Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Mice, Inbred C57BLCytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Cell SeparationMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Lichenoid Eruptions: Conditions in which there is histological damage to the lower epidermis along with a grouped chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis disturbing the interface between the epidermis and dermis. LICHEN PLANUS is the prototype of all lichenoid eruptions. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p398)Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Mice, Inbred C3HAdenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mice, Inbred CBAOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Lymphadenitis: Inflammation of the lymph nodes.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Mice, Inbred DBA
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia
... lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, liver, and skin. A high lymphocyte count (> 100 x 109/L) along with low amounts of red blood ... T-PLL has the immunophenotype of a mature (post-thymic) T-lymphocyte, and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T ... The immunophenotype CD4+/CD8- is present in 60% of cases, the CD4+/CD8+ immunophenotype is present in 25%, and the CD4-/CD8+ ... In the spleen, the leukemic cell infiltrate both the red pulp and white pulp, and lymph node involvement is typically diffuse ...
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
... and positive rheumatoid factor. The normal architecture of a lymph node is partially effaced by a polymorphous infiltrate and ... The polymorphous infiltrate consists of lymphocytes of moderate size with pale/clear cytoplasm and smaller reactive lymphocytes ... AITL typically has the phenotype of a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, with a CD4:CD8 ratio greater than unity. Polyclonal ... is a mature T-cell lymphoma of blood or lymph vessel immunoblasts characterized by a polymorphous lymph node infiltrate showing ...
... e.g increased numbers of CD4 negative, CD7 positive T cells, CD3 negative, CD4 positive T cells, or CD3 positive, CD4 negative ... lymph nodes, and pancreas, respectively) plus retroperitoneal fibrosis. Less commonly, almost any other organ or tissue except ... In on study of 16 lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia patients with the aberrant CD3 negative, CD41 positive immunophenotype, ... in T-cells or the proliferation of lymphocytes with the CD3 negative, CD41 positive immunophenotype may occur during the ...
... of lymphomas in adults Small resting lymphocytes mixed with variable numbers of large activated cells, lymph nodes diffusely ... creating Pautrier microabscesseses CD4 5-year survival 75% Localized or more generalized skin symptoms, generally indolent, in ... aggressive Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with chronic inflammation Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL of the elderly ... Diagnosis, if enlarged lymph nodes are present, is usually by lymph node biopsy. Blood, urine, and bone marrow testing may also ...
List of MeSH codes (A15)
... cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569.200.400 --- t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569. ... lymph nodes MeSH A15.382.520.604.412.500 --- germinal center MeSH A15.382.520.604.412.500.200 --- dendritic cells, follicular ... t-lymphocytes MeSH A22.214.171.1247.555.567.569.200 --- cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A126.96.36.1997.555.567.569.200.400 --- ... cd8-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A188.8.131.527.555.567.569.220.200 --- t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic MeSH A184.108.40.2067.555.567. ...
Major histocompatibility complex
As a lineage of leukocytes, lymphocytes reside in peripheral lymphoid tissues, including lymphoid follicles and lymph nodes, ... Antigen presentation: MHC molecules bind to both T cell receptor and CD4/CD8 co-receptors on T lymphocytes, and the antigen ... MHC restriction occurs during lymphocyte development in the thymus through a process known as positive selection. T cells that ... T lymphocytes can detect a peptide displayed at 0.1%-1% of the MHC molecules. In their development in the thymus, T lymphocytes ...
Many T lymphocytes were identified by these authors positive to CD4 and CD8. Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a ... lymph nodes, bladder, adrenal gland, abdomen and muscle. Telling apart clinically a XP from a tumor condition can be ... The foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin are positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68 as pointed out by Nakashiro et al. in ... Under microscope, the cellular infiltrate includes neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, erythrocytes, hemosiderin-laden ...
Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma
... in that they usually present with enlarged lymph nodes in multiple regions of the body, or with tumors outside the lymph nodes ... They are also typically positive for EMA. In contrast to many B-cell anaplastic CD30 positive lymphomas, they are negative for ... Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving aberrant T cells or null lymphocytes. It is ... such as the expression of immunologic markers CD3 or CD4, but CD30 expression must be present in all neoplastic cells. Out of ...
... lymphoid follicles and lymph nodes), and present the donor's self peptides to the recipient's lymphocytes (immune cells ... Furthermore, should the recipient (for example, type B-positive with a type AB-positive graft) require eventual ... When memory helper T cells' CD4 receptors bind to the MHC class II molecules which are expressed on the surfaces of the target ... Lymphocytes of specific immunity T cells-including the subclasses helper T cells and killer T cells-and B cells. The ...
Memory T cell
These memory T cells lack lymph node-homing receptors and are thus found in the peripheral circulation and tissues. TEMRA ... CD4-positive) and the cytotoxic T cells. central memory (TCM). The TCM cells are thought to contain some properties associated ... Memory T cells are a subset of infection- and cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T lymphocyte) that have previously ... This memory subpopulation is commonly found in the lymph nodes and in the peripheral circulation. (Note- CD44 expression is ...
... a cancer of the lymph nodes. They then underwent lymphoma chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, while remaining on an ... In 2007, Timothy Ray Brown, a 40-year-old HIV-positive man, also known as "the Berlin Patient", was given a stem cell ... This protein is common to all HIV variants as it is the attachment point for B lymphocytes and subsequent compromising of the ... A cellular receptor, generally CCR5 or CXCR4 is required in order for HIV entry into CD4 cells. Cells of individuals homozygous ...
Microscopy Microscopic examination of the lymph node biopsy reveals complete or partial effacement of the lymph node ... On the other hand, its positive predictive value is high enough for it to be regarded as a pathognomonic sign of Hodgkin ... Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma, which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte ... Although Hodgkin's is now frequently grouped with other B-cell malignancies, some T-cell markers (such as CD2 and CD4) are ...
Histologic analysis indicates that peripheral lymphoid organs, particularly lymph nodes, lack the proper number of cells.[ ... For example, patients with tumors have a local relative excess of Foxp3 positive T cells which inhibits the body's ability to ... Zhang L, Zhao Y (June 2007). "The regulation of Foxp3 expression in regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)T cells: multiple pathways on the ... These mice have overproliferation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, extensive multiorgan infiltration, and elevation of numerous cytokines ...
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection
M. avium typically causes unilateral swelling of one of the lymph nodes of the neck. This node is firm at the beginning, but a ... The risk of MAC is inversely related to the patient's CD4 count, and increases significantly when the CD4 count decreases below ... Some age adjustment is necessary when clinicians interpret CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in children less than 2 years of age. ... lavage culture demonstrating the infection is caused by MAC Disseminated MAC is most readily diagnosed by one positive blood ...
... double-positive T cells in skin-draining lymph nodes respond to inflammatory signals from the skin". Journal of Leukocyte ... CD4+CD8+), and finally mature to single-positive (CD4+CD8− or CD4−CD8+) thymocytes that are then released from the thymus to ... A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated ... The process of positive selection takes a number of days. Double-positive thymocytes (CD4+/CD8+) move deep into the thymic ...
... expression is highest in the spleen, lymph nodes, and appendix. CD19 is expressed on follicular dendritic cells and B ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... A Phase I Study of CD19 Specific T Cells in CD19 Positive Malignancy "CAR T cells for leukemia and more?". AACR Annual Meeting ... Imai T, Kakizaki M, Nishimura M, Yoshie O (Aug 1995). "Molecular analyses of the association of CD4 with two members of the ...
CD4-positive, CD25-positive, alpha-beta regulatory T cell lineage commitment. • positive regulation of CD4-positive, CD25- ... Histologic analysis indicates that peripheral lymphoid organs, particularly lymph nodes, lack the proper number of cells.[ ... negative regulation of lymphocyte proliferation. • negative regulation of histone acetylation. • negative regulation of ... CD4-positive, CD25-positive, alpha-beta regulatory T cell differentiation. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA ...
