Lymph Node Excision
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
Tuberculosis, Lymph Node
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Tumor Markers, Biological
Sensitivity and Specificity
Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast
Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia
Local Lymph Node Assay
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
Predictive Value of Tests
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
False Negative Reactions
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Combined Modality Therapy
Disease Models, Animal
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
Mice, Inbred Strains
Reproducibility of Results
Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing
Mastectomy, Modified Radical
Proportional Hazards Models
Lymphotoxin beta Receptor
Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (1/11252)Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed. (+info)
Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (2/11252)ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced. (+info)
Analysis of V(H)-D-J(H) gene transcripts in B cells infiltrating the salivary glands and lymph node tissues of patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (3/11252)OBJECTIVE: In patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), B lymphocytes have been found to infiltrate salivary glands, resulting in sialadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis. The disease is frequently associated with benign and neoplastic lymphoproliferation. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether clonal B cell expansion takes place in lymphocytic infiltrations of salivary glands under (auto- [?]) antigen stimulation, by analyzing in more detail the variable part (V(H)-D-J(H)) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes expressed in these B cells. METHODS: Biopsies of the labial salivary glands and lymph nodes were performed on 2 female patients with SS. The Ig gene rearrangements in these tissues were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. RESULTS: A total of 94 V(H)-D-J(H) transcripts were cloned and sequenced. Our data suggest a polyclonal origin of the B cell infiltrates. In 92 of the transcripts, V(H) genes were modified by somatic mutation. Further analysis showed counterselection for replacement mutations within the framework regions, suggesting that those B cells were stimulated and selected for functional expression of a surface Ig. In labial salivary glands from both patients, clonally related B cells became evident. Members of 1 particular clone were found in both the lip and lymph node material. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence, on the nucleotide sequence level, that an antigen-triggered clonal B cell expansion takes place in the salivary glands of patients with SS who do not have histologic evidence of developing lymphoma. It may be speculated that those B cell clones expand during disease progression, resulting in lymphomagenesis. (+info)
T-cell lymphoma in a savanna monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) probably related to simian T-cell leukemia virus infection. (4/11252)Lymphoma was seen in an 11-year-old female savanna monkey (Ceropithecus aethiops). The superficial inguinal and visceral lymph nodes were markedly enlarged, and their architecture was completely effaced by neoplastic cells. The neoplastic cells, which were highly pleomorphic, resembled those in adult T-cell lymphoma-leukemia in humans. Ultrastructurally the neoplastic cells were characterized by nuclear irregularity and clustered dense bodies, and almost all cells showed positivity for CD3. The animal had been reared with her family, and her mother and 2 brothers had antibodies reactive to human T-cell leukemia virus. This virus serologically cross-reacts with simian T-cell leukemia virus, which may be the causative agent of the present neoplasm. (+info)
Lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria in children: presentation and response to therapy. (5/11252)The most common manifestation of infection due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in children is cervical lymphadenitis in an otherwise healthy patient. We identified and reviewed 19 cases of proven or presumptive lymphadenitis due to NTM seen at our hospital over the course of 13 months. Nine patients underwent initial surgical excision of involved lymph nodes. Ten children did not have involved lymph nodes excised initially and were treated with macrolide-containing antibiotic regimens. Of these patients, five required subsequent surgical excision and five were cured with combination chemotherapy. Six patients underwent radiographic imaging of the head and neck that revealed asymmetrical adenopathy with ring-enhancing masses but minimal inflammatory stranding of the subcutaneous fat, a finding that may distinguish adenitis caused by NTM from staphylococcal and streptococcal adenitis. Our data suggest that if surgical excision is not considered feasible, antimicrobial therapy for adenitis due to NTM may be beneficial for some patients. (+info)
Detection of occult lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer by minimally invasive staging combined with molecular diagnostic techniques. (6/11252)BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lymph node metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer. Histologic examination misses micrometastases in up to 20% of lymph nodes evaluated. In addition, non-invasive imaging modalities are not sensitive enough to detect small lymph nodes metastases. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to increase the detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes from patients with esophageal cancer. METHODS: RT-PCR of CEA mRNA was performed in lymph nodes from patients with malignant and benign esophageal disease. Each specimen was examined histopathologically and by RT-PCR and the results were compared. RESULTS: Metastases were present in 29 of 60 (48%) lymph nodes sample by minimally invasive staging from 13 patients with esophageal cancer when examined histopathologically. RT-PCR identified nodal metastases in 46 of these 60 (77%) samples. RT-PCR detected CEA mRNA in all 29 histologically positive samples and in 17 histologically negative lymph nodes. All lymph nodes from patients with benign disease (n = 15) were negative both histopathologically and by RT-PCR. The stage of two patients was reclassified based on the RT-PCR results, which identified lymph node spread undetected histopathologically. Both of these patients developed recurrent disease after resection of the primary tumor. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR is more sensitive than histologic examination in the detection of lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer and can lead to diagnosis of a more advanced stage in some patients. The combination of minimally invasive surgical techniques in combination with new molecular diagnostic techniques may improve our ability to stage cancer patients. (+info)
Expanded tumor-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to human cancers induced by secondary anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activation. (7/11252)Generation of tumor-reactive T cells in large numbers ex vivo is a requisite step in the adoptive immunotherapy of patients. We examined the immune responses of T cells derived from tumor vaccine-primed lymph nodes activated with anti-CD3 alone and with an anti-CD3/anti-CD28 combination. Nylon wool-purified CD3+ cells were isolated from vaccine-primed lymph nodes obtained from melanoma, renal cell, and head and neck cancer patients. In the absence of antigen-presenting cells, activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 greatly enhanced subsequent T-cell expansion in interleukin 2 (>100-fold), compared to anti-CD3 alone. CD4+ T cells were preferentially stimulated. In four of eight patients, we found evidence of CD4+ cellular responses to autologous tumors by cytokine release assays. Positively selected CD4+ cells activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 released greater amounts of cytokine (IFN-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in response to autologous tumors compared to cells activated by anti-CD3 alone. The CD4+ reactivity was MHC class II restricted and appeared to be associated with the expression of class II molecules on the vaccinating tumor cells. The CD4+ T-cell responses to class II-restricted tumor-associated antigens in patients with renal cell cancers represent unique findings. (+info)
Identification of a novel activation-inducible protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and its ligand. (8/11252)Among members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, 4-1BB, CD27, and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene (GITR) share a striking homology in the cytoplasmic domain. Here we report the identification of a new member, activation-inducible TNFR family member (AITR), which belongs to this subfamily, and its ligand. The receptor is expressed in lymph node and peripheral blood leukocytes, and its expression is up-regulated in human peripheral mononuclear cells mainly after stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin. AITR associates with TRAF1 (TNF receptor-associated factor 1), TRAF2, and TRAF3, and induces nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation via TRAF2. The ligand for AITR (AITRL) was found to be an undescribed member of the TNF family, which is expressed in endothelial cells. Thus, AITR and AITRL seem to be important for interactions between activated T lymphocytes and endothelial cells. (+info)
Lymphatic metastasis occurs when cancer cells enter the lymphatic vessels and are carried through the lymphatic system to other parts of the body. This can happen through several mechanisms, including:
1. Direct invasion: Cancer cells can invade the nearby lymphatic vessels and spread through them.
2. Lymphatic vessel embolization: Cancer cells can block the flow of lymphatic fluid and cause the formation of a clot-like structure, which can trap cancer cells and allow them to grow.
3. Lymphatic vessel invasion: Cancer cells can infiltrate the walls of lymphatic vessels and spread through them.
Lymphatic metastasis is a common mechanism for the spread of cancer, particularly in the breast, melanoma, and other cancers that have a high risk of lymphatic invasion. The presence of lymphatic metastasis in a patient's body can indicate a more aggressive cancer and a poorer prognosis.
Treatment for lymphatic metastasis typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Surgery may be used to remove any affected lymph nodes or other tumors that have spread through the lymphatic system. Chemotherapy may be used to kill any remaining cancer cells, while radiation therapy may be used to shrink the tumors and relieve symptoms.
In summary, lymphatic metastasis is a common mechanism for the spread of cancer through the body, particularly in cancers that originate in organs with a high lymphatic drainage. Treatment typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy to remove or shrink the tumors and relieve symptoms.
