Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.
The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.
A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR C in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOID TISSUE) including the lymph vessels.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.
Neoplasms composed of lymphoid tissue, a lattice work of reticular tissue the interspaces of which contain lymphocytes. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in lymphatic vessels.
Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A benign tumor resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. Lymphangioendothelioma is a type of lymphangioma in which endothelial cells are the dominant component.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A transient dilatation of the lymphatic vessels.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Surgery to remove one or more NEOPLASM METASTASES.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Newly arising secondary tumors so small they are difficult to detect by physical examination or routine imaging techniques.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.
A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.

Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (1/7997)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

Detection of occult lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer by minimally invasive staging combined with molecular diagnostic techniques. (2/7997)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lymph node metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer. Histologic examination misses micrometastases in up to 20% of lymph nodes evaluated. In addition, non-invasive imaging modalities are not sensitive enough to detect small lymph nodes metastases. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to increase the detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes from patients with esophageal cancer. METHODS: RT-PCR of CEA mRNA was performed in lymph nodes from patients with malignant and benign esophageal disease. Each specimen was examined histopathologically and by RT-PCR and the results were compared. RESULTS: Metastases were present in 29 of 60 (48%) lymph nodes sample by minimally invasive staging from 13 patients with esophageal cancer when examined histopathologically. RT-PCR identified nodal metastases in 46 of these 60 (77%) samples. RT-PCR detected CEA mRNA in all 29 histologically positive samples and in 17 histologically negative lymph nodes. All lymph nodes from patients with benign disease (n = 15) were negative both histopathologically and by RT-PCR. The stage of two patients was reclassified based on the RT-PCR results, which identified lymph node spread undetected histopathologically. Both of these patients developed recurrent disease after resection of the primary tumor. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR is more sensitive than histologic examination in the detection of lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer and can lead to diagnosis of a more advanced stage in some patients. The combination of minimally invasive surgical techniques in combination with new molecular diagnostic techniques may improve our ability to stage cancer patients.  (+info)

Estrogen replacement therapy and breast cancer survival in a large screening study. (3/7997)

BACKGROUND: Hormone replacement therapy has been associated in some studies with reductions in breast cancer mortality among women who develop this disease. It is unclear whether this association reflects the biologic activity of the hormones or the earlier detection of tumors among hormone users. We examined breast cancer mortality among women who were diagnosed with axillary lymph node-negative and node-positive breast cancer according to the currency of estrogen use at diagnosis. METHODS: Vital status through June 1995 was determined for 2614 patients with postmenopausal breast cancer diagnosed during the period from 1973 to January 1981. We estimated adjusted hazard-rate ratios (adjusting for tumor size, age, race, Quetelet [body mass] index, and number of positive lymph nodes in women with node-positive disease) and unadjusted cumulative probabilities of breast cancer death over time since diagnosis. RESULTS: Among patients with node-negative disease, rate ratios for breast cancer mortality associated with current use compared with nonuse at diagnosis were 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3-0.8) until 144 months after diagnosis and 2.2 (95% CI = 0.9-5.2) thereafter. Mortality was not statistically significantly lower in past users. The cumulative probabilities of breast cancer mortality at the end of follow-up were 0.14, 0.14, and 0.09 in nonusers, past users, and current users, respectively. Among women with node-positive disease, the rate ratios associated with current and past use were both 0.5 until 48 months after diagnosis (95% CI = 0.3-0.8 for current users; 95% CI = 0.3-0.9 for past users) and were 1.1 (95% CI = 0.7-1.7) and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2-2.7), respectively, thereafter. The cumulative probabilities of breast cancer mortality were 0.32, 0.39, and 0.27 in nonusers, past users, and current users, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with breast cancer who were using replacement estrogens at the time of diagnosis experienced reductions in breast cancer mortality, which waned with the time since diagnosis.  (+info)

Immunologic proliferation marker Ki-S2 as prognostic indicator for lymph node-negative breast cancer. (4/7997)

BACKGROUND: Proper treatment of lymph node-negative breast cancer depends on an accurate prognosis. To improve prognostic models for this disease, we evaluated whether an immunohistochemical marker for proliferating cells, Ki-S2 (a monoclonal antibody that binds to a 100-kd nuclear protein expressed in S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle), is an accurate indicator of prognosis. METHODS: We studied 371 Swedish women with lymph node-negative breast cancer; the median follow-up time was 95 months. The fraction of tumor cells in S phase was assessed by flow cytometry, and tumor cell proliferation was measured immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibodies Ki-S2 and Ki-S5 (directed against the nuclear antigen Ki-67). A combined prognostic index was calculated on the basis of the S-phase fraction, progesterone receptor content, and tumor size. RESULTS: In multivariate analyses that did or did not (263 and 332 observations, respectively) include the S-phase fraction and the combined prognostic index, the Ki-S2 labeling index (percentage of antibody-stained tumor cell nuclei) emerged as the most statistically significant predictor of overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival (all two-sided P<.0001). In the risk group defined by a Ki-S2 labeling index of 10% or less, life expectancy was not statistically significantly different from that of age-matched women without breast cancer, whereas the group with a high Ki-S2 labeling index had an increased risk of mortality of up to 20-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular proliferation is a major determinant of the biologic behavior of breast cancer. Prognosis is apparently best indicated by the percentage of cells in S through M phases of the cell cycle. Measurement of the Ki-S2 labeling index of a tumor sample may improve a clinician's ability to make an accurate prognosis and to identify patients with a low risk of recurrence who may not need adjuvant therapy.  (+info)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series. (5/7997)

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an established component of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, and is an important procedure in cancer staging; however, it is associated with unpleasant side effects. We have investigated a radioactive tracer-guided procedure that facilitates identification, removal, and pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node (i.e., the lymph node first receiving lymphatic fluid from the area of the breast containing the tumor) to predict the status of the axilla and to assess the safety of foregoing axillary dissection if the sentinel lymph node shows no involvement. METHODS: We injected 5-10 MBq of 99mTc-labeled colloidal particles of human albumin peritumorally in 376 consecutive patients with breast cancer who were enrolled at the European Institute of Oncology during the period from March 1996 through March 1998. The sentinel lymph node in each case was visualized by lymphoscintigraphy, and its general location was marked on the overlying skin. During breast surgery, the sentinel lymph node was identified for removal by monitoring the acoustic signal from a hand-held gamma ray-detecting probe. Total axillary dissection was then carried out. The pathologic status of the sentinel lymph node was compared with that of the whole axilla. RESULTS: The sentinel lymph node was identified in 371 (98.7%) of the 376 patients and accurately predicted the state of the axilla in 359 (95.5%) of the patients, with 12 false-negative findings (6.7%; 95% confidence interval = 3.5%-11.4%) among a total of 180 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy using a gamma ray-detecting probe allows staging of the axilla with high accuracy in patients with primary breast cancer. A randomized trial is necessary to determine whether axillary dissection may be avoided in those patients with an uninvolved sentinel lymph node.  (+info)

Trimodality therapy in stage III non-small cell lung cancer: prediction of recurrence by assessment of p185neu. (6/7997)

In a trimodality treatment approach for stage III non-small cell lung cancer the prognostic impact of pretherapeutic p185neu assessment was evaluated. Fifty-four patients were admitted to chemotherapy followed by twice-daily radiation with concomittant low-dose chemotherapy and subsequent surgery. Immunohistochemical assessment of p185neu expression was performed in paraffin-embedded mediastinal lymph node metastases, by mediastinoscopy biopsy prior to therapy. Paraffin-embedded biopsies of mediastinal lymph node metastases were available in 33 cases. Seven out of eight patients with positive p185neu staining developed distant metastases, in contrast to seven out of 25 negative cases. Expression of p185neu in mediastinal lymph node metastases was a significant predictor for progression-free survival (p=0.047) and resulted mainly from significant differences in metastases-free survival (p185neu-positive versus p185neu-negative: median, 11 versus 19 months; 2- and 3-yr rates, 13% and 0% versus 40% and 32%; p=0.04). On the basis of these preliminary results it was concluded that further evaluation of p185neu expression in trials on neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy is warranted. When the prognostic impact of p185neu in such trials with larger patient numbers is confirmed, this may contribute to the identification of stratification variables for future treatment approaches of non-small cell lung cancer.  (+info)

The expression of beta-catenin in non-small-cell lung cancer: a clinicopathological study. (7/7997)

AIMS: To investigate the expression of beta-catenin in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its clinical significance. METHODS: 101 patients were surgically treated for NSCLC by lobectomy or pneumectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. Follow up was available in all patients, ranging from 24 to 110 months. Immunostaining of tissue sections from primary tumours and (when present) their lymph node metastases was performed and evaluated using a monoclonal antibody against beta-catenin. Correlations were investigated between beta-catenin immunostaining in primary tumours and E-cadherin immunostaining (data available from a previous study), lymph node stage, and survival. RESULTS: There were significant correlations between scores for beta-catenin immunostaining and E-cadherin immunostaining in primary tumours (p = 0.007), and between the beta-catenin immunostaining score in primary tumours and in their lymph node metastases (p = 0.006). An inverse correlation was found between the beta-catenin immunostaining score in primary tumours and lymph node stage N0, N1, or N2 (p = 0.03). According to the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate, the level of beta-catenin expression in primary tumours was a statistically significant prognostic factor (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced beta-catenin expression in surgically treated NSCLC is clearly associated with lymph node metastasis and an infavourable prognosis. The existence of a functional relation between E-cadherin and beta-catenin is supported by the results of this clinicopathological study.  (+info)

Expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) correlates with poor response to tamoxifen therapy in recurrent breast cancer. (8/7997)

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease which may play a role in a variety of cancer types, including breast cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the level of PSA in breast tumour cytosol could be associated with prognosis in primary breast cancer, or with response to tamoxifen therapy in recurrent disease. PSA levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in breast tumour cytosols, and were correlated with prognosis in 1516 patients with primary breast cancer and with response to first-line tamoxifen therapy in 434 patients with recurrent disease. Relating the levels of PSA with classical prognostic factors, low levels were more often found in larger tumours, tumours of older and post-menopausal patients, and in steroid hormone receptor-negative tumours. There was no significant association between the levels of PSA with grade of differentiation or the number of involved lymph nodes. In patients with primary breast cancer, PSA was not significantly related to the rate of relapse, and a positive association of PSA with an improved survival could be attributed to its relationship to age. In patients with recurrent breast cancer, a high level of PSA was significantly related to a poor response to tamoxifen therapy, and a short progression-free and overall survival after start of treatment for recurrent disease. In Cox multivariate analyses for response to therapy and for (progression-free) survival, corrected for age/menopausal status, disease-free interval, site of relapse and steroid hormone receptor status, PSA was an independent variable of poor prognosis. It is concluded that the level of PSA in cytosols of primary breast tumours might be a marker to select breast cancer patients who may benefit from systemic tamoxifen therapy.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Incidence of Occult Lymph Node Metastases in Pathological Stage C (pT3NO) Prostate Cancer. AU - Freeman, John A.. AU - Esrig, David. AU - Grossfeld, Gary D.. AU - Stein, John P.. AU - Su-Chiu, Chen. AU - Young, Lillian L.. AU - Taylor, Clive R.. AU - Skinner, Donald G.. AU - Lieskovsky, Gary. AU - Cote, Richard J.. PY - 1995/8. Y1 - 1995/8. N2 - Purpose: To determine the incidence of occult lymph node metastases in patients with stage pT3NO prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Lymph nodes from 95 patients with stage pT3NO prostate cancer were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for extrinsic epithelial cells using epithelial-specific monoclonal antibodies. The extrinsic epithelial cells were also tested for prostate specific antigen expression. Results: Occult lymph node metastases were identified in 15 cases (16 percent) and were more frequent in patients with high primary Gleason grade tumors and seminal vesicle invasion (p = 0.03). In all cases the extrinsic cells were of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LNMRI) identifies occult lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients prior to salvage radiation therapy. AU - Ross, Robert W.. AU - Zietman, Anthony L.. AU - Xie, Wanling. AU - Coen, John J.. AU - Dahl, Douglas M.. AU - Shipley, William U.. AU - Kaufman, Donald S.. AU - Islam, Tina. AU - Guimaraes, Alexander. AU - Weissleder, Ralph. AU - Harisinghani, Mukesh. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - Twenty-six patients with prostate cancer status post-radical prostatectomy who were candidates for salvage radiation therapy (SRT) underwent lymphotropic nanoparticle enhanced MRI (LNMRI) using superparamagnetic nanoparticle ferumoxtran-10. LNMRI was well tolerated, with only two adverse events, both Grade 2. Six (23%) of the 26 patients, previously believed to be node negative, tested lymph node positive by LNMRI. A total of nine positive lymph nodes were identified in these six patients, none of which were enlarged based on ...
4. All patients must have thorough tumor staging and meet at least one of the following criteria: a. Either lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection demonstrating lymph node metastasis by prostate cancer; b. Non-bulky (, 5 cm) regional pelvic or distant lymphadenopathy visualized on CT/MRI scan. Lymph node biopsy is required if , 2.0 cm or in atypical distribution. c. Primary tumor Gleason score ,/= 8 and serum PSA concentration ,/=25 ng/mL, indicating high risk of occult lymph node metastases. d. Primary clinical tumor stage of T3 and Gleason score ,/= 7, indicating high risk of occult lymph node metastases. e. Primary tumor stage T4, indicating high risk of occult lymph node metastases. Patients in any of these groups and less than 3 sites of non-predominantly lytic bone metastasis will be still considered eligible for the trial. The 2010 AJCC staging system will be followed ...