However, the depletion of the CD4 lymphocytes made it very difficult to isolate the virus in patients with the disease later ... Barré-Sinuossi and her colleagues decided to use a lymph node biopsy from a patient with generalized lymphadenopathy. ... and characteristics that allow a small percentage of HIV-positive individuals, known as elite suppressors or controllers, to ... Barré-Sinuossi and her colleagues decided to add lymphocytes from a blood donor in order to save the culture and it proved ...
There is a hypothesis that γδ T cells process these pathogenic antigens, transport them to draining lymph nodes, and then ... In the αβ T cell lineage, these chains are disulfide-linked and noncovalently associated at the cell surface of T lymphocytes. ... CD4, and CD8 complexes. While CD3 complexes have been associated with cytolytic regulation, it is unclear whether TRG is also ... "Neurotropic Gamma-Delta T-Cell Lymphoma With CD30-Positive Lymphoid Infiltrates". The American Journal of Dermatopathology. 38 ...
... a novel lymphocyte activation gene closely related to CD4". J Exp Med. 171 (5): 1393-405. doi:10.1084/jem.171.5.1393. PMC ... IMP321 could induce production of the chemokines that would direct the migration of maturing dendritic cells to lymph nodes. ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Immunotherapy of HLA-A2 Positive Stage II-IV Melanoma Patients (LAG-3/IMP321) ... March 1, 1999). "Lymphocyte activation gene-3, a MHC class II ligand expressed on activated T cells, stimulates TNF-alpha and ...
CD4+CD8+), and finally mature to single-positive (CD4+CD8− or CD4−CD8+) thymocytes that are then released from the thymus to ... These memory T cells lack lymph node-homing receptors and are thus found in the peripheral circulation and tissues. TEMRA ... For example, miR-181a was found to play a role in the positive selection of T lymphocytes. The thymus contributes fewer cells ... These thymocytes will then express both CD4 and CD8 and progresses to the double positive (DP) stage where selection of the α- ...
At the same time, Montagnier's group isolated a virus from a person presenting with swelling of the lymph nodes of the neck and ... the time between a negative or indeterminate HIV test followed less than 180 days by a positive test Stage 1: CD4 count ≥ 500 ... p. 5. Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus ... May include generalized lymph node enlargement. Stage II: Mild symptoms which may include minor mucocutaneous manifestations ...
Adaptive immune system
In the lymph node, the dendritic cell displays these non-self antigens on its surface by coupling them to a receptor called the ... The cells of the adaptive immune system are T and B lymphocytes; lymphocytes are a subset of leukocyte. B cells and T cells are ... Exogenous antigens are usually displayed on MHC class II molecules, which activate CD4+T helper cells. Endogenous antigens are ... immunity as they are uniquely capable of migrating to follicular B cells in secondary lymphoid organs and provide them positive ...
Lifelong, persistent infections in sheep occur in the lungs, lymph nodes, spleen, joints, central nervous system, and mammary ... A few studies have proposed MHC class II, CD4 and CXCR4 proteins as possible receptors however, none of these proteins have ... This causal lentivirus can be found in monocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages of infected sheep in the presence of humoral and ... Visna virus has a positive-strand RNA genome approximately 9.2 kilobases in length. As a retrovirus in the genus lentivirinae, ...
Programmed cell death protein 1
... in antigen-specific T-cells in lymph nodes while simultaneously reducing apoptosis in regulatory T cells (anti-inflammatory, ... T lymphocytes exhibit elevated expression of PD-1 in cases of chronic HIV infection. Heightened presence of the PD-1 receptors ... PDL1 positive tumors were twice as likely to respond to combination treatment. However patients with PDL1 negative tumors also ... by its ligand PD-L1 induces IL-10 production which inhibits CD4 T-cell function. In mice, expression of this gene is induced in ...
Double-positive cells (CD4+/CD8+) that interact well with MHC class II molecules will eventually become CD4+ cells, whereas ... These memory T cells lack lymph node-homing receptors and are thus found in the peripheral circulation and tissues. TEMRA ... A T cell is a type of lymphocyte which develops in the thymus gland and plays a central role in the immune response. T cells ... Double-positive thymocytes (CD4+/CD8+) move deep into the thymic cortex, where they are presented with self-antigens. These ...
T helper cell
... then travel from the infection site to the lymph nodes. Once at the lymph nodes, the APC begin to present antigen peptides that ... and IFN-γ CD4 T cells. The key Th1 transcription factors are STAT4 and T-bet. IFN-γ secreted by CD4 T cells can activate ... These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... IL-4 is the positive feedback cytokine for Th2 cells differentiation. Besides, IL-4 stimulates B-cells to produce IgE ...
Outline of immunology
Stromal cells Lymph node stromal cells Follicular dendritic cells Epithelial cells Pericytes Microfold cells (M cells) ... CD4 Accessory molecules CD3 Subunits - one CD3γ / one CD3δ / two CD3ε ζ-chain (CD247, CD3ζ, TCRζ) Pattern recognition receptor ... Positive Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin Alpha 1-antitrypsin Alpha 2-macroglobulin C-reactive protein Ceruloplasmin C3 Ferritin Fibrin ... SLAMF9 Cadherins Selectins E-selectin L-selectin P-selectin Others Lymphocyte homing receptors CD34 GLYCAM-1 Addressin (MAdCAM- ...
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
The increased proliferation of lymphoid cells can cause the size of lymphoid organs such as the lymph nodes and spleen to ... Immunophenotype: CD3+/CD4-/CD8-/TCRalpha/beta+. *Measured by flow cytometry: Normal values ,2.5% total T cells; ,1% of total ... It is a rare genetic disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by defective Fas mediated apoptosis. Normally, after ... Can have antibodies to blood cells (DAT, anti-neutrophil, anti-platelet). Also, can have positive ANA, RF, ANCA ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Lymph nodes. *Lymphadenectomy. *Neck dissection. *Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. *Lymph node biopsy ... who was also HIV-positive. From 60 matching donors, they selected a [CCR5]-Δ32 homozygous individual with two genetic ... This is due to a therapeutic immune reaction of the grafted donor T lymphocytes against the diseased bone marrow of the ... during which neither showed traces of HIV in their blood plasma and purified CD4 T cells using a sensitive culture method (less ...
Due to the large numbers of apoptotic lymphocytes, the thymus was originally dismissed as a "lymphocyte graveyard", without ... First, T cells undergo "Positive Selection", whereby the cell comes in contact with self-MHC, expressed by thymic epithelial ... Recently, a discrete thymus-like lympho-epithelial structure, termed the thymoid, was discovered in the gills of larval ... These drain into the brachiocephalic, tracheobronchial and parasternal llymph nodes. The nerves supplying the thymus arise from ...
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
These lymphoblasts build up in the bone marrow and may spread to other sites in the body, such as lymph nodes, the mediastinum ... B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes). Cytogenetic testing on the marrow samples can help classify disease and predict how aggressive ... Person with t(9,22) positive-ALL (30% of adult ALL cases) and other Bcr-abl-rearranged leukemias are more likely to have a poor ... CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8 - + TdT + + CytogeneticsEdit. Cytogenetic analysis has shown different proportions and frequencies ...
"Human dendritic cells acquire a semimature phenotype and lymph node homing potential through interaction with CD4+CD25+ ... "CD4/major histocompatibility complex class II interaction analyzed with CD4- and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3)-Ig fusion ... positive regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide ... "Entrez Gene: LAG3 lymphocyte-activation gene 3".. *^ a b c Triebel F, Jitsukawa S, Baixeras E, Roman-Roman S, Genevee C, Viegas ...
... lymphoid follicles and lymph nodes), and present the donor's self peptides to the recipient's lymphocytes (immune cells ... type B-positive with a type AB-positive graft) require eventual retransplantation, the recipient may receive a new organ of ... When memory helper T cells' CD4 receptors bind to the MHC class II molecules which are expressed on the surfaces of the target ... Lymphocytes of specific immunity T cells-including the subclasses helper T cells and killer T cells-and B cells. ...
