Lymphadenitis: Inflammation of the lymph nodes.Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Mesenteric Lymphadenitis: INFLAMMATION of LYMPH NODES in the MESENTERY.Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis: Development of lesions in the lymph node characterized by infiltration of the cortex or paracortex by large collections of proliferating histiocytes and complete or, more often, incomplete necrosis of lymphoid tissue.Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria that was originally isolated from necrotic areas in the kidney of a sheep. It may cause ulcerative lymphangitis, abscesses, and other chronic purulent infections in sheep, horses, and other warm-blooded animals. Human disease may form from contact with infected animals.Corynebacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM.Mycobacterium haemophilum: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes granulomatous or ulcerating skin lesions in immunosuppressed persons. This organism owes its name to its requirement for growth of high levels of iron, conveniently supplied as blood, heme, or ferric ammonium citrate.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Mediastinal Diseases: Disorders of the mediastinum, general or unspecified.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Histiocytes: Macrophages found in the TISSUES, as opposed to those found in the blood (MONOCYTES) or serous cavities (SEROUS MEMBRANE).Parakeets: Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous: Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Cat-Scratch Disease: A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.Typhlitis: Necrotizing inflammation of the CECUM ("typhlon" in Greek), sometimes spreading to the APPENDIX and/or the ILEUM. Symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN and DIARRHEA. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial. Typhlitis is often associated with NEUTROPENIA and chemotherapy in immunocompromised individuals (IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST).Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Prototheca: A genus of achlorophyllic algae in the family Chlorellaceae, and closely related to CHLORELLA. It is found in decayed matter; WATER; SEWAGE; and SOIL; and produces cutaneous and disseminated infections in various VERTEBRATES including humans.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Mycobacterium scrofulaceum: A non-tuberculous mycobacterium causing cervical lymphadenitis in children. It very rarely causes pulmonary disease, and is believed to be non-pathogenic in animals.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Mycobacterium fortuitum: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)LymphangitisKing's Evil: The historic designation for scrofula (TUBERCULOSIS, LYMPH NODE). The disease is so called from the belief that it could be healed by the touch of a king. This term is used only for historical articles using the name "king's evil", and is to be differentiated from scrofula as lymph node tuberculosis in modern clinical medicine. (From Webster, 3d ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Famous PersonsMedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Silicone Oils: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Thyroglossal Cyst: A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)Parotitis: INFLAMMATION of the PAROTID GLAND.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.

Lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria in children: presentation and response to therapy. (1/294)

The most common manifestation of infection due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in children is cervical lymphadenitis in an otherwise healthy patient. We identified and reviewed 19 cases of proven or presumptive lymphadenitis due to NTM seen at our hospital over the course of 13 months. Nine patients underwent initial surgical excision of involved lymph nodes. Ten children did not have involved lymph nodes excised initially and were treated with macrolide-containing antibiotic regimens. Of these patients, five required subsequent surgical excision and five were cured with combination chemotherapy. Six patients underwent radiographic imaging of the head and neck that revealed asymmetrical adenopathy with ring-enhancing masses but minimal inflammatory stranding of the subcutaneous fat, a finding that may distinguish adenitis caused by NTM from staphylococcal and streptococcal adenitis. Our data suggest that if surgical excision is not considered feasible, antimicrobial therapy for adenitis due to NTM may be beneficial for some patients.  (+info)

Atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood--a clinicopathological study of 17 cases. (2/294)

AIMS: To assess the clinical and pathological features of atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood to define the salient clinical and histological features. METHODS: 17 cases were included on the basis of positive culture or demonstration of bacilli of appropriate morphology and staining characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 4.86 years. All children were systemically well, with clear chest x rays. Unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was the commonest mode of presentation. Differential Mantoux testing played no part in diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis improved with awareness. Treatment varied with surgeons opting for excision and paediatricians adding six months antituberculous chemotherapy. Acid- and alcohol-fast bacilli were identified in nine cases. Bacterial cultures were conducted in 16 cases and were positive for atypical or nontuberculous mycobacteria in 14, the main organism being M avium-intracellulare complex (11 cases). Histologically, 12 cases had bright eosinophilic serpiginous necrosis with nuclear debris scattered throughout the necrotic foci. Langhans type giant cells featured in the majority of cases but infiltration by plasma cells and neutrophils was not consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis of childhood represents a rare but significant disease with characteristic clinical and histological features.  (+info)

