Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Lymphangiogenesis: The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Lymphography: Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3: A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.Lymphatic Abnormalities: Congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOID TISSUE) including the lymph vessels.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C: A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.Mice, Inbred C57BLLymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Inbred BALB CAdaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Wuchereria bancrofti: A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D: A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR C in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Filaricides: Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Lymphatic Vessel Tumors: Neoplasms composed of lymphoid tissue, a lattice work of reticular tissue the interspaces of which contain lymphocytes. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in lymphatic vessels.Lymphangioma: A benign tumor resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. Lymphangioendothelioma is a type of lymphangioma in which endothelial cells are the dominant component.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymphoscintigraphy: Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Lymphangiectasis: A transient dilatation of the lymphatic vessels.Immune System Processes: Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Brugia malayi: A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Microfilaria: The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Testicular Hydrocele: Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)LymphangitisAntigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Mice, Inbred C3HGlycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Brugia: A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Immune System Phenomena: The characteristic properties and processes involved in IMMUNITY and an organism's immune response.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Chyle: An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mycoplasma pulmonis: A species of gram-negative bacteria highly pathogenic to RATS and MICE. It is the primary cause of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Chylothorax: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Immune and lymphatic system[edit]. The appendix has been identified as an important component of mammalian mucosal immune ... it is thought that this may provide more immune defences from invading pathogens and getting the lymphatic system's B and T ... Fever and an immune system response are also characteristic of appendicitis.[23] ... This structure helps in the proper movement and removal of waste matter in the digestive system, contains lymphatic vessels ...
The lymphatic system is part of the immune surveillance system. Blood contains fluid and blood cells. The fluid, which may ... The immune system of some people may be sensitized by exposure to a living exogenous irritant such as a bacterial or viral ... Some of this lymph fluid is then taken up by lymphatic vessels and passed back to the heart, where it is again mixed with the ...
They are part of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the body's immune surveillance system. Blood contains ... Some of this fluid is then taken up by lymphatic vessels and passed back to the heart, where it is again mixed with the blood. ...
... and other immune system agents. Manual lymphatic drainage claims to improve waste removal and immune function. Medical Massage ... Manual lymphatic drainage is a technique used to gently work and stimulate the lymphatic system, to assist in reduction of ... The lymphatic system is a network of slow moving vessels in the body that carries cellular waste toward the heart, to be ... The massage technique used during Ayurvedic Massage is known to stimulate the lymphatic system to expel the toxins out from the ...
Lymphocytes are just one group of cells that function as part of the immune system. More of this group travel around the ... lymphatic system than in the blood network. Two types of lymphocytes are present in the bloodstream, which are the B cells and ... Monocytes: Monocytes are white blood cells that will give rise to all the phagocytes of the mononuclear phagocytic system (see ... Lymphocytes: These are cells responsible for immune responses that circulate in the blood. Normally, only small numbers are ...
... spleen or lymph nodes appeared as part of the adaptive immune system. Lymphatics of colon. Section of the human esophagus. ... 2001). "The mucosal immune system". Immunobiology. New York: Garland Science. 10-13. ISBN 0-8153-3642-X. Murphy, K. (2011). ... The digestive tract is an important component of the body's immune system. In fact, the intestine possesses the largest mass of ... Both GALT and mesenteric lymph nodes are sites where the immune response is started due to the presence of immune cells through ...
The blood accumulates locally if it is not cleared shortly by the immune, circulatory, and lymphatic system. This may further ... There are immune system changes in women with endometriosis, such as an increase macrophage-derived secretion products, but it ... Researchers are investigating the possibility that the immune system may not be able to cope with the cyclic onslaught of ... The process is a complex point system that assesses lesions and adhesions in the pelvic organs, but it is important to note ...
The human lymphatic system is constantly moving excess fluids, lipids, and immune system related products around the body. The ... Thus the solar system is moving. The Earth is rotating or spinning around its axis, this is evidenced by day and night, at the ... So, the term motion, in general, signifies a continuous change in the configuration of a physical system. For example, one can ... Bowen, R (27 May 2006). "Gastrointestinal Transit: How Long Does It Take?". Pathophysiology of the digestive system. Colorado ...