The symptoms of lymph node TB may include:
1. Swollen and tender lymph nodes in the neck or other areas of the body
3. Night sweats
4. Weight loss
6. Coughing up blood
7. Chest pain
If you suspect that you have been exposed to TB or are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests such as a chest X-ray, CT scan, blood tests, or a skin test (called the PPD test) to determine if you have TB infection.
If you are diagnosed with lymph node TB, treatment will typically involve antibiotics for a period of at least six months. It is crucial to complete the full course of treatment as directed by your healthcare provider to ensure that the infection is fully cleared and to prevent the development of drug-resistant TB.
In addition to treatment, it is important to take steps to prevent the spread of TB to others. This may include:
1. Isolating yourself from others until your symptoms have improved and you have been declared non-infectious by a healthcare provider.
2. Covering your mouth when coughing or sneezing to prevent the spread of bacteria.
3. Washing your hands frequently, especially after coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding close contact with others until your infection has been fully treated and you have been declared non-infectious.
Overall, early detection and prompt treatment of lymph node TB are crucial to prevent complications and ensure a full recovery.
1. Lymphedema: This is a condition in which the lymph vessels are unable to properly drain fluid from the body, leading to swelling in the affected limb.
2. Lymphangitis: This is an inflammation of the lymph vessels that can cause pain, redness, and swelling.
3. Lymphadenitis: This is an infection of the lymph nodes that can cause swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Primary lymphedema: This is a rare genetic condition in which the lymph vessels are missing or do not develop properly.
5. Secondary lymphedema: This is a condition that develops as a result of another condition or injury, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or infection.
6. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormalities in the development of the lymph vessels and nodes that can cause swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.
7. Lymphocystis: This is a rare condition in which small cysts form in the lymph vessels and nodes.
8. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare condition that causes cysts to form in the lungs and can also affect the lymph vessels and nodes.
9. Lipedema: This is a condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the legs, thighs, and buttocks, which can cause swelling and pain.
10. Pemphigus: This is a group of rare autoimmune disorders that affect the skin and mucous membranes, leading to blistering and scarring.
Treatment for lymphatic diseases depends on the specific condition and may include compression garments, exercises, and manual lymph drainage therapy. In some cases, medications such as antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Surgery may also be necessary in some cases to remove blockages or repair damaged vessels.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent swelling or pain, as these can be signs of a lymphatic disease. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:
1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.
2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.
3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.
4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.
5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.
Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.
Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.
It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.
1. Tumor size and location: Larger tumors that have spread to nearby tissues or organs are generally considered more invasive than smaller tumors that are confined to the original site.
2. Cellular growth patterns: The way in which cancer cells grow and divide can also contribute to the overall invasiveness of a neoplasm. For example, cells that grow in a disorganized or chaotic manner may be more likely to invade surrounding tissues.
3. Mitotic index: The mitotic index is a measure of how quickly the cancer cells are dividing. A higher mitotic index is generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
4. Necrosis: Necrosis, or the death of cells, can be an indication of the level of invasiveness of a neoplasm. The presence of significant necrosis in a tumor is often a sign that the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues and organs.
5. Lymphovascular invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded lymphatic vessels or blood vessels are considered more invasive than those that have not.
6. Perineural invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded nerve fibers are also considered more invasive.
7. Histological grade: The histological grade of a neoplasm is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Higher-grade cancers are generally considered more aggressive and invasive than lower-grade cancers.
8. Immunohistochemical markers: Certain immunohistochemical markers, such as Ki-67, can be used to evaluate the proliferative activity of cancer cells. Higher levels of these markers are generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
Overall, the degree of neoplasm invasiveness is an important factor in determining the likelihood of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) and in determining the appropriate treatment strategy for the patient.
There are several types of stomach neoplasms, including:
1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of stomach cancer, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases. It begins in the glandular cells that line the stomach and can spread to other parts of the body.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer begins in the squamous cells that cover the outer layer of the stomach. It is less common than adenocarcinoma but more likely to be found in the upper part of the stomach.
3. Gastric mixed adenocarcinomasquamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer is a combination of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
4. Lymphoma: This is a cancer of the immune system that can occur in the stomach. It is less common than other types of stomach cancer but can be more aggressive.
5. Carcinomas of the stomach: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial cells lining the stomach. They can be subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and others.
6. Gastric brunner's gland adenoma: This is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the Brunner's glands in the stomach.
7. Gastric polyps: These are growths that occur on the lining of the stomach and can be either benign or malignant.
The symptoms of stomach neoplasms vary depending on the location, size, and type of tumor. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of endoscopy, imaging studies (such as CT or PET scans), and biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. The prognosis for stomach neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.
Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:
1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)
The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:
1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)
The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:
1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.
The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
SCC typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on the skin, and may be pink, red, or scaly. The cancer cells are usually well-differentiated, meaning they resemble normal squamous cells, but they can grow rapidly and invade surrounding tissues if left untreated.
SCC is more common in fair-skinned individuals and those who spend a lot of time in the sun, as UV radiation can damage the skin cells and increase the risk of cancer. The cancer can also spread to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or organs, and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively.
Treatment for SCC usually involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, and may also include radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes for patients with SCC.
There are several types of melanoma, including:
1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.
The risk factors for developing melanoma include:
1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma
The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:
1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole
If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.
In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.
Symptoms of lymphadenitis may include swelling and tenderness of the affected lymph nodes, fever, fatigue, and general illness. In some cases, the lymph nodes may become abscessed, which is a collection of pus that forms within the node.
Treatment of lymphadenitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. If the infection is caused by bacteria, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection and help to reduce the swelling and tenderness. In some cases, surgical drainage of the abscess may be necessary to help to resolve the infection.
Prevention of lymphadenitis includes good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and avoiding sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or razors. Vaccination against certain infections, such as H. pylori, can also help to prevent lymphadenitis.
There are several types of skin neoplasms, including:
1. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): This is the most common type of skin cancer, and it usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or a flat, scaly patch. BCC is highly treatable, but if left untreated, it can grow and invade surrounding tissue.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): This type of skin cancer is less common than BCC but more aggressive. It typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on sun-exposed areas. SCC can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
3. Melanoma: This is the most serious type of skin cancer, accounting for only 1% of all skin neoplasms but responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma can appear as a new or changing mole, and it's essential to recognize the ABCDE signs (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variation, Diameter >6mm, Evolving size, shape, or color) to detect it early.
4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This rare type of skin cancer originates in the oil-producing glands of the skin and can appear as a firm, painless nodule on the forehead, nose, or other oily areas.
5. Merkel cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive skin cancer that typically appears as a firm, shiny bump on the skin. It's more common in older adults and those with a history of sun exposure.
6. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can appear as a rash, nodules, or tumors on the skin.
7. Kaposi sarcoma: This is a rare type of skin cancer that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It typically appears as a flat, red or purple lesion on the skin.
While skin cancers are generally curable when detected early, it's important to be aware of your skin and notice any changes or unusual spots, especially if you have a history of sun exposure or other risk factors. If you suspect anything suspicious, see a dermatologist for an evaluation and potential biopsy. Remember, prevention is key to avoiding the harmful effects of UV radiation and reducing your risk of developing skin cancer.
There are several subtypes of carcinoma, including:
1. Adenocarcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in glandular cells, which produce fluids or mucus. Examples include breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in squamous cells, which are found on the surface layers of skin and mucous membranes. Examples include head and neck cancers, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
3. Basal cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in the deepest layer of skin, called the basal layer. It is the most common type of skin cancer and tends to grow slowly.
4. Neuroendocrine carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in cells that produce hormones and neurotransmitters. Examples include lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and thyroid cancer.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that spreads quickly to other parts of the body.
The signs and symptoms of carcinoma depend on the location and stage of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:
* A lump or mass
* Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the color or texture of the skin
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Abnormal bleeding
The diagnosis of carcinoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for carcinoma depend on the location and stage of the cancer and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.
In conclusion, carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates in epithelial cells and can occur in various parts of the body. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes.
1. American Cancer Society. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
2. Mayo Clinic. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
3. MedlinePlus. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
The exact cause of ductal carcinoma is unknown, but certain risk factors such as family history, genetics, hormone replacement therapy, obesity, and delayed childbearing have been linked to its development. Early detection through mammography and breast self-examination can improve survival rates, which are generally high for women diagnosed with this type of cancer if caught early. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the tumor (lumpectomy or mastectomy), followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.
