An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
"Bites and stings refer to tissue damage or toxic reactions caused by the teeth, mouthparts, or venomous secretions of animals such as insects, spiders, snakes, and mammals during predatory or defensive attacks."
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
##### Not a valid request: I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Maine" is a state in the northeastern United States and not a medical term or condition with a specific definition in the healthcare context.
An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Connecticut" is a state located in the northeastern region of the United States and does not have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those!
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.
Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
whoa, buddy! I'm just a friendly AI and I don't have access to real-time databases or personal data, so I can't provide medical definitions or any other specific information about individuals, places, or things. But I can tell you that I couldn't find any recognized medical definition for "Wisconsin" - it's a state in the United States, not a medical term!
The species Canis latrans in the family CANIDAE, a smaller relative of WOLVES. It is found in the Western hemisphere from Costa Rica to Alaska.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Maryland" is not a recognized medical term with a specific definition in the medical field. It refers to a state in the United States. If you have any questions about a medical condition or treatment, I would be happy to try and help answer those!
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
**I'm really sorry, but I can't fulfill your request.**
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. (1/1720)

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

Low rates of ehrlichiosis and Lyme borreliosis in English farmworkers. (2/1720)

To determine the occupational significance of tick-borne zoonoses we sought serological evidence of Lyme borreliosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) in a representative sample of farmworkers. Although around 20% reported ticks on their domestic and companion animals, few (< 2% per year) reported being bitten by ticks. Seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis (0.2%), HME (0.2%) and HGE (1.5%) was low. Those seropositive for HGE were no more likely to report tick bites nor more likely to report ticks on their animals. This study provides evidence that farmworkers in England are exposed to tick-borne zoonoses but that they are uncommon. Since the severity of these diseases is linked to delays in diagnosis and treatment, clinicians should be aware of these diagnoses in patients from rural communities, with or without a self-reported history of tick bite.  (+info)

Evaluation of two-test serodiagnostic method for early Lyme disease in clinical practice. (3/1720)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend a two-test approach for the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease (LD), with EIA testing followed by Western immunoblotting (WB) of EIA-equivocal and -positive specimens. This approach was compared with a simplified two-test approach (WB of EIA equivocals only) and WB alone for early LD. Case-patients with erythema migrans (EM) rash >/=5 cm were recruited from three primary-care practices in LD-endemic areas to provide acute- (S1) and convalescent-phase serum specimens (S2). The simplified approach had the highest sensitivity when either S1 or S2 samples were tested, nearly doubling when S2 were tested, while decreasing slightly for the other two approaches. Accordingly, the simplified approach had the lowest negative likelihood ratio for either S1 or S2. For early LD with EM, the simplified approach performed well and was less costly than the other testing approaches since less WB is required.  (+info)

A reanalysis of IgM Western blot criteria for the diagnosis of early Lyme disease. (4/1720)

A two-step approach for diagnosis of Lyme disease, consisting of an initial EIA followed by a confirmatory Western immunoblot, has been advised by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, these criteria do not examine the influence of the prior probability of Lyme disease in a given patient on the predictive value of the tests. By using Bayesian analysis, a mathematical algorithm is proposed that computes the probability that a given patient's Western blot result represents Lyme disease. Assuming prior probabilities of early Lyme disease of 1%-10%, the current CDC minimum criteria for IgM immunoblot interpretation yield posttest probabilities of 4%-32%. The value of the two-step approach for diagnosis of early Lyme disease may be limited in populations at lower risk of disease or when patients present with atypical signs and symptoms.  (+info)

Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with peripheral blood fibrocytes, antigen-presenting cells with the potential for connective tissue targeting. (5/1720)

BACKGROUND: Borrelia Burgdorferi has a predilection for collagenous tissue and can interact with fibronectin and cellular collagens. While the molecular mechanisms of how B. burgdorferi targets connective tissues and causes arthritis are not understood, the spirochetes can bind to a number of different cell types, including fibroblasts. A novel circulating fibroblast-like cell called the peripheral blood fibrocyte has recently been described. Fibrocytes express collagen types I and III as well as fibronectin. Besides playing a role in wound healing, fibrocytes have the potential to target to connective tissue and the functional capacity to recruit, activate, and present antigen to CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkey fibrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. B. burgdorferi were incubated with human or monkey fibrocyte cultures in vitro and the cellular interactions analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The two strains of B. burgdorferi studied included JD1, which is highly pathogenic for monkeys, and M297, which lacks the cell surface OspA and OspB proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi binds to both human and monkey (rhesus) fibrocytes in vitro. This process does not require OspA or OspB. In addition, the spirochetes are not phagocytosed but are taken into deep recesses of the cell membrane, a process that may protect them from the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: This interaction between B. burgdorferi and peripheral blood fibrocytes provides a potential explanation for the targeting of spirochetes to joint connective tissue and may contribute to the inflammatory process in Lyme arthritis.  (+info)

Isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from puffins (Fratercula arctica) and seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faeroe Islands. (6/1720)

This is the first report on the isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from seabirds on the Faeroe Islands and the characteristics of its enzootic cycle. The major components of the Borrelia cycle include the puffin (Fratercula arctica) as the reservoir and Ixodes uriae as the vector. The importance of this cycle and its impact on the spread of human Lyme borreliosis have not yet been established. Borrelia spirochetes isolated from 2 of 102 sampled puffins were compared to the borreliae previously obtained from seabird ticks, I. uriae. The rrf-rrl intergenic spacer and the rrs and the ospC genes were sequenced and a series of phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence data and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis grouped the strains together with Borrelia garinii. In a seroepidemiological survey performed with residents involved in puffin hunting on the Faeroe Islands, 3 of 81 serum samples were found to be positive by two commonly used clinical tests: a flagellin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. These three positive serum samples also had high optical density values in a whole-cell ELISA. The finding of seropositive Faeroe Islanders who are regularly exposed to I. uriae indicate that there may be a transfer of B. garinii by this tick species to humans.  (+info)

Rapid and sensitive quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mouse tissues by continuous fluorescent monitoring of PCR. (7/1720)

The quantity of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in tissue samples is an important determinant for infection studies in the mouse model of Lyme disease. This report presents the development of a rapid and sensitive external-standard-based PCR assay for the absolute quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse tissue samples. The assay uses a double-stranded DNA dye to continuously monitor product formation and in less than an hour was able to quantify samples ranging up to 6 log units in concentration. The PCR efficiencies of the sample and the standard were matched by using a standard composed of purified B. burgdorferi chromosome mixed with tissue-matched mouse genome lacking bacterial DNA. Normalization of B. burgdorferi quantities to the mouse nidogen gene allowed comparison of B. burgdorferi numbers in samples isolated from different tissues and strains. PCR analysis of the chromosomal gene recA in cultured B. burgdorferi was consistent with a single recA per bacterium. The parameters defined in this assay should be applicable to quantification of other organisms, even infectious agents for which no ready source of DNA standard is available. In summary, this report presents a rapid external-standard-based PCR method for the quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse DNA samples.  (+info)

Strain variation in glycosaminoglycan recognition influences cell-type-specific binding by lyme disease spirochetes. (8/1720)

Lyme disease, a chronic multisystemic disorder that can affect the skin, heart, joints, and nervous system is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Lyme disease spirochetes were previously shown to bind glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In the current study, the GAG-binding properties of eight Lyme disease strains were determined. Binding by two high-passage HB19 derivatives to Vero cells could not be inhibited by enzymatic removal of GAGs or by the addition of exogenous GAG. The other six strains, which included a different high-passage HB19 derivative (HB19 clone 1), were shown to recognize both heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate in cell-binding assays, but the relative efficiency of binding to these two GAGs varied among the strains. Strains N40, CA20-2A, and PBi bound predominantly to heparan sulfate, PBo bound both heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate roughly equally, and VS461 and HB19 clone 1 recognized primarily dermatan sulfate. Cell binding by strain HB19 clone 1 was inhibited better by exogenous dermatan sulfate than by heparin, whereas heparin was the better inhibitor of binding by strain N40. The GAG-binding preference of a Lyme disease strain was reflected in its cell-type-specific binding. Strains that recognized predominantly heparan sulfate bound efficiently to both C6 glioma cells and EA-Hy926 cells, whereas strains that recognized predominantly dermatan sulfate bound well only to the glial cells. The effect of lyase treatment of these cells on bacterial binding was consistent with the model that cell-type-specific binding was a reflection of the GAG-binding preference. We conclude that the GAG-binding preference varies with the strain of Lyme disease spirochete and that this variation influences cell-type-specific binding in vitro.  (+info)

Lyme disease is not a "medical definition" itself, but it is a medical condition named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, where it was first identified in 1975. Medical definitions for this disease are provided by authoritative bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, Lyme disease is a "infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks."

The WHO defines Lyme borreliosis (LB), also known as Lyme disease, as "an infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks."