Movement of cells is vital for the function of the immune system, and especially for antigen presenting cells. Dendritic cells ... Chemokines influence these movements, especially CCL21, which is bound to lymphatic endothelial cell membranes. The influence ... one of the main antigen presenting cells in the immune system), move towards the lymph nodes after phagocytizing an antigen in ...
The spleen is a lymphatic organ, which means it is largely involved in the immune system and immune responses. When the spleen ... Due to the increased inflammatory response of the body's immune system, this condition can cause a reduction in red and white ... Neutrophils are the most abundant cells among white blood cells and play an important role in the immune system by destroying ... The spleen is an important lymphatic organ that is involved in filtration of the blood by discarding old and damaged red blood ...
An immune system may contain innate and adaptive components. The innate system in mammalians for example is composed of ... The adaptive system is composed of more advanced lymphatic cells that are programmed to recognise self substances and don't ... Many disorders of immune system function can affect the formation of active immunity such as immunodeficiency (both acquired ... These two components of the immune system create a dynamic biological environment where "health" can be seen as a physical ...
Infection results when the wound's micro-organisms overcome the immune system's natural defense to fight off replicating micro- ... or fungating wounds are caused by proliferation and infiltration of malignant cells into the skin and the surrounding lymphatic ... Neuropathic pain is associated with chronic pain and results from a nervous system dysfunction, which causes an inappropriate ... "National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel's updated pressure ulcer staging system". Advances in skin & wound care. 20 (5): 269-274 ...
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that ... Lymphatic system Section of small lymph node of rabbit. Lymphatics of the arm Lymphatics of the axillary region Lymph node ... In the lymphatic system the lymph node is a secondary lymphoid organ. A lymph node is enclosed in a fibrous capsule and is made ... They are linked by the lymphatic vessels as a part of the circulatory system. Lymph nodes are major sites of B and T ...
Immune system: protects the organism from foreign bodies Lymphatic system: the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood ... The system includes the functions of immune responses and the development of antibodies. Muscular system: allows for ... These specific systems are widely studied in anatomy. They are present in many types of animals. Circulatory system: pumping ... Integumentary system: skin, hair, fat, and nails. Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ...
Immune system: protects the organism from foreign bodies Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between ... The lymphatic system includes functions including immune responses and development of antibodies. Muscular system: allows for ... portal Biological network Artificial life Biological systems engineering Systems biology Systems ecology Systems theory Systems ... the respiratory system, the nervous system, etc. On the micro to the nanoscopic scale, examples of biological systems are cells ...
... "systemic response to lymphatic immune system"". Indian J Plast Surg. Indian J Plast Surg. 45 (2): 180-181. doi:10.4103/0970- ... He discovered fundamental processes in human tissues connected with function of the lymphatic system. He has published around ... "A Polish professor is one of the best researchers of the lymphatic system , News , Science & Scholarship in Poland". ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) "A Pole among the most outstanding researchers of the lymphatic system , News , Science & ...
... the expression pattern suggests a role in lipid homeostasis in cells of the immune system. Alternative splicing of this gene ... This full transporter has been detected predominantly in myelo-lymphatic tissues with the highest expression in peripheral ...
... by emptying into the lymphatic ducts. Its other main function is in the adaptive immune system. The development of the ... The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system. It is a network of lymphatic vessels and lymph capillaries, lymph nodes ... This includes cardiovascular disease, affecting the cardiovascular system, and lymphatic disease affecting the lymphatic system ... This includes cardiovascular disease, affecting the cardiovascular system, and lymphatic disease affecting the lymphatic system ...
These are antibodies produced by the immune system against the normal flora, that are also effective against related pathogens ... Lymphatic drainage from the ascending colon and proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon is to the colic lymph nodes and the ... One function of the descending colon in the digestive system is to store feces that will be emptied into the rectum. It is ... The colon is the last part of the digestive system. It extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated ...
Promoting hygiene is essential for lymphatic filariasis patients given the compromised immune and damaged lymphatic systems and ... regulators of the immune system, suggesting that they are involved in deactivating the host's immune system to ensure the ... The lymphatic system normally functions to maintain fluid balance between tissues and the blood and serves as an integral part ... Compromised immune function due to lymphatic damage in addition to lymph node ulcerations and abscesses exposure and impaired ...