Neoplasm micrometastasis is a common phenomenon in many types of cancer, including breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. The presence of micrometastases can indicate that the cancer has a higher risk of recurrence and can be a factor in determining the course of treatment.
The detection and characterization of neoplasm micrometastasis is an area of ongoing research in the field of pathology, with new techniques such as digital image analysis and next-generation sequencing being developed to improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis. The prognostic and therapeutic implications of neoplasm micrometastasis are also being studied, as they may have important implications for cancer treatment and patient outcomes.
Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.
Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.
In this condition, the lymph nodes become larger than normal and can be found in various parts of the body, such as the neck, underarm, or groin. The enlarged lymph nodes may or may not cause any symptoms, but they can be detected through a physical examination or imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI scans.
The exact cause of giant lymph node hyperplasia is not known, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response or exposure to certain infections or chemicals. Treatment options for the condition include surgical removal of the enlarged lymph nodes, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the severity and location of the growths.
Types of Esophageal Neoplasms:
1. Barrett's Esophagus: This is a precancerous condition that occurs when the cells lining the esophagus undergo abnormal changes, increasing the risk of developing esophageal cancer.
2. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of esophageal cancer, accounting for approximately 70% of all cases. It originates in the glands that line the esophagus.
3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma: This type of cancer accounts for about 20% of all esophageal cancers and originates in the squamous cells that line the esophagus.
4. Other rare types: Other rare types of esophageal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Long-standing GERD can lead to the development of Barrett's esophagus, which is a precancerous condition that increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer.
2. Obesity: Excess body weight is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer.
3. Diet: A diet high in processed meats and low in fruits and vegetables may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer.
4. Alcohol consumption: Heavy alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for esophageal cancer.
5. Smoking: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer.
6. Family history: Having a family history of esophageal cancer or other cancers may increase an individual's risk.
7. Age: The risk of developing esophageal cancer increases with age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 50.
8. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as achalasia, may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
1. Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing): This is the most common symptom of esophageal cancer, and can be caused by a narrowing or blockage of the esophagus due to the tumor.
2. Chest pain or discomfort: Pain in the chest or upper back can be a symptom of esophageal cancer.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight without trying can be a symptom of esophageal cancer.
4. Coughing or hoarseness: If the tumor is obstructing the airway, it can cause coughing or hoarseness.
5. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak can be a symptom of esophageal cancer.
6. Diagnosis: A diagnosis of esophageal cancer is typically made through a combination of endoscopy, imaging tests (such as CT scans), and biopsies.
1. Surgery: Surgery is the primary treatment for esophageal cancer, and can involve removing the tumor and some surrounding tissue, or removing the entire esophagus and replacing it with a section of stomach or intestine.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves using drugs to kill cancer cells, and is often used in combination with surgery to treat esophageal cancer.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells, and can be used alone or in combination with surgery or chemotherapy.
4. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy drugs are designed to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells, and can be used in combination with other treatments.
Prognosis and Survival Rate:
1. The prognosis for esophageal cancer is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of around 20%.
2. Factors that can improve the prognosis include early detection, small tumor size, and absence of spread to lymph nodes or other organs.
3. The overall survival rate for esophageal cancer has not improved much over the past few decades, but advances in treatment have led to a slight increase in survival time for some patients.
Lifestyle Changes and Prevention:
1. Avoiding tobacco and alcohol: Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors for esophageal cancer, so avoiding them can help reduce the risk of developing the disease.
2. Maintaining a healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help protect against esophageal cancer.
3. Managing obesity: Obesity is a risk factor for esophageal cancer, so maintaining a healthy weight through diet and exercise can help reduce the risk of developing the disease.
4. Reducing exposure to pollutants: Exposure to certain chemicals and pollutants, such as pesticides and asbestos, has been linked to an increased risk of esophageal cancer. Avoiding these substances can help reduce the risk of developing the disease.
5. Getting regular screening: Regular screening for Barrett's esophagus, a precancerous condition that can develop in people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), can help detect and treat esophageal cancer early, when it is most treatable.
Current Research and Future Directions:
1. Targeted therapies: Researchers are working on developing targeted therapies that can specifically target the genetic mutations that drive the growth of esophageal cancer cells. These therapies may be more effective and have fewer side effects than traditional chemotherapy.
2. Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy, which uses the body's immune system to fight cancer, is being studied as a potential treatment for esophageal cancer. Researchers are working on developing vaccines and other immunotherapies that can help the body recognize and attack cancer cells.
3. Precision medicine: With the help of advanced genomics and precision medicine, researchers are working to identify specific genetic mutations that drive the growth of esophageal cancer in each patient. This information can be used to develop personalized treatment plans that are tailored to the individual patient's needs.
4. Early detection: Researchers are working on developing new methods for early detection of esophageal cancer, such as using machine learning algorithms to analyze medical images and detect signs of cancer at an early stage.
5. Lifestyle modifications: Studies have shown that lifestyle modifications, such as quitting smoking and maintaining a healthy diet, can help reduce the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Researchers are working on understanding the specific mechanisms by which these modifications can help prevent the disease.
In conclusion, esophageal cancer is a complex and aggressive disease that is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. However, with advances in technology, research, and treatment options, there is hope for improving outcomes for patients with this disease. By understanding the risk factors, early detection methods, and current treatments, as well as ongoing research and future directions, we can work towards a future where esophageal cancer is more manageable and less deadly.
This definition of 'Neoplasm Recurrence, Local' is from the Healthcare Professionals edition of the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, copyright © 2007 by Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Dermatitis, contact can be acute or chronic, depending on the severity and duration of the exposure. In acute cases, the symptoms may resolve within a few days after removing the offending substance. Chronic dermatitis, on the other hand, can persist for weeks or even months, and may require ongoing treatment to manage the symptoms.
The symptoms of contact dermatitis can vary depending on the individual and the severity of the exposure. Common symptoms include:
* Redness and inflammation of the skin
* Itching and burning sensations
* Swelling and blistering
* Cracks or fissures in the skin
* Difficulty healing or recurring infections
In severe cases, contact dermatitis can lead to complications such as:
* Infection with bacteria or fungi
* Scarring and disfigurement
* Emotional distress and anxiety
Diagnosis of contact dermatitis is typically made based on the patient's medical history and physical examination. Allergic patch testing may also be performed to identify specific allergens that are causing the condition.
Treatment for contact dermatitis usually involves avoiding the offending substance and using topical or oral medications to manage symptoms. In severe cases, systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressants may be prescribed. Phototherapy and alternative therapies such as herbal remedies or acupuncture may also be considered.
Prevention of contact dermatitis involves identifying and avoiding substances that cause an allergic reaction or skin irritation. Individuals with a history of contact dermatitis should take precautions when handling new substances, and should be aware of the potential for cross-reactivity between different allergens.
There are several types of thyroid neoplasms, including:
1. Thyroid nodules: These are abnormal growths or lumps that can develop in the thyroid gland. Most thyroid nodules are benign (non-cancerous), but some can be malignant (cancerous).
2. Thyroid cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in the thyroid gland. There are several types of thyroid cancer, including papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer.
3. Thyroid adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop in the thyroid gland. They are usually non-cancerous and do not spread to other parts of the body.
4. Thyroid cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in the thyroid gland. They are usually benign and do not cause any symptoms.
Thyroid neoplasms can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to radiation, and certain medical conditions, such as thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland).
Symptoms of thyroid neoplasms can include:
* A lump or swelling in the neck
* Pain in the neck or throat
* Difficulty swallowing or breathing
* Hoarseness or voice changes
* Weight loss or fatigue
Diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as ultrasound or CT scans), and biopsies. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the neoplasm, and can include surgery, radiation therapy, and medications.
Carcinoma, lobular (also known as lobular carcinoma in situ or LCIS) is a type of cancer that originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast. It is a precancerous condition that can progress to invasive breast cancer if left untreated.
Precancerous changes occur within the lobules, leading to an abnormal growth of cells that can eventually break through the basement membrane and invade surrounding tissues. The risk of developing invasive breast cancer is increased in individuals with LCIS, especially if there are multiple areas of involvement.