T helper cell
Once at the lymph nodes, the APCs begin to present antigen peptides that are bound to Class II MHC, allowing CD4+ T cells that ... The key Th2 transcription factors are STAT6 and GATA3. IL-4 is the positive feedback cytokine for Th2 cells differentiation ... These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... Mature Th cells express the surface protein CD4 and are referred to as CD4+ T cells. Such CD4+ T cells are generally treated as ...
... in lymph nodes. The virus-positive cases are classified as a form of the Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative ... Lymphocyte-rich. Is a rare subtype, show many features which may cause diagnostic confusion with nodular lymphocyte predominant ... such as CD2 and CD4) are occasionally expressed. However, this may be an artifact of the ambiguity inherent in the ... Stage II is involvement of two or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm (II) or of one lymph node region ...
CXCR5 - Википедия
lymph node development. • Иммунный ответ. • передача сигнала. • leukocyte chemotaxis. • positive regulation of cytosolic ... Lipp M., Müller G. Shaping up adaptive immunity: the impact of CCR7 and CXCR5 on lymphocyte trafficking (англ.) // ... CXCL13-CXCR5 co-expression regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells during lymph node metastasis ( ... positive regulation of cytokinesis. • chemokine-mediated signaling pathway. • Хемотаксис. • B cell activation. • G-protein ...
On the contrary, when a normal or reactive lymph node is analyzed using the same technique, a smear rather than a distinct band ... Burkitt lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, particularly B lymphocytes found in the germinal center. It is named ... The high mitotic activity of Burkitt lymphoma is confirmed by nearly 100% of the cells staining positive for Ki67. ... CD4. *CD8). By. development/. marker. *TdT+: ALL (Precursor T acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma) ...
Small resting lymphocytes mixed with variable number of large activated cells. Lymph nodes are diffusely effaced CD5, ... The TCR gene transcripts are normally positive for ANKL.  Current Research is attempting to find the causation of ANKL. So ... CD4. *CD8). By. development/. marker. *TdT+: ALL (Precursor T acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma) ... Usually involves lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen. Most patients have peripheral blood involvement. Indolent. ...
... and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers ... At the same time, Montagnier's group isolated a virus from a patient presenting with swelling of the lymph nodes of the neck ... Many HIV-positive people are unaware that they are infected with the virus. For example, in 2001 less than 1% of the ... The first step in fusion involves the high-affinity attachment of the CD4 binding domains of gp120 to CD4. Once gp120 is bound ...
Lymph nodes: the most common symptom of Hodgkin's is the painless enlargement of one or more lymph nodes, or lymphadenopathy. ... Lymphocyte-rich. Is a rare subtype, show many features which may cause diagnostic confusion with nodular lymphocyte predominant ... On the other hand, its positive predictive value is high enough for it to be regarded as a pathognomonic sign of Hodgkin ... such as CD2 and CD4) are occasionally expressed. However, this may be an artifact of the ambiguity inherent in the ...
... mTORC1 consists of mTOR and two positive regulatory subunits, raptor and mammalian LST8 (mLST8), and two negative regulators, ... Sentinel lymph node. Topography. *Head/Neck (Oral, Nasopharyngeal). *Digestive system. *Respiratory system ... for advanced hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer in combination with exemestane, and pediatric and adult ...
Transfected Langerhans cells migrate out of the skin (within 12 hours) to the draining lymph node where they prime secondary B ... "Pathogenetic effector function of CD4-positive T helper 1 cells in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice". The Journal of ... One of the advantages of DNA vaccines is that they are able to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) without the inherent risk ... After IM and ID injections, dendritic cells present antigen in the draining lymph node and transfected macrophages have been ...
Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Thyroid
... was found to be a nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma of the thyroid. So far, thyroid involvement by this variant ... a suspicious lymph node cytology specimen did not show any monoclonal lymphoid cells although there was a greatly increased CD4 ... Reed-Sternberg cells are identified in more than half of NLPHL cases; however, these tend to be scarce, positive for CD20, and ... On paraffin sections the findings were similar to the those found on the lymph node.(ii)Regional cervical lymph node dissection ...
Dynamics of the meningeal CD4(+) T-cell repertoire are defined by the cervical lymph nodes and facilitate cognitive task...
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / physiology* * Cell Transplantation * Cognition / physiology* * Infant, Premature * Lymph Node ... Dynamics of the meningeal CD4(+) T-cell repertoire are defined by the cervical lymph nodes and facilitate cognitive task ... We show that meningeal T-cell composition is coupled to the CNS-draining deep cervical lymph nodes (dCLNs), whose surgical ...
Tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T Lymphocytes in Early Breast Cancer Reflect Lymph Node Involvement
T lymphocytes with lymph node metastasis suggests a role for these cells in the spread of neoplasia to lymph nodes in patients ... CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology* * CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / pathology * Female * Flow Cytometry ... T lymphocytes with lymph node metastasis suggests a role for these cells in the spread of neoplasia to lymph nodes in patients ... Only mean values of T- and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte infiltration were higher in the group of patients with lymph node metastasis, ...
Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense Infection in Patient with Adult-Onset Immunodeficiency - Volume 23, Number 7-July 2017 -...
We identified M. genavense targeting the hsp65 gene in an aspiration specimen of the lymph node. Adult-onset immunodeficiency ... An aspiration specimen of the lymph node showed positive AFB staining and was submitted for molecular biologic analysis. M. ... HIV antibodies were undetectable, and CD4/CD8 lymphocyte counts were within reference ranges. No mediastinal or lung ... staining of the lymph-node aspiration specimen yielded positive results; however, findings on solid media culture and PCR for ...
Cytokine expression in SEA-restimulated lymph node cult | Open-i
Cytokine expression in SEA-restimulated lymph node cultures from sham and CLP RAG mice.Single-cell suspensions of lymph nodes ... CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism*. *Cytokines/metabolism*. *Lung Diseases/immunology*/metabolism*/physiopathology ... Cytokine expression in SEA-restimulated lymph node cultures from sham and CLP RAG mice.Single-cell suspensions of lymph nodes ... Cytokine expression in SEA-restimulated lymph node cultures from sham and CLP RAG mice.Single-cell suspensions of lymph nodes ...
Yoo BW. 2002;10(6):265-270 Immunostimulatory effects of an anionic alkali mineral complex
Proportion of CD4+CD8+ double-positive T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and mesenteric lymph nodes. At Study Week 8, a higher ... of double-positive lymphocytes was observed in mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes in the Barodon-treated group than in the ... double positive T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and mesenteric lymph nodes collected during the 13 weeks of the study were ... both in peripheral blood lymphocytes (Figure2A) and in mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes (Figure 2B). At Study Week 11, a ...
Critical Role of Dendritic Cells in Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus In Vivo Infection | Journal of Virology
Lymphocytes isolated from the draining lymph nodes of mice that did not receive DT were used as positive controls; mice that ... HIV-1 is stored in a cytoplasmic compartment and then transferred to CD4+ T cells in the lymph nodes (30). In both cases, DC ... Lymphocytes isolated from draining lymph nodes of untreated mice were used as positive controls. (A) Scheme of DT treatment. (Β ... 5B and C). (D) DNAs from the draining lymph node lymphocytes of five DT-treated and five control mice were prepared, and viral ...
Identification of Dynamically Distinct Subpopulations of T Lymphocytes That Are Differentially Affected by HIV | JEM
Inset shows the percent of lymph node CD4 or CD8 cells that were BrdU positive 6 h after the first (diamond) or second ( ... B) BrdU incorporation by lymph node lymphocytes compared with blood lymphocytes. Nine patients underwent lymph node biopsy 6 h ... BrdU incorporation by lymphocytes residing in lymph nodes was examined for 10 patients who underwent lymph node biopsy at ... and day 1 for lymph node. Gating for CD4+ and CD8+ cells was based on light scatter together with positive staining for CD3. ...