Macrophages also produce an inflammatory mediator known as interleukin-1 (IL-1), which is part of the immune systems first line ... These macrophages seek to eliminate the dust particle through either the mucociliary mechanism, or through lymphatic vessels ... which help the cells of the bodies immune system to migrate into tissues. Macrophages exposed to dust have been shown to have ...
Thus, among leukocytes, the term myeloid is associated with the innate immune system, in contrast to lymphoid, which is ... Those cells' differentiation (that is, lymphopoiesis) is not complete until they migrate to lymphatic organs such as the spleen ... associated with the adaptive immune system. Similarly, myelogenous usually refers to nonlymphocytic white blood cells, and ...
They are composed of lymphatic tissue that functions to assist the immune system in the production of antibodies in response to ... Like other lymphatic tissues, the function of lingual tonsils is to prevent infections. These tonsils contain B and T ... The lingual tonsils are two small mounds of lymphatic tissue located at the back of the base of the tongue, one on either side ... Histology Learning System at Boston University MedEd at Loyola histo/HistoImages/hl6-27.jpg (labeled as 'lymphoid tissue')] ...
Adult worms can only reproduce for a limited time, because the immune system will eventually expel them from the small ... to pass through the intestinal mucosa and enter the lymphatic vessels, and then enter the bloodstream. The larvae travel by ... the immune system will respond to expel the worms from the small intestine fast enough to prevent the female worms from ... Complications may include inflammation of heart muscle, central nervous system involvement, and inflammation of the lungs. ...
In the vascular system, S1P regulates angiogenesis, vascular stability, and permeability. In the immune system, it is now ... into the lymphatic vessels. Inhibition of S1P receptors was shown to be critical for immunomodulation. S1P has also been shown ... Although S1P is of importance in the entire human body, it is a major regulator of vascular and immune systems. In addition, it ... S1P interaction with its receptor S1PR1 is needed for the egress of immune cells from the lymphoid organs (such as thymus and ...
They are transported by the blood plasma and the lymphatic system. Plasma cells originate in the bone marrow; B cells ... This prolific production of antibodies is an integral part of the humoral immune response. ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. First, the B cells have to encounter ...
The immune system is our bodys defense system against infectious pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and fungi as well as parasitic ... The immune system works to keep these harmful agents out of the body and attacks those that manage to enter. The... ... The immune and lymphatic systems are two closely related organ systems that share several organs and physiological functions. ... Immune and Lymphatic System Physiology. Lymph Circulation. One of the primary functions of the lymphatic system is the movement ...
Anatomy diagrams and information about the lymphatic and immune system will help you understand human body parts like lymph ... Immune and Lymphatic Systems. The immune and lymphatic systems are two closely related organ systems that share several organs ... Immune and Lymphatic System Physiology. Lymph Circulation. One of the primary functions of the lymphatic system is the movement ... Lymphatic Nodules. Outside of the system of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes, there are masses of non-encapsulated lymphatic ...
... your immune system responds to foreign organisms by producing antibodies and stimulating specialized cells, which destroy the ... Naturally Boost The Immune & Lymphatic Systems , Health Topic Under normal circumstances, your immune system responds to ... Anatomy and Physiology of the Immune System, Part 4 - Holistically Strengthen Your Immune System ... Anatomy and Physiology of the Immune System, Part 2 - Strong Immune System ...
... your immune system responds to foreign organisms by producing antibodies and stimulating specialized cells, which destroy the ... Immune & Lymphatic Systems. Naturally Boost The Immune & Lymphatic Systems , Health Topic. body-systems ... Anatomy and Physiology of the Immune System, Part 4 - Holistically Strengthen Your Immune System ... Anatomy and Physiology of the Immune System, Part 2 - Strong Immune System ...
Lymphatic System Disorders. Immune & Lymphatic System Disorders The lymphatic system is a key part of the immune system, ... Immune & Lymphatic System Disorders. The lymphatic system is a key part of the immune system, draining excess fluid from bodily ... If your immune system becomes compromised, the lymphatic system wont be able to work properly, causing swelling from a buildup ... If your immune system becomes compromised, the lymphatic system wont be able to work properly, causing swelling from a buildup ...
The immune system is a network of cells, tissues and organs that protect the body from infection. The lymphatic system stores ... Overview of the Immune System and the Lymphatic System (slide set). ... Overview of the Immune System and the Lymphatic System. False colored TEM of a white blood cell and a red blood cell.. © ... The immune system is a network of cells, tissues and organs that protect the body from infection. The lymphatic system stores ...