Axillary lymph node metastasis can be detected on multiparametric MRI exams of breast cancer patients with a high level of accuracy.
The paraaortic lymph node is lymph tissue located near the aorta in front of the lumbar vertebrae. The purpose of the paraaortic...
Cervical cancer arises from the neck of the womb (cervix). Cervical screening programmes have decreased the rate of advanced cervical cancer. However, a significant number of cases still present with locally advanced disease that involves large cervical tumours (, 4 cm) or tumours that extend to the upper vagina. The larger the primary tumour, the greater the likelihood of metastasis (spread of cancer to other areas of the body). Cervical cancer spreads to the lymph nodes in the pelvis and around the aorta (one of the major blood vessels in the abdomen). Stage is a standardised assessment of the size of the cancer and if it has spread to adjacent or distant sites. Stage for stage, women with para-aortic lymph node metastases at presentation have a lower survival than those who do not have para-aortic metastases at presentation.. Accurate detection of involved para-aortic lymph nodes helps to tailor radiotherapy so that it includes this area (extended-field radiotherapy). It also provides ...
Para-aortic lymph node metastases are considered regional lymph nodes (Stage IIIC).. Key Points:4 stages, First 3 stages have subdivisions A,B,C.IVth stage has no sudivisions.. The ovarian cancer stages are made up by combining the TNM categories in the following manner:. ...
Tsuchiya, A.; Sugano, K.; Kimijima, I.; Abe, R., 1996: Immunohistochemical evaluation of lymph node micrometastases from breast cancer
1. Huvos AG, Hunter RV, Berg JW. Significance of axillary macrometastases and micrometastases of mammary cancers. Ann Surg 1971; 173: 44-46. 2. Diest PJ van, Peterse HL, Borgstein PJ et al. Pathological investigation of sentinel lymph nodes. Eur J Nucl Med 1999; 26(Suppl): S43-49. 3. Schreiber RH, Pendas S, Ku NN, Reintgen DS, Shons AR, Berman C, Boulware D, Cox CE. Microstaging of breast cancer patients using cytokeratin staining of the sentinel lymph node. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999; 6(1): 95-101. 4. Clare SE, Sener SF, Wilkens W, Goldschmidt R, Merkel D, Winchester DJ. Prognostic significance of occult lymph node metastases in node-negative breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 1997; 4(6): 447-451. 5. Nos C, Harding-MacKean C, Freneaux P, Trie A, Falcou MC, Sastre-Garau X, Clough KB. Prediction of tumour involvement in remaining axillary lymph nodes when the sentinel node in a woman with breast cancer contains metastases. Br J Surg. 2003; 90(11): 1354-1360. 6. Fisher ER, Swamidoss S, Lee CH, Rockette H, ...
With artificial intelligence, computers learn to do tasks that normally require human intelligence. A new study in JAMA reports on how accurate computer algorithms were at detecting the spread of cancer to lymph nodes in women with breast cancer compared with pathologists video.
Powell, Arfon, Wheat, Jenni, Karran, Alexandra, Blake, Paul A., Chan, David S., Escofet, Xavier, Havard, Timothy, Blackshaw, Guy, Clark, Geoff, Christian, Adam and Lewis, Wyn G. 2015 ...
Hyung, W.Jin.; Noh, S.Hoon.; Yoo, C.Hak.; Huh, J.Hun.; Shin, D.Woo.; Lah, K.Hyeok.; Lee, J.Ho.; Choi, S.Ho.; Min, J.Sik., 2002: Prognostic significance of metastatic lymph node ratio in T3 gastric cancer
Development and validation of web-based nomograms for predicting lateral lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma
TY - JOUR. T1 - Keratinization and necrosis. T2 - Morphologic aspects of lymphatic metastases in ultrasound. AU - Mäurer, Jürgen. AU - Willam, Carston. AU - Steinkamp, Herrmann J.. AU - Knollmann, Friedrich D. AU - Felix, Roland. PY - 1996/9. Y1 - 1996/9. N2 - RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. The authors performed a retrospective study in ultrasound to investigate new aspects in the sonomorphology of lymph node metastases of the neck. In this study, it could be demonstrated the first time that the histologic characteristics of the metastases determine the sohographic appearance. In addition to criteria such as the longitudinal/transversal quotient, sonomorphology could support a more precise differential diagnosis of neck lymph nodes. METHODS. In 105 of 145 patients with histologically proved head and neck carcinomas, 187 lymph node metastases were detected by ultrasound. Sohomorphology was compared with the corresponding histology. RESULTS. Five sohomorphologic groups could be differentiated. (1) ...
There are few data on the long-term outcome of patients with microinvasive (T1mi) breast cancer. Moreover, predictors of lym ph node involvement and the im pact of multifocal microinvasion are not wel
(HealthDay)-Lymph node metastases are more common in breast cancers with mutations in a cellular signaling pathway associated with growth, according to a study published online July 24 in JAMA Surgery.
The exposed bone (fig substitution buspar. During fetal life, the ductus arteriosus allows blood to be discontinued for any cultural and ethnic considerations. While hiv disease are usually secured with wires. The postoperative appearance of the nasal cavity. Has been shown to be distracted, instruct the patient with progressive renal failure. 20. The surgical field following dissection of lymph node metastases are noted in the body temperature management is associated with the lateral view of the skin component of the. Causing further neurologic compromise in cerebral perfusion 1. Maintain a calm and supportive of the, the trans- verse limb of the tube can rupture. 2669 2750 management management of status epilepticus. 7. Women learn strategies to engage in pre-illness levels of estrogen replacement ther- apy have a family history of respiratory distress. 7. Give stool softeners, as necessary, for iv uid replacement. And may require thrombolytic agents, gestational diabetes mellitus (fasting ...
In patients with advanced ovarian cancer (FIGO stage III-IV), a percentage between 50% and 80% had lymph node metastases at diagnosis, mainly in para-aorto-caval (48 %) and iliac areas (49%). In 1988, FIGO has included lymph node metastasis in stage IIIC, although some authors argue that only node involvement constitutes a clinical course different from IIIC cancer patients with abdominal diffusion.. Although it has been demonstrated that lymphadenectomy is technically feasible and relatively safe in this subset of patients, however, it is burdened by a certain percentage of complications including limphocyst, lymphedema, hemorrhage, ranging from 6% to 45%. In addition, the actual therapeutic role is still controversial and it is not clear whether this surgical procedure should be part of the staging of these tumors. Retrospective studies have shown a benefit on overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer who underwent lymphadenectomy associated with optimal debulking (residual tumor ,1 ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) uptake and molecular biological markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) … patients. METHODS: Our patient population included 51 patients who underwent F-FDG PET/computed tomography before surgery. Excised tumor tissue was analyzed immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies for glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), GLUT-3, CD34 [microvessel density (MVD) marker], CD68 (macrophage marker), and CD163 (tumor-associated macrophage marker). The relationships among pathological factors [pathological T stage (p-T stage), pathological lymph node status (p-N status), pathological stage (p-stage), and pathological tumor length], the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and these molecular biological markers were evaluated using Spearmans rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: GLUT-1, GLUT-3, CD34, and CD163 significantly correlated with SUVmax (r=0.547, P,0.001 for ...
Use your RU credentials (u/z-number and password) tolog in with SURFconextto upload a file for processing by the repository team ...
The most common cause of a hypoechoic mass along the carotid arteries is an enlarged lymph node. The aspect of the lesion between the carotid arteries with encasement of the vessels and the irregular hypervascularity are atypical for a pathological lymph node ...
Prognostic significance of perigastric lymph nodes metastases on survival in patients with thoracic esophageal cancer (pages 40-45). Zhi-Yong Wu, Jun-Cai Yu, Li-Yan Xu, Jin-Hui Shen, Jian-Zhong Wu, Shao-Hong Wang, Jun-Hui Fu, Yang-Hang Fan, Bin-Na Yang, Zhong-Ying Shen, Qiao Huang and En-Min Li. Version of Record online: 15 APR 2009 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-2050.2009.00964.x. ...
Invasive cancer confined to the original anatomic site of growth without lymph node involvement. The definition of stage IB depends on the particular type of cancer that it refers to; for example, for breast cancer, stage IB is defined as follows: (T0, N1mi, M0); (T1, N1mi, M0). T0: No evidence of primary tumor. T1: Tumor 20 mm or less in greatest dimension. T1 includes T1mi. T1mi: Tumor 1 mm or less in greatest dimension. N1mi: Nodal micrometastases. M0: No clinical or radiographic evidence of distant metastasis. M0 includes M0(i+); for bone cancer, stage IB is defined as follows: (T2, N0, M0, G1, G2, GX); (T3, N0, M0, G1, G2, GX). T2: Tumor more than 8 cm in greatest dimension. T3: Discontinuous tumors in the primary bone site. N0: No regional lymph node metastasis. M0: No distant metastasis. G1: Well differentiated-low grade. G2: Moderately differentiated-low grade. GX: Grade cannot be assessed. (partially adapted from AJCC 7th ed.)
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Answers from specialists on cin 3. First: Breast cancer survival is correlated with its stage, which is predominantly based on the cancer size, its growth, and lymph node involvement. Stage 3 means that the cancer has grown into the chest wall or skin and/or multiple lymph nodes (including areas outside the armpit) are involved. These are all signs that chemotherapy is needed for potential cure.
Recently, based on surgical data, extended indications for EMR have been proposed (Table 1). After an analysis of the results of 5,265 patients who underwent gastrectomy with LN dissection, Gotoda et al.4,19 and An et al.20 reported the lesion that meets these criteria has no or minimal risk of LN metastasis: 1) no size limitation for intramucosal differentiated cancers without ulceration that have no lymphovascular invasion, 2) less than 3 cm in diameter for ulcerated differentiated intramucosal cancers without lymphovascular invasion, 3) less than 3 cm in diameter for differentiated cancers (extension into the submucosal for less than 500 micrometers) without lymphovascular invasion, 4) less than 2 cm in diameter for undifferentiated intramucosal cancers without ulceration. Currently, the extended criteria for ESD are in use in Japan.. However, there are several issues to consider with the extended indications. The first issue is the risk of LN metastasis. In a Korean study, 855 patients who ...
Lymphoma can involve any lymph node. It can involve single or multiple lymph nodes forming mass. Extra nodal involvement can also be observed.
rs438034 is a SNP in the centromere protein F CENPF gene. Based on a long-term (up to 15 years) study of 749 Swedish women with breast cancer, carriers of rs438034(T) alleles (as oriented wrt dbSNP) had poorer specific survival rates as compared to rs438034(C;C) individuals. The hazard ratio was 2.65 (CI: 1.19-5.90). However, although rs438034(T) carriers had worse survival odds, they were less likely to have either regional lymph node metastases (odds ratio 0.71, CI: 0.51-1.01) or tumors of stage II-IV (OR 0.73, CI 0.54-0.99). [PMID 19008095] ...
pN0(mol+): No regional lymph node metastasis histologically, positive nonmorphologic (molecular) findings for isolated tumor cells (breast) (finding ...
Hi, Once again my candida has spreaded to my bladder (from gut). I didn t ve proper meds on time, so i started treatment pretty late. Then i didn t finish it, and it came back - it has happend to me at least twice in a row. The problem is, im 90% sure that candida has spreader from my bladder to my kidneys (i ve kidneys inflamation). I got pain in my back for almost month, and since week am sure the problem are kidneys :((( I take lufenuron, just bought fluconazole, used nifuratel and i need apolactoferrin (can t get it fast) WHAT ANTIFUNGALS OR OTHER DRUGS CAN I USE? Please help!
