the 20 mg/kg/day α-mangostin group versus controls, but both tumor volume and the multiplicity of lymph node metastases were significantly suppressed. (
  • Using a novel model we developed to facilitate discoveries about the growth and spread of lymph node metastases , we show that angiogenesis does not occur in lymph node metastases, providing a mechanism for resistance to angiogenic therapy in these situations. (
  • But the actual role of lymph node metastases in the spread of cancer has been controversial, Padera notes. (
  • To follow up their previous findings that antiangiogenesis therapies could not stop the development or growth of lymph node metastases, the MGH team designed the current study. (
  • Finally, comparing lymph node metastases from rectal cancer patients who had been treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab with those from patients that received no antiangiogenesis therapy found no difference in blood vessel density within the metastatic nodes. (
  • The researchers also found that lymph node metastases appear to have developed from several different tumor cells that lodged in the nodes, not from a single tumor cell as is the case with many but not all distant metastases. (
  • Now we need to answer the question of whether or not lymph node metastases actually can seed distant metastases, which would indicate how aggressively they need to be treated. (
  • A ) LYVE-1 stain (brown) of a ferritin-filled lymphatic vessel (Ly) at the edge of a T-241 fibrosarcoma. (
  • C ) Prox 1 stain (nuclear, brown) of same lymphatic vessel. (
  • The degree of tumor lymphangiogenesis correlated with lymphatic vessel density in the peritumoral area, and despite tumor lymphangiogenesis, lymphatic metastasis failed to occur in gene-targeted vascular endothelial growth factor C +/− mice that have hypoplasia of the lymphatic network. (
  • This was associated with a significant increase in lymphatic vessel invasion by tumor cells and an increased rate of lymphatic metastases, as indicated by pan-cytokeratin reactive cells in lymph nodes. (
  • Lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic vessel remodelling in cancer. (
  • Generally, lymph flows away from the tissues to lymph nodes and eventually to either the right lymphatic duct or the largest lymph vessel in the body, the thoracic duct . (
  • The researchers discovered that VEGF-D was linked to prostaglandin pathways, which are important regulators of lymphatic vessel dilation. (
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDS ), which are known inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, reduced lymphatic vessel dilation and, therefore, inhibited tumor metastasis. (
  • Impaired or excessive lymphatic vessel formation has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including neoplasm metastasis, oedema, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lymphangiomatosis and impaired wound healing. (
  • Patients with bladder cancer (BCa) with clinical lymph node (LN) metastasis have an extremely poor prognosis. (
  • In this study, we compared differentially expressed genes in cell lines of high (468LN) vs. low (468GFP) lymphatic metastatic ability, and related these to clinical literature on genes associated with lymphatic metastatic ability and prognosis, to identify genes of potential clinical relevance. (
  • The presence of lymphatic metastases is a strong indicator for poor prognosis in patients with ductal pancreatic cancer. (
  • The pure-IMPC cases had higher incidences of lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis, and also showed a poorer prognosis. (
  • Subsequently, exosomal LNMAT2 was internalized by HLECs and epigenetically upregulated prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1) expression by recruitment of hnRNPA2B1 and increasing the H3K4 trimethylation level in the PROX1 promoter, ultimately resulting in lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. (
  • Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, suppresses lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. (
  • VEGF-C has recently been identified as a key molecule that involved in tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. (
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor-D induces lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in models of ductal pancreatic cancer. (
  • Our results suggest that VEGF-D plays a pivotal role in stimulating lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in human ductal pancreatic cancer, and therefore represents a novel therapeutic target for this devastating disease. (
  • Thrombospondin-1 selectively inhibits early-stage carcinogenesis and angiogenesis but not tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in transgenic mice. (
  • We identify streptococcal virulence mechanisms important for bacterial lymphatic dissemination and show that metastatic streptococci within infected lymph nodes resist and subvert clearance by phagocytes, enabling replication that can seed intense bloodstream infection. (