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of clinical breast examination, mammography, and histopathological analysis of a biopsy sample. Treatment options for LCIS include close surveillance, surgery, or radiation therapy, depending on the extent of the condition and the individual patient's risk factors.
The medical specialty that deals with carcinoma, lobular is breast surgical oncology. Breast surgical oncologists are trained to diagnose and treat all types of breast cancer, including ductal and lobular carcinomas. They work in collaboration with other healthcare professionals, such as radiation oncologists and medical oncologists, to develop a comprehensive treatment plan for each patient.
Other relevant information:
* Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a precancerous condition that affects the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast.
* It is estimated that 10-15% of all breast cancers are derived from LCIS.
* Women with a history of LCIS have a higher risk of developing invasive breast cancer in the future.
* The exact cause of LCIS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be linked to hormonal and genetic factors.
Some common types of head and neck neoplasms include:
1. Oral cavity cancer: Cancer that develops in the mouth, tongue, lips, or floor of the mouth.
2. Oropharyngeal cancer: Cancer that develops in the throat, including the base of the tongue, soft palate, and tonsils.
3. Hypopharyngeal cancer: Cancer that develops in the lower part of the throat, near the esophagus.
4. Laryngeal cancer: Cancer that develops in the voice box (larynx).
5. Paranasal sinus cancer: Cancer that develops in the air-filled cavities around the eyes and nose.
6. Salivary gland cancer: Cancer that develops in the salivary glands, which produce saliva to moisten food and keep the mouth lubricated.
7. Thyroid gland cancer: Cancer that develops in the butterfly-shaped gland in the neck that regulates metabolism and growth.
The risk factors for developing head and neck neoplasms include tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, poor diet, and exposure to environmental carcinogens such as asbestos or radiation. Symptoms of head and neck neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include a lump or swelling, pain, difficulty swallowing, bleeding, and changes in voice or breathing.
Diagnosis of head and neck neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, depending on the type, location, and stage of the cancer.
Overall, head and neck neoplasms can have a significant impact on quality of life, and early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes. If you suspect any changes in your head or neck, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:
1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:
1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.
Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.
Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the rectum, which is the lower part of the digestive system. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Types of Rectal Neoplasms:
There are several types of rectal neoplasms, including:
1. Adenoma: A benign growth that is usually found in the colon and rectum. It is a common precursor to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the rectum. It is the most common type of rectal cancer.
3. Rectal adenocarcinoma: A type of carcinoma that originates in the glandular cells lining the rectum.
4. Rectal squamous cell carcinoma: A type of carcinoma that originates in the squamous cells lining the rectum.
5. Rectal melanoma: A rare type of carcinoma that originates in the pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) of the rectum.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact causes of rectal neoplasms are not known, but several factors can increase the risk of developing these growths. These include:
1. Age: The risk of developing rectal neoplasms increases with age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 50.
2. Family history: Having a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps can increase the risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease: People with inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are at higher risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
4. Diet: A diet high in fat and low in fiber may increase the risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
5. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, obesity, and lack of physical activity may also increase the risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
The symptoms of rectal neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the growth. Some common symptoms include:
1. Blood in the stool
2. Changes in bowel movements (such as diarrhea or constipation)
3. Abdominal pain or discomfort
4. Weakness and fatigue
5. Loss of appetite
To diagnose rectal neoplasms, a doctor may perform several tests, including:
1. Digital rectal exam (DRE): A doctor will insert a gloved finger into the rectum to feel for any abnormalities.
2. Colonoscopy: A flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the anus and into the rectum to examine the inside of the rectum and colon for polyps or other abnormalities.
3. Imaging tests: Such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to visualize the growth and determine its location and size.
4. Biopsy: A sample of tissue is removed from the rectum and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of rectal neoplasms depends on the type, location, and stage of the growth. Some common treatments include:
1. Polypectomy: Removal of polyps through a colonoscopy or surgery.
2. Local excision: Surgical removal of the tumor and a small amount of surrounding tissue.
3. Radiation therapy: High-energy beams are used to kill cancer cells.
4. Chemotherapy: Drugs are used to kill cancer cells.
5. Immunotherapy: A treatment that uses the body's immune system to fight cancer.
The prognosis for rectal neoplasms depends on the type, location, and stage of the growth. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. However, some types of rectal neoplasms can be more aggressive and difficult to treat, and may have a poorer prognosis.
There is no sure way to prevent rectal neoplasms, but there are several screening tests that can help detect them early, including:
1. Colonoscopy: A test in which a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine for polyps or cancer.
2. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT): A test that checks for blood in the stool.
3. Flexible sigmoidoscopy: A test similar to a colonoscopy, but only examines the lower part of the colon and rectum.
4. Digital rectal exam (DRE): An examination of the rectum using a gloved finger to feel for any abnormalities.
It is important to talk to your doctor about your risk for rectal neoplasms and any screening tests that may be appropriate for you. Early detection and treatment can improve the prognosis for these types of growths.
The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.
There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.
Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.
There are several types of lymphoma, including:
1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.
The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.
Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
Types of mouth neoplasms include:
1. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC): This is the most common type of mouth cancer, accounting for about 90% of all cases. It usually occurs on the tongue, lips, or floor of the mouth.
2. Verrucous carcinoma: This type of cancer is slow-growing and typically affects the gums or the outer surface of the tongue.
3. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This type of cancer is rare and usually affects the salivary glands. It can infiltrate surrounding tissues and cause significant destruction of nearby structures.
4. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: This type of cancer is relatively rare and occurs most commonly on the tongue or the floor of the mouth. It can be benign or malignant, and its behavior varies depending on the type.
5. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) in the mouth. It typically occurs in the tongue or the lips.
Symptoms of mouth neoplasms can include:
* A sore or ulcer that does not heal
* A lump or mass in the mouth
* Bleeding or pain in the mouth
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Numbness or tingling in the mouth
Diagnosis of mouth neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as X-rays or CT scans), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of the cancer, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes in patients with mouth neoplasms.
Precancerous changes in the uterine cervix are called dysplasias, and they can be detected by a Pap smear, which is a routine screening test for women. If dysplasia is found, it can be treated with cryotherapy (freezing), laser therapy, or cone biopsy, which removes the affected cells.
Cervical cancer is rare in developed countries where Pap screening is widely available, but it remains a common cancer in developing countries where access to healthcare and screening is limited. The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical precancerous changes and cancer.
Cervical cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. The prognosis for early-stage cervical cancer is good, but advanced-stage cancer can be difficult to treat and may have a poor prognosis.
The following are some types of uterine cervical neoplasms:
1. Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when glandular cells on the surface of the cervix become abnormal and grow out of control.
2. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. There are several types of CIN, ranging from mild to severe.
3. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of cervical cancer and arises from the squamous cells that line the cervix.
4. Adnexal carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the glands or ducts near the cervix.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of cervical cancer that grows rapidly and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
6. Micropapillary uterine carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that grows in a finger-like shape and can be difficult to diagnose.
7. Clear cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from clear cells and can be more aggressive than other types of cervical cancer.
8. Adenocarcinoma: This is a type of cervical cancer that arises from glandular cells and can be less aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma.
9. Sarcoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the connective tissue of the cervix.
The treatment options for uterine cervical neoplasms depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. The following are some common treatments for uterine cervical neoplasms:
1. Hysterectomy: This is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus and may be recommended for early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
2. Cryotherapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
3. Laser therapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a laser to remove or destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
4. Cone biopsy: This is a surgical procedure to remove a small cone-shaped sample of tissue from the cervix to diagnose and treat early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
5. Radiation therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
6. Chemotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
7. Immunotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.
8. Targeted therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to target specific genes or proteins that contribute to cancer growth and development and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.
It is important to note that the choice of treatment will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Patients should discuss their treatment options with their doctor and develop a personalized plan that is right for them.
Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:
1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.
Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:
1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.
Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.
There are several different types of penile neoplasms, including:
1. Penile squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of malignant penile neoplasm, and it arises from the squamous cells that line the shaft of the penis.
2. Penile basal cell carcinoma: This is a slower-growing type of malignant penile neoplasm that arises from the basal cells that are found in the skin of the penis.
3. Penile melanoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of malignant penile neoplasm that arises from the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes.