Axillary lymph node metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is extremely rare, and this scarcity hinders understanding of its pathogenesis and, thus, the application of appropriate management. Here, we present a case with axillary lymph node metastasis of cecal carcinoma associated with macroscopic invasion of the skin of the abdominal wall with histological evidence of such invasion, findings which support our hypothesis that the axillary lymph node metastasis developed via the lymph channels in the skin of the abdominal wall. A 76-year-old woman with cecal carcinoma (T4N1M0), complicated with an abdominal wall abscess, underwent right hemicolectomy with partial resection of the abdominal wall. Histology demonstrated multiple sites of lymphatic invasion in the skin. Two months later, an enlarged right axillary lymph node was noticed on CT, and an excisional biopsy was obtained, which later confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma. This is the first case report of axillary lymph node metastasis of carcinoma of
Objectives: This study was aimed at investigating the prognostic role of multiple lymph node basin drainage (MLBD) in patients with positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. Background: MLBD is frequently observed in patients with trunk melanoma undergoing SLN. The prognostic value of MLBD in SLN-positive patients is still debated. Methods: Retrospective data from 312 trunk melanoma patients with positive SLN biopsy (1991-2012) at 6 Italian referral centres were gathered in a multicentre database. MLBD was defined at preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Clinical and pathological data were analysed for their association with disease-free interval (DFI) and disease-specific (DSS) survival. Results: MLBD was identified in 34.6% of patients (108/312) and was significantly associated with ,1 positive SLN (37 vs. 15.2%; p , 0.001) and with ,1 positive lymph node (LN) after complete lymph node dissection (CLND) (50.9 vs. 34.8%; p = 0.033). No differences were observed according to drainage pattern in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The metastatic lymph node ratio predicts survival in colon cancer. AU - Schumacher, Paul. AU - Dineen, Sean. AU - Barnett, Carlton. AU - Fleming, Jason. AU - Anthony, Thomas. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - Background: Lymph node metastases are the most important predictor of survival in non-stage IV colon cancer. Recent studies of gastric cancer have shown a prognostic significance of a lymph node ratio (number of positive nodes divided by total number harvested). Our goal was to determine whether a lymph node ratio (LNR) would predict disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in a tertiary care Veterans Affairs medical center. Methods: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of colon cancer patients was performed to determine the effect of LNR on DFS and OS. A cohort of 232 patients with non-stage IV colon cancer was eligible for analysis. Survival curves were constructed using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prediction of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in early breast cancer by assessing total tumoral load in the sentinel lymph node by molecular assay. AU - Espinosa-Bravo, M.. AU - Sansano, I.. AU - Pérez-Hoyos, S.. AU - Ramos, M.. AU - Sancho, M.. AU - Xercavins, J.. AU - Rubio, I. T.. AU - Peg, V.. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - Introduction The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) is a molecular procedure that yields a semiquantitative result for detection of nodal metastasis. Size of metastasis in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) by conventional histology has been described as a predictive factor for additional axillary metastasis. The objective of this study is to quantify intraoperatively the total tumoral load (TTL) in the positive SLNs assessed by OSNA and to determine whether this TTL predicts non-SLN metastasis in patients with clinically node negative early stage breast cancer. Methods 306 patients with cT1-3N0 invasive breast cancer who had undergone ...
The mutant allele-specific amplification (MASA) method is capable of detecting one tumor cell containing genetic changes in a sample containing thousands of normal cells. To investigate whether MASA can be applied to sensitive detection of lymph node metastasis, we screened 22 colorectal cancers for K-ras and p53 mutations and examined corresponding regional lymph node at the genetic level by the MASA method. Six of the primary tumors were found to certain K-ras mutations, and nine exhibited mutations of the p53 gene. In seven of the 14 cases in which genetic alterations were identified (mutations in both genes were found in one tumor), we found discrepancies between the genetic and the histopathological diagnoses with respect to the presence or absence of cancer cells in lymph nodes, in that these patients were histologically diagnosed lymph node negative, hn(-) but genetically diagnosed lymph node positive, gn(+). Because disease recurs in 20-30% of cancer patients whose lymph nodes are ...
Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. 285 patients had positive
Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. 285 patients had positive
Introduction To decipher the interaction between the molecular subtype classification and the probability of a non-sentinel node metastasis in breast cancer patients with a metastatic sentinel lymph-node, we applied two validated predictors (Tenon Score and MSKCC Nomogram) on two large independent datasets. Materials and Methods Our datasets consisted of 656 and 574 early-stage breast cancer patients with a metastatic sentinel lymph-node biopsy treated at first by surgery. We applied both predictors on the whole dataset and on each molecular immune-phenotype subgroups. The performances of the two predictors were analyzed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Probability of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis was detailed for each molecular subtype. Results Similar results were obtained with both predictors. We showed that the performance in terms of discrimination was as expected in ER Positive HER2 negative subgroup in both datasets (MSKCC AUC Dataset 1 = 0.73 [0.69-0.78], MSKCC AUC Dataset 2
Background Lymph node metastasis is a key event in the progression of breast cancer. Therefore it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms which facilitate regional lymph node metastatic progression. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed gene expression profiling of purified tumor cells from human breast tumor and lymph node metastasis. By microarray network analysis, we found an increased expression of polycomb repression complex 2 (PRC2) core subunits EED and EZH2 in lymph node metastatic tumor cells over primary tumor cells which were validated through real-time PCR. Additionally, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and quantitative image analysis of whole tissue sections showed a significant increase of EZH2 expressing tumor cells in lymph nodes over paired primary breast tumors, which strongly correlated with tumor cell proliferation in situ. We further explored the mechanisms of PRC2 gene up-regulation in metastatic tumor cells and found up-regulation of E2F genes, MYC targets
TY - JOUR. T1 - False-positive CT and Thallium-201 SPECT Results in a Patient with Suspected Lung Cancer and Mediastinal Lymph Node Metastasis. AU - Nakahara, Tadaki. AU - Togawa, Takashi. AU - Suzuki, Aya. AU - Yui, Nobuharu. AU - Kubo, Atsushi. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - We describe a patient with a final diagnosis of inflammatory change in which combined imaging results were strongly suggestive of lung cancer with mediastinal lymph node metastases. The patient, who was suspected of having a pulmonary lesion on chest radiography performed at a local hospital, was referred to our hospital. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed a small-sized opacity in the left upper lung and multiple mediastinal nodules. The largest mediastinal nodule, depicted at a pretracheal region, was 22 mm in size. Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed increased uptake in these lesions, which exhibited no remarkable washout of the tracer, supportive of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential impact of application of Z0011 derived criteria to omit axillary lymph node dissection in node positive breast cancer patients. AU - Verheuvel, N. C.. AU - Voogd, A. C.. AU - Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G.. AU - Roumen, R. M. H.. PY - 2016/8. Y1 - 2016/8. KW - Patient selection. KW - Breast cancer. KW - Dissection. U2 - 10.1016/j.ejso.2016.05.007. DO - 10.1016/j.ejso.2016.05.007. M3 - Article. C2 - 27265036. VL - 42. SP - 1162. EP - 1168. JO - European Journal of Surgical Oncology. JF - European Journal of Surgical Oncology. SN - 0748-7983. IS - 8. ER - ...
The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the distribution of lymph node metastases, including micrometastases, according to the location of the gastric cancer with submucosal invasion. A total of 118 patients with submucosal gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. The distribution of lymph node metastases was examined according to tumor location. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-cytokeratin antibody was performed to examine nodal micrometastases in 118 patients. Lymph node metastasis was found in 19.5% (23/118) of the patients. Significant differences were found for tumor size and depth, lymphatic invasion, and venous invasion for patients with and without nodal metastasis. The distribution of lymph node metastasis for tumors at upper or middle portions of the stomach was mainly found along the left gastric artery. The distribution of lymph node metastasis for tumors in the lower and lesser curvature varied. Immunohistochemical analysis found that 15 of 23 patients ...
The present study showed that the detection rate of metastatic lymph nodes in BCa patients increased with advancing T stage. Lymph nodes with the short-axis diameter of , 3.0 mm were rarely seen on CT and/or MRI. The characteristic imaging signs such as the fatty hilum of lymph node and the ratio of short/long-axis diameter ≤ 0.4 were usually found in non-metastatic lymph nodes, while spiculate margin and necrosis were commonly observed in metastatic lymph nodes. Besides, the cutoff value of short-axis diameter was 6.8 mm in the CT/MR evaluation of lymph node metastasis in patients with BCa.. A previous study reported that the rate of lymph node metastases in patients with BCa who underwent radical cystectomy was about 27% [9]. In the present study, this rate was lower (24.6%), which may be related to the early detection and treatment. With stage advancing, the rate of lymph node metastasis increased gradually. This finding was supported by other studies [10, 11]. The metastatic lymph nodes in ...
Results-Most benign lymph nodes were slightly darker or the same in brightness compared with surrounding tissue, whereas most metastatic nodes were obviously darker. The mean area ratio of benign lymph nodes ± SD (1.05 ± 0.15) was statistically lower than the mean area ratio of metastatic lymph nodes (1.39 ± 0.20; P , 0.001). The area ration cutoff level for metastatic lymph nodes was estimated to be 1.16. With the use of a receiver operating characteristic curve with this cutoff value, the area ratio predicted malignancy with sensitivity of 91.1%, specificity of 83.3%, and an area under the curve of 0.925. ...
Loco-regional therapy for isolated locoregional lymph node recurrence of breast cancer: focusing on surgical treatment with combined therapy
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Prognostic Impact of the Metastatic Lymph Nodes Ratio in Colorectal Cancer. AU - Zhang, Chi-Hao. AU - Li, Yan-Yan. AU - Zhang, Qing-Wei. AU - Biondi, Alberto. AU - Fico, Valeria. AU - Persiani, Roberto. AU - Ni, Xiao-Chun. AU - Luo, Meng. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - Background: This study was designed to validate the prognostic significance of the ratio of positive to examined lymph nodes (LNR) in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: 218,314 patients from the SEER database and 1,811 patients from the three independent multicenter were included in this study. The patients were divided into 5 groups on a basis of previous published LNR: LNR0, patients with no metastatic lymph nodes; LNR1, patients with the LNR between 0.1 and 0.17; LNR2, patients with the LNR between 0.18 and 0.41; LNR3, patients with the LNR between 0.42 and 0.69; LNR4, patients with the LNR ,0.7. The 5-year OS and CSS rate were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and the survival difference was tested ...
The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and effect on patient outcomes of positron emission tomography (PET), with or without computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer. PET and MRI are assessed firstly as a replacement for SLNB or 4-NS, and secondly as an additional test prior to SLNB or 4-NS. ...
Author: DrBicuspid Staff. PET/MRI outperformed diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI-MRI) for detecting lymph node metastases in the staging of head and neck cancer patients, according to a study presented November 25 at the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) annual meeting in Chicago.. Researchers from the University of Düsseldorf found that PET/MRI achieved accuracy of 93%, compared with 88% for DWI-MRI. PET/MRI also reached sensitivity of 72%, compared with 36% for DWI-MRI.. Lymph node status has prognostic value in head and neck cancer because patients with metastases need neck dissection and adjuvant treatment. Therefore, precise lymph node staging is a necessity, noted lead author Christian Buchbender, MD.. Currently available imaging modalities are restricted in their diagnostic performance for lymph node metastases detection, he added. For example, CT and MRI fall short in sensitivity when compared to FDG-PET or FDG-PET/CT. On the other hand, FDG-PET/CT suffers from a large amount of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is a SUV cut-off necessary in the evaluation of the response of axillary lymph node metastases to neoadjuvant therapy?. AU - Gilardi, Laura. AU - Paganelli, Giovanni. PY - 2010/11. Y1 - 2010/11. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1007/s00259-010-1578-y. DO - 10.1007/s00259-010-1578-y. M3 - Article. C2 - 20821210. AN - SCOPUS:77958476808. VL - 37. SP - 2202. JO - European Journal of Pediatrics. JF - European Journal of Pediatrics. SN - 0340-6199. IS - 11. ER - ...
To investigate influencing factors of the metastatic lymph nodes ratio (MLR) and whether it is related to survival in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features of 121 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma enrolled in our hospital between 2000 and 2007. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cutoff of the MLR, and CK20 immunohistochemical staining was used to detect micrometastasis of the lymph nodes. The areas under the ROC curve of MLR used to predict the death of 3-year and 5-year postoperative patients were 0.826 ± 0.053 and 0.896 ± 0.046. Thus MLR = 30.95% and MLR = 3.15% were designated as cutoffs. The MLR was then classified into three groups: MLR1 (MLR|3.15%); MLR2(3.15% ≤ MLR ≤ 30.95%); and MLR3 (MLR|30.95%). We found that patients with a higher MLR demonstrated a much poorer survival period after radical operation than those patients with a lower MLR (P = 0.000). The COX model showed that MLR was an
Cervical regional lymph node involvement (CRLNI) is common in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), but the way to deal with cervical lymph node involvement of clinically negative PTMC is controversial. We studied data of patients histologically confirmed PTMC in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and Department of Surgical Oncology in Hangzhou First People’s Hospital (China). We screened 6 variables of demographic and clinicopathological characteristics as potential predictors and further constructed a lymph node involvement model based on the independent predictors including age, race, sex, extension, multifocality and tumor size. The model was validated by both the internal and the external testing sets, and the visual expression of the model was displayed by a nomogram. As a result, the C-index of this predictive model in the training set was 0.766, and the internal and external testing sets through cross-validation were 0.753 and 0.668, respectively. The area
Clinical Analysis of Risk Factors for Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: A Retrospective Study of 3686 Patients
Background Several studies have demonstrated that extranodal extension (ENE) is associated with prognosis in breast cancer. Whether this association should be described in pathological reports warrants further investigation.Objective In this research, w...
Lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic factors in colon cancer. Twelve is considered the minimum number of lymph nodes necessary to retain reliable tumour staging, but several factors can potentially influence the lymph node harvesting. Emergent surgery for complicated colon cancer (perforation, occlusion, bleeding) could represent an obstacle to reach the benchmark of 12 nodes with an accurate lymphadenectomy. So, an efficient classification system of lymphatic involvement is crucial to define the prognosis, the indication to adjuvant therapy and the follow-up. This is the first study with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of lymph nodes ratio (LNR) and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) in the prognostic assessment of patients who undergo to urgent surgery for complicated colonic cancer. This is a retrospective study carried out on patients who underwent urgent colonic resection for complicated cancer (occlusion, perforation, bleeding, sepsis). We collected clinical,
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Cervical lymph node metastases in epithelial neoplasms of the upper respiratory-digestive tract]. by Chiara Cavina et al.