  • While the link between the lymphatic system and the metastatic spread of cancer is centuries old, understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still evolving. (
  • Our findings indicate that a lymphatic drug delivery system with sonoporation represents a promising method for treating metastatic LNs located outside the dissection area. (
  • We evaluated the ability of colorectal cancer cell lines on metastasis to lymph nodes, and metastatic (or anti-metastatic) genes were screened by cDNA microarray. (
  • also confirmed that a digestive tract cancers cell series with low metastatic potential shown noticeably expanded growth metastatic development in an pet xenograft model of metastasis when built to overexpress periostin [12]. (
  • From July 1998 to May 2013, a total of 98 gastric cancer patients with liver-only metastasis, either synchronous or metachronous, were treated by liver-directed treatment for metastatic lesions. (
  • If this lymph node is not metastatic, a misdiagnosis can occur, according to which the patient does not have any metastases and thus does not receive the correct treatment. (
  • Lecture 3) - Define metastasis, and identify the major steps in the metastatic process. (
  • The stage of the tumor is variable, depending on the site of metastasis and the extent of the metastatic foci. (
  • Although lymphatic dissemination is a major route for breast cancer metastasis, there has been little work to determine what factors control the ability of tumor cells to survive, establish and show progressive growth in a lymph node environment. (
  • Significance of lymphatic invasion and cancer invasion-related proteins on lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. (
  • In this study, the significance of cancer cell behaviors, such as cell detachment, stromal invasion and lymphatic invasion on regional LN metastasis in gastric cancer was investigated by comprehensive immunohistochemistry. (
  • Along with lymphatic invasion by cancer cells and gross tumor size, MMP-1 expression in cancer cells at the invasive front of the primary tumor was a significant, independent predictor of LN metastasis. (
  • Among the cancer invasion-related proteins examined, MMP-1 plays a vital role in LN metastasis of gastric cancer. (
  • Tumor size, lymphatic invasion and MMP-1 expression level at the invasive front were the predictive factors of LN metastasis of gastric cancer. (
  • in particular, extranodal invasion is a significant risk factor for liver metastasis in patients with gastric cancer. (
  • Tumor invasion or metastasis is a complex process. (
  • HA plays an important role in interstitial metastasis, tumorous invasion, differentiation of foetal deformity cancer cells, formation of embryonal tissue and viral conversion process in the fibrocytes via acting on cells and ICM receptors. (
  • Finally, NLRP3 expression in tumor-infiltrating macrophages correlated with survival, lymph node invasion, and metastasis of mammary carcinoma patients. (
  • With Logistic regression analysis , the independent risk factors of cervical lymphatic metastasis in PTMC were multifocality and capsular invasion. (
  • [email protected]#Combining multifocality and capsular invasion significantly improves the risk of cervical lymphatic metastasis in PTMC by ultrasonography . (
  • However, lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis in the pure-IMPC or mixed-IMPC cases were higher than those in pseudo-IMPC cases with statistically significant values. (
  • Unassisted metastasis through the lymphatic system is a mechanism of dissemination thus far ascribed only to cancer cells. (
  • Initial lymphatics have distinctive loose junctions that allow selective passage of leucocytes, fluids and small macromolecules but could in principle also provide an ideal conduit for the dissemination of pathogens 1 , 2 . (
  • This lymphatic metastasis is a key pathway of dissemination that can drive bloodstream infection. (
  • Hematogenous spread is considered the predominant pathway for development of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) and subsequent further tumor dissemination portal nodal involvement is also frequently observed in such cases, suggesting that lymphatics may have a role in the spread of CRLM. (
  • Lymphatic development is likely to play a significant role in the intrahepatic and periportal dissemination of CRLM. (
  • In most human cancers, including melanoma, tumor dissemination through the lymphatic vasculature provides a major route for tumor metastasis. (
  • Chronic stress induces stable changes in lymphatic architecture and increases lymphogenic tumor cell dissemination leading to increased lymph node metastasis. (
  • The lymphatic system provides an initial route for cancer cell dissemination in many cancers including melanoma. (