Differential avian and human tuberculin skin testing in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. (3/294)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity of differential avian and human delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing in the diagnosis of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis. METHOD: Retrospective review of all patients with culture proved non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymph node infections who also had differential avian and human skin testing performed over a 10 year period from 1986 to 1996. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty four patients had non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from lymph nodes over this period, 59 of whom had differential skin testing performed. The sensitivity of a response of >/= 10 mm to the avian precipitin was 58 of 59. No patient had both a negative human and avian Mantoux. The sensitivity of the human Mantoux alone for diagnosing non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection was 81% for a response of >/= 5 mm and 66% for >/= 10 mm. Ten patients had a 0 human response. Fifty five of the 59 patients had an avian response at least 2 mm greater than the human response. CONCLUSION: The avian Mantoux is a very sensitive method of diagnosing non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection in children. The human Mantoux is not sensitive enough to be used alone as a surrogate to diagnose non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection.  (+info)

Diagnostic approach to lymph node enlargement. (4/294)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: How to reach the correct diagnosis of a lymph node enlargement is still a problem which strongly challenges the knowledge and experience of the clinician. Organized and specifically oriented literature on the right sequential steps and the logical criteria that should guide this diagnostic approach is still lacking. METHODS: The authors have tried to exploit available knowledge and their personal experience by correlating a large body of information regarding size, physical characteristics, anatomical location of enlarged lymph nodes, and the possible epidemiological, environmental, occupational and clinical categorization of this condition. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was intended that such material would have constituted the basis of a hypothetic decision-making tree, but this was impossible because of the lack of epidemiological investigation and registry data. Nevertheless, we present this preparatory work here in order to stimulate the interest of concerned readers and because of its possible direct usefulness in hematologic practice.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin G avidity in diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis. (5/294)

Traditional serological techniques have some limitations in evaluating the duration of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women, patients with lymphadenopathy, and older children suspected of having congenital toxoplasmosis. In these three groups of patients, two variants of T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity tests were used: an EIA Kit (Labsystems) and a noncommercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specially elaborated in the laboratory. The avidity of specific IgG in sera from 23 patients with a known recently acquired infection (mainly pregnant women) was low (less than 30%), whereas that in sera from 19 patients with toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy of 3 weeks to 6 months in duration (mean, 8.3 weeks) covered a large range (between 0.2 and 57.8%; mean, 25. 7%); high avidity results were observed for 10 of 19 patients (52. 6%). The large range of IgG avidity in patients with toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy suggests various durations of infection in these patients, with a tendency for a chronic phase of toxoplasmosis. According to the avidity marker, five patients with lymphadenopathy for less than 3 months did not have a recent Toxoplasma infection. In 6 of 19 patients with lymphadenopathy (31.6%), low IgG avidity values persisted until 5 months after the first serological examination. In all four patients with a documented chronic course of Toxoplasma infection (6 months to 8 years after the first positive serology), high IgG avidity values were observed. Among sera from 10 children and young immunocompetent adults suspected of having ocular reactivation of congenital toxoplasmosis, all had high IgG avidity values (over 40%), suggesting congenitally acquired ocular infection rather than noncongenital infection. In conclusion, the avidity of IgG is a valuable marker of recent toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, suggests the duration of invasion in patients with lymphadenopathy, and may be helpful for differentiation between reactivation of congenital infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. A low IgG avidity does not always identify a recent case of toxoplasmosis, but a high IgG avidity can exclude primary infections of less than 5 months' duration.  (+info)

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy associated with silicosis. (6/294)

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy usually results from invasion or compression of the nerve caused by diseases localized within the aortopulmonary window. This study reports the case of a 76-yr-old male with vocal cord paralysis due to lymph node involvement by silicosis. This rare entity was identified by video-mediastinoscopy, which revealed a granulomatous and fibrosed recurrent lymph node encasing the nerve. The nerve was dissected and released from scar tissues. Progressive clinical improvement was observed followed by total and durable recovery of the voice after 15 weeks follow-up.  (+info)

Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the head and neck in immunocompetent children: CT and MR findings. (7/294)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) commonly manifest as cervicofacial adenitis in otherwise healthy children. The aim of this study was to characterize the imaging findings of NTM infection of the head and neck in immunocompetent children. METHODS: The medical records and imaging examinations (CT in 10, MR in two) were reviewed in 12 immunocompetent children with NTM infection of the head and neck. RESULTS: The usual presentation (n = 9) was of an enlarging, non-tender mass with violaceous skin discoloration, unresponsive to conventional antibiotics. The duration of symptoms was 6 days to 5 months. Imaging revealed asymmetric adenopathy with contiguous low-density ring-enhancing masses in all patients. There was cutaneous extension in 10 patients. Inflammatory stranding of the subcutaneous fat was minimal (n = 9) or absent (n = 2) in 11 patients. The masses involved the submandibular space (n = 3), the parotid space (n = 2), the cheek (n = 1), the anterior triangle of the neck (n = 2), the submandibular and parotid spaces (n = 2), the parotid space and neck (n = 1), and the neck and retropharyngeal space (n = 1). Surgical management included incision and drainage only (n = 2), incision and drainage with curettage (n = 2), excisional biopsy after incision and drainage (n = 1), excisional biopsy only (n = 5), superficial parotidectomy only (n = 1), and superficial parotidectomy with contralateral excisional biopsy (n = 1). All patients improved in response to surgery and long-term antimycobacterial antibiotics. CONCLUSION: NTM infection of the head and neck has a characteristic clinical presentation and imaging appearance. Recognition of this disease is important; appropriate treatment is excision and, in selected cases, antimycobacterial therapy.  (+info)

Disseminated infection due to rapidly growing mycobacteria in immunocompetent hosts presenting with chronic lymphadenopathy: a previously unrecognized clinical entity. (8/294)

Disseminated infection due to rapidly growing mycobacteria is uncommon and occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients. We report 16 cases of such infection with an unusual presentation seen at Srinagarind Hospital, a university hospital in northeastern Thailand. The clinical features were different from those in previous reports. All of the patients presented with chronic bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Twelve had mycobacterial involvement of other organs (sinuses, 6 patients; lungs, 4; liver, 4; spleen, 3; skin, 3; bone and joint, 2; and tonsils, 2). An interesting occurrence in 11 patients was 14 episodes of reactive skin manifestations (Sweet's syndrome, 9; generalized pustulosis and erythema nodosum, 2 each; and pustular psoriasis, 1). No identifiable predisposing factors, including human immunodeficiency disease, were found in these patients. However, 8 patients had 11 episodes of prior infection or coinfection with other opportunistic pathogens (salmonellosis, 4; penicilliosis, 3; pulmonary tuberculosis, 2; and melioidosis and cryptococcosis, 1 each). These findings suggest that cell-mediated immunity is defective in these patients.  (+info)

  • In a patient with generalized lymphadenitis, the differential includes systemic conditions. (medscape.com)
  • In a patient with regional lymphadenitis, knowledge of lymphatic drainage patterns and pathologic processes most likely to affect these areas can facilitate diagnostic investigation. (medscape.com)
  • Ungthavorn P, Su-Omphan A (1978) Management of lymphadenitis following BCG vaccination. (springer.com)
  • 4 This 'simple' lymphadenitis occurs 63 days (range 16-87) after BCG vaccination 5 and resolves spontaneously by 9 months. (bmj.com)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/729498/all/lymphadenitis. (tabers.com)
  • 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/729498/all/necrotizing_lymphadenitis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Subjects under 19 years of age diagnosed with NTM lymphadenitis during November 2016-April 2017 and April 2018 were included. (bvsalud.org)
  • In a patient with regional lymphadenitis, knowledge of lymphatic drainage patterns and pathologic processes most likely to affect these areas can facilitate diagnostic investigation. (medscape.com)
  • Intermediate magnification micrograph of cat scratch disease, also known as subacute regional lymphadenitis and cat scratch fever. (lecturio.com)
  • Available at: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/infectious_diseases/lymphadenitis_134,80. (epnet.com)
  • 2 , 3 We here did a retrospective chart review of patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis to determine the incidence of this phenomenon and also to determine the clinical and laboratory risk factors for the same. (bmj.com)