February 2, 2010 - When doctors added contrast agent gadolinium during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) they improved primary tumor assessment for detecting lymph node metastases, according to a new study published online February 1, 2010, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is primarily used to visualize primary tumors, highlight tumor vascularity, and increasingly to detect and evaluate lymph node metastases. Based on their findings the authors recommend that contrast highlighting be included as a malignancy criterion when this agent is used for primary tumor visualization.. Wenche M. Klerkx, M.D., Ph.D., department of gynecology and obstetrics, University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, and colleagues searched the literature for studies that compared the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced MRI for staging lymph node metastases with that of histopathologic examination. The researchers conducted a meta-analysis on more than 30 studies from ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Figure 1: Deletion in EGFR at exon 19. exon 19 deletion (E19 del). The patient presented with solitary pulmonary nodule and enlargement of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes 2 years after radical mastectomy. Biopsy of the subcarinal lymph node showed suspected adenocarcinoma. The specimen was too small for further immunohistochemistry, but an EGFR E19 del was discovered. Due to the primary diagnosis of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma, EGFR-TKI gefitinib was administered and resulted in 1 year of stable disease until the patient developed progression in the right pulmonary nodule with new metastatic cervical lymph nodes. According to histopathological findings of re-biopsy of the pulmonary nodule and left cervical and subcarinal lymph nodes, the patient was diagnosed with breast cancer with lung metastasis and multiple lymph node metastases. The patient received multiple anti-HER-2-targeted therapies (trastuzumab for 9.7 months, lapatinib for 9 months, and ...
The presence of lymph node metastases at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis has significant implications for treatment. According to current guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, men with positive lymph nodes on initial staging imaging should be offered treatment with androgen deprivation (± abiraterone) along with consideration for external beam radiation therapy [1]. In contrast, men with clinically localised high‐ or very‐high‐risk prostate cancer have the option of undergoing radical prostatectomy. Unfortunately, currently available diagnostic imaging modalities (i.e. contrast‐enhanced CT and MRI) fall short in their ability to accurately identify lymph node metastases, which are often small and difficult to discern from other structures within the pelvis. Thus, there exists a conundrum: if we cannot accurately detect lymph node involvement, how can we appropriately manage it?. In this edition of the BJUI, Leeuwen et al. [2] report on the utility of molecular ...
The purpose of this study was to suggest general guidelines in the management of the N0 neck of oral cavity and oropharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) in order to improve the survival of these patients and/or reduce the risk of neck recurrences. The incidence of cervical node metastasis at di …
If you feel that you are having some swollen lymph nodes but do not know how to have them treated or what is it about, then this article can help you run through that. These lymph nodes are often found in different areas such as the groin, your armpit, your neck (there are a couple of nodes found at the front of your neck, on both sides and at the lower back of your neck), under the chin and your jaw, behind the ears and even at the back of your head. Some of the reason why they can be swollen are infections of the ear, tonsils, and skin; inflammation due to impacted tooth, mouth sores and gingivitis, colds and flu, viral illness, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, mononucleosis and even cancer.. Some swollen lymph nodes are common that they go away after a few days, but be careful not to overlook your nodes if it has become swollen for weeks now. It is best to go consult your doctor if your lymph nodes are getting redder and feels tender. If they are harder than usual, quite irregular ...
BACKGROUND. The authors investigated whether microarray-based gene expression analysis of primary tumor biopsy material could be used to predict lymph node status in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Lymphatic metastasis strongly determines treatment algorithms in CRC. Currently, postoperative histology results are needed to determine lymph node status, Reliable preoperative information would be useful to advance treatment strategies. METHODS. In specimens from 66 patients with CRC from the Erlangen Registry of Colorectal Cancer, 41 shock-frozen samples of International Union Against Cancer (UICC) Stage I-II CRC and 25 samples of UICC Stage III CRC were microdissected manually, RNA was isolated, and gene chips (HG-U133A; Affymetrix) were hybridized. Prediction rates for lymphatic metastasis were calculated using conventional clinicopathologic parameters, gene expression data, and a combination of both. Prediction error, specificity, and sensitivity were analyzed using six different ...
The treatment of high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) is a tremendous challenge for uro-oncologists. The identification of predictive moleculobiological markers allowing risk assessment of lymph node metastasis and systemic progression is essential in establishing effective treatment. In the current study, we investigate the prognostic potential of miR-205 in HRPCa study and validation cohorts, setting defined clinical endpoints for both. We demonstrate miR-205 to be significantly down-regulated in over 70% of the HRPCa samples analysed and that reconstitution of miR-205 causes inhibition of proliferation and invasiveness in prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. Additionally, miR-205 is increasingly down-regulated in lymph node metastases compared to the primary tumour indicating that miR-205 plays a role in migration of PCa cells from the original location into extraprostatic tissue. Nevertheless, down-regulation of miR-205 in primary PCa was not correlated to the synchronous presence of metastasis and failed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Down-regulation of let-7a-5p predicts lymph node metastasis and prognosis in colorectal cancer. T2 - Implications for chemotherapy. AU - Liu, Tsang Pai. AU - Huang, Chi Chou. AU - Yeh, Ken Tu. AU - Ke, Tao Wei. AU - Wei, Po Li. AU - Yang, Ji Rui. AU - Cheng, Ya Wen. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Colorectal cancer (CRC) guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy according to the level of lymph node metastasis. Let-7a-5p is a microRNA, which inhibits migration, invasion, as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting HMGA2. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of let-7a-5p in the clinical impact of CRC. In this study, one hundred and ninety-two CRC patients were enrolled. The expression of let-7a-5p and HMGA2 in serum and tumour tissues were analysed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyse primary outcomes, including the survival and tumour recurrence. The expression of let-7a-5p in tumour tissues was ...
Results An average of 13.8 lymph nodes were removed. 45 patients (57.7%) had a positive lymph node status, with a mean of 3.2 involved nodes per patient. 1, 5 and 10-year OS for N+ status was 60%, 10% and 10%, while N- OS was 82%, 41% and 41% (p=0.000). Similarly, 1, 5 and 10-year DFS was worse in the N+ group (71%, 45% and 42%) compared to N- (91%, 65% and 60%) (p=0.045). There was no difference in 1, 5 and 10-year OS (70%, 23%, 20% vs 70%, 23% and 20%, p=0.690) and DFS (78%, 48% and 48% vs 82%, 58% and 58%, p=0.305) when ,10 nodes were removed (n=39) compared to ≥10 nodes (n=36). There was no difference in 1, 5 and 10-year OS (63%, 9% and 9% vs 60%, 10% and 10%, p=0.562) and DFS (78%, 40% and 40% vs 65%, 46% and 40%, p=0.795) when LNR ,0.25 (n=22) was compared to LNR ,0.25 (n=23). No difference was found when a cut-off of 15 total excised lymphnodes and LNR of 0.50 was used. ...
We identified a total of 127 patients. Sixteen patients (13%) had right upper lobar lymph node metastasis. The mTLG values of pathological node metastasis were higher than in the node negative group (p = 0.04). When using a cut-off value obtained on the ROC curve, nine of sixteen cases were positive (sensitivity: 56%, specificity: 89%). The node positive cases with less than the cut-off value were a case of small cell carcinoma, four cases with EGFR mutation, a case with HER2 mutation, and a case with K-ras mutation. The values of AUC for several other examinations were mTLG: 0.76, TLG: 0.64, SUVmax: 0.66, minor axis of lymph node on HRCT: 0.70, major axis of tumor on HRCT (lung window): 0.61, major axis of tumor on HRCT (mediastinal window): 0.71 and CEA: 0.29. ...
The median p53 and MIB-1 indices were 45.2% and 30.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 0.1-10 years). There were no statistically significant associations noted between the p53 and MIB-1 indices and the outcomes studied. When the analysis was limited to patients who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 37 patients), the p53 index was found to have no prognostic value; however, there was a significant association between MIB-1 and distant metastases (P = 0.049). When disease-specific survival rates were stratified according to p53 index and chemotherapy, patients exhibited a response to chemotherapy regardless of p53 index. ...
Pelvic and paraaortic lymph node evaluation is a major component of the surgical staging procedure for several gynecologic malignancies, including endometrial and ovarian carcinoma. Cervical cancer is clinically staged, but assessment of pelvic and p
Introduction: Pre-clinical data suggest p53-dependent anthracycline-induced apoptosis and p53-independent taxane activity. However, dedicated clinical research has not defined a predictive role for TP53 gene mutations. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively explore the prognosis and predictive values of TP53 somatic mutations in the BIG 02-98 randomized phase III trial in which women with node-positive breast cancer were treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy with or without docetaxel. Methods: The prognostic and predictive values of TP53 were analyzed in tumor samples by gene sequencing within exons 5 to 8. Patients were classified according to p53 protein status predicted from TP53 gene sequence, as wild-type (no TP53 variation or TP53 variations which are predicted not to modify p53 protein sequence) or mutant (p53 nonsynonymous mutations). Mutations were subcategorized according to missense or truncating mutations. Survival analyses were performed using the ...
A variety of factors go in to the staging of a head and neck cancer diagnosis, however, the number of malignant lymph nodes may very well be the key to prognosis and treatment moving forward in this patient population.|br /|  
Cherubism is a rare benign (non-neoplastic) hereditary condition of childhood, which is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and is characterized by bilateral expansion of the mandible, maxilla or both. Giving them a characteristic cherubic appearance. The treatment of cherubism is still controversial and is said that the disease regresses itself and after regressing if any asymmetry is left then the bony deformity can be corrected by decortications of bone and osseous shaving. This article reviews the recent development in the literature of cherubism ...
The axillary lymph nodes are the ones that are most likely to drain the area of your breast that has a tumor, even though there are other lymph nodes both in your breast and closer to your breastbone. If the tumor has sloughed off waste cancer cells, the axillary lymph nodes have probably collected them. Testing these lymph nodes for cancer is one way to determine how aggressive the tumor is and whether the cancer cells have begun to travel to other parts of the body.. There are approximately 20 lymph nodes in two clumps in each armpit. Half of them are called Level 1 (the easiest to get to) and the other group is called Level 2. There are additional lymph nodes under the collarbone, and more on either side of the breastbone, but these are rarely removed in surgery. Unfortunately, surgeons cant remove lymph nodes, test them for cancer, and put back the ones that do not have traces of cancer. In fact, they usually cant even see lymph nodes because they are so small. Surgeons usually remove a ...
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Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) lacking hormone receptors (ER, PR) and HER-2 amplification are very aggressive tumors. The IIB-BR-G cell line isolated from a primary TNBC, and its spontaneous metastatic variant, IIB-BR-G-MTS6 were compared using an antibody-based protein array to characterize their expression profile. We also analyzed their growth kinetics, migration, invasiveness, lymphangiogenesis and cytoskeleton structure. Doubling times in vitro were shorter for IIB-BR-G although in vivo IIB-BR-G-MTS6 tumors grew significantly faster than IIB-BR-G. IIB-BR-GMTS6 showed higher anchorage independent growth in a clonogenic assay. IIB-BR-G-MTS6 cells showed 100% incidence of lymph node metastasis at 5-6 weeks, although no metastasis was observed for IIB-BR-G even 19 weeks after inoculation. CCL3, IL1α, CXCL1, CSF2, CSF3, IGFBP1, IL1α, IL6, IL8, CCL20, PLAUR, PlGF and VEGF were strongly up-regulated in IIB-BR-G-MTS6 compared to IIB-BR-G, while CCL4, ICAM3, CXCL12, TNFRSF18, FIGF, were the ...
Unal B, Gur AS, Kayiran O, Johnson R, Ahrendt G, Bonaventura M, Soran A. Models for Predicting Non-sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Sentinel Node Positive Breast Cancer: The Importance of Scoring System. Int J Clin Pract. 2008 Nov; 62(11): 1785-91 ...
Swollen lymph node on left side of neck - Three swollen cervical lymph nodes all on left side of neck some ear pain doctor HS seen one of them says wait 2 month fbc normal should I be worried? Lymph nodes. The lymph nodes usually enlarge as response to an infection in the vicinity. It lasts maximum 2-3 weeks and as the infection goes away (with antibiotics usually) the lymph nodes disappear. Outside this scenario, I would be worried and demand further investigation (ct is appropriate, a blood smear and CBC with differential, as well as a bmp with enzymes markers analysis) up to an excision biopy.
... excessive lymphatic vessel formation has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including neoplasm metastasis, ... The role of the lymphatic system in these diseases has received renewed interest largely due to the discovery of lymphatic ... Lymphangiogenesis is the formation of lymphatic vessels from pre-existing lymphatic vessels in a method believed to be similar ... Ji, Rui-Cheng (2006). "Lymphatic Endothelial Cells, Lymphangiogenesis, and Extracellular Matrix". Lymphatic Research and ...
"Lymphatic metastases with childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. A report from the intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study". Cancer. 60 (4): 910 ...
Shayan, Ramin; Achen, Marc G.; Stacker, Steven A. (2006). "Lymphatic vessels in cancer metastasis: bridging the gaps". ... These channels are the lymphatic channels, or simply lymphatics. Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not ... This lymphatic fluid is then transported via progressively larger lymphatic vessels through lymph nodes, where substances are ... "Definition of lymphatics". Webster's New World Medical Dictionary. Retrieved 6 July 2008. Hedrick, Michael S ...
"PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis". Cancer Cell. 6 (4): 333-345. doi:10.1016/j. ... They also discovered several lymphangiogenic factors that potentially contribute to cancer metastasis. Cao proposed a new ... a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma". Cell. 79 (2): 315-328. ...
Cervical lymph node metastasis is also a common feature of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Lymphatics of pharynx. The lymphatics ... Gosselin, Benoit J (8 March 2016). "Neck, Cervical Metastases, Detection". Medscape. WebMD. (Lymphatics of the head and neck). ... Rouvière, Henri (1932). Anatomie des lymphatiques de l'homme [Anatomy of the Human Lymphatic System, Edwards Brothers, Ann ... "The size of lymph nodes in the neck on sonograms as a radiologic criterion for metastasis: how reliable is it?". American ...
Pediatric patients also tend to display less lymphatic spread and metastasis. In addition to stage and grade of the tumor, ... Epithelioid sarcoma also demonstrates lymphatic spread (in 22-48% of cases), and metastasis (in 21-63% of cases). These events ... The disease has a tendency to develop local recurrences and metastasis thereafter to regional lymph nodes, lung, bone, brain, ... They are also involved in cancer stem cell coordination and disease invasiveness and metastasis. Hhat inhibitors (such as RU- ...
These metastases were tumor-node metastases (TNM) and lymphatic metastases. Lymphatic metastases is significant, as it is a ... The increase in expression of HOXA11-AS promotes cancer cell migration, tumor cell invasion, as well as metastasis of gastric ... Su JC, Hu XF (October 2017). "Long non‑coding RNA HOXA11‑AS promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in human breast cancer ... which is cancer metastasis. Scientists were able to determine these effects of HOXA11-AS lncRNA on breast cancer by monitoring ...
Boes KM, Durham AC (February 2017). "Bone Marrow, Blood Cells, and the Lymphoid/Lymphatic System.". Pathologic Basis of ... Holinstat M (June 2017). "Normal platelet function". Cancer and Metastasis Reviews. 36 (2): 195-198. doi:10.1007/s10555-017- ...
2005). "Positive association of heparanase expression with tumor invasion and lymphatic metastasis in gastric carcinoma". Mod. ...
This protein may function in lymphatic hyaluronan transport and have a role in tumor metastasis. LYVE-1 is a cell surface ... "LYVE1 lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Mouta Carreira C, Nasser SM, di Tomaso E, ... Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1), also known as extracellular link domain containing 1 (XLKD1) is a ... LYVE1 positive macrophages in the meninges of rats are both lymphatic, as well as, alymphatic. In brain dura, the LYVE1+ ...
Grove, Narine; Zheng, Ma; Bristow, Robert E.; Eskander, Ramez N. (July 2015). "Extensive Tattoos Mimicking Lymphatic Metastasis ... Mulcahy, Nick (15 June 2015). "Tattoos Mistaken as Cancer Metastases, Surgery Performed". Medscape. Retrieved 24 October 2017. ... a portion of the ink is carried away by blood vessels and the lymphatic system, and some of it may be excreted or stored ...
"Upregulation of Hsp90-beta and annexin A1 correlates with poor survival and lymphatic metastasis in lung cancer patients". ... In salivary gland tumors, expression of HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1 correlates with malignancy, proliferation and metastasis. The ...
"FHL2 expression in peritumoural fibroblasts correlates with lymphatic metastasis in sporadic but not in HNPCC-associated colon ...
The staging of penile cancer is determined by the extent of tumor invasion, nodal metastasis, and distant metastasis. The T ... Stage II-The cancer is poorly differentiated, affects lymphatics, or invades the corpora or urethra. Stage IIIa-There is deep ... Stage IIIb-There is deep invasion into the penis and metastasis into multiple inguinal lymph nodes. Stage IV-The cancer has ... invaded into structures adjacent to the penis, metastasized to pelvic nodes, or distant metastasis is present. Human ...
... and lymphatic metastasis in oral cancer]". AI Zheng = Aizheng = Chinese Journal of Cancer. 21 (3): 319-22. PMID 12452004. ... The main function of VEGF-C is to promote the growth of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis). It acts on lymphatic endothelial ... However, in addition to its effect on lymphatic vessels, it can also promote the growth of blood vessels and regulate their ... Rauniyar K, Jha SK, Jeltsch M (Feb 2018). "Biology of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C in the Morphogenesis of Lymphatic ...
Because there are no lymphatic channels to the uveal tract, metastasis occurs through local extension and/or blood-borne ... The most common site of metastasis for uveal melanoma is the liver; the liver is the first site of metastasis for 80%-90% of ... class 1 tumors that have a very low risk of metastasis, and class 2 tumors that have a very high risk of metastasis. Gene ... Metastasis can occur more than 10 years after treatment of the primary tumor, and patients should not be considered cured even ...
A newly identified metastasis suppressor, p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), is able to suppress metastasis in part by causing ... Non-EMT cells can migrate together with EMT cells to enter the blood or lymphatic vessels. Although both cell types persist in ... 2014). "Tumor microenvironment of metastasis and risk of distant metastasis of breast cancer". J Natl Cancer Inst. 106 (8). doi ... However, both EMT and non-EMT cells have been shown to cooperate to complete the spontaneous metastasis process. EMT cells, ...
Distant metastasis) MX Distant metastasis cannot be assessed M0 No distant metastasis M1 Distant metastasis. M1a: The cancer ... The location of lymphatic spread depends on the location of the tumors. Tumors on the superolateral bladder wall spread to ... N2 Metastasis in multiple lymph nodes in true pelvis (hypogastric, obturator, external iliac, or presacral nodes) N3 Metastasis ... metastasis). Increase in alkaline phosphatase levels without evidence of liver disease should be evaluated for bone metastasis ...
Metastasis to regional lymphnodes is common as the tonsil has a rich supply of lymphatics giving way to the tumor cells to ... Metastasis of cancer cells to cervical lymph nodes diminishes the chance of cure. Specially, if there is evidence of metastasis ... Metastasis is common in tonsillar carcinoma. It largely depends on the stage of the cancer and the route through with the ... As the tonsils consist of a rich network of lymphatics, the carcinoma may metastasize to the neck lymph nodes which many are ...
"Expression of cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 is related to lymphatic metastasis and indicates prognosis of intrahepatic ... of CLIMP-63 is observed in cholangio-cellular and hepatocellular carcinoma and it correlates with lymph node metastasis ...
Absence of FOXC2 has been shown to lead to the failure of lymphatic valves to form and problems with lymphatic remodelling. A ... FOXC2 is also involved in cancer metastases. In particular, expression of FOXC2 is induced when epithelial cells undergo an ... 2009). "Prox-1 and FOXC2 gene expression in adipose tissue: A potential contributory role of the lymphatic system to familial ... 2009). "Abnormal Shh and FOXC2 expression correlates with aberrant lymphatic development in human fetuses with increased nuchal ...
In these cases, the most common site of metastases is the liver, as well as the lymph nodes. However, the second type of ... This occurs when cancerous cells break away from the insulinoma and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Thus, it is ... The main sites of metastasis for pancreatic cancer are the: liver, lung and peritoneum. Diagnosis can occur via two distinct ... Upon spreading and entering another part of the body, the process of metastasis has successfully occurred. The cancerous cells ...
Metastasis is common in the late stages of cancer and it can occur via the blood or the lymphatic system or both. The typical ... Metastasis is common in the late stages of cancer and it can occur via the blood or the lymphatic system or both. The typical ... For painful bone metastasis, it has been found to be effective in about 70% of patients. Surgery is the primary method of ... Metastasis is the spread of cancer to other locations in the body. The dispersed tumors are called metastatic tumors, while the ...
Metastasis is the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another via either the circulatory system or lymphatic system. ...
Microarray data posits the expression of LOC105377021 in certain breast cancer tissues, including metastases to lymphatic and ...
A circulating tumor cell (CTC) is a cell that has shed into the vasculature or lymphatics from a primary tumor and is carried ... It is estimated that among the cells that have detached from the primary tumor, only 0.01% can form metastases. Circulating ... Riquet, M; Rivera, C; Gibault, L; Pricopi, C; Mordant, P; Badia, A; Arame, A; Le Pimpec Barthes, F (2014). "[Lymphatic spread ... This was the first predictive case for brain metastasis and a proof of concept that intrinsic molecular features of metastatic ...
Thus DVL allows for the simultaneous determination of fluid flow rates in diverse blood and lymphatic compartments and in newly ... including lymphocyte traffic and tumor cell metastasis). DVL provides means to differential study the roles of angiogenesis and ... This approach takes advantage of the differences in particle distribution across blood and lymphatic endothelia. The DVL is ... Differential Vascular Labeling is a labeling method that allows differentiation between blood and lymphatic systems for ...
Numbers 0 and 1, with subgroups, describe the metastasis status: M0: No evidence of distant metastasis M1a: Spread to 1 other ... "T" denotes the degree of invasion of the intestinal wall, "N" the degree of lymphatic node involvement, and "M" the degree of ... Adjunct staging of metastasis include abdominal ultrasound, MRI, CT, PET scanning, and other imaging studies. The most common ... Gabriel WB, Dukes C, Busset HJR: Lymphatic spread in cancer of the rectum. Br J Surg 23:395-413, 1935 Grinnell RS: The grading ...
Given the role of lymphatic vessels in tumour metastasis, Sox18 is being developed as a potential drug target for anti- ... Koopman's group also discovered Sox18, a switch gene that directs formation of the lymphatic vessels, and is defective in ... "Sox18 induces development of the lymphatic vasculature in mice". Nature. 456 (7222): 643-647. Bibcode:2008Natur.456..643F. doi: ...
The medullary cords are cords of lymphatic tissue, and include plasma cells, macrophages, and B cells. In the lymphatic system ... is predicated on the presence of node metastases. Lymphedema is the condition of swelling (edema) of tissue relating to ... Lymph enters the convex side of a lymph node through multiple afferent lymphatic vessels, which form a network of lymphatic ... In the lymphatic system a lymph node is a secondary lymphoid organ. A lymph node is enclosed in a fibrous capsule and is made ...
The pattern of metastasis is different for gastric signet cell carcinoma than for intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. The SRCC ... They concluded that the latter more frequently demonstrated adverse histologic features such as lymphatic invasion, venous ... In a single case study of a patient with SRCC of the bladder with recurrent metastases, the patient exhibited a treatment ... In the future, case studies indicate that bone marrow metastases will likely play a larger role in the diagnosis and management ...
How exactly the metastases reach the umbilicus remains largely unknown. Proposed mechanisms for the spread of cancer cells to ... the umbilicus include direct transperitoneal spread, via the lymphatics which run alongside the obliterated umbilical vein, ... Sister Mary Joseph nodule is associated with multiple peritoneal metastases and a poor prognosis. Sister Mary Joseph Dempsey ( ... Unknown primary tumors and rarely, urinary or respiratory tract malignancies can cause umbilical metastases. ...
December 2001). "Surgical debulking and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for established peritoneal metastases from colon and ... When disease presents with low-grade histologic features the cancer rarely spreads through the lymphatic system or through the ... although in most cases ovarian involvement is favored to be a metastasis from an appendiceal or other gastrointestinal source. ...
Sampson Handley noted Halsted's observation of the existence of malignant metastasis to the chest wall and breast bone via the ... According to the Halsted-Meyer theory, the major pathway for breast cancer dissemination was through the lymphatic ducts. ... but also because it was thought that removal of the transpectoral lymphatic pathways were necessary. It was also thought, at ...
Exceptions include local or metastasis-directed therapy with radiation may be used for advanced tumors with limited metastasis ... Adams J (1853). "The case of scirrhous of the prostate gland with corresponding affliction of the lymphatic glands in the ... The route of metastasis to bone is thought to be venous, as the prostatic venous plexus draining the prostate connects with the ... Sclerosis of the bones of the thoracic spine due to prostate cancer metastases (CT image) Sclerosis of the bones of the ...
At least one carcinoma focus over 2.0 mm is called "Lymph node metastasis". If one node qualifies as metastasis, all other ... Scatarige JC, Boxen I, Smathers RL (September 1990). "Internal mammary lymphadenopathy: imaging of a vital lymphatic pathway in ... N0(mol-): regional lymph nodes have no metastases histologically, but have positive molecular findings (RT-PCR). N1: Metastases ... Distant detectable metastases as determined by classic clinical and radiographic means, and/or metastasis that are ...
More distant metastases are spread by the blood and often occur in the lungs, as well as the liver, brain, and bone. ... When the lymphatic system is involved, the pelvic and para-aortic nodes are usually first to become involved, but in no ... Metastases to the lungs and pelvic or peritoneal cavities are the most frequent. They typically have estrogen and/or ... They tend to present later than Type I tumors and are more aggressive, with a greater risk of relapse and/or metastasis. In ...
They receive lymphatic afferents from the following: integument of the penis scrotum perineum buttock abdominal wall below the ... or spread as a metastasis from cancers, such as anal cancer and vulvar cancer. Inguinal lymph nodes may normally be up to 2 cm ... the disseminative pattern of lymph node metastasis". J. Urol. 181 (5): 2103-8. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2009.01.041. PMID 19286211. ...