  • Oncologists have long debated the part played by the lymphatic system of cancer patients in tumor metastasis. (
  • Cancer metastases are commonly found in the lymphatic system. (
  • Cancer cells metastasize to distant sites via the vascular or lymphatic system. (
  • Tumor lymphangiogenesis is now known to play a causal role in lymph node metastasis, and thus its inhibition would have great significance for the prevention of lymph node metastasis in cancer therapy. (
  • Understanding the complex interactions between tumour cells, the immune system and lymphatics will be essential to inform developing therapeutic and prognostic approaches to cancer. (
  • however, the most important step in the whole process of lymph node (LN) metastasis in gastric cancer remains obscure. (
  • This suggested that cancer cells metastasized to the liver by a lymphatic route. (
  • Twenty gastric cancer patients who had synchronous liver metastasis and 17 who developed metachronous liver metastasis after gastrectomy, performed between 1985 and 1997, were included in this study. (
  • They were compared with 44 advanced gastric cancer patients who had neither synchronous nor subsequent liver metastasis, and who survived with a disease-free course for more than 5 years. (
  • We have developed metastasis models using ZsGreen labeled MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cells. (
  • Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been shown to be among the most prominent cells in tumor microenvironment and play a significant role in accelerating tumor metastasis by interacting with other type of cells. (
  • Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of CAFs on infiltration of TAMs and lymphatic metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). (
  • Cancer-associated fibroblasts were associated with infiltration of CD163-positive macrophages and lymphatic metastasis, and may be potential prognostic predictors of TNBC. (
  • The aims of this research were to investigate (1) if lymphatic metastasis influenced on survival significantly in the uterine cancer patients, and (2) if regional lymphatic cells had inhibitory potential against metastasis. (
  • In uterine cervical cancer, pelvic lymph node metastasis had a strongest influence on survial among histopathological prognostic factors. (
  • In endometrial cancer, paraaortic lymph node metastasis was seen in 9% of all patients. (
  • Now, researchers have developed a strategy to target metastases in lymph nodes for destruction, before they can cause cancer at other locations. (
  • We further addressed the biological function of VEGF-D for induction of lymphatic metastasis in a nude mouse xenograft model using two human ductal pancreatic cancer cell lines with overexpression of VEGF-D. Compared to normal human pancreas, pancreatic cancer tissue showed overexpression of VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 in conjunction with a high lymphatic vascularization as determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. (
  • Chromosomal alterations during lymphatic and liver metastasis formation of colorectal cancer. (
  • 2015). 'Identification of ANXA1 as a Lymphatic Metastasis and Poor Prognostic Factor in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma', Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 16(7), pp. 2719-2724. (
  • Skip metastasis are frequent in non-small-cell lung cancer and complete dissection of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes should remain the surgical standard procedure for this disease. (
  • A metastasis is a cancer that has spread from where it started to another part of the body. (
  • A metastasis is sometimes called a secondary cancer. (
  • Metastasis is a key element in cancer staging systems such as the TNM staging system , where it represents the "M". In overall stage grouping , metastasis places a cancer in Stage IV. (
  • Metastasis involves a complex series of steps in which cancer cells leave the original tumor site and migrate to other parts of the body via the bloodstream, via the lymphatic system, or by direct extension. (
  • The location of the metastases is not always random, with different types of cancer tending to spread to particular organs and tissues at a rate that is higher than expected by statistical chance alone. (
  • The lymphatic patterns of CRLM were determined using a well established murine model.CRLM were induced using a well established murine intrasplenic colorectal cancer model. (
  • Metastasis is the most lethal step of cancer progression in patients with invasive melanoma. (
  • Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer death. (
  • To investigate the metastasis of cancer by examining the metabolism of breast epithelial cells and look at the role of signaling, researchers have built a mathematical model. (