4. Penile adenocarcinoma: This is a rare type of malignant penile neoplasm that arises from the glandular cells that are found in the penis.
5. Penile lymphoma: This is a rare type of malignant penile neoplasm that arises from the immune system's lymphoid tissue.
The symptoms of penile neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the growth, but they may include:
* A firm or hard lump on the penis
* Painless bleeding or discharge from the penis
* Redness or swelling of the skin on the penis
* Difficulty urinating or painful urination
* Pain during sexual activity
If you notice any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may use imaging tests such as ultrasound or biopsy to diagnose the condition. Treatment for penile neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. It is important to seek medical attention if you notice any unusual changes in your penis, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.
Hodgkin Disease can spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system, and it can affect people of all ages, although it is most common in young adults and teenagers. The symptoms of Hodgkin Disease can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but they may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and itching.
There are several types of Hodgkin Disease, including:
* Classical Hodgkin Disease: This is the most common type of Hodgkin Disease and is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
* Nodular Lymphocytic predominant Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by the presence of nodules in the lymph nodes.
* Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by a mixture of Reed-Sternberg cells and other immune cells.
Hodgkin Disease is usually diagnosed with a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected lymph node or other area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells. Treatment for Hodgkin Disease typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be necessary.
The prognosis for Hodgkin Disease is generally good, especially if the disease is detected and treated early. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for people with Hodgkin Disease is about 85%. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
Hodgkin Disease is a rare form of cancer that affects the immune system. It is most commonly diagnosed in young adults and is usually treatable with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of treatment can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
The term "papillary" refers to the fact that the cancer cells grow in a finger-like shape, with each cell forming a small papilla (bump) on the surface of the tumor. APC is often slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms in its early stages.
APC is generally considered to be less aggressive than other types of cancer, such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast cancer. However, it can still spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Treatment options for APC may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or hormone therapy, depending on the location and stage of the cancer.
It's worth noting that APC is sometimes referred to as "papillary adenocarcinoma" or simply "papillary cancer." However, these terms are often used interchangeably with "adenocarcinoma, papillary" in medical literature and clinical practice.
Lymphedema can be primary or secondary. Primary lymphedema is a rare inherited condition, while secondary lymphedema is caused by factors such as surgery, radiation therapy, infection, or injury to the lymphatic system.
Symptoms of lymphedema may include swelling, pain, redness, and tightness in the affected limb. Treatment options for lymphedema include compression garments, exercises, manual lymph drainage, and pneumatic compression. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove excess tissue or to create new lymphatic pathways.
Lymphedema can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life, causing discomfort, limited mobility, and social stigma. However, with proper management and care, it is possible to control symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.
Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).
Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.
Granulomas are formed in response to the presence of a foreign substance or an infection, and they serve as a protective barrier to prevent the spread of the infection and to isolate the offending agent. The granuloma is characterized by a central area of necrosis, surrounded by a ring of immune cells, including macrophages and T-lymphocytes.
Granulomas are commonly seen in a variety of inflammatory conditions, such as tuberculosis, leprosy, and sarcoidosis. They can also occur as a result of infections, such as bacterial or fungal infections, and in the context of autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
In summary, granuloma is a term used to describe a type of inflammatory lesion that is formed in response to the presence of a foreign substance or an infection, and serves as a protective barrier to prevent the spread of the infection and to isolate the offending agent.
Bile duct neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Types of Bile Duct Neoplasms:
There are several types of bile duct neoplasms, including:
1. Bile duct adenoma: A benign tumor that grows in the bile ducts.
2. Bile duct carcinoma: A malignant tumor that grows in the bile ducts and can spread to other parts of the body.
3. Cholangiocarcinoma: A rare type of bile duct cancer that originates in the cells lining the bile ducts.
4. Gallbladder cancer: A type of cancer that occurs in the gallbladder, which is a small organ located under the liver that stores bile.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact cause of bile duct neoplasms is not known, but there are several risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing these tumors, including:
1. Age: Bile duct neoplasms are more common in people over the age of 50.
2. Gender: Women are more likely to develop bile duct neoplasms than men.
3. Family history: People with a family history of bile duct cancer or other liver diseases may be at increased risk.
4. Previous exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as thorium, has been linked to an increased risk of developing bile duct neoplasms.
The symptoms of bile duct neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:
1. Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Abdominal pain or discomfort
6. Weight loss
7. Itching all over the body
8. Dark urine
9. Pale stools
Diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests and biopsy. The following tests may be used to diagnose bile duct neoplasms:
1. Ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the liver and bile ducts.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: This imaging test uses X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the liver and bile ducts.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the liver and bile ducts.
4. Endoscopic ultrasound: This test involves inserting an endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a small ultrasound probe) into the bile ducts through the mouth or stomach to obtain images and samples of the bile ducts.
5. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed during an endoscopic ultrasound or during surgery to remove the tumor. The sample is then examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of bile duct neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and the patient's preferences. The following are some common treatment options for bile duct neoplasms:
1. Surgery: Surgery may be performed to remove the tumor or a portion of the bile duct. This may involve a Whipple procedure (a surgical procedure to remove the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, and a portion of the bile duct), a bile duct resection, or a liver transplant.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used before or after surgery to shrink the tumor and kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells that cannot be removed by surgery or to relieve symptoms such as pain or blockage of the bile duct.
4. Stent placement: A stent may be placed in the bile duct to help keep it open and improve blood flow to the liver.
5. Ablation therapy: Ablation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells by freezing or heating them with a probe inserted through an endoscope.
6. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy may be used to treat certain types of bile duct cancer, such as cholangiocarcinoma, by targeting specific molecules that promote the growth and spread of the cancer cells.
7. Clinical trials: Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate new treatments for bile duct neoplasms. These may be an option for patients who have not responded to other treatments or who have advanced cancer.
1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.
It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.
Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.
Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.
In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.
Sarcoidosis is characterized by an abnormal immune response, which leads to the formation of granulomas. These granulomas are made up of a mix of immune cells, including macrophages, lymphocytes, and epithelioid cells. The exact cause of sarcoidosis is not known, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors may contribute to its development.
There are several types of sarcoidosis, each with different symptoms and characteristics:
* Cutaneous sarcoidosis affects the skin and can cause red or purple patches on the face, arms, or legs.
* Lung sarcoidosis is the most common form of the disease and can cause shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
* Ocular sarcoidosis can affect the eyes and cause blurred vision, sensitivity to light, and eye pain.
* Cardiac sarcoidosis can affect the heart and cause arrhythmias, heart failure, or cardiac arrest.
There is no cure for sarcoidosis, but treatment options are available to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and biologics, as well as lifestyle changes such as exercise and stress management. In severe cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to remove affected tissue or organs.
Overall, sarcoidosis is a complex and debilitating disease that can affect various parts of the body. While there is no cure, with proper treatment and self-care, many people with sarcoidosis are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.
There are different types of hyperplasia, depending on the location and cause of the condition. Some examples include:
1. Benign hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is non-cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. It can occur in various tissues and organs, such as the uterus (fibroids), breast tissue (fibrocystic changes), or prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
2. Malignant hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs, leading to serious health problems. Examples include skin cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer.
3. Hyperplastic polyps: These are abnormal growths that occur in the gastrointestinal tract and can be precancerous.
4. Adenomatous hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in the number of glandular cells in a specific organ, such as the colon or breast. It can be a precursor to cancer.
The symptoms of hyperplasia depend on the location and severity of the condition. In general, they may include:
* Enlargement or swelling of the affected tissue or organ
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal bleeding or discharge
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Unexplained weight loss or gain
Hyperplasia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, surgery, or other interventions.
Neoplasms, unknown primary can occur in any organ or tissue in the body and can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender. The symptoms and treatment options for these types of neoplasms depend on the location and size of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.
Some common types of neoplasms, unknown primary include:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that originate in the skin or organs.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that originate in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, such as Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow.
The diagnosis of a neoplasm, unknown primary is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the tumor for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for these types of neoplasms can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these methods.
It is important to note that not all neoplasms, unknown primary are cancerous, and some may be benign but still require treatment to remove the tumor. In some cases, the tumor may be monitored with regular check-ups and imaging tests to ensure that it does not grow or spread.
Overall, the prognosis for neoplasms, unknown primary depends on several factors, including the type of tumor, its size and location, and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, early detection and prompt treatment can improve outcomes for these types of conditions.