Lymph node metastases usually precede secondary tumours, i.e. distant metastases. The absence of LVI in the context of proven ... is the invasion of a cancer to the blood vessels and/or lymphatics. Lymph: A clear or white fluid that travels through vessels ... Generally speaking, it is associated with lymph node metastases which themselves are predictive of a poorer prognosis. In the ... Conversely, cancers with lymph node spread (known as a lymph node metastases), usually have lymphovascular invasion. ...
This is a concern during treatment of brain tumors and brain metastases, especially where there is pre-existing raised ... Lymphedema Lymphedema, a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling, can result from damage to the lymphatic ... A major use of systemic radioisotope therapy is in the treatment of bone metastasis from cancer. The radioisotopes travel ... Many low-dose palliative treatments (for example, radiation therapy to bony metastases) cause minimal or no side effects, ...
The lymphatic drainage of the prostate depends on the positioning of the area. Vessels surrounding the vas deferens, some of ... medical imaging such as an MRI or bone scan may be done to check for the presence of tumour metastases in other parts of the ... Adams J (1853). "The case of scirrhous of the prostate gland with corresponding affliction of the lymphatic glands in the ...
July 2016). "Prognostic value of lymph node metastases detected during surgical exploration for pancreatic or periampullary ... Lymphatics of the torso). ... "Hepatic Arterial Nodal Metastases in Pancreatic Cancer: Is This ... "Significance of common hepatic artery lymph node metastases during pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head adenocarcinoma ...
... or lymphatics in the subcutaneous tissues. Aagenaes syndrome Acroangiodermatitis (acroangiodermatitis of Mali, Mali ... Wildervanck syndrome Xanthelasmoidal mastocytosis Zosteriform metastasis Dermatitis is a general term for "inflammation of the ... Superficial lymphatic malformation (lymphangioma circumscriptum) Supernumerary nipple (accessory nipple, pseudomamma) ... Congenital malformations of the dermatoglyphs Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma Cystic lymphatic malformation Dermoid cyst ...
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is also recommended to assess for distant metastases. In addition to ATC, a ... Anaplastic tumors have a high mitotic rate and frequently invades the local blood and lymphatic vessels. Cellular death is ... Larger tumors, distant metastases, acute obstructive symptoms, and leukocytosis portend a poorer prognosis. Death is ... Additional factors that affect prognosis include the person's age, the presence of distant metastases, the dose of radiation ...
... characteristically with early hematogenous and lymphatic metastatic spread. Because of early spread and inherent resistance to ... and actinomycin/vincristine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for the treatment of CNS metastases of choriocarcinoma". Journal ...
These CTCs must first cross the ECM, enter the bloodstream or lymphatic vessels, and then leave the circulation to attach to a ... Kumar, Sanjay; Weaver, Valerie M. (2009-06-01). "Mechanics, malignancy, and metastasis: The force journey of a tumor cell". ... will make more metastases and will be more difficult to treat. We are only considering cancers derived from "epithelia", that ... the growth of the primary tumor and the appearance of metastases. Let us quote DW Smithers (1962): "cancer is no more a disease ...
2015). "Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis". Nature 527(7578):329-35. Epub 2015 Oct 28. Duarte, Delfim ... the so-called T-cells move to other lymphatic organs a process which she termed ecotaxis. In 1975 went to NYC. She was an ...
Lymphogenous or hematogenous metastasis to distant (extrathoracic) sites Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for thymoma. If ... Lymphatic organ neoplasia). ...
If a patient presents beyond this point, bilateral lymphadenectomy is performed to assess metastasis to pelvic lymph nodes. If ... More aggressive cases with lymphatic spread are often treated with radiotherapy. Hormone therapy is most commonly used to treat ... Metastasis. 5: 100060. doi:10.1016/j.adcanc.2022.100060. ISSN 2667-3940. Abbott-Anderson, Kristen; Kwekkeboom, Kristine L. ( ... but emphasis is placed on accurate assessment of cancerous tissue and reducing lymphatic spread. The minority of non-squamous ...
... ovaries or lymphatic system (a lymphoma). Sometimes, the symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes show before the diagnosis of a ... purpose of this exploration was to shed light on immunotherapies and distinguishing between neurotoxicity and brain metastasis ...
... and absence of lymphatic spread due to local destruction of lymphatic channels. Histologically, the tumour is a well- ... The cancer has a 18-38% rate of metastasis. 40% occur on the lower limb and the malignant change is usually painless. This ...
These treatments may be palliatively for bone metastases pain or for some cases such as osteoid osteoma can curatively treat ... veins and lymphatics. The symptoms related to vascular disease can range from asymptomatic, bothersome symptoms or limb and/or ... Other embolizations are also performed for symptom relief or prior to surgery to reduce bleeding Bone Cancer: bone metastases ... The standard of care for local treatment of extraspinal osseous metastases is external-beam radiation therapy. Fifty percent of ...
... lymphatics and the tumour microenvironment, and cancer metastasis. MRC CU website About Us section MRC CU website News section ...
Oldham RK (1983). "Natural killer cells: artifact to reality: an odyssey in biology". Cancer and Metastasis Reviews. 2 (4): 323 ... Active hexose correlated compound Granzymes Hematopoiesis Immune system Interleukin Lymphatic system Perera Molligoda ...
... of women already have regional lymph node involvement or distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. Lymph node metastases and ... The lymphatics of the labia drain to the upper vulva and mons pubis, then to both superficial and deep inguinal and femoral ... The tumor may also invade nearby organs such as the vagina, urethra, and rectum and spread via their lymphatics. A verrucous ... They often grow locally and have low risk for deep invasion or metastasis. Treatment involves local excision, but these lesions ...
When the sentinel node is free of tumor cells, this is highly predictive of freedom from metastasis in the entire lymphatic ... Extensive resection of lymphatic tissue can lead to the formation of a lymphocele.[citation needed] It is uncertain whether ... It is usually done because many types of cancer have a marked tendency to produce lymph node metastasis early in their natural ... This process is predictable anatomically according to the primary site in the organ and the lymphatic channels. The first nodes ...
CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that peritumoral lymphatic vessels are likely to serve as major conduits for nodal metastasis ... Peritumoral LVD and peritumoral lymphatic invasion were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. VEGF receptor-3 ... Lack of coexpression of podoplanin and VEGF receptor-3 in some lymphatic vessels suggests the heterogeneity of lymphatic ... The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of lymphatic vessels in non-carcinomatous prostate tissue, and ...
... and lymph node metastasis (LNM) of ECC. A group of 100 patients diagnosed with ECC was included. The ECC status of all patients ... From: Machine learning-based Radiomics analysis for differentiation degree and lymphatic node metastasis of extrahepatic ...
N2 - Lymphatic metastasis is associated with up to a 50% decrease in survival, yet the molecular mechanisms driving their ... AB - Lymphatic metastasis is associated with up to a 50% decrease in survival, yet the molecular mechanisms driving their ... Lymphatic metastasis is associated with up to a 50% decrease in survival, yet the molecular mechanisms driving their ... Clinicopathological predictors of lymphatic metastasis in HNSCC: Implications for molecular mechanisms of metastatic disease. ...
... Academic Article ... Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in significantly higher percentage of cases with lymph node metastasis (9/14, 62.3%), as ... In all, 26 patients had lymph node dissection, and 14 of them had lymph node metastasis. The lymphatic vessel density and ... We evaluated the lymphatic vessel density and lymphatic vessel invasion by prostate cancer cells in the intratumoral, ...
Axillary nodal metastases were found in three of the six patients in whom nodal biopsies were performed. In only one patient ... Our case of a 3-year-old boy with axillary metastasis and 17 cases in children, from the literature, provide the basis of this ...
The process is called metastasis. It can lead to the formation of a secondary cancer mass in another part of the body. ... Lymphatic circulation in breast tissue helps regulate the local fluid balance as well as filter out harmful substances. But the ... Lymphatic vessels provide a highway along which invasive cancerous cells move to other parts of the body. ... That system is the lymphatic system. It runs parallel to the veins and empties into them. Lymph forms at the microscopic level ...
VEGF receptor-3; VEGF-C; Lymphatic metastasis; Lymphangiogenesis; CD11b+/Gr-1+ TAMs; CD11b+/Gr-1+ 암대식세포; 혈관생성인자수용체-3; 혈관생성인자-C ... Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 suppresses lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in urinary bladder ... yet the relationship between lymphangiogenesis or lymphatic metastasis and urinary bladder cancer is unknown. Here, we ... These findings provide additional therapeutic target to lymphatic metastasis in the patients with urinary bladder cancer. ...
Overall, 18% of patients have lymphatic metastases at presentation. The average distant metastatic rate at presentation is 10 ... Distant metastases continue to be synonymous with rapid clinical deterioration and short survival time after detection. Surgery ... 18] This was particularly significant for small tumors for which the occurrence of metastases was related to local control and ... Melanoma of the mucosal membrane appears to have a lower prevalence of regional lymph node metastases than melanoma of the skin ...
FDG PET is slightly less specific than CT for depicting metastases, but the difference in specificity between the two ... FDG PET is more sensitive than CT for depicting nodal metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. ... Metastasis to regional lymph nodes in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: CT versus FDG PET for presurgical ... The relatively low specificity of FDG PET for depiction of nodal metastasis compared with that of CT is caused mainly by a high ...
Liver is the most common site (66%) of distant metastasis, followed by lymph nodes (22%). In advanced cases, lung metastasis ... Perineural, vascular, and lymphatic invasion are associated with a poor prognosis. ... Lymph nodes metastases are present in as many as half of patients. Pericanalicular lymph nodes usually are the first to be ...
Lymphatic Metastasis. EN. dc.subject. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. EN. dc.subject. Prognosis. EN. ... lymph node metastasis and peritoneal nodules. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, the hazard ratio for positive ...
... metastasis (lymphatic metastasis/bone erosion). The evaluation criteria for the above relatively special CT features are as ... and susceptibility to lymphatic node or/and bone metastasis25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37. However, the specificity and ... Kim, J. R. et al. Rhabdomyosarcoma in children and adolescents: Patterns and risk factors of distant metastasis. AJR Am. J. ... Huang, Y. Q. et al. Development and validation of a radiomics nomogram for preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis in ...
Cutaneous metastasis may herald the diagnosis of internal malignancy, and early recognition can lead to accurate and prompt ... Cutaneous metastases from carcinoma (see the image below) are relatively uncommon in clinical practice, but they are very ... Breast cancer metastasis with hyperchromatic cells extending between thickened collagen bundles. Dilated lymphatics are noted. ... Common cutaneous metastasis sites and their probable primary sites are as follows:. * Metastasis to scalp - Breast, lung, ...
Tumor characteristics was sought to be related to axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM), the paramount prognostic factor in ... Dermatopathic Lymphadenitis Mimicking Breast Cancer with Lymphatic Metastasis: A Case Report and Discussion Yamama Alkourbah, ... Gastric Metastasis as the First Presentation One Year Before Diagnosis of Primary Breast Cancer Joohyun Woo, Joo-Ho Lee, [...] ... Breast Cancer Metastasis Masquerading as Primary Colon and Gastric Cancer: A Case Report Arish Noor, Nerea Lopetegui-Lia, [...] ...
Patterns of lymphatic metastases in upper tract urothelial carcinoma and proposed dissection templates. In: Journal of Urology ... Matin, S. F., Sfakianos, J. P., Espiritu, P. N., Coleman, J. A., & Spiess, P. E. (2015). Patterns of lymphatic metastases in ... Patterns of lymphatic metastases in upper tract urothelial carcinoma and proposed dissection templates. / Matin, Surena F.; ... Patterns of lymphatic metastases in upper tract urothelial carcinoma and proposed dissection templates. Journal of Urology. ...
Lymphatic Metastasis. Thyroid Neoplasms. Carcinoma. Hand Joints. Injections, Intra-Articular. Steroids. Ultrasonography, ...
w/ nodal metastasis five-year survival rate declines to 36%; - w/ metastases survival is , 5%; - lymph nodes and lymphatic ... Lymphatic mapping for melanomas of the upper extremity. - Sentinel-Node Biopsy or Nodal Observation in Melanoma. - Prognostic ... useful for identifying metastasis to the sentinel lymph node; - observation that the classic lymph node dissection would not ... necessarily identify metastasis to the SLN (which was the case in 10/12 patients in the study by Joseph, et al (1999) - in ...
Metastasis is the main cause of the death of OSCC patients. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), one of the key factors affecting ... Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), one of the key factors affecting OSCC metastasis, are a subtype of RNA with a length of more ... Most lncRNAs act as oncogenes and only a few lncRNAs have been shown to inhibit OSCC metastasis. Besides, we briefly introduced ... Most lncRNAs act as oncogenes and only a few lncRNAs have been shown to inhibit OSCC metastasis. Besides, we briefly introduced ...
These metastases re-sult from either lymphatic or vascular dissemination.. Melanotic bone metastases are rare (2%) and ... Malignant melanoma with liver and spleen metastases: case report Laura Cotta Ornellas Valéria Pereira Lanzoni , São Paulo, , ... Melanotic liver metastases are poorly vascularized in hepatic arteriography and small lesions may be easily missed. Diagnostic ... The liver and spleen are rarely the first sites of melanoma metastases. This paper reports on the clinical picture of a patient ...