  • The model specifically looks at the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is an important event during development and cancer metastasis. (
  • These targets may aid in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie EMT and cancer metastasis. (
  • Ninety-five percent of all cancer deaths are due to metastasis and not due to the primary cancer. (
  • Researchers have now revealed that a secreted protein predominantly expressed in bone inhibits prostate cancer metastasis to bone. (
  • People who drink alcohol may have a lower risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) - a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, suggests a study published online by The Lancet Oncology. (
  • Although various liver-directed treatment modalities, such as liver resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), have been applied to treat liver metastases from gastric cancer, optimal management of them remains controversial. (
  • In patients with liver metastasis from gastric cancer, we investigated the short- and long-term outcomes of liver resection and RFA and analyzed factors influencing survival. (
  • A total of 98 gastric cancer patients with liver metastasis and no extrahepatic disease were treated by liver resection ( n = 68) or RFA ( n = 30). (
  • Only the size of the metastases was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients with liver metastasis. (
  • In select patients with liver metastasis from gastric cancer, liver resection and RFA showed satisfactory and comparable short- and long-term results. (
  • For patients with liver metastasis from gastric cancer, palliative treatment is regarded the standard of care, since their disease is incurable and their life expectancy is dreadfully short. (
  • Nevertheless, although several studies have assessed the safety and efficacy of individual treatment modalities for liver metastases from gastric cancer, few have assessed the outcomes of these treatment modalities in patients with liver metastases from gastric cancer. (
  • Therefore, we aimed to investigate the safety and feasibility of liver resection and RFA for liver metastasis from gastric cancer, and to evaluate the oncological outcomes thereof in terms of survival. (
  • Identification of a prognostic 28-gene expression signature for gastric cancer with lymphatic metastasis. (
  • Gastric cancer (GC) patients have high mortality due to late-stage diagnosis, which is closely associated with lymph node metastasis. (
  • In the present study, we obtained RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Altas and used Limma package to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lymphatic metastases and non-lymphatic metastases in GC tissues. (
  • New lymphatic imaging technologies are needed to better assess immune function and cancer progression and treatment. (
  • The lymphatic system can play a very worrisome role in the spread of breast cancer. (
  • But the breast's lymphatic system can also spread diseases such as cancer through the body. (
  • While the metastasis to these nearby and distant organs and tissues is rather commonly associated with these stages of the cancer, doctors have also seen pleural mesothelioma spread into other specific organs. (
  • KEY WORDS: lung cancer, metastasis, lymphangiogenesis. (
  • The upregulation of Hsp90-beta and annexin A1 were associated with poor post-surgical survival time and lymphatic metastasis of lung cancer patients. (
  • To evaluate the influence of perinephric (PN) and renal sinus (RS) fat infiltration on cancer-specific survival beyond other prognostic factors, as the Tumour-Node-Metastasis (TNM) classification system defines stage T3a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as infiltration of perirenal fat and/or direct infiltration of the adrenal gland. (
  • The fact that the impact of tumours on the lymphatic system is so diverse underlines the importance of the lymphatic system in cancer and its spreading. (
  • Metastases form when cancer cells break away from the original tumour and are washed into a lymph node with the lymphatic fluid, where they can metastasise. (
  • It describes whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body through the blood or lymphatic system . (
  • Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Treatment of Tumor Metastasis provides information pertinent to the basic mechanism of tumor metastasis and the clinical results with immunochemotherapy of cancer. (
  • This text then examines the pathogenesis of cancer metastasis and its possible modulation by immune cells per se of by those treated with immunopotentiators in experimental animals. (
  • 896 patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer patients and bone metastasis were recruited between 20th November 2007 and 13th February 2009. (
  • Paradoxically, by increasing chemoresistance and cancer metastasis, it is also pro-cancer. (