Occipital lymph nodes
Brachial lymph nodes
Inguinal lymph nodes
Hepatic lymph nodes
Intercostal lymph nodes
Mastoid lymph nodes
Preaortic lymph nodes
Facial lymph nodes
Splenic lymph nodes
Celiac lymph nodes
Pretracheal lymph nodes
Popliteal lymph nodes
Deltopectoral lymph nodes
Supraclavicular lymph nodes
Retroaortic lymph nodes
Rotter's lymph nodes
Periaortic lymph nodes
Gastric lymph nodes
Supratrochlear lymph nodes
Sacral lymph nodes
Parotid lymph nodes
Thoracic lymph nodes
Pararectal lymph nodes
Parasternal lymph nodes
Apical lymph nodes
Iliac lymph nodes
Central lymph nodes
Aortic lymph nodes
Retropharyngeal lymph nodes
Paratracheal lymph nodes
Uridine monophosphate synthase
List of ICD-9 codes 390-459: diseases of the circulatory system
2022 monkeypox outbreak in North America
Papillary carcinomas of the breast
Signet ring cell carcinoma
Follicular dendritic cells
2022 monkeypox outbreak
Toll-like receptor 6
Superficial parotid lymph nodes
Ross River virus
2022 monkeypox outbreak in Spain
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
Acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome - NIH Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) - NCBI
Lymphatic Diseases | Lymph Nodes | Swollen Glands | MedlinePlus
Swollen lymph nodes: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Browsing by Subject "Lymph Nodes"
Cancer in lymph nodes: Symptoms and more
What Are Lymph and Lymph Nodes?
Inguinal Lymph Nodes Anatomy, Diagram & Function | Body Maps
Lymphedema, Lymph Node, Radiation, Removal
Cancer bypasses the lymph nodes - PubMed
Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
UVA team wins $3.4 million NIH grant to develop mini-lymph node model
Imaging in Lung Cancer Staging: Practice Essentials, T Classification of Primary Tumor, N Classification of Regional Lymph Nodes
The Causes of Enlarged Lymph Nodes
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Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Lymph Nodes | Acta Cytologica | Karger Publishers
Lymph Nodes - The Intraoral and Extraoral Exam - Dentalcare
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Enlarged lymph node abdomen please help | Mumsnet
- A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a new technique. (google.com)
- Lymph node mapping helps identify that lymph node, and a sentinel lymph node biopsy removes only that lymph node. (google.com)
- However, since there are many noncancerous causes of lymph node enlargement, healthcare providers rarely go straight to a lymph node biopsy right away, when an enlarged node is detected. (verywellhealth.com)
- Sentinel lymph node biopsy for gastric cancer: Where do we stand? (wjgnet.com)
- I would like to ask whether the diagnosis of tuberculosis of lymph node was confirmed by biopsy or just based on history and clinical impression? (ndtv.com)
- Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as the preferred standard procedure in patients with breast cancer, melanoma and other types of cancer. (nih.gov)
- Three weeks after their first dose of vaccine, the volunteers underwent a lymph node biopsy, primarily from nodes in the armpit. (nih.gov)
- Tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging is a consistent, reproducible description of cancers according to the extent of anatomic involvement. (medscape.com)
- Three cases of lymph node metastases, one case occurring synchronously with the primary tumor and one synchronously with the first relapse (both in intrathoracic location) and one case of metastasis observed in a laterocervical lymph node subsequently to two thymoma relapses were found. (hindawi.com)
- 6 ] reported, on a series of 13 cases of thymoma metastatic in extrathoracic location, only one case of B3 thymoma showing lymph node metastasis in axillary lymph nodes, concurrently with multiple localizations in extrathoracic sites. (hindawi.com)
- The intrathoracic lymph node metastasis was synchronous with the primary tumor in one case, whereas in the other two cases the lymph node metastasis occurred 5 years (intrathoracic) and 9 years (neck lymph node) after the original diagnosis, respectively. (hindawi.com)
- Newman says this study can also help doctors use imaging to understand patterns of lymph node metastasis, which could help oncologists and surgeons predict and anticipate which patients are at the highest risk of spread or recurrence. (radiologytoday.net)
- For example, someone whose nodes show no evidence of disease under the microscope may be less likely to have widespread or distant metastasis than a patient whose nodes are involved. (drdrew.com)
- There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of positive paratracheal lymph nodes with thyroid gland invasion, vocal cord invasion, metastasis to the internal jugular chain of the deep cervical nodes and extracapsular and perineural spread. (who.int)
- However, if these superior lymph nodes are clogged by a metastatic carcinoma, flow of lymph into the paratracheal lymph nodes may take place in the form of the so-called paradoxical metastasis [1,2]. (who.int)
- Neck lymph node metastasis is the most critical factor influencing the survival and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. (who.int)
- In the absence of ipsilateral nodal metastases, contralateral lymph neck metastasis is extremely rare. (who.int)
- That first lymph node is called the sentinel lymph node. (google.com)
- The sentinel lymph node is identified in one of two ways, either by a weak radioactive dye (technetium-labeled sulfur colloid) that can be measured by a hand held probe, or by a blue dye (isosulfan blue) that stains the lymph tissue a bright blue so it can be seen. (google.com)
- For patients who do not have an enlarged, underarm lymph node that can be felt on examination, surgeons will often remove the node most likely to drain the tumor site, called the sentinel lymph node. (curetoday.com)
- However, in some cases, the sentinel lymph node is clean, but there may be additional involved nodes left behind. (curetoday.com)
- In one study, researchers found that the common practice of ALND after a positive sentinel lymph node may not confer any survival or recurrence advantage. (curetoday.com)
- After examining 991 women who had a positive sentinel node and then randomizing them to either ALND or no ALND, researchers found that after a median of six years follow-up, there was no survival advantage to the procedure. (curetoday.com)
- In the other study, researchers wondered whether using more sensitive techniques, namely immunohistochemistry (IHC), to look for stray cancer cells in the sentinel lymph node and bone marrow, could better predict individuals who are higher risk for metastases. (curetoday.com)
- Researchers examined sentinel lymph nodes and bone marrow from 5,539 women who underwent lumpectomies for early-stage breast cancer. (curetoday.com)
- Using standard histology, 23.9 percent of patients were found to have positive sentinel lymph nodes. (curetoday.com)
- Using the more sensitive IHC, researchers found an additional 10.5 percent of patients to have cancer in their sentinel lymph nodes. (curetoday.com)
- Development of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS) and advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques have greatly shaped the modern day approach to gastric cancer surgery. (wjgnet.com)
- Hematoxylin and eosin staining remains the main method for the detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases. (wjgnet.com)
- Your doctors may also want to specifically remove the sentinel (or first) lymph node to see if breast or skin cancer has spread. (spirehealthcare.com)
- Your doctor will need to know if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, including the sentinel (or first) node. (spirehealthcare.com)
- For people with cancer detected in their sentinel lymph node, a watch-and-wait approach rather than immediate removal of all regional lymph nodes is a safe option. (mskcc.org)
- To determine the stage of melanoma, doctors often surgically remove the sentinel lymph node , the one closest to the tumor. (mskcc.org)
- People who test positive for melanoma in their sentinel lymph node are at a higher risk of recurrence. (mskcc.org)
- People with melanoma who test positive for cancer in their sentinel lymph node do not need to have their remaining regional lymph nodes immediately removed to improve their survival. (mskcc.org)
- Cancer cells may break free from the original tumor and travel through the lymphatic system to nearby lymph nodes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- People may have lymph node dissection at the same time as surgery to remove the primary tumor, or as a separate procedure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This system is based on defining the characteristics of the primary tumor (T), regional lymph node involvement (N), and the presence of distant metastases (M). (medscape.com)
- By combining intact, live cultures of ex vivo lymph node tissue with microfluidic devices, we can test the impact of localized drug delivery or the effect of coculture with tissue from a tumor or site of vaccination. (nih.gov)
- In all cases the histological features of lymph node metastases were similar to the primary tumor, and distinctive morphological features were found in comparison with epithelial metastases from other sites. (hindawi.com)
- This system takes the size of the (T)umor, lymph (N)ode involvement and (M)etastasis all into consideration when it comes to staging the tumor. (drdrew.com)
- First, they developed a system in which they could "co-culture" two pieces of tissue (such as a lymph node slice and a tumor slice). (nih.gov)
- The lymph node co-culture technology has potential for areas like tumor immunity research. (nih.gov)
- Pompano and her colleagues co-cultured lymph node slices with either tumor slices or healthy fat tissue (from the same animal). (nih.gov)
- The outcome of patients with lymph node metastases occurring after excision or radiotherapy of the primary tumor is poor. (who.int)