What you must know about the immune and lymphatic system. We have gotten to know what the immune and lymphatic system is made ... Lymphatic system and infectious microorganisms. - The lymphatic system is made up of organs, vessels, nodes and lymphatic ... Immune system. - The immune system is the defense the body has against diseases. The non-specific response is the first ... In the twelfth chapter of our collection we have gotten to know what the immune and lymphatic system is made up of. In order to ...
Poor sleep quality and quantity during pregnancy can disrupt normal immune processes and may lead to lower birth weights and ... or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright holder ...
Study Lymphatic And Immune System flashcards from Rachel Piotter ... Lymphatic And Immune System Flashcards Preview Function And ... The immune system is composed of barriers, cells, and various proteins that help to provide immunity against what? ... This is when the immune system is hyperactive and its overall response to an antigen that is normally harmless to the body. ... You Immune system used to be divided into first second and third lines of what? ...
Lymphatic and Immune Systems Terminology flashcards from J Lars ... Flashcards in Ch 14 - Lymphatic and Immune Systems Terminology ... Lymphatic and Immune Systems Terminology Flashcards Preview Biomedical Terminology , Ch 14 - Lymphatic and Immune Systems ... autoimmune disease - a disease in which the bodys immune system attacks healthy cells. ex. immunoglobulin - protein that acts ...
The major organs that produce cells key for the immune system are the ,a href="/topics/bone-marrow" track_data="{ ... Are the lungs, spleen, lymphatic vessels and bone marrow all part of the immune system?. 2 doctors weighed in ... Are the lungs, spleen, lymphatic vessels and bone marrow all part of the immune system? ... The major organs that produce cells key for the immune system are the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus. ...
In the fight against cancer, the immune system is the first line of defense. The lymphatic system specifically is essential to ... Researchers decipher how the immune system memorizes pathogens after an infection The immune system will memorize the pathogen ... Lymphatic System News and Research. RSS Lymph is clear or white fluid that travels through vessels, moves within tissues and ... After passing through the channels of the lymphatic system they drain into the lymph nodes. The lymph nodes act as filters ...
Boosts the immune system.. *Promotes faster healing from injury, trauma, surgery, sporting events, and many other physical ... Manual Lymphatic Drainage. Manual Lymphatic Drainage was developed by Dr. Emil Vodder in the 1930s as a gentle, non-invasive ... Stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system which induces relaxation and stress reduction.. *Is a highly important procedure ... method of encouraging the flow of lymphatic fluid which helps eliminate excess fluid and toxins that have built up in body ...
Lymphatic and Immune System. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and ... Lymphatic System. Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 22: Lymphatic and Immune System. Question. Answer. ... What are the organs of the lymphatic system?. Spleen, tonsils, appendix, thymus, lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, ... colorless interstitial fluid confined in lymphatic vessels and flowing through the lymphatic system until it is returned to the ...
The Lymphatic and Immune Systems","payreferer_url":"\/flashcards\/copy\/chapter-6-the-lymphatic-and-immune-systems-249399"," ... hematologic, lymphatic and immune sys... * Lymphatic and Immune system * Lymphatic and Immune System Pathology ...
The lymphatic system is a major part of our immune system. Lymphatic vessels create a network in the body that carries ... Link Between the Brain and Immune System. Implications profound for neurological diseases from autism to Alzheimers to ... Citrus oil for Aromatherapists use grapefruit ethereal to stimulate healthy lymphatic activity and reduce hangovers, jet lag ... lymphatic fluid (or lymph for short; lympha means water in Latin) all around the body, flowing towards the heart, into lymph ...
The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Lesson 12.1 The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System • organization of the lymphatic system ... Lymphatic and Immune System Your Bodys Defense Mechanism 12 The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Lesson 12.1: The Lymphatic System ... The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Lesson 12.4 Disorders and Diseases of the Immune System Disorders and Diseases of the Immune ... The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Lesson 12.3 Specific Defenses Specific Defenses - Immune System • called the specific immune ...