  • Here we present data that provide mechanistic explanations for the ability of paclitaxel (PTX), a frontline chemotherapeutic agent, to exacerbate metastasis in mouse models of breast cancer. (
  • Here we describe the ability of paclitaxel (PTX), a frontline chemotherapeutic agent, to exacerbate metastasis in mouse models of breast cancer. (
  • At the primary tumor, PTX increased the abundance of the tumor microenvironment of metastasis, a landmark microanatomical structure at the microvasculature where cancer cells enter the blood stream. (
  • Thus, ATF3 in the host cells links a chemotherapeutic agent-a stressor-to immune modulation and cancer metastasis. (
  • S100P is known to affect tumor development and metastasis of various cancers, but its role in endometrial cancer is unclear. (
  • Nearly 20% patients were diagnosed at colon cancer with metastasis. (
  • The reintroduction of miR-148a and miR-34b/c in cancer cells with epigenetic inactivation inhibited their motility, reduced tumor growth, and inhibited metastasis formation in xenograft models, with an associated down-regulation of the miRNA oncogenic target genes, such as C-MYC, E2F3, CDK6, and TGIF2. (
  • Our findings indicate that DNA methylation-associated silencing of tumor suppressor miRNAs contributes to the development of human cancer metastasis. (
  • Recently, a new function mediating tumor metastasis in breast cancer has been assigned to miRNAs, by which this malignant step is promoted ( 7 , 8 ) or suppressed ( 9 ). (
  • A new study reveals key factors that promote the spread of cancer to lymph nodes and provides a mechanism that explains how a common over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medication can reduce the spread of tumor cells through the lymphatic system. (
  • These insights may assist with the design of additional therapeutics for cancer patients and enhance current approaches that aim to prevent the spread of cancer cells through the lymphatic system and potentially to distant organs. (
  • The lethal agent of cancer is metastasis. (
  • Now you've been introduced to the concept and definition of metastasis, I'm going to go over a common method of staging for cancer, the TNM system, in which metastasis plays a major role. (
  • As you'll see, metastasis plays a big role in determining how serious a person's cancer is, and how to treat it. (
  • Factors related with metastasis of right retroesophageal lymph nodes in papillary thyroid cancer. (
  • Cancers from distant sites that metastasize to the vagina through the blood or lymphatic system also occur, including colon cancer, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma , and breast cancer. (
  • Lymphangiogenesis in Cancer Metastasis. (
  • Use of a PEG-conjugated bright near-infrared dye for functional imaging of rerouting of tumor lymphatic drainage after sentinel lymph node metastasis. (
  • Bagby TR, Cai S, Duan S, Thati S, Aires DJ, Forrest L. Impact of Molecular Weight on Lymphatic Drainage of a Biopolymer-Based Imaging Agent. (
  • Sunkuk Kwon, Germaine D. Agollah, Grace Wu, Wenyaw Chan, and Eva M. Sevick-Muraca, "Direct visualization of changes of lymphatic function and drainage pathways in lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma using near-infrared fluorescence imaging," Biomed. (
  • In this study, we non-invasively imaged changes of lymphatic function and drainage patterns using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging. (
  • A comparative genomic hybridization study was ordered from the UCSF laboratory, but results were estimated to take 6-8 weeks, a period of time that could compromise afferent lymphatic drainage from a scalp lesion and reduce the accuracy of the sentinel node biopsy. (
  • However, many questions remain to be addressed about the mechanisms of lymphatic metastasis. (
  • Karaman, S. & Detmar, M. Mechanisms of lymphatic metastasis. (
  • Exploring the molecular mechanisms of lymphatic metastasis may inform the research into early diagnostics of GC. (
  • Finally, the lymph node metastasis was significantly suppressed in rapamycin-treated mice. (
  • In vivo, reconstitution of HAPLN1 in aged mice increased the number of LN metastases, but reduced visceral metastases. (
  • Indeed, most metastasis models do not use these cells, relying instead on ER− cell lines like MDA-231, MDA-435 ( 10 ) and similar cells that express putative aggressiveness markers and do metastasize in nude mice. (
  • In 90% of nude mice, lymph node metastasis was established by alloic transplantation of LS174T and LS174T-NEO, which expressed high levels of CD44. (
  • That's in contrast to the untreated mice - all of them died from metastases within 51 days of surgery. (
  • Then, the team tested the therapy on mice that already had metastases. (
  • These data support the use of VEGFR3 reporter mice as a 'MetAlert' discovery platform for drivers and inhibitors of metastasis. (
  • We hypothesized that loss of integrity in the lymphatic vasculature due to ECM degradation might play a role. (