Axillary lymph node diss2
- This was developed as a test to determine if breast cancer has spread to the lymph ducts or lymph nodes in the axilla without having to do a traditional axillary lymph node dissection. (google.com)
- If cancer cells are present, the surgeon may go in and remove additional lymph nodes to reduce the spread of cancer-a process called axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). (curetoday.com)
Tissue with microfluidic devices1
- Her lab is developing groundbreaking technology to combine live lymph node tissue with microfluidic devices. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of the present study was to characterize the morphological features of thymoma metastases in lymph nodes and to evaluate the possibility of their subtyping according to the 2004 WHO classification of thymus tumors. (hindawi.com)
- Thymoma lymph node metastases, although rare, can be subtyped according to the WHO classification on the basis of their morphological and immunohistochemical features. (hindawi.com)
- In fact, a possible origin from silent and/or known previous thymoma should always be considered for unusual lymphoepithelial or epithelial metastases occurring in the thorax/mediastinal lymph nodes or even in extrathoracic sites. (hindawi.com)
- The morphologic features of lymph node metastases in thymoma have rarely been described [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In our series of 210 thymoma cases, lymph node metastases were found in three cases. (hindawi.com)
- The lymph node metastases had an intrathoracic location in two cases at N2 Level according to Yamakawa et al. (hindawi.com)
- Three thymoma cases with intrathoracic (2 cases) or extrathoracic (1 case) lymph node metastases were found in a series of 210 consecutive thymoma cases at the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute and the Catholic University of Rome, occurring in the years 1994-2012. (hindawi.com)
- no metastatic lymph node specimens were available among surgically removed TC, TNEC, or their metastases. (hindawi.com)
- Intraoperative frozen sections of neck nodes have been used as a modality for the detection of occult metastases and to guide the extent of neck dissection but have not provided satisfactory results. (who.int)
Metastatic lymph nodes3
- The prognosis of N2b and N2c lymph node disease in oral squamous cell carcinoma is determined by the number of metastatic lymph nodes rather than laterality: evidence to support a revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. (nih.gov)
- We present a robust automatic algorithm for segmenting the gross tumour volume (GTV) and metastatic lymph nodes in such images. (spie.org)
- After that, morphological image operations combined with clustering, region growing, and nearest neighbour labelling allow to remove the bladder and to identify the tumour and metastatic lymph nodes. (spie.org)
- Palpation of the anterior cervical nodes. (dentalcare.com)
- Histologic assessment is the gold standard technique for the identification of metastatic involvement of lymph nodes in malignant disease, but can only be performed ex vivo and often results in the unnecessary excision of healthy lymph nodes, leading to complications such as lymphedema. (google.com)
- Radiofrequency ablation of malignant cervical lymph nodes: an unusual treatment for dysphagia. (bvsalud.org)
Cause swollen lymph1
- What Kinds of Things Cause Swollen Lymph Nodes? (verywellhealth.com)
Removes lymph nodes4
- A procedure called neck dissection removes lymph nodes from the neck. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- During the surgery, the doctor removes lymph nodes in the abdomen. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is a surgical procedure that removes lymph nodes from the abdomen. (clevelandclinic.org)
- This procedure removes lymph nodes located in the retroperitoneal section of the body-a space behind the organs in the abdomen. (clevelandclinic.org)
- This article looks at cancer and lymph nodes in the neck, lymphoma, the lymphatic system , and more. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The lymphatic system consists of lymph vessels and lymph nodes throughout the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the lymphatic system and may affect lymph nodes in the neck. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Cancer cells may also travel from other body areas through the lymphatic system and collect in neck lymph nodes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Lymph nodes are part of the body's lymphatic system, which helps maintain fluid balance in the bloodstream, filters waste, and plays an important role in immune defense. (healthline.com)
- The lymphatic system, made up of lymphoid tissues known as nodes and vessels, is part of the human immune system. (healthline.com)
- Lymph nodes are small, round organs of the lymphatic system that support proper functioning of the immune system. (healthline.com)
- 5 ] developed extrathoracic lymphatic dissemination (neck lymph nodes). (hindawi.com)
- Top: mouse lymph node slice collected after vaccination, shown with fluorescently labeled protein (red), fluorescent antibodies for B cells (green) and lymphatic vessels (magenta). (nih.gov)
Figure 2 Lymph1
- Figure 2 Lymph node, Medul ary cords - Pigment in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
Remove lymph nodes2
- The occipital lymph nodes are located in the back of the head, near the occipital bone of the skull. (healthline.com)
- Through accurate correlation with the histologic gold standard, OCT is shown to enable differentiation of lymph node tissue from surrounding adipose tissue, reveal nodal structures such as germinal centers and intranodal vessels, and show both diffuse and well circumscribed patterns of metastatic node involvement. (google.com)
- We have generated evidence indicating that the pattern of gene expression in primary breast cancers at the time of surgical removal could discriminate those tumors with lymph node metastatic involvement using SAGE to identify specific transcripts that behave as predictors of recurrence as well. (nih.gov)
- Histological evidence of metastatic involvement of paratracheal lymph nodes in hypopharyngeal carcinoma and its clinicopathological implications were studied. (who.int)
- Lymph node involvement can be found in up to 30% of primary SBOTs, but its prognostic value is controversial. (mdpi.com)
- In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of lymph node involvement in recurrent disease. (mdpi.com)
Spread to the lymph5
- Cancer may also spread to the lymph nodes from another area. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, it is regional stage cancer . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The main symptom of cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes is one or more swollen lymph nodes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Lymph node removal may be part of treatment for a primary cancer that has spread or may be likely to spread to the lymph nodes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If you have been diagnosed with breast cancer, your doctor will need to know if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes to plan your treatment. (spirehealthcare.com)
Vivo lymph node1
- In this morphologic study, we show the capability of OCT to image nodal microarchitecture through an assessment of fresh, unstained ex vivo lymph node samples. (google.com)
- The term for this procedure is lymph node dissection or lymphadenectomy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is a long procedure, typically done under general anesthesia, that is used to both stage cancer and stop the spread of cancer in the body. (clevelandclinic.org)
- What is a retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND)? (clevelandclinic.org)
- Why are lymph nodes removed during a retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND)? (clevelandclinic.org)
- Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is a long surgery done with the patient under general anesthesia. (clevelandclinic.org)
- What are the risks of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND)? (clevelandclinic.org)
- There are several risks involved in retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). (clevelandclinic.org)
- Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is used to both diagnose (staging) and treat cancer. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is used to both stage cancer and prevent it from spreading by removing the lymph nodes. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Som  emphasized the importance of removing these nodes when attempting radical resection of pharyngo-oesophageal neoplasms and advocated dissection of the lymph nodes lying above the innominate vein in the superior mediastinum. (who.int)
Filter lymph fluid2
- The lymph nodes are where the human immune system establishes so-called germinal centers, which function as "training camps" that teach immature immune cells to recognize new disease threats and attack them with acquired efficiency. (nih.gov)
- By the 15-week mark, all of the participants sampled continued to have active germinal centers in their lymph nodes. (nih.gov)
- Lymph nodes presented lower number of germinal centers per area for group T7, group T21 showed no differences compared to group Co. Hematological analysis showed lymphocytosis and neutrophilia only after 7 days. (bvsalud.org)
- Lymph nodes are connected to each other by lymph channels called the lymphatics-small tubes (like blood vessels)-through which lymph fluid, as well as proteins and other substances, moves from one part of the body to another. (verywellhealth.com)
- Led by Jason G. Newman, MD, FACS, an associate professor of otorhinolaryngology in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, the study is the first in the world to look at the effectiveness of intraoperative molecular imaging (IMI) of lymph nodes in patients with head and neck cancers. (radiologytoday.net)