Immune System Diseases. *(and 5 more...). *Biological: ATLCAR.CD30 cells. Interventional. Phase 1. Phase 2. *UNC Lineberger ... To define the clinical phenotype of lymphatic disorders.. *To define the molecular basis of the lymphatic disorders. This ... VA NY Harbor Healthcare System - Brooklyn. Brooklyn, New York, United States. *VA NY Harbor Healthcare System - St. Albans. ... socioeconomic impact of lymphatic disease. 5000. All. Child, Adult, Senior. NCT01336790. SU-04052011-7662. 16384. March 2009. ...
Gut Associated Lymphatic Tissue (GALT) in HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)- Infected Patients. The safety and scientific ... Phase IV Longitudinal Study of Gut Associated Lymphatic Tissue (GALT) in HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)- Infected Patients ... Immune System Diseases. Slow Virus Diseases. To Top. *For Patients and Families ...
Immune and lymphatic system[edit]. The appendix has been identified as an important component of mammalian mucosal immune ... it is thought that this may provide more immune defences from invading pathogens and getting the lymphatic systems B and T ... Fever and an immune system response are also characteristic of appendicitis.[23] ... This structure helps in the proper movement and removal of waste matter in the digestive system, contains lymphatic vessels ...
The immune system is the bodys natural defence against infection and disease. The human body is protected by 2 main types of ... Lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the group of tissues and organs that make and store cells that fight infection and ... The immune system. The immune system defends the body against infection and disease. Some parts of the immune system look for ... Parts of the immune system. The immune system is made up of cells and organs that work together to protect the body and respond ...
Our immune system has taken thousands of years to evolve into the disease-fighting machine it is now, but sometimes things just ... Lymphatic System. The lymphatic system is comprised of an interconnected system of vessels and nodes where much of the immune ... What Is the Immune System?. Simply put, the immune system is composed of organs, tissues, cells, and chemicals that work in a ... Similar to data being sent over the wire, these are immune system signaling chemicals that either tell the immune system to ...
Drain Pipes in the Brain: Lymphatic Vessels Act As Pipeline Between Brain and Immune System. Neuroscience News. October 3, ... Researchers have discovered lymphatic vessels carry previously unknown messages from the brain to the immune system that ... between the brain and immune system. Researchers say the findings could alter the way we think about how the brain and immune ... Exit Through the Lymphatic System. Neuroscience News. November 10, 2017. A new study in Nature Communications refutes long ...
Immune system, the complex group of defense responses found in humans and other advanced vertebrates that helps repel disease- ... Location in the lymphatic system. Lymphocytes are the cells responsible for the bodys ability to distinguish and react to an ... but they also have a more advanced protective system called the immune system. The immune system is a complex network of organs ... The immune system protects against infectious disease, but it may also at times cause disease. Disorders of the immune system ...
The Chapter 13 Lymphatic and Immune Systems 1 The Lymphatic Vessels Lymphoid Organs Three functions contribute to homeostasis 1 ... Chapter 24 The Immune System Chapter 24 The Immune System The Immune System Layered defense system The skin and chemical ... The Lymphatic System. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi The Lymphatic System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Functions of The Lymphatic System Lymphatic ... Lymphatic System. Where s your immunity idol? Lymphatic System Where s your immunity idol? Functions of the Lymphatic System ...
  • This inhibition of lymphatic contraction was associated with a reduction in the response to antigen in a model of immune-induced multiple sclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • Any non-self substance capable of triggering an immune response is known as an antigen. (thebodypro.com)
  • The system is highly adaptable because of somatic hypermutation (a process of accelerated somatic mutations), and V(D)J recombination (an irreversible genetic recombination of antigen receptor gene segments). (wikipedia.org)
  • The major functions of the adaptive immune system include: Recognition of specific "non-self" antigens in the presence of "self", during the process of antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effectively, the digestive system is a continuous tube from the mouth to the anus - something you probably don't want to. (jonbarron.org)
  • Jon Barron will walk you through the digestive system - from the tip of your tongue to the outer edge. (jonbarron.org)
  • The digestive system is essentially a tube which extends from the mouth to the rectum. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • The final stage of the digestive system is the colon (large intestine) which absorbs water and salts before the remains are passed out of the rectum as faeces. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • Throughout this course, we will learn about different physiological systems and highlight yoga practices that can influence different systems and reduce pathology. (coursera.org)
  • A comparative review of the vascular system in seed plants and humans In the evolutionary tree of life, all biotic organisms are believed to have derived from a common ancestor. (bartleby.com)