Both definitions highlight that Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by tick bites, specifically from black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast) or deer ticks (Ixodes ricinus in Europe). The primary cause of the disease is the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.

'Borrelia burgdorferi' is a species of spirochete bacteria that is the primary cause of Lyme disease in humans. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the northeastern, midwestern, and eastern parts of the United States; Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast).

The bacterium was first identified and named after Willy Burgdorfer, who discovered the spirochete in the mid-1980s. The infection can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe complications.

Antibiotic treatment is usually effective in eliminating the bacteria and resolving symptoms, especially when initiated early in the course of the disease. However, some individuals may experience persistent symptoms even after treatment, a condition known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The exact cause of PTLDS remains unclear, with ongoing research investigating potential factors such as residual bacterial infection, autoimmune responses, or tissue damage.

The Borrelia burgdorferi group, also known as the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex, refers to a genetically related group of spirochetal bacteria that cause Lyme disease and other related diseases worldwide. The group includes several species, with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. afzelii, and B. garinii being the most common and best studied. These bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast; Ixodes ricinus in Europe).

Lyme disease is a multisystem disorder that can affect the skin, joints, nervous system, and heart. Early symptoms typically include a characteristic expanding rash called erythema migrans, fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle and joint pain. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe complications, such as arthritis, neurological problems, and carditis.

Diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, exposure history, and laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline, amoxicillin, or ceftriaxone, and is generally most effective when initiated early in the course of the illness. Preventive measures, such as using insect repellent, checking for ticks after being outdoors, and promptly removing attached ticks, can help reduce the risk of Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections.

A Lyme disease vaccine is not currently available on the market. However, in the past, there was a vaccine called Lymerix, which was a recombinant OspA (outer surface protein A) vaccine. It was approved by the FDA in 1998 for use in people aged 15 to 70 years to prevent Lyme disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. However, due to low consumer demand and unfounded concerns about potential adverse events, the manufacturer voluntarily withdrew it from the market in 2002.

Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available for Lyme disease. Researchers are continuing to work on developing new vaccines, but none have yet been approved for use.

"Borrelia" is a genus of spirochete bacteria that are known to cause several tick-borne diseases in humans, the most notable being Lyme disease. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast).

The Borrelia species are gram-negative, helical-shaped bacteria with distinctive endoflagella that allow them to move in a corkscrew-like motion. They are microaerophilic, meaning they require a low oxygen environment for growth. The bacteria can survive in a variety of environments, including the digestive tracts of ticks and mammals, as well as in soil and water.

Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. It typically presents with a characteristic rash called erythema migrans, fever, headache, and fatigue. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, causing arthritis, neurological problems, and cardiac issues.

Other Borrelia species, such as B. afzelii and B. garinii, are responsible for causing Lyme disease in Europe and Asia. Additionally, some Borrelia species have been linked to other tick-borne illnesses, including relapsing fever and tick-borne meningoencephalitis.

Prevention of Borrelia infections involves avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellent, checking for ticks after being outdoors, and promptly removing attached ticks. If a tick bite is suspected, it's important to seek medical attention and monitor for symptoms of infection. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can help prevent the development of chronic symptoms.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a specific neurological manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, which is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is characterized by inflammation of the nervous system, particularly the peripheral and central nervous systems.

Involvement of the peripheral nervous system can present as radiculoneuropathy or cranial neuritis, leading to symptoms such as radiating pain, paresthesia, muscle weakness, and/or sensory loss in the affected areas. Involvement of the central nervous system may result in meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), or myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord). These manifestations can cause symptoms such as headache, stiff neck, cognitive impairment, memory loss, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and, in rare cases, seizures.

LNB is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests (such as serological analysis or CSF examination), and sometimes supported by imaging studies. Treatment usually involves antibiotic therapy, which can be administered either orally or intravenously, depending on the severity and extent of the infection. Early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve the prognosis for LNB patients.

Spirochaetales is an order of bacteria that are characterized by their unique spiral or corkscrew shape. This shape allows them to move in a flexing, twisting motion, which can be quite rapid. They are gram-negative, meaning they do not retain crystal violet stain in the Gram staining method, and they have a unique structure with endoflagella (also known as axial filaments) located inside their outer membrane.

The Spirochaetales order includes several families and genera of bacteria, some of which are free-living, while others are parasitic or symbiotic. The parasitic spirochetes can cause various diseases in humans and animals. For example, Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a serious sexually transmitted infection. Another species, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks.

It's important to note that spirochetes are a diverse group with varying characteristics and pathogenic potential. While some species can cause significant harm, others are not associated with diseases and play essential roles in various ecosystems.