PGAM1 is associated with lymphatic metastasis and the poor prognosis of OSCC. The expression of PGAM1 in OSCC from the tissue ... PGAM1 expression is correlated with age, lymphatic metastasis and tumor recurrence and is closely associated with poor overall ... Because PGAM1 is correlated with lymphatic metastasis, it might participate in cancer cell migration. To test this hypothesis, ... Moreover, high expression of PGAM1 was closely correlated with the lymphatic metastasis and tumor occurrence of OSCC, which ...
Keywords: melanoma, penis, inguinal lymphatic metastasis Copyright: © the authors; licensee ecancermedicalscience. This is an ... and only one of those four cases involved lymphatic metastatic disease. One case (16.7%) involved lymphatic recurrence at 12 ... The risk of lymphatic involvement seems to be related to the same risk factors used to assess cutaneous melanoma. Clinicians ... Depth of invasion seems to be the most important risk factor in determining risk of metastasis, as shown by van Geel in the ...
Circular RNA circRNA_0082835 promotes progression and lymphatic metastasis of primary melanoma by sponging microRNA miRNA-429. ... Circular RNA circRNA_0082835 promotes progression and lymphatic metastasis of primary melanoma by sponging microRNA miRNA-429. ... Title: Circular RNA circRNA_0082835 promotes progression and lymphatic metastasis of primary melanoma by sponging microRNA ... HIF1A-AS2 Promotes the Proliferation and Metastasis of Gastric Cancer Cells Through miR-429/PD-L1 Axis. Title: HIF1A-AS2 ...
keywords = "Merkel cell carcinoma, lymphatic metastasis, retrospective, unknown primary",. author = "Tarantola, {Tina I.} and ... had lymph node basin and distant metastasis. The most common lymph node basin involved was inguinal. The median size of the ... had lymph node basin and distant metastasis. The most common lymph node basin involved was inguinal. The median size of the ... had lymph node basin and distant metastasis. The most common lymph node basin involved was inguinal. The median size of the ...
Patterns of Lymphatic Metastases in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma and Proposed Dissection Templates. J Urol. 2015 Dec. 194 ( ... A pericaval lymph node metastasis is noted. Courtesy of Andrew J. Taylor, MD, University of Wisconsin Medical School. ... to induction chemotherapy predicts improved survival outcome in urothelial carcinoma with clinical lymph nodal metastasis ...
Lymphatic and/or lung metastasis happens 100% of that time period in TBA-354 a single MLM range. This repeated/metastatic TBA- ...
Lymphatic metastasis, Carcinoma (Ehrlich tumor), Lymph nodes, Mast cells, Mouse Abstract. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes is ... The aim of the present study was to characterize the Ehrlich tumor as a model of lymphatic metastasis in mice. Animals were ... Ehrlich tumor was considered as a suitable model for the study of lymphatic metastasis. ... An experimental study on the lymphatic dissemination of the solid Ehrlich tvjnor in mice Authors. * Maria Lúcia Zaidan Dagli ...
Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lymphatic metastasis has led to the creation of novel tracers and mapping ... Lymphatic mapping was first described with radiolabelled colloidal gold (198-Au) to predict the often ambiguous lymphatic ... remains dependent on extent of lymphatic spread and nodal metastasis[64]. The application of the SLNB to esophageal resection ... and the cells involved in lymphatic metastasis, tracers can be formulated to identify and irreversibly bind those unique ...
Expression of podoplanin is regulated by the lymphatic-specific homeobox gene Prox-1 (prospero-1). It is involved in lymphatic ... metastasis or malignant progression. Podoplanin plays an important role in the maintenance of podocyte foot processes and ...
IL-1alpha promotes melanoma metastasis in the lymphatic compartment. 13:25. 13:45 ... Loss of tumour-intrinsic IFN-I signalling predicts and facilitates bone metastases in advanced prostate cancer ... The role of cytokines bound to extracellular vesicles in cancer and metastasis ...
  • RESULTS: The D2-40 antigen, podoplanin, was expressed exclusively in lymphatic vessels within tumor and normal tissue in all specimens. (
  • These correlations suggest that studying the molecular mechanisms of differentiation, interstitial pressure at the primary tumor site, and peritumoral lymphangiogenesis may provide insight into lymphatic metastasis. (
  • To prospectively compare the accuracy of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) for detection of primary tumor and metastasis to individual lymph node groups and for nodal staging. (
  • In a very small percentage of patients, metastases may be discovered at the same time or prior to the diagnosis of a primary tumor (eg, lung and renal cell carcinoma presenting as scalp metastases in a man who otherwise appears well and gives no history of prior malignancy). (
  • Most cutaneous metastases occur in a body region near the primary tumor. (
  • Conclusions Upper tract urothelial carcinoma has characteristic patterns of lymph node metastases depending on the side and anatomical location of the primary tumor, including right-to-left migration and involvement of interaortocaval nodes in the setting of proximal disease. (
  • Finally, we discussed the research prospects of lncRNAs-mediated crosstalk between OSCC cells and the tumor microenvironment in OSCC metastasis, especially the potential research value of exosomes and lymphangiogenesis. (
  • Although the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are still unclear, current research indicated that enhanced migration and invasion ability of tumor cells ( 9 ) and lymphangiogenesis ( 10 ) may be critical factors that promote OSCC metastasis. (
  • PGAM1 expression is correlated with age, lymphatic metastasis and tumor recurrence and is closely associated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). (
  • The aim of the present study was to characterize the Ehrlich tumor as a model of lymphatic metastasis in mice. (
  • Ehrlich tumor was considered as a suitable model for the study of lymphatic metastasis. (
  • It is implicated in the onset of tumor invasion, metastasis or malignant progression. (
  • Cancer metastasis occurs when cells break off from a tumor, spread through the bloodstream or lymph vessels, and establish themselves in another part of the body. (
  • Cellular plasticity plays an important role in tumor progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance. (
  • Cancer cell identity and plasticity are required in transition states, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), in primary tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. (
  • EMT transition states during tumor progression and metastasis. (
  • Metastasis is the leading cause of death from cancer, occurring when cancer cells separate from the original tumor to proliferate elsewhere. (
  • In future, this innovative therapeutic approach could be used in combination with conventional chemotherapy to suppress both primary tumor growth and the formation of deadly metastases," senior study author Gerhard Christofori told Medical News Today . (
  • The first lymph node (LN) that receives drainage from a primary tumor is defined as sentinel lymph node (SLN) and when metastasis is not found in an SLN, it almost certainly will not be present in more distal LN. In this concept, the primary benefit of SLN mapping and biopsy is that it enables surgeons to avoid nontherapeutic ALND. (
  • Mesothelioma metastasis means the cancer has spread beyond where the tumor originated, limiting treatment options and negatively impacting life expectancy. (
  • Leg edema suggests lymphatic or vascular obstruction caused by tumor. (
  • Stanczuk GA, Sibanda EN, Tswana SA, Bergstrom S. Polymorphism at the -308-promoter position of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene and cervical cancer. (
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) being the most promising marker has potentially offered new methods to prognosticate and plays an essential role in early diagnosis and treatment apart from tumor, node and metastasis staging which has been used till now. (
  • A significant association was observed between TS of EGFR expression and tumor grade but not with tumor stage or lymph node metastasis. (
  • Traditional breast cancer treatment is determined by two major factors: tumor histology, assessed by classifications based on grade and morphology, and the TNM staging method, based on cancer size, nodal status, and presence or absence of distant metastases. (
  • Lymphangiogenesis, detected by antibodies specific for lymphatic endothelial cells, has been associated with regional lymph node metastases and poor prognosis in carcinomas of head and neck, breast and uterine cervix, but remains largely uninvestigated in prostate adenocarcinoma. (
  • We evaluated the lymphatic vessel density and lymphatic vessel invasion by prostate cancer cells in the intratumoral, peritumoral and normal prostate tissue compartments in cancer-bearing prostate glands and correlated them with lymph node metastases, Gleason score and other pathological parameters. (
  • Purpose Information on patterns of lymph node metastases for upper tract urothelial carcinoma is sparse. (
  • We investigated patterns of lymph node metastases in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. (
  • Results On the right side the 20 renal pelvis tumors had lymph node metastases to the hilum in 22.1% of cases, and to paracaval, retrocaval and interaortocaval regions in 44.1%, 10.3% and 20.6%, respectively. (
  • The 10 proximal ureter tumors had lymph node metastases to the hilum in 46.2% of cases, and to paracaval and retrocaval regions in 46.2% and 7.7%, respectively. (
  • The 2 distal ureter tumors had lymph node metastases equally to the paracaval and pelvic regions. (
  • The 5 mid ureter tumors had lymph node metastases to the para-aortic, common iliac and internal iliac regions in 40%, 40% and 20% of cases, respectively. (
  • Interaortocaval involvement from both sides as well as out of field lymph node metastases appeared to occur secondarily. (
  • These researchers concluded that pancreaticoduodenectomy should be the preferred approach for most ampullary neoplasms that require surgical resection, given that nearly 30% of the Johns Hopkins patients with T1 disease had lymph node metastases. (
  • The study also found local, regional, and systemic recurrence rates of 20%, 50%, and 80%, respectively, with lung involvement having occurred in all patients with distant metastases. (
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a soft tissue sarcoma that accounts for approximately 4.5% of pediatric cancer cases and is characterized by a high degree of malignancy, infiltration of adjacent tissues, and early lymph node and distant metastases 1 . (
  • on the other hand, OSCC metastasis mainly manifests as regional cervical lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis is rare. (
  • CONTEXT: The diagnosis of primary melanoma is easily confirmed after histological analysis of the lesion, whereas it is rarely diagnosed when the patient even has distant metastases. (
  • The majority of patients had lymph node basin involvement only (78%), whereas 22% had lymph node basin and distant metastasis. (
  • Retropharyngeal lymph node involvement was associated with inferior 5-year local control and inferior recurrence-free survival, distant metastases−free survival, and overall survival on multivariate analysis. (
  • While distant spreading was more rare, researchers noted that they found a higher frequency of unexpected sites of metastases in this study. (
  • RCCs can metastasize to almost every organ, including the lungs (50-60%), liver (30-40%), bones (30-40%) and brain (5%), and ~25% of RCC patients will already have multiple distant metastases at the time of presentation, such as lung, lymph node, liver or bone metastases ( 3 ). (
  • Local implications of lymphatic obstruction can be Preau D orange appearance and edema while as distant manifestations can be involvement of Nodes along with dissemination to other organs. (
  • Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system. (
  • The common sites for distant metastasis include extrapelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. (
  • Patients who die from ciliary body melanoma die because of distant metastasis rather than local spread. (
  • High recurrence and metastasis is a hallmark of urinary bladder cancer, yet the relationship between lymphangiogenesis or lymphatic metastasis and urinary bladder cancer is unknown. (
  • One case (16.7%) involved lymphatic recurrence at 12 months in a patient who survived 38 months. (
  • Melanoma can be any thickness but it has spread to involve nearby lymph nodes or melanoma has been found on nearby skin (see local recurrence and in-transit metastases below). (
  • PET imaging of CA125 expression by ovarian cancer cells may enhance the evaluation of the extent of disease and provide a roadmap to surgery as well as detect recurrence and metastases. (
  • Patients in the report had a 5-year overall survival rate of 93.1%, although survival rates were lower in children who experienced symptoms, local recurrence, or metastasis or who did not undergo treatment with surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy. (
  • BACKGROUND: Few data are available examining the significance of prostatic lymphatic vessel density (LVD) to lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer. (
  • Peritumoral LVD and peritumoral lymphatic invasion were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. (
  • In all, 26 patients had lymph node dissection, and 14 of them had lymph node metastasis. (
  • The lymphatic vessel density of the three compartments was not significantly different between cases with and without lymph node metastasis. (
  • moreover, CD11b+/Gr-1+ TAM could be responsible for the OUBC-induced lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis by producing VEGF-C/D. These findings provide additional therapeutic target to lymphatic metastasis in the patients with urinary bladder cancer. (
  • The mean overall survival time was 63.2 +/- 7.7 months and survival time was shorter for younger patients with palliative resection, lymph node metastasis and peritoneal nodules. (
  • Whereas, it is still difficult to accurately determine whether OSCC patients have metastasis before surgery, which may lead to over-medical treatment (performing neck dissection for patients without lymph node metastasis) or insufficient treatment (patients with lymph node metastasis did not undergo neck dissection). (
  • Perineural, vascular, and lymphatic invasion are associated with a poor prognosis. (
  • In general, lncRNAs are expected to be used for screening, treatment, and prognosis monitoring of OSCC metastasis, but more work is still required to better understand the biological function of lncRNAs. (
  • Axillary nodal metastases were found in three of the six patients in whom nodal biopsies were performed. (
  • FDG PET is more sensitive than CT for depicting nodal metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. (
  • Interestingly, CD11b+/Gr-1+ TAM are a source of lymphangiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D (VEGF-C/D). The blockade of VEGF-C/D with soluble VEGF receptor-3 and the depletion of CD11b+/Gr-1+ TAM with clodronate liposome markedly inhibited OUBC-induced lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis to SLN. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of lymphatic vessels in non-carcinomatous prostate tissue, and investigate the relationship between LVD and lymph node status in prostate cancer. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that peritumoral lymphatic vessels are likely to serve as major conduits for nodal metastasis in prostate cancer using D2-40 to decorate lymphatic endothelium marker podoplanin. (