  • Our results revealed that PPP2R1A is a new biomarker for melanoma metastasis and show, for the first time to our knowledge, an active interaction between the lymphatic vasculature and melanoma cells during tumor progression. (
  • Nonvenous origin of dermal lymphatic vasculature," Circ Res , 116:1649-54, 2015. (
  • Lymphatic vasculature development" (PDF). (
  • In the present study, we investigated the relationship between liver metastasis and lymphatic involvement in gastric carcinoma by examining resected specimens. (
  • Relationships between CD44, hyaluronic acid expression and lymphatic metastasis and radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (
  • To study the sensible relationships between CD44, Hyaluronic acid (HA) expression and lymphatic metastasis and radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to explore and predict effective biological indicators for potential lymphatic metastasis and radiosensitivity. (
  • The results showed that HA and CD44mRNA expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma had significant differences between lymph node metastasis group or non-metastasis group, lymph node fading group or non-fading group. (
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has characteristics of early metastasis and high grade malignancy, mainly of lymph node metastasis. (
  • Analysis of risk factors for skip lymphatic metastasis and their prognostic value in operated N2 non-small-cell lung carcinoma. (
  • To study the predictors of level V metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). (
  • We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. (
  • To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. (
  • Metastasis affecting oral and maxillofacial region is extremely rare, occurring in 0.2‰ of all cases of thyroid carcinoma [ 3 ]. (
  • We report the first case of a malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC). (
  • Elective neck dissection (removal of clinically benign neck lymphatic tissue) in a well-differentiated carcinoma is not indicated because postoperative radioiodine treatment effectively treats microscopic lymphatic metastases. (
  • The findings establish the lymphatic system as both a survival niche and conduit to the bloodstream for S. pyogenes , explaining the phenomenon of occult bacteraemia. (
  • Older melanoma patients have lower rates of sentinel lymph node (LN) metastases yet paradoxically have inferior survival. (
  • Lymphatic HAPLN1 expression was prognostic of long-term patient survival. (
  • Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that the activation of CAFs, TAMs infiltration, and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival in TNBC patients. (
  • Moreover, metastases in 2 or more pelvic lymph node gave worse survival than those in none or one lymph node. (
  • However, skip metastasis are not an independent prognostic factor in survival. (
  • Conclusion: the grade of immune staining can be an indicative of node metastasis and poor survival rate, respectively. (
  • We hypothesised that S. pyogenes tropism for the lymphatic system is important in such occult infections. (
  • Based on the lymphatic pathology associated with S. pyogenes disease and our recent discovery that the hyaluronan capsule of S. pyogenes binds the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 12 , 23 , we hypothesised that the lymphatic system plays a central role in streptococcal pathogenesis in invasive infection. (
  • Our insight into the lymphatic system lags far behind that of the vascular system, due largely to the limitations of available techniques. (
  • Here, we demonstrate proof of concept for a lymphatic drug delivery system using nano/microbubbles (NMBs) and ultrasound (US) to achieve sonoporation in LNs located outside the dissection area. (
  • The lymphatic system helps to protect us from infection and disease. (
  • After passing through the channels of the lymphatic system they drain into the lymph nodes. (
  • The lymph nodes act as filters along the lymphatic system. (
  • Umbilical cord blood and bone marrow transplants at Loyola University Health System, Maywood, Ill., are curing or slowing the progression of many cancers originating in the bone marrow (i.e., leukemia, myeloma) or lymphatic system (lymphoma). (
  • That system is the lymphatic system. (
  • According to one of the most used staging systems, the Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) System, metastasis has largely occurred when the disease has advanced to stage 3 or stage 4, though patients may seem some local spreading even by stage 2. (
  • Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not closed and has no central pump. (
  • However, it is largely unknown how the lymphatic system changes during tumor progression due in part to the lack of imaging techniques currently available. (