"Ixodes" is a genus of tick that includes several species known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. These ticks are often referred to as "hard ticks" because of their hard, shield-like plate on their backs. Ixodes ticks have a complex life cycle involving three stages: larva, nymph, and adult. They feed on the blood of hosts during each stage, and can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, and Powassan virus disease.

The most common Ixodes species in North America is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or deer tick, which is the primary vector of Lyme disease in this region. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus, or the castor bean tick, is a widespread and important vector of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and several other tick-borne pathogens.

Ixodes ticks are typically found in wooded or grassy areas with high humidity and moderate temperatures. They can be carried by various hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can survive for long periods without feeding, making them efficient disease vectors.

Arachnid vectors are arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida that are capable of transmitting infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Arachnids include spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. Among these, ticks and some mites are the most significant as disease vectors.

Ticks can transmit a variety of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens, causing diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, tularemia, and several types of encephalitis. They attach to the host's skin and feed on their blood, during which they can transmit pathogens from their saliva.

Mites, particularly chiggers and some species of birds and rodents mites, can also act as vectors for certain diseases, such as scrub typhus and rickettsialpox. Mites are tiny arachnids that live on the skin or in the nests of their hosts and feed on their skin cells, fluids, or blood.

It is important to note that not all arachnids are disease vectors, and only a small percentage of them can transmit infectious diseases. However, those that do pose a significant public health risk and require proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and checking for and promptly removing attached ticks.

Erythema chronicum migrans (ECM) is a type of skin rash that is commonly associated with early Lyme disease. It is usually the first sign of infection after a tick bite and is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The rash typically appears within 3-30 days after the tick bite and starts as a red, flat or slightly raised spot at the site of the bite. Over several days or weeks, the redness expands, forming a circular or oval-shaped rash that can be up to 12 inches in diameter. The center of the rash may clear, giving it a "bull's-eye" appearance.

ECM is usually accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, fever, headache, and muscle and joint pain. It is important to note that not all people with Lyme disease will develop ECM, and its absence does not necessarily mean that the person does not have Lyme disease. If you suspect that you may have been bitten by a tick and are experiencing symptoms of Lyme disease, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

"Bites and stings" is a general term used to describe injuries resulting from the teeth or venomous secretions of animals. These can include:

1. Insect bites: The bite marks are usually small, punctate, and may be accompanied by symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and pain. Examples include mosquito, flea, bedbug, and tick bites.

2. Spider bites: Some spiders possess venomous fangs that can cause localized pain, redness, and swelling. In severe cases, systemic symptoms like muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing may occur. The black widow and brown recluse spiders are notorious for their venomous bites.

3. Snake bites: Venomous snakes deliver toxic saliva through their fangs, which can lead to local tissue damage, swelling, pain, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as paralysis, bleeding disorders, and respiratory failure.

4. Mammal bites: Animal bites from mammals like dogs, cats, and wild animals can cause puncture wounds, lacerations, and crush injuries. They may also transmit infectious diseases, such as rabies.

5. Marine animal stings: Stings from jellyfish, sea urchins, stingrays, and other marine creatures can result in localized pain, redness, swelling, and systemic symptoms like difficulty breathing, muscle cramps, and altered heart rhythms. Some marine animals' venoms can cause severe allergic reactions or even death.

Treatment for bites and stings varies depending on the type and severity of the injury. It may include wound care, pain management, antibiotics to prevent infection, and in some cases, antivenom therapy to counteract the effects of venom. Seeking immediate medical attention is crucial in severe cases or when systemic symptoms are present.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

"Peromyscus" is not a medical term, but a genus of rodents commonly known as "deer mice." They are small mammals that belong to the family Cricetidae and are found in various parts of North America. Peromyscus mice can carry and transmit diseases, such as Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), although they are not typically referred to in a medical context unless discussing potential zoonotic risks.

Borrelia infections are a group of diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Borrelia. The most common Borrelia infection is Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks.

The symptoms of Lyme disease can vary, but often include a rash that looks like a bull's-eye, fever, headache, and fatigue. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe symptoms.

Other diseases caused by Borrelia bacteria include relapsing fever, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of lice or ticks, and tick-borne relapsing fever, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of soft ticks. The symptoms of relapsing fever include recurring high fevers, headache, muscle and joint pain, and rash.