Isolation and Th17 Differentiation of Naïve CD4 T Lymphocytes | Protocol
Repeat until all lymph nodes and spleen have been ground.. Note: It is recommended to start with the lymph nodes and finish ... Cell viability is an important factor in achieving positive Th17 differentiation. This can be confirmed through cell counting ... D) 4 superficial cervical lymph nodes are found in the neck of the mouse. E) 2 inguinal lymph nodes (1 on each side) can be ... B) 1 axillary lymph node can be found in each axilla, behind the pectoral muscles. C) Mesenteric lymph nodes are located in the ...
The light and dark sides of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. - PubMed - NCBI
CD4+CD8αβ+ (double positive) thymocytes undergo conventional thymic selection and differentiate into naive CD4+ and CD8αβ+ ... APC, antigen-presenting cell; MLNs, mesenteric lymph nodes.. The light and dark sides of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes ... In the thymus, immature CD4+CD8αβ+CD8αα+ (triple positive) thymocytes undergo agonist (alternative) selection and ... The intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that reside within the epithelium of the intestine form one of the main branches of the ...
Burkitt Lymphoma | Encyclopedia.com
Some lymphocytes remain in clusters within the lymph nodes, while others circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream or in ... In patients with AIDS, the factors that affect the prognosis include: the CD4 lymphocyte count; the presence of opportunistic ... The average length of survival of HIV-positive patients with Burkitts lymphoma is six months. ... It separates patients with a single tumor or diseased lymph node (Stage I) or two or more tumors or diseased lymph nodes on the ...
Gastrointestinal T Lymphocytes Retain High Potential for Cytokine Responses but Have Severe CD4+ T-Cell Depletion at All Stages...
No major changes were seen in the proportions of CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells from 1 to 4 weeks p.i. in the lymph nodes. ... The prevalence of CD4+CD8− and CD4−CD8+ single-positive and CD4+CD8+ double-positive T-lymphocyte subsets was determined in the ... the percentages of CD4+CD8− single-positive and CD4+CD8+ double-positive LPL remained very low (1 to 7%). The prevalence of CD4 ... CD4+ T-cell depletion was gradual in peripheral lymph nodes and PBMC in contrast to the intestinal mucosa.The prevalence of CD4 ...
Mutations in Conserved Regions of the Predicted RAG2 Kelch Repeats Block Initiation of V(D)J Recombination and Result in...
Biopsies of skin and lymph nodes revealed extensive infiltration with histologically benign, activated, single-positive CD4 and ... Late in the course of his lymphoproliferative disease, his lymphocyte count was 66,200 (subpopulations: CD3, 87%; CD4, 57%; CD8 ... A lymph node biopsy disclosed profound abnormalities of the architecture, with severe lymphoid depletion and evidence of ... Lymphocyte subpopulations were as follows: CD3, 20%; CD4, 16% [CD45RA, ,1%; CD45R0, 16%]; CD8, 23%; DR, 38%; CD19, ,1%; CD16, ...
Lentivirus-mediated Gene Transfer in Hematopoietic Stem Cells Is Impaired in SHIV-infected, ART-treated Nonhuman Primates. -...
... double positive T-cells, and CD4+CCR5+ T-cells in (a) lymph nodes and (b) GI biopsies. ... T-lymphocyte subset analysis in lymph node and GI biopsies. Single-cell suspensions were analyzed by flow cytometry to ... GI and lymph node biopsies ("B") were collected at the indicated time points. (b) Total CD4+CD3+ T-cell levels were assessed by ... Phenotypic analysis of peripheral T-lymphocytes following SHIV-challenge. (a) The percentage of CD4+, CD4+CD8+, and CD8+ T- ...
Does it take three to tango? An unsuspected multimorbidity of CD8+ T cell lymphoproliferative disorder, malaria, and EBV...
... of lymphocytes (CD3+/TCRαβ+ population) were positive for pan-T antigens (CD2, CD5, and CD7) and CD8, but negative for CD4 and ... and hypermetabolic supra-infradiaphragmatic lymph nodes as well as a hypermetabolic spleen. He had a history of malaria, but ... were positive for CD8 (Fig. 1b, red arrow shows a histiocyte with no CD8 staining), while only 5-10% were positive for CD4. ... Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Exp Mol Med. 2015;47:e133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... melanoma metastasis to a lymph node (Fig. 1B). Double staining for MRG1 and CD8 showed that almost all CD8-positive lymphocytes ... 1D). CD4-positive MRG1-positive cells were not detected (data not shown). It was previously reported that CEACAM1 expression is ... 6). Lymphocytes in tissues and in lymphatic organs were negative (Fig. 6). A weak-to-moderate positive staining was found in ... We show that 89% of the metastatic melanoma specimens tested are CEACAM1-positive and that CEACAM1+ lymphocytes are present in ...
Staining of mouse lymph nodes is used as a positive control. B, colocalization of CD4 and CD8 (red) with TUNEL (green) was ... A, CD3 staining (DAB detection; 200× magnification; scale bar, 50 μm) showed greater intratumoral lymphocytes in the shGal-1 ... Total positive TUNEL nuclei and TUNEL-positive cells colocalized with CD4 and CD8 membrane staining were quantified with ImageJ ... pool and their CD4+ cells produced less interleukin-2 (IL-2) upon antigen stimulation because of decreased CD4 expansion (38). ...
Retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ) is essential for lymphoid organogenesis and controls apoptosis during thymopoiesis |...
... mice lack peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyers patches, indicating that RORγ expression is indispensable for lymph ... The number of peripheral blood CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes is reduced 6- and 10-fold, respectively, whereas the number of ... The latter was supported by the observed increase in annexin V-positive cells. RORγ−/− thymocytes placed in culture exhibit a ... This increase is largely associated with CD4+CD8+ thymocytes and may, at least in part, be related to the greatly reduced level ...
Differential Roles of CC Chemokine Ligand 2/Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 and CCR2 in the Development of T1 Immunity | The...
Total lymph node cells and lymphocyte subsets were determined on a per mouse basis. Positive staining cells accounted for ,90% ... Samples of LALN cell suspensions were stained with fluorochrome-labeled Abs specific for lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD8+, and ... Lymph node cell isolation and culture. At 14 days postinfection, LALN (or superior mediastinal nodes) were excised and cells ... 3⇑ and 4⇑), but plays no role in polarization if lymph node responses alone are assayed (Fig. 6⇑). The data in this manuscript ...
Exam III Flashcards by Antonio White | Brainscape
They bring blood and lymphocytes from the bone marrow in the lymphnodes. ... thymic stromal lymphopoietin; it is used for stimulation of dendritic cells needed for the maturation of single positive T ... What distinguishes a primary lymph node from a secondary lymph node? the presence (secondary) or absence (primary) of a ... CD4 and CD8 (they are double positive). 14 here are double positive T cells found in the thymus? ...
ALOPECIA MUCINOSA PDF
Immunohistochemistry showed the infiltrating lymphocytes to be CD3 and CD4 positive.. Long-term dermatologic follow up is ... a reasonable frequency for skin and lymph node exam is every months initially, then annually. ... In patches of early leprosy granulomas may be absent and lymphocytes may be seen infiltrating the epidermis and follicular ... The biopsy showed a moderately dense superficial and mid perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes with occasional alopeci without ...
Steady-state migrating in… - University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Lymph, immunology, Lymph Node Excision, methods, Lymphocyte Activation, immunology, Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed, methods, ... Animals, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, immunology, Cell Movement, physiology, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cultured, Cytokines, ... and induced FoxP3-positive lymphocytes to divide. To determine if the activated CD4+ T cells had been tolerized, they were ... To determine if such DCs are inherently tolerogenic we collected intestinal lymph DCs (L-DCs) by cannulation of the thoracic ...
US20100287636A1 - Compositions and methods for inhibiting inducible t cell kinase (itk) and treating asthma and bronchial...
Among the various cell types involved in the pathogenesis of Bronchial Asthma are CD4-positive T lymphocytes, Dendritic Cells, ... mucosa detect an allergen that is endocytosed and carried to the local lymph nodes where it is presented to specific CD4 T ... In one aspect, the T-helper cell whose activation is inhibited, suppressed or prevented is a CD4 positive T cell, or any ... In one aspect, the polypeptides and peptides of the invention are able to efficiently penetrate and enter CD4 positive T cells ...
Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Guidelines t
... in B-lymphocyte cell lines (e.g., Raji). SIV antigen has been demonstrated by immunohistochemical methods in lymph node sinus ... SIV appears to be primarily tropic for CD4 (T4)-positive leukocytes and has not been successfully propagated ... SIV infection leads to a chronic wasting disease syndrome with depletion of CD4 (T4) lymphocytes and lymphadenopathy. The ... Strains of SIV have been successfully cultured in human lymphocyte cell lines (e.g., HuT 78, HT, CEMx174) and in primary human ...
Prdm1 Regulates Thymic Epithelial Function To Prevent Autoimmunity | The Journal of Immunology
... lymph nodes shows an increase in proportion of CD44+CD62L− activated CD4 T cells. (E) An increase in CD44+CD62L− activated CD4 ... K) Quantification of the total cell numbers for each thymocyte population of CD4+ and CD8+ single-positive cells and CD4+CD8+ ... C) Total lymphocyte numbers are elevated in Prdm1 cKOK14 and Prdm1 cKOFoxN1 mandibular and accessory mandibular cervical lymph ... lymph nodes compared with control. (F) Serum isolated from Prdm1 cKOK14 mice contains ANAs indicated by positive staining of ...
Tracking the Response of Natural Killer T Cells to a Glycolipid Antigen Using Cd1d Tetramers | JEM
... peripheral lymph nodes (LN), and IELs. The percentages indicate the proportion of tetramer-positive T cells in the lymphocyte ... 6 A) and in the CD4+ tetramer-positive cells in particular (Fig. 6 B). At 0 and 2 h after antigen, CD4+ cells comprise ∼70% of ... The great majority of tetramer-positive cells in the thymus, liver, and bone marrow are also NK1.1+ (Fig. 5 B). In lymph node ... NK T cells also could be detected in peripheral lymph nodes and in the lymphocyte gate of IEL preparations. In each case, the ...
Immunomodulatory Effects of Hemagglutinin- (HA-) Modified A20 B-Cell Lymphoma Expanded as a Brain Tumor on Adoptively...
... lymphocytes from cervical lymph nodes and spleens were analyzed by FACS for CD4+CD44+Thy-1.1+ HA-specific T cells separately in ... After lysis of red cells, lymphocytes were washed in HBSS and percentage of HA-specific T cells positive for CD4 and clonotypic ... c) RT-PCR of spleens and lymph nodes showing minor metastases of A20HA cells in lymph nodes on day 14 after i.c. A20HA ... and the number of CD4+Thy-1.1+ T cells was equivalent to that observed in cervical lymph nodes on day 2 (Figure 4(b); ). ...
Effects of hydroxyurea on T cell count changes during primar... : AIDS
... redistribution between peripheral and lymph node compartments  and, mainly for the CD4 T lymphocytes, cell death, mediated ... This assumption was supported by a recent clinical study , showing a positive correlation between CD4 T lymphocyte ... T cells released from lymph nodes − CD4 cells destroyed. In fact, considering the equivalent trend of viraemia and the CD4 : ... Moreover, at present there is no evidence that the T cell redistribution from the lymph nodes, as a consequence of a reduced ...
Study to Assess Safety and Immune Response of Stage IIB-IV Resected Melanoma After Treatment With MAGE-A3 ASCI - Full Text View...
Enumeration of CD4 and CD8 T Cell Responses to MAGE-A3 Epitopes in the Injection Site-draining Lymph Node (Sentinel Immunized ... Flow cytometry on in vitro stimulated lymphocytes. A positive immune response was identified as one with bifunctional CD4+ or ... Patients must have at least two intact axillary and/or inguinal lymph node basins. ... in the node draining the vaccine site (sentinel immunized node) and in the blood and whether there are large differences in the ...
Sequential LASER ART and CRISPR Treatments Eliminate HIV-1 in a Subset of Infected Humanized Mice | Nature Communications
Results were expressed as percentages of total number of gated lymphocytes. The percentages of CD4 and CD8 positive cells were ... Lymph nodes were enriched with human cells with anatomical distinctions in the cortex, medulla and germinal centers. Third, ... Liver, spleen and lymph node DTG concentrations were 8.0, 31.2 and 17.6 ng/g, respectively at 56 days following single ... c CD4 + T cell profile of HIV-1 infected and LASER ART animals (n = 10, blue) showed a decline in CD4 + T cell numbers two ...
MesentericMacrophagesCellsInguinal lymphSmall lymphocytesPeyer'sImmuneCytokinesDifferentiationAbdominal lymph nodesFoxp3LiverFound in lymph nodesCytometric analysisCytokineEosinophilsNodular lymphocyte predominantLymphaticIntestineTissuesLeukocytesSubsetMigration of lymphocytesLeukocyteHelperCytoplasmAtypical lymphocytesIntraepithelial lymphocytesFeatures of lymphFollicularExpressionActivationFolliclesLymphoid structures
- MLNs, mesenteric lymph nodes. (nih.gov)
- RORγ −/− mice lack peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, indicating that RORγ expression is indispensable for lymph node organogenesis. (pnas.org)
- To determine if such DCs are inherently tolerogenic we collected intestinal lymph DCs (L-DCs) by cannulation of the thoracic duct of rats after mesenteric lymphadenectomy, and examined their capacity to activate naive CD4+ lymphocytes in an allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction. (gu.se)
- Systemic intravenous (i.v.) injection of A20 cells results in spread to spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and liver. (hindawi.com)
- C) At necropsy, the frequencies of resting CD4 + T lymphocytes harboring replication-competent virus in spleen, peripheral blood, and mesenteric (Mes), axillary (Ax), inguinal (In), cervical (Ce), and retropharyngeal (Re) lymph nodes (LN) were determined. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. (asm.org)
- Analysis of peripheral tissues indicates that itk(-/-) innate PLZF(+)CD4(+) T cells preferentially home to spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes owing to increased expression of gut-homing receptors, and that their expansion is regulated by commensal gut flora. (umassmed.edu)
- Here we have demonstrated that B. pertussis respiratory infection of mice with targeted disruptions of the genes for the IFN-gamma receptor resulted in an atypical disseminated disease which was lethal in a proportion of animals, and was characterized by pyogranulomatous inflammation and postnecrotic scarring in the livers, mesenteric lymph nodes and kidneys. (nih.gov)
- Hydroxyurea inhibits HIV in active and resting CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages, potentiates the activity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), compensates for resistance to adenosine analogue NRTI, and increases the phosphorylation of pyrimidine NRTI (for a review, see Ref. 5). (lww.com)
- SIV antigen has been demonstrated by immunohistochemical methods in lymph node sinus histiocytes, macrophages, and giant cells (14) as well as in macrophage-derived cells in brain tissue from diseased monkeys (8). (cdc.gov)
- Finally, we compared infection of macrophages, CD4(+) T cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) conferred by macrophage-tropic and non-macrophage-tropic envelopes in the context of full-length replication competent viral clones. (umassmed.edu)
- Non-macrophage-tropic envelopes conferred low-level infection of macrophages yet infected CD4(+) T cells and PBMCs as efficiently as highly macrophage-tropic brain envelopes. (umassmed.edu)
- Experimental studies have recently revealed that B and T lymphocytes can exert protumor activity indirectly by regulating the bioactivity of myeloid cells, including macrophages, monocytes, and mast cells, resulting in resistance to endocrine therapies and development of metastasis ( 10 - 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- On the basis of these results, we hypothesized that human breast cancers containing leukocytic infiltrates dominated by CD4 + T lymphocytes and CD68 + macrophages, without significant CD8 + T-cell infiltration, would have a higher relative risk for metastasis and therefore reduced overall survival (OS) of patients. (aacrjournals.org)
- contains cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) that fight infection. (studystack.com)
- The first leukocytes arriving on site are granulocytes which combat the microbial invaders, while monocytes/macrophages clean up dead cells, including apoptotic granulocytes and destroyed tissue.3 In parallel, dendritic cells (DCs) take up and process antigens (Ag) from the intruder, mature and migrate to a local lymph node to set off an adaptive immune response. (haematologica.org)
- We show that meningeal T-cell composition is coupled to the CNS-draining deep cervical lymph nodes (dCLNs), whose surgical removal interrupted the normal flow of meningeal T-cells and resulted in cognitive impairment. (nih.gov)
- The role of immune system in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer is a subject of controversy, and this stimulated us to investigate the association of the immunophenotype of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in early breast cancer with the spread of tumor cells to axillary lymph nodes. (nih.gov)