  • A tumour alters the lymphatic system around it - and in a much more complex way than was previously assumed. (
  • Four studies identify alternative origins for cells of the developing lymphatic system, challenging the long-standing view that they all come from veins. (
  • I think it opens up a whole [research] area," says Paul Riley, a cardiovascular researcher at the University of Oxford who led a team that identified a nonvenous source of cells seeding the lymphatic system in developing mouse hearts. (
  • One theory holds that because the tonsil has no afferent lymphatic system, it is not unreasonable to believe that retrograde cervical spread can occur through the thoracic duct. (
  • It has been postulated that the tumor may gain access to the vascular or lymphatic system as a result of iatrogenic manipulation during a surgical procedure, increasing the risk of involvement of the angiolymphatic system, as well as the risk of multiple recurrences. (
  • Vascular surgeons treat and manage disorders in your veins, arteries and your lymphatic system to ensure blood circulation in your heart and in brain is the best it can be. (
  • The role of the lymphatic system in these diseases has received renewed interest largely due to the discovery of lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)-specific markers such as podoplanin, LYVE-1, PROX1, desmoplakin and VEGF-C receptor VEGFR-3. (
  • HA, which has effects in promoting adhesion and metastasis, plays an important role in tumor growth and progression. (
  • EFGR signaling often affects metabolic rate in tumor cells and controls their progression -- the dysregulation of signaling pathways during this process is therefore a hallmark of metastasis. (
  • The high rate of mortality is most likely attributed to early metastasis that causes malignant cells to spread to various tissues including bone, brain, and liver tissues. (
  • Recent studies have also linked different sets of miRNAs to metastasis through either the promotion or suppression of this malignant process. (
  • VEGF-C-overexpressing melanomas and fibrosarcomas exhibited an increase in lymphatic metastasis (fig. S1C) but no increase in hematogenous lung metastasis ( Table 1 ). (
  • [6] This process is known (respectively) as lymphatic or hematogenous spread. (
  • The roles played by the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in the early stages of multi-step carcinogenesis and in the control of hematogenous versus lymphatic metastasis are unknown. (
  • Metastasis may occur via the hematogenous or lymphatic route. (
  • We investigated the role of mTOR, which is a downstream kinase of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, and the MAPK family (MEK1/2, p38, and JNK) in the regulation of VEGF-C and VEGF-A expression in B13LM cells, a lymphatic metastasis-prone pancreatic tumor cell line. (
  • Other chapters consider the effects of different soluble immune mediators on tumor cell growth and metastasis. (
  • This book discusses as well the immunobiology and immunopathology of human tumor cell metastasis. (
  • However, approximately 20% of BCa with LN metastasis exhibits low VEGF-C expression, suggesting a VEGF-C-independent mechanism for LN metastasis of BCa. (
  • Therefore, our findings highlight a VEGF-C-independent mechanism of exosomal lncRNA-mediated LN metastasis and identify LNMAT2 as a therapeutic target for LN metastasis in BCa. (
  • We had previously shown that antiangiogenesis therapies were ineffective in animal models of lymphatic metastasis, but there was no data to explain the mechanism behind those observations," says Timothy Padera, Ph.D., of the Steele Laboratory of Tumor Biology in the MGH Department of Radiation Oncology, senior author of the paper. (
  • However, the precise contribution of miRNAs to human metastasis and the mechanism underlying their dysregulation remain largely unexplored. (
  • Here we show that virulent S. pyogenes not only reach the first local draining lymph node, as demonstrated previously 12 , but readily transit through sequential lymph nodes within efferent lymphatics to reach the bloodstream, while remaining extracellular. (
  • We identified an exosomal long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), termed lymph node metastasis-associated transcript 2 (LNMAT2), that stimulated human lymphatic endothelial cell (HLEC) tube formation and migration in vitro and enhanced tumor lymphangiogenesis and LN metastasis in vivo. (
  • Lymph node metastasis was measured using fluorescence imaging. (
  • 80% of lymph node (LN) metastases and 65% to 70% of distant metastases retain their receptors ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • The relative contents of HA, CD44 mRNA and CD44 protein in the lymph node metastasis group were significantly higher than that of non-lymph node metastasis group. (
  • It has a higher cervical lymph node metastasis as the clinical manifestation. (