Borrelia infections are typically treated with antibiotics, and the prognosis is good with early detection and treatment. However, if left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems. Prevention measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of Borrelia infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nymph" does not have a medical definition. In general, nymph is a term used in mythology to refer to a minor nature deity typically represented as an attractive maiden or beautiful young woman who animates nature and is often associated with various natural phenomena.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

A "tick infestation" is not a formal medical term, but it generally refers to a situation where an individual has a large number of ticks (Ixodida: Acarina) on their body or in their living environment. Ticks are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

An infestation can occur in various settings, including homes, gardens, parks, and forests. People who spend time in these areas, especially those with pets or who engage in outdoor activities like camping, hiking, or hunting, are at a higher risk of tick encounters.

Tick infestations can lead to several health concerns, as ticks can transmit various diseases, such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis, among others. It is essential to take preventive measures to avoid tick bites and promptly remove any attached ticks to reduce the risk of infection.

If you suspect a tick infestation in your living environment or on your body, consult a healthcare professional or a pest control expert for proper assessment and guidance on how to proceed.

Relapsing fever is a vector-borne disease caused by spirochetal bacteria of the genus Borrelia. It is characterized by recurring episodes of fever, chills, headache, and muscle and joint pain. The disease is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected soft ticks (Ornithodoros spp.) or lice (Pediculus humanus corporis).

The relapsing fever borreliae are able to evade the host's immune system by changing their surface proteins, which allows them to continue infecting red blood cells and cause recurring symptoms. Each febrile episode is associated with the multiplication of a specific population of spirochetes, followed by an immune response that clears the infection but fails to prevent reinfection due to antigenic variation.

Relapsing fever can be effectively treated with antibiotics such as tetracyclines, erythromycin, or penicillin. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications, including myocarditis, hepatitis, and neurological symptoms. Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, and promptly removing attached ticks.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins and lipids (fats) that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules in the body. They consist of an outer shell of phospholipids, free cholesterols, and apolipoproteins, enclosing a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters.

There are several types of lipoproteins, including:

1. Chylomicrons: These are the largest lipoproteins and are responsible for transporting dietary lipids from the intestines to other parts of the body.
2. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Produced by the liver, VLDL particles carry triglycerides to peripheral tissues for energy storage or use.
3. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): Often referred to as "bad cholesterol," LDL particles transport cholesterol from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to plaque buildup in artery walls and increase the risk of heart disease.
4. High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Known as "good cholesterol," HDL particles help remove excess cholesterol from cells and transport it back to the liver for excretion or recycling. Higher levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

Understanding lipoproteins and their roles in the body is essential for assessing cardiovascular health and managing risks related to heart disease and stroke.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Maine" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually the name of a state, the 23rd state to join the United States of America. Maine is located in the northeastern part of the country and is known for its rocky coastline, maritime history, and natural beauty. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

Benign migratory glossitis, also known as geographic tongue, is a medical condition characterized by the presence of denuded, irregularly shaped smooth patches on the dorsum of the tongue. These patches are usually red and often have a white or yellow border. The condition is called "benign migratory" because it is not harmful or cancerous, and the lesions can change in size, shape, and location over time.

The exact cause of benign migratory glossitis is unknown, but it has been associated with several factors such as stress, nutritional deficiencies (particularly vitamin B deficiency), allergies, and family history. The condition can be asymptomatic or may cause symptoms such as burning sensation, pain, or altered taste.

Treatment of benign migratory glossitis is usually not necessary unless the patient experiences discomfort or other symptoms. In such cases, topical anesthetics, antihistamines, or corticosteroids may be prescribed to alleviate the symptoms. However, if the underlying cause can be identified and addressed (such as nutritional deficiencies), the condition may improve on its own.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Infectious arthritis, also known as septic arthritis, is a type of joint inflammation that is caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. The infection can enter the joint through the bloodstream or directly into the synovial fluid of the joint, often as a result of a traumatic injury, surgery, or an underlying condition such as diabetes or a weakened immune system.

The most common symptoms of infectious arthritis include sudden onset of severe pain and swelling in the affected joint, fever, chills, and difficulty moving the joint. If left untreated, infectious arthritis can lead to serious complications such as joint damage or destruction, sepsis, and even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, along with rest, immobilization, and sometimes surgery to drain the infected synovial fluid.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience symptoms of infectious arthritis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

Spirochaetaceae is a family of spiral-shaped, gram-negative bacteria known as spirochetes. These bacteria are characterized by their unique morphology, which includes a flexible helical shape and the presence of endoflagella, which are located inside the cell wall and run lengthwise along the entire length of the organism. This arrangement of flagella allows the spirochete to move in a corkscrew-like motion.

Spirochaetaceae includes several genera