- When these cancers spread or come back, lymph nodes are one of the most commonly involved areas. (radiologytoday.net)
- Lymph nodes serve as filters for the immune system, and many head and neck cancers spread there early in their course. (radiologytoday.net)
- Note 3: For head and neck cancers, if lymph nodes are described only as "supraclavicular", try to determine if they are in Level IV (deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, in the lower jugular chain) or Level V (in the posterior triangle, inferior to the transverse cervical artery) and code appropriately. (facs.org)
Cells in lymph2
Flow of lymph1
- Cancer in lymph nodes may also block the flow of lymph fluid, which can cause a buildup of fluid called lymphedema . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This will allow you to assess the muscles and any pathology associated with the submandibular lymph node areas. (dentalcare.com)
- Lymph nodes - glands found throughout the lymph vessels. (nih.gov)
- The term "swollen glands" refers to enlargement of one or more lymph nodes. (medlineplus.gov)
- Objective: to assess the effects of simvastatin, which is a drug used for the control of hypercholesterolemia and presents anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-oxidants effects, on the morphology of major salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of Wistar rats. (bvsalud.org)
- The animals were sacrificed after 7 (T7, n=6) and 21 (T21 n=6) days to assess the morphology of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands and cervical lymph nodes, in addition to CBC analysis. (bvsalud.org)
- Conclusion: the administration of simvastatin at immunosuppressive doses may cause late changes in salivary glands and transient changes in cervical lymph nodes, which may alter its functional and protective activity on the structures of the oral cavity. (bvsalud.org)
- Lymph vessels carry lymph fluid which contains lymphocytes , a type of white blood cell . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This can help drain the lymph fluid and reduce swelling. (cancercare.org)
- Fluid can collect in the space where the lymph nodes are removed. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Lymph , a clear fluid that circulates throughout the body similarly to blood, carries oxygen and other nutrients to the body's cells, and is also responsible for removing toxins, waste and other unwanted materials. (drdrew.com)
- However, in more serious cases, the cancer can spread through the lymph nodes in the retroperitoneal (area in the back of the abdomen) space into other parts of the body. (clevelandclinic.org)
- If the left testicle is affected, the lymph nodes on the left side of the abdomen will be removed. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Areas that have large clusters of nodes, such as the neck, armpits, abdomen and groin are often involved and can be tender to the touch. (drdrew.com)
- When enlarged nodes can be felt by the healthcare provider (in areas like the neck, armpits, and groin), they are called palpable lymph nodes . (verywellhealth.com)
- Lymph nodes are sore under my jaw,back of neck + on right groin.I'm very tired + my head hurts and feel sweaty at night + can't sleep. (healthtap.com)
- Infections, cancer, and many immune diseases can affect lymph cells and cause an enlargement of lymph nodes. (verywellhealth.com)
- Harrison stated that only by removing the whole manubrium sterni could the paratracheal adipose tissue, lymphatics and lymph nodes be removed as far as the left innominate vein [5,6,7]. (who.int)
- The superficial inguinal lymph nodes are located deep under Camper's fascia, one of the abdominal wall's thick layers of connective tissue, and drain into the deep inguinal lymph nodes. (healthline.com)
- These nodes drain first to the body's external iliac lymph nodes, second to the pelvic lymph nodes, and finally to the paraaortic lymph nodes. (healthline.com)
- Experience has shown us that the lymph ducts of the breast usually drain to one lymph node first, before draining through the rest of the lymph nodes underneath the arm. (google.com)
- The postcricoid area and the cervical oesophagus drain primarily into the lower deep cervical and paratracheal lymph nodes (PTNs). (who.int)
- This is a relatively common occurrence especially within the submandibular group of lymph nodes. (dentalcare.com)
- Submandibular (Figure 17) - Palpate the submandibular nodes by pulling or rolling the tissues under the chin up and over the inferior border of the mandible. (dentalcare.com)
- Palpate the submandibular lymph nodes using a cupped hand as shown. (dentalcare.com)
- Lymph vessels - vessels that carry lymph throughout your body. (nih.gov)
Head and neck7
- The neck contains many lymph nodes, with more than 300 in the head and neck area. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The major lymph nodes of the head and neck area should be palpated with the patient in an upright position. (dentalcare.com)
- Surgeons at Penn Medicine in Philadelphia are using a fluorescent dye that makes cancerous cells glow in hopes of identifying suspicious lymph nodes during head and neck cancer procedures. (radiologytoday.net)
- Newman says this trial will set the stage for the use of fluorescent dyes in head and neck cancer and neck lymph node surgeries. (radiologytoday.net)
- Note 1: For head and neck schemas, this field includes all lymph nodes defined as Levels I-VII and Other by AJCC. (facs.org)
- Note 2: For head and neck schemas, additional information about lymph nodes (size of involved nodes, extracapsular extension, levels involved, and location of involved nodes above or below the lower border of the cricoid cartilage) is coded in CS Site-Specific Factors 1, 3-9. (facs.org)
- Note 4: The description of lymph nodes has been standardized across the head and neck schemas. (facs.org)
- The medical name for swollen lymph nodes is lymphadenopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
- Fine needle aspirates [FNA] of superficial lymph nodes were obtained from 150 patients complaining of lymphadenopathy. (who.int)
- It doesn't cover everything, but it is useful for thinking about diseases associated with lymphadenopathy, or swollen lymph nodes . (verywellhealth.com)
- Generalized lymphadenopathy means there are more than two nodes involved from different areas. (verywellhealth.com)
- There are two layers of inguinal lymph nodes located below the inguinal ligament , which runs from the ilium's anterior superior iliac spine (the front-most portion of the ilium, the largest pelvic bone) to the pubic bone's pubic tubercle (a small, bony projection near the bottom, center of the pelvis). (healthline.com)
- Different types of lymphocytes grow and mature inside a lymph node, and these immune cells help the body fight infections. (verywellhealth.com)
- In the new study, researchers monitored key immune cells in the lymph nodes of a group of people who received both doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine. (nih.gov)
- Lymph nodes house immune cells and are important for fighting off infection. (nih.gov)
- If the cancer has spread to both sides of the body, the lymph nodes on the other side of the retroperitoneal space will also be removed. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped organs that are part of your immune system. (spirehealthcare.com)
- They are the superficial inguinal lymph nodes and the deep inguinal lymph nodes . (healthline.com)
- The superficial inguinal lymph nodes are located in the femoral triangle of Scarpa, an area of the upper, inner thigh. (healthline.com)
- The deep inguinal lymph nodes are located below the cribriform fascia - connective tissue of the upper, inner thigh - and on the medial (closer to the body's midline) side of the femoral vein. (healthline.com)
- Cloquet's node is the name of the top-most deep inguinal lymph node, which is located below the inguinal ligament. (healthline.com)
- Complete clearance of the paratracheal (recurrent laryngeal chain) lymph nodes was done successfully without manubrial resection. (who.int)
- The hypopharyngeal lymph usually flows directly into the superior nodes of the deep cervical chain. (who.int)
- Mandibular nodes are included in Facial nodes. (facs.org)
- 2006. Enhanced histopathology of lymph nodes. (nih.gov)
- For example, women who are diagnosed with breast cancer typically have adjacent lymph nodes removed during surgery. (drdrew.com)
- Lymph nodes help your body recognize and fight germs, infections, and other foreign substances. (medlineplus.gov)
- Infections are the most common cause of swollen lymph nodes. (medlineplus.gov)
- We report the isolation, since lated in the Republic of Djibouti, where 2 hospitals 2010, of 21 new strains of M. canettii in Djibouti, of which manage tuberculosis (TB) infections among the Djiboutian 7 were associated with 2 lymph node TB outbreaks in chil- population and expatriates ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Lymph nodes also have white blood cells to fight infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Upper respiratory infections, for instance, are among the most common causes of swollen lymph nodes , such as those that might be palpated in the neck. (verywellhealth.com)
- If you do have palpable lymph nodes, your healthcare provider is trained to track down the most likely reasons first. (verywellhealth.com)
- Findings which should be noted in the patient record include enlarged palpable nodes, fixed nodes, tender nodes and whether the palpable nodes are single or present in groups. (dentalcare.com)
- Occasionally nodes will remain enlarged and palpable after an infection. (dentalcare.com)
- For example, a previous history of cancer should cause the clinician to be more suspicious of newly appearing palpable nodes than if there is no history of cancer. (dentalcare.com)