- The mean percentage of these cells was used for comparing groups of patients with or without lymph node metastasis. (nih.gov)
- The association of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) T lymphocytes with lymph node metastasis suggests a role for these cells in the spread of neoplasia to lymph nodes in patients with early breast cancer. (nih.gov)
- Based on mathematical modeling of the dynamics of BrdU-labeled cells in the blood, we identified rapidly and slowly proliferating subpopulations of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
- These findings demonstrate that HIV does not impair CD4 T cell production but does increase CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte proliferation and death by inducing entry into a rapidly proliferating subpopulation of cells. (rupress.org)
- While early studies suggested that there was a massive turnover of CD4 T cells that was being driven by HIV-induced cell death, recent studies have identified a more modest, ∼two- to sixfold, increase in the fraction of proliferating CD4 and CD8 T cells when compared with individuals without HIV infection ( 3 - 12 ). (rupress.org)
- This in vitro Th17 differentiation protocol provides a means to determine whether naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes can differentiate into Th17 cells, and to further examine their role in autoimmunity and host response. (jove.com)
- CD4 + CD8αβ + (double positive) thymocytes undergo 'conventional' thymic selection and differentiate into naive CD4 + and CD8αβ + TCRαβ + T cells that migrate to the periphery. (nih.gov)
- Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated severe depletion of CD4 + CD8 − single-positive T cells and CD4 + CD8 + double-positive T cells in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) during primary SIV infection which persisted through the entire course of SIV infection. (asm.org)
- HIV infection is characterized by CD4 + T-cell depletion and depressed proliferative and cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to mitogenic or antigenic stimulations. (asm.org)
- CEACAM1 blockade is different from other immunomodulatory approaches, as MRG1 targets inhibitory interactions between tumor cells and late effector lymphocytes, which is thus a more specific and compartmentalized immune stimulation with potentially superior safety profile. (aacrjournals.org)
- CEACAM1 is expressed on a variety of cells, for example, some epithelial cells, melanoma, and activated lymphocytes ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- However, T-cell subset analyses demonstrated a high percentage of C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)-expressing CD4(+) T-cells after HSCT. (nih.gov)
- To avoid complications associated with ART interruption in the context of high percentages of CD4(+)CCR5(+)T-cells after HSCT, the use of vector systems not impaired by the presence of residual ART may also be beneficial. (nih.gov)
- The number of peripheral blood CD3 + and CD4 + lymphocytes is reduced 6- and 10-fold, respectively, whereas the number of circulating B cells is normal. (pnas.org)
- The latter was supported by the observed increase in annexin V-positive cells. (pnas.org)
- In the absence of CCL2, T1 cells polarize in the LALN, but do not traffic from the lymph nodes to the lungs, resulting in a pulmonary T2 response. (jimmunol.org)
- The T1-type response requires CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, in addition to the production of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-12, and IFN-γ ( 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Steady-state dendritic cells (DCs) migrating in the lymph from the intestine induce tolerance to harmless intestinal antigens, preventing inflammatory responses. (gu.se)
- Using these tetramers, we find that α-GalCer-specific T lymphocytes are more widely distributed than was previously appreciated, with populations of largely NK1.1 − but tetramer-binding T cells present in the lymph nodes and the intestine. (rupress.org)
- Tetramers have been used widely to obtain a detailed analysis of the distribution and frequency of conventional CD4 + and CD8 + antigen-specific T cells during a variety of immune responses. (rupress.org)
- HA-specific CD4 + T cells were transferred intravenously in a tail vein 5 days after A20HA intracranial inoculation and analyzed on days 2, 9, and 16 after the adoptive transfer by different methods. (hindawi.com)
- Despite that, a deal of HA-specific CD4 + T cells kept the functional activity even at the late stage of A20HA tumor growth. (hindawi.com)
- Certain evidences indicate that CD4 + T-helper (Th) cells can also enter into brain [ 11 , 12 ], and they are an equally critical component of antitumor immune response [ 11 , 13 - 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
- However, tumor-specific CD4 + T cells can be rendered tolerant (anergic) when they encounter antigen in absence of a costimulatory signal [ 18 - 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Anergic CD4 + T cells are neither deleted nor altered with regard to levels of T cell receptor for antigen (TCR) and coreceptor molecules, such as B7, but are refractory to an antigenic stimulus that would activate naive T cells [ 21 , 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Though tumor-specific CD4 + Th cells are necessary for generation of potent antitumor immunity, there still are little known about fate of these Th cells during a lymphoma progression in brain. (hindawi.com)
- Mouse A20 B-cell lymphoma modified with influenza hemagglutinin (HA) gene to express HA antigen (A20HA) was developed as an experimental system allowing the quantitative determination of systemic tumor progression effects on population of naive TCR clonotypic CD4 + Th cells that is specific for HA antigen in terms of their proliferation versus depletion and state of activation versus anergy [ 4 , 20 , 21 , 23 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A, population of CD4 + and T regs (CD4 + Foxp3 + ) lymphocytes from abdominal lymph nodes 8 d after kidney injection (5 d after treatment) was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (percentage of positive cells). (aacrjournals.org)
- She was found to be HIV seropositive, and her CD4 + lymphocyte count was 19 cells/μl. (asmscience.org)
- Purified CD4 + /HLA-DR − T lymphocytes from SIV-infected macaques were cultured in fivefold limiting dilutions with CEMx174 cells to measure the frequency of cells harboring replication-competent virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A study in 2004 by Bisset and colleagues [ 3 ] supported this theory, and showed that less than half CD4 + cells, and less than a quarter CD8 + T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood remained naïve. (biomedcentral.com)
- The expression of PLZF, the signature invariant NKT cell transcription factor, in these innate CD4(+) T cells suggests that they might be a subset of alphabeta or gammadelta TCR(+) NKT cells or mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. (umassmed.edu)
- We show that itk(-/-) innate PLZF(+)CD4(+) T cells are not CD1d-dependent NKT cells, MR1-dependent MAIT cells, or gammadelta T cells. (umassmed.edu)
- Furthermore, although the itk(-/-) innate PLZF(+)CD4(+) T cells express alphabeta TCRs, neither beta2-microglobulin-dependent MHC class I nor any MHC class II molecules are required for their development. (umassmed.edu)
- These data support the conclusion that itk(-/-) innate PLZF(+)CD4(+) T cells are a novel subset of innate T cells. (umassmed.edu)
- Once transmitted, HIV enters cells of the immune system (CD4 cells, also called T-cells) where it reproduces itself, killing CD4 cells in the process. (positivewomen.org.au)
- Scientists think that these dendritic cells move the virus from the site of the infection to your lymph nodes where HIV can infect other immune system cells. (positivewomen.org.au)
- HIV can infect multiple cells in your body, including brain cells, but its main target is the CD4 lymphocyte, also called a CD4 cell or a T-cell. (positivewomen.org.au)
- CD4 cells are a key part of your immune system. (positivewomen.org.au)
- Mechanistically, T cell receptor stimulation induces cyclosporine A-sensitive histone modifications and P300/CBP acetylase recruitment at these elements in activated CD4 + T cells. (nature.com)
- CD19 negative B-cells versus CD20 positive T-cells (B-cell lymphoma vs. T-cell lymphoma). (stanford.edu)
- Approximately 95% of cells in the lymphocyte gate are positive for CD3, indicating that these CD19 negative/CD20 dim cells are T lymphocytes. (stanford.edu)
- Abundant VEGF-A mRNA and VEGF-A-positive cells were present in aneurysmal aortae. (stanford.edu)
- Here we track the fate of high avidity CD4 T cells recognizing a self-antigen expressed in pancreatic islet β cells using a transgenic mouse model. (rupress.org)
- T-PLL has the immunophenotype of a mature (post-thymic) T-lymphocyte, and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T antigens CD2, CD3, and CD7 and negative for TdT and CD1a. (wikipedia.org)