  • High activation of CAFs was positively correlated with elevated infiltration of polarized CD163-positive TAMs and lymph node metastasis in TNBC patients. (
  • From these results, it was clear that regional lymph node metastasis significant prognostic factor. (
  • We investigated the interaction between CD44 and its ligand, hyaluronic acid, on lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancers. (
  • Cell lines were divided into three groups (high, middle and low) according to the incidence of lymph node metastasis. (
  • Further, there was a relationship between expression levels of candidate genes and clinical lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancers. (
  • Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is a common mode of metastasis of CRC. (
  • A ) The accuracy of each DEG in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in GC. (
  • For cT1/cT2 adenocarcinomas, which are non-poorly cohesive, intestinal type of Lauren Grading 1 or 2 without clinical signs of lymph node metastasis at the distal stomach, a limited transhiatal proximal gastrectomy with double tract reconstruction is recommended. (
  • To identify prognostic effects of PN, RS or RS + PN fat infiltration, univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were applied, including lymph node status, metastases, presence of sarcomatoid features and tumour necrosis, Fuhrman's grade, Karnofsky performance status, and tumour size. (
  • As a team of scientists headed by Michael Detmar, a professor at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences , has now revealed, if this metastasis grows it can block the lymphatic flow to the corresponding lymph node. (
  • In oncology, the general view is that a tumour that metastasises does so in so-called sentinel lymph nodes, the lymph node into which the lymphatic fluid is conducted from the tumour. (
  • After all, if a metastasis in a lymph node blocks the lymphatic flow and the fluid is redirected to another lymph node, as it stands the doctor examines the latter for metastases. (
  • TNM stands for tumour , node ( lymph node ) and metastasis . (
  • Other therapies need to be tested for the treatment of patients at risk for lymph node metastasis," says Padera, who is an assistant professor of radiation oncology at Harvard Medical School. (
  • Most important, the involvement of miR-148a, miR-34b/c, and miR-9 hypermethylation in metastasis formation was also suggested in human primary malignancies ( n = 207) because it was significantly associated with the appearance of lymph node metastasis. (
  • [ 12 ] Watson et al reported a fatal case of metastasizing pleomorphic salivary adenoma, in which a 61 year-old woman had a massive untreated minor salivary gland pleopmorphic adenoma (in the palatal vault) and concurrent ipsilateral cervical node metastases. (
  • Metastasis to the lymph nodes was the next most significant risk for liver metastasis. (
  • The most common places for the metastases to occur are the lungs , liver , brain , and the bones . (
  • Austin Health Research Online: Lymphatic patterns of colorectal liver metastases. (
  • Lymphatic patterns of colorectal liver metastases. (
  • The role of lymphatics in the development of liver metastases is, however, controversial. (
  • There was a concurrent significant increase in portal lymphatic staining within the normal liver with increasing growth of CRLM.There is increased expression of lymphatics within CRLM and normal liver with increasing tumor growth. (
  • Thus, systemic chemotherapy may not be the only therapeutic option for patients with liver metastasis, and possible liver-directed treatment options for such patients should be considered on an individual basis. (
  • Though distant metastases were seen less commonly, the researchers also noted that 20% of the patients experienced bone metastases and 15% had metastases to other visceral organs, most commonly the liver. (
  • We also found that sonoporation induced extravasation of Dox from lymphatic endothelia and penetration of Dox into tumor tissues within the PALN. (
  • The spread of metastasis may occur via the blood or the lymphatics or through both routes. (
  • More importantly, PPP2R1A-PPP2R1A homodimers occur at the cellular level to mediate cell-cell interactions at the lymphatic-tumor interface. (
  • Such "detours" could well be the reason why metastasis misdiagnoses can occur in hospitals. (
  • Metastasis occurs via the bloodstream or lymphatic boats or into tissue and body cavities directly. (
  • TSP-1 overexpression also suppressed tumor angiogenesis and distant organ metastasis, but failed to inhibit tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis or lymphatic tumor spread to regional lymph nodes. (
  • Here, we exploit this inducibility of VEGFR3 to engineer mouse melanoma models for whole-body imaging of metastasis generated by human cells, clinical biopsies or endogenously deregulated oncogenic pathways. (