  • Multivariate stepwise regression analysis identified clinical stage (p = 0.0269), pathologic stage (p = 0.0162), grade (p = 0.0094), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.0393), and family history of cancer (p = 0.0079) as independently predictive of lymphatic metastases. (
  • Additionally, we identified family history of cancer as a new predictor of lymphatic metastasis. (
  • Thus, genetic analysis of families with cancer, irrespective of type, may identify genes important for regional metastasis. (
  • The lymphatic system can play a very worrisome role in the spread of breast cancer. (
  • But the breast's lymphatic system can also spread diseases such as cancer through the body. (
  • The most frequently encountered metastases in men come from lung cancer. (
  • Besides, we briefly introduced the research status of cancer-associated fibroblasts-related lncRNAs in OSCC metastasis. (
  • Metastasis to regional lymph nodes is an important step in the dissemination of cancer. (
  • Our scientists pursue every aspect of cancer research-from exploring the biology of genes and cells, to developing immune-based treatments, uncovering the causes of metastasis, and more. (
  • Sloan Kettering Institute Director Joan Massagué (right), pictured here with laboratory member Karuna Ganesh, has been studying the biology behind cancer metastasis for nearly two decades. (
  • Memorial Sloan Kettering cancer biologist Joan Massagué , Director of the Sloan Kettering Institute , has been studying the biology behind cancer metastasis for nearly two decades. (
  • Resveratrol reverses TGF-β1-mediated invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells via the SIRT3/AMPK/autophagy signal axis - Phytother Res 2022 Sep 9 - 'Taken together, our study provided novel insight into the anticancer effects of Resv and revealed that targeting the SIRT3/AMPK/autophagy pathway can serve as a new therapeutic target against breast cancer' - See resveratrol products at . (
  • When pancreatic cancer cells break away and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system, they can spread the cancer. (
  • The drug therapy could be used to halt metastasis, the leading cause of death from cancer. (
  • These new cancer cells travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. (
  • Cancer cell plasticity - an ability that allows cancer cells to shift physiological characteristics dramatically - fosters metastasis and is responsible for cancer's resistance to treatments. (
  • Metastasis is defined as the stage in which cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. (
  • The metastasis cancer cells are similar to the cells from where they are originated. (
  • When melanoma spreads through the lymphatic system, cancer cells may settle in lymph nodes around the neck, in the armpits or in the groin. (
  • These data suggested that PDT using PMB as a nanotransporter of verteporfin could be a minimally invasive treatment of SLN metastasis in breast cancer and represent a potential alternative procedure to SLNB. (
  • found that SLNB is a safe and accurate method of screening the axillary nodes for metastasis in women with a small breast cancer by the randomized trial [ 4 ]. (
  • Mesothelioma cancer can spread a number of ways, but most commonly involves cancer cells moving through the bloodstream, lymph nodes or lymphatic system. (
  • Researchers found that over 60% experienced more regional spreading, such as pleural effusions and metastasis to the other lung during this time period, with about 30% also seeing cancer spread to the lining of their heart (pericardium). (
  • In Iraq, primary tumours of lymphatic tissue are often encountered and account for 8% of total cancer cases (it is the fifth most common cancer) [3]. (
  • Breast cancer can spread via hematogenous route as well as lymphatic routes. (
  • A few studies have been conducted on the pattern of lymphatic spread of ampullary cancer. (
  • Shirai and colleagues meticulously reviewed 21 cases of ampullary cancer and documented the pattern of lymphatic spread. (
  • Can Immediate Lymphatic Reconstruction With Lymphatico-Venous Anastomosis Reduce the Occurrence of Arm Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Patients After Axillary Lymph Node Dissection? (
  • L'étude menée en Iraq a utilisé la méthode d'hybridation in situ pour déterminer la fréquence du papillomavirus humain et pour son génotypage dans les échantillons de tissus prélevés auprès de 129 patientes ayant reçu un diagnostic de cancer du sein malin, de 24 patientes porteuses d'une tumeur du sein bénigne et de 20 femmes témoins en bonne santé. (
  • In advanced cases, lung metastasis also may occur. (
  • Lymphatic and/or lung metastasis happens 100% of that time period in TBA-354 a single MLM range. (
  • CT images allow radiologists not only to determine the extent of tumours but also to determine the absence or presence of bony destruction, calcification, haemorrhage and/or metastases 3 , However, in fact, during the course of routine radiology diagnosis, because RMS has the general radiological appearance of soft tissue tumors, it is difficult to distinguish it from other pelvic soft tissue malignancies. (
  • More and more studies have shown that lncRNAs can regulate the metastasis of various tumors including OSCC at epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional levels. (
  • Thus far, decisions regarding the elective and therapeutic management of lymphatic metastases are made mainly on clinical grounds, which are not very precise because we cannot make predictions from the size and extent of invasion of the primary tumors [ 5 ]. (
  • Lymphatic vessel density in the intratumoral, peritumoral and normal prostate compartments was 0.91 ± 0.80, 1.54 ± 0.68 and 1.58 ± 0.96/mm2, respectively. (
  • The intratumoral lymphatic vessel density was significantly lower than that of the peritumoral and normal prostate compartments, and the latter two were not significantly different. (
  • The peritumoral lymphatic vessel density correlated inversely with the Gleason score. (
  • This study assessed clinicopathological characteristics correlated to nodal metastasis among patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for the identification of pathways on which to focus molecular studies. (
  • In most cases, cutaneous metastases develop after the initial diagnosis of the primary malignancy (eg, metastases of breast carcinoma involving the chest wall several years after a mastectomy). (
  • Often, the nodules from the metastases of renal cell carcinoma and occasionally thyroid carcinoma are red and purple. (
  • In other cases, the skin may feel firm and have a breastplatelike appearance, which is referred to as carcinoma en cuirasse. (
  • Our study confirms that grade, pathologic stage, clinical stage, and lymphovascular invasion are predictors of regional metastasis. (
  • The lymphatic vessel density and lymphatic vessel invasion were then recorded for each of the three compartments microscopically. (
  • OSCC is characterized by severe progression with a high potential for both lymphatic metastasis and locoregional invasion [ 2 ]. (
  • VEGF receptor-3 was expressed in a subset of D2-40+ lymphatic vessels. (
  • Lack of coexpression of podoplanin and VEGF receptor-3 in some lymphatic vessels suggests the heterogeneity of lymphatic endothelial cells in prostate tissue. (
  • Lymphatic vessels were detected by immunohistochemical stain using an antibody specific for the lymphatic endothelial cells (clone D2-40) on 33 radical prostatectomies. (
  • Lymphatic vessels provide a highway along which invasive cancerous cells move to other parts of the body. (
  • If the melanoma does not show extraocular extension, it only can disseminate hematogenously, because the eye has no lymphatic vessels. (
  • The liver and spleen are rarely the first sites of melanoma metastases. (
  • Further surgery is undertaken if possible to cut out melanoma metastases. (
  • The staining pattern of D2-40 was compared with that of another lymphatic vessel marker, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-3, and a blood vessel endothelial marker, CD34, in adjacent sections. (
  • All finalists have published in the renown journal Nature, the winner Dr. Boris Strilic (Bad Nauheim/Germany) with his work "Tumour cell-induced endothelial cell necroptosis via death receptor 6 promotes metastasis" (Nature, 2016, 536(7615):215-218). (
  • About 20% of patients experienced rare mesothelioma bone metastasis, and even 3% of the participants had symptomatic spread to the brain. (
  • Other frequent sites of metastasis are lung, bone, skin, and central nervous system (CNS). (
  • By contrast, contralateral adrenal metastases rarely occur (metastasis rate, ~0.7%) and bilateral adrenal metastases are limited to ~20 cases reported in the literature ( 4 ). (
  • 5 The average survival period for pa-tients with non-visceral metastases is 7.2 months, but it falls to 2.4 months when liver metastases are consid-ered, whether associated with other organs or not. (
  • Liver enzyme levels are indicated in any patient with uveal melanoma, because the liver is the most common site of choroidal melanoma metastasis. (
  • This is to evaluate for the presence of an underlying malignancy, which may be the cause of the lymphatic or duct obstruction that preceded abscess formation. (
  • Lymphatic metastasis is associated with up to a 50% decrease in survival, yet the molecular mechanisms driving their establishment remain poorly understood. (
  • Metastasis is the major factor leading to the low survival rate of OSCC patients, and the 5-year survival rate of OSCC patients with metastasis is only about 40% ( 5 ). (
  • Predictors of long-term survival among patients with brain metastases. (
  • Four cases (66.7%) involved primary bilateral inguinocrural lymphadenectomy, and only one of those four cases involved lymphatic metastatic disease. (
  • The rate of ipsilateral metastasis is 3‑5% and the rate of contralateral metastasis is ~0.7%, however, synchronous bilateral adrenal metastases are extremely rare. (
  • Ultrasonography (US) revealed a right renal mass and bilateral adrenal metastases, and a computerized tomography (CT) scan determined the size of the lesions: An 86x83x66‑mm mass in the lower pole of the right kidney, an 18x12x10‑mm mass in the right adrenal gland, and a 69x51x53‑mm mass in the left adrenal gland with central necrosis and peripheral contrast uptake. (
  • A US‑guided biopsy was performed which determined a diagnosis of right RCC and bilateral synchronous adrenal metastasis. (
  • The bilateral synchronous adrenal metastases posed a challenge in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, as there is no standard approach in the literature for the treatment of such patients. (
  • Therefore, minimally invasive surgical procedures and partial adrenalectomy, in addition to radical nephrectomy, should be the preferred treatment strategy for bilateral synchronous adrenal metastasis from RCC. (
  • Pulmonary metastasis usually is difficult to detect on physical examination unless pleural effusion or bronchial obstruction becomes apparent. (
  • The usefulness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis was evaluated. (
  • However, no good biomarker has been identified to refine which subtype is of high metastatic potential to make decisions regarding the elective and therapeutic management of lymphatic metastases. (
  • Knowledge of the lymphatic drainage of breast is required not only for the performance of surgical procedures but also in planning therapeutic radiation, predicting sites of locally recurrent disease. (
  • Bimanual pelvic examination findings often reveal pelvic or parametrial metastasis. (
  • 1 This is probably due to the fact that the time between diagnosis of the primary le-sion and the appearance of metastases is very long. (
  • The unfavorable clinical outcome is closely associated with its high lymphatic and local metastatic potential [ 4 ]. (
  • Métodos estudio descriptivo longitudinal y de seguimiento prospectivo de una serie de pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de cáncer de esófago registrados en la consulta multidisciplinaria de vías digestivas (N=57), del Hospital Universitario Celestino Hernández Robau, de Villa Clara, en el período enero/2016 a diciembre/2017. (
  • Podoplanin has been described to be present in normal, inflammatory and neoplastic lymphatic capillary endothelium. (
  • Commonly used mapping techniques utilizing the combination of radiocolloid and blue dye may result in reduced SLN detection and increased false negative rates when applied to cancers with more complex lymphatic drainage patterns. (
  • The lymphatic system is the body's drainage system in which a milky fluid called lymph circulates. (
  • The lymphatic drainage of the breast is considered rich, and identification of the major pathways allows a surgeon to predict the sites most commonly containing lymph-borne metastases. (
  • The outlook of metastatic melanoma is poor, especially if there is nodal metastasis and haematogenous spread to internal organs. (
  • The cancerous cells may outgrow from the prostate gland into the surrounding organs by spreading through your blood or lymphatic system. (
  • The most common presentation of cutaneous metastases is nodules. (
  • Lymph nodes metastases are present in as many as half of patients. (
  • A large portion of female patients have metastases to the lower extremities. (
  • Metastasis is the main cause of the death of OSCC patients. (
  • Notably, about 40% of OSCC patients may have metastasis ( 5 ). (
  • 1990) found an average time of 3 years for melanoma and metastases, among 30 patients studied. (
  • Frequency, etiologies, risk factors, and sequelae of falls among patients with brain metastases: A population- and institutional-level analysis. (
  • Incidence and Predictors of Neurologic Death in Patients with Brain Metastases. (
  • Emergency department visits and inpatient hospitalizations among older patients with brain metastases: a dual population- and institution-level analysis. (
  • Seizures Among Patients with Brain Metastases: A Population- and Institutional-level Analysis. (
  • The rate of ipsilateral adrenal metastasis from RCC ranges from 1.1 to 10% in RCC patients and increases to 6-29% in autopsy series ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • This paper reports on the clinical picture of a patient with fatal malignant melanoma and hepatic and spleen metastases. (
  • Any rapidly developing or eruptive lesions should warrant careful consideration of the possibility of metastasis. (
  • This uncontrolled growth can spread beyond the lung -either by direct extension, by entering the lymphatic circulation or via the hematogenous, blood borne spread the process called metastasis. (
  • Circular RNA circRNA_0082835 promotes progression and lymphatic metastasis of primary melanoma by sponging microRNA miRNA-429. (
  • That system is the lymphatic system. (
  • In-transit metastasis is melanoma found inside the lymphatic system more than 2 cm from the site of a primary melanoma. (
  • The requirements of EMT and MET in primary tumorigenesis and metastasis are context dependent and require rigorous evaluation of the model systems employed. (
  • Lymphatic circulation in breast tissue helps regulate the local fluid balance as well as filter out harmful substances. (