- The histochemical study of biopsied skin showed the CD4, CD8, and CD25 triple-positive cells in epidermal Pautrier microabscesses. (biomedcentral.com)
- Medium-sized atypical lymphocytic cells were scatterly noted with small lymphocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Expression of PD-L1 by tumor cells and immune infiltrates was significantly associated with expression of PD-1 on lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
- Histologically, three cases showed similar dense infiltration of polymorphic composition including variable reactive components such as plasma cells and histiocytes as well as atypical lymphocytes and one case was characterized by proliferation of monomorphic atypical lymphocytes. (scirp.org)
- The immunohistochemical staining showed that infiltrative lymphocytes were CD2 + TIA1 + CD56 − , suggesting cytotoxic T-cells origin, but loss of pan-T markers CD3 (2/4), CD5 (4/4) and CD7 (2/4) were frequently observed. (scirp.org)
- Lymph nodes (LN) and their resident T follicular helper CD4+ T cells (Tfh) are a critical site for HIV replication and persistence. (prolekare.cz)
- In addition to its significant role in the chemotaxis of lymphocytes, human CCR7 has also been recognized as a marker for a distinct subset of memory T cells, the central memory (TCM) population. (thermofisher.com)
- This expression allows initial seeding of this incipient structure by two unusual lymphocyte populations selectively expressing the Peyer's patch homing receptor integrin alpha4beta7: CD4+CD3- oligolineage progenitors and TCR gammadelta+ T cells. (vumc.nl)
- We show here that CD4+CD3- cells are lineage-restricted progenitors that express surface lymphotoxin-beta (LTbeta) and the chemokine receptor BLR1 and that can become natural killer cells, dendritic antigen-presenting cells, and follicular cells of unknown outcome, but these cells do not become T or B lymphocytes. (vumc.nl)
- Since the necessity of lymphotoxin in lymphoid organ development has been shown, we propose that the novel subset of CD4+CD3-LTbeta+ fetal cells is instrumental in the development of lymphoid tissue architecture. (vumc.nl)
- In all immunized groups, the percentage of CD4 was higher than CD8 cells. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Rapamycin therapy controls mitotic activity and abnormal differentiation of ALPS DNT cells and reduces CD4 + or CD8 + precursor DNT cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, sometimes misspelled AILT) (formerly known as "angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia") is a mature T-cell lymphoma of blood or lymph vessel immunoblasts characterized by a polymorphous lymph node infiltrate showing a marked increase in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and high endothelial venules (HEVs) and systemic involvement. (wikipedia.org)
- The polymorphous infiltrate consists of lymphocytes of moderate size with pale/clear cytoplasm and smaller reactive lymphocytes, eosinophils, histiocytes, plasma cells, and follicular dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
- AITL typically has the phenotype of a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, with a CD4:CD8 ratio greater than unity. (wikipedia.org)
- Lymph lymphocytes that aids B cells and stimulate T cells. (studystack.com)
- Organ the upper quadrant of the abdomen that destroys worn-out red blood cells, activates lymphocytes in stores blood. (studystack.com)
- HIV infects and destroys CD4 cells. (thebody.com)
- The immune system includes white blood cells, lymph nodes and body tissues, such as the tonsils and insides of the intestines. (thebody.com)
- Instead of blood, lymphatic vessels carry a clear, watery fluid, called lymph , which carries foreign material away from your body's cells. (thebody.com)
- Inside these nodes and tissues, cells of the immune system trap, filter and destroy foreign material, including bacteria, viruses and other microbes. (thebody.com)
- Each lymph node is densely packed with millions of immune cells that identify and destroy the microbes that cause disease. (thebody.com)
- Although CD4 cells are very important for HIV-positive people, the other types of white blood cells will rarely come up during your doctor's visits. (thebody.com)
- Lymphocytes are a kind of leukocyte, which include the T cells . (thebody.com)
- CD4 cells are named after a protein called CD4, which they carry on their surface like a fingerprint. (thebody.com)
- CD4 cells lead the attack against infections. (thebody.com)
- CD4 cells are sometimes compared to the quarterbacks of a football team or the conductors of an orchestra, because they direct the response of your body's immune system. (thebody.com)
- I used to pretend to coax my CD4 cells down to a cut on my fingertip by rubbing my finger and saying words of encouragement. (thebody.com)
- Two-photon imaging of migrating T cells in the steady-state lymph node revealed both cell-wide and localized sub-cellular Ca 2+ transients ('sparkles') as cells migrate. (elifesciences.org)
- To help protect the body from disease, small immune cells called T lymphocytes move rapidly, searching for signs of infection. (elifesciences.org)
- Diagnosis can be made by a lymph node biopsy which will show infiltration of small lymphocytes, plasma cells, immunoblasts, histiocytes, and often eosinophils. (biomedcentral.com)
- Reexamination and immunohistochemical staining of the previously biopsied lymph node specimen revealed the same clonal population of T cells positive for CD3, CD4, CD10, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) that was present in the skin and confirmed a diagnosis of AITL. (mdedge.com)
- Upper panels: (A) chronic inflammation is characterized by high levels of TNF, inducing stromal cells to produce CCL19 and CCL21 which attract B- and T- lymphocytes. (haematologica.org)
- B) the interplay between CXCL13-producing stromal cells and increasing numbers of mLTα1β2 and TNF-expressing B lymphocytes, leads to the development of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and subsequent formation of lymphoid follicles. (haematologica.org)
- amplifier T l's a T lymphocyte of the CD8 cell type that modifies a developing immune response by releasing nonspecific signals to which other T lymphocytes (either effector or suppressor cells) respond. (thefreedictionary.com)
- CD4 T l's ( CD4 + T l's ) CD4 cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- cytotoxic T l's differentiated T lymphocytes, marked by CD4 and CD8 antigens , able to recognize and lyse target cells bearing specific antigens recognized by their antigen receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These lymphocytes are important in graft rejection and killing of tumor cells and virus-infected host cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- lymphocyte proliferation test a functional test of the ability of lymphocytes to respond to mitogens, specific antigens, or allogenic cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- We found that exposure of resting CD4+ T lymphocytes to HIV-1 transiently upregulated expression of cell surface CD62L (L-selectin), the receptor for homing to lymph nodes, with concomitant enhanced ability of these cells to bind to lymph node high endothelial venules in an ex vivohoming assay (increased ∼12-fold, P (naver.com)
- This suggested the possibility that decreases in numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the blood of HIV-1-infected subjects may reflect enhanced homing of abortively infected, resting lymphocytes into lymph nodes rather than direct virus replication in and killing of these cells, and may explain development of lymphadenopathy at a time when numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the blood fall. (naver.com)
- Dynamics of HIV infection of CD4 + T cells (1993) Perelson Alan S et al. (naver.com)
- Conjugates of dendritic cells and memory T lymphocytes from skin facilitate productive infection with HIV-1 (1994) Pope M et al. (naver.com)
- A 74 year-old female with an MF diagnosed in June 1998 developed a SS in December 1998, with the appearance of lymph nodes and a lymphocyte count of 2 G/L. She presented 15% atypical small cells with no myelo-proliferative features. (haematologica.org)
- No residual CD19 or CD20 positive cells could be identified. (haematologica.org)
- Treg cells are a specialized subset of CD4 helper T cells that can suppress the proliferation of activated effector T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- TβRII -/- CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells in the lymph nodes and spleen expressed increased cell surface CD44, and CD69 was also higher on CD4 + lymph node T-cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Immunohistochemical studies showed that the infiltrated cells were positive for CD3 and CD4, but negative for CD8 and CD20. (bvsalud.org)
- These cells can be characterized in their developmental progression by changes in expression of 3 cell surface markers: CD4, CD8, and the T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex. (medscape.com)
- From the corticomedullary junction, the cells enter the medulla or circulate in the periphery to other lymphoid structures (ie, lymph nodes). (medscape.com)
- The lymphocytes' selection process and developmental progression are influenced by direct contact between the TCR-CD3 complex on the thymocyte and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-antigen complex on thymic epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. (medscape.com)
- At admission to our hospital he had pancytopenia: white blood cells 1400/cmm, with 600 neutrophils and 600 lymphocytes, hemoglobin 9.6 g/dL and platelet count 25,000/cmm. (biomedcentral.com)
- Post-chemotherapy the pancytopenia was more severe: white blood cells - 200/cmm with CD4 count - 10/cmm, platelets - 15,000/cmm and hemoglobin - 7.9 g/dL. (biomedcentral.com)
- Specifically, double immunofluorescence showed that IL-17 immunoreactivity was detected in 79% of T cells in acute lesions, 73% in active areas of chronic active lesions, but in only 17% of those in inactive lesions and 7% in lymph node control tissue. (ox.ac.uk)
- Interestingly, and in contrast to lymph node T cells, no perivascular T cells showed FoxP3 expression, a marker of regulatory T cells, at any stage of MS lesions. (ox.ac.uk)
- Histological analysis revealed a proliferative synovitis comprised predominantly of neutrophils, with few lymphocytes or plasma cells, associated with severe bony destruction, ankylosis in many joints, and reactive sclerotic changes. (biomedcentral.com)
- In peripheral lymph nodes CD62L - CD44 + activated memory T cells predominated, with increased expression of activation surface antigens CD69 and CD25, and hyperresponsiveness to T cell receptor (TCR) ligation with anti-CD3 antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Axillary and inguinal lymph nodes (draining the arms and legs, respectively) were pooled. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- All tissues were examined from all four animals except for pooled axillary and inguinal lymph nodes from 98P004 due to insufficient numbers available (Δ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Physical examination was unremarkable except for the presence of multiple palpable left-sided inguinal lymph nodes. (biomedcentral.com)
- On physical examination, the axillary and inguinal lymph nodes were enlarged. (bvsalud.org)
- Most are small lymphocytes 7-10 μm in diameter with a round or slightly indented heterochromatic nucleus that almost fills the entire cell and a thin rim of basophilic cytoplasm that contains few granules. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The histopathology of skin showed dermal infiltration of atypical small lymphocytes with mild epidermotropism. (bvsalud.org)
- The intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that reside within the epithelium of the intestine form one of the main branches of the immune system. (nih.gov)
- An increase in the CD4 cell count is viewed as a beneficial consequence of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART), and as an indicator of immune recovery. (lww.com)
- These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. (asm.org)
- CD4 counts used to be the only way to understand how HIV was affecting your immune system. (positivewomen.org.au)
- Significant associations were found among tumor cell PD-L1 expression, the presence of intratumoral immune cell infiltrates, and PD-1 receptor expression by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, suggesting that PD-L1 reflects an immune-reactive milieu. (aacrjournals.org)
- When immune response is activated, PDCs can be recruited into lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. (thefreelibrary.com)
- A CD4 cell is a type of white blood cell that is especially important to the immune system. (thebody.com)
- CLP RAG lymph node restimulation assays exhibited SEA-specific increases in the TH2 cytokines IL-4 (Fig. 6B), IL-5 (Fig. 6C) and IL-13 (Fig. 6E), along with the TH2/immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 (Fig. 6D). (nih.gov)
- While sham RAG lymph node cultures also exhibited SEA-specific production of both IL-17 and IFN-γ, the levels of these cytokines were below the levels observed for TH2 cytokines from the same cultures. (nih.gov)
- The ability of T lymphocytes to produce cytokines in response to pathogenic organisms is crucial in inducing and maintaining effective innate as well as acquired immunity. (asm.org)
- L-DCs stimulated strong proliferative responses, induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines including interferon-gamma, and induced FoxP3-positive lymphocytes to divide. (gu.se)
Abdominal lymph nodes1
- Association between CD4, CD8, and FOXP3 expression and relapse-free interval (RFI). (biomedcentral.com)
- Partial residuals of the multivariable Cox regression models were plotted against the CD4 ( a ), CD8 ( b ), and FOXP3 ( c ) expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CD4, CD8, and FOXP3 status were calculated in the whole group ( d , e , and f , respectively) and among patients with low-grade tumors ( g , h , and i , respectively). (biomedcentral.com)
- T-cell-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a mature T-cell leukemia with aggressive behavior and predilection for blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and skin involvement. (wikipedia.org)
- People affected by T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia typically have systemic disease at presentation, including enlargement of the liver and spleen, widespread enlargement of the lymph nodes, and skin infiltrates. (wikipedia.org)
Found in lymph nodes1
- In particular, CD4+ T lymphocytes can exhibit reduced proliferative capacity and improper cytokine responses following sepsis. (nih.gov)
- Surprisingly, CLP RAG lymph nodes also exhibited significantly elevated levels of the TH17 cytokine IL-17 (Fig. 6F), as well as levels of the TH1 cytokine IFN-γ (Fig. 6G). (nih.gov)
- Since intestinal T lymphocytes are localized at functionally distinct sites, including intestinal epithelium and lamina propria, it will be important to examine isolated cell populations for their cytokine responses. (asm.org)
- This cytokine receptor binds to B-lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), and is involved in B-cell migration into B-cell follicles of spleen and Peyer patches. (cancerindex.org)
- In this study, we report four cases of EBV + T-cell LPDs with unusual immunophentypic and histopathological features including negativity for CD4 and CD8, multiple foci of necrosis, abundant eosinophils inflitration and granuloma, which adds to the understanding of these rare diseases. (scirp.org)
- Biopsies of these lymph nodes histologically showed eosinophils and granulomas not unlike what Gall and Rappaport previously described in a group of patients with benign lymphadenopathy. (thefreelibrary.com)
Nodular lymphocyte predominant2
- The phenotype of the inflammatory cell background infiltrate, along with the neoplastic cell morphological and immunophenotypical features, subdivides HL in 2 subgroups: classical and nodular lymphocyte predominant HL. (hindawi.com)
- Nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (NLPHL) accounts for less than 10% of all HL cases and is considered a distinct clinical entity [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The lymphatic system is a network of tissues, glands, and channels that produces lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Some lymphocytes remain in clusters within the lymph nodes, while others circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream or in the lymph, which is a clear yellowish fluid carried by the lymphatic channels. (encyclopedia.com)
- Lymphatic vessels in the chest that dreams lymph from the upper right part of the body. (studystack.com)
- The lymphatic vessels pass through lymph nodes and tissues. (thebody.com)
Migration of lymphocytes2
- Our laboratory studies the molecular mechanisms that control the migration of lymphocytes into sites of autoimmune-mediated tissue damage, such as pancreatic islets in type 1 diabetes and salivary glands in Sjogren s syndrome. (stanford.edu)
- In recent years, the role of chemokines in directing the migration of lymphocytes has been well-characterized. (thermofisher.com)
Features of lymph2
- Our study depicts the expression of lymphocyte activation gene 3 ( LAG3) in a test cohort and a larger validation cohort, totaling 139 SGCs. (springer.com)
- A co-expression of LAG3 and PD-L1 on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has been observed in several tumor types [ 6 ]. (springer.com)
- 0.001), although lymphocyte-rich regions were not always associated with PD-L1 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Changes in L-Selectin Expression by T Lymphocytes after Extracorporeal Photochemotherapy. (ashpublications.org)
- We detected expression of IL-17 mRNA (by in situ hybridization) and protein (by immunohistochemistry) in perivascular lymphocytes as well as in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes located in the active areas of MS lesions. (ox.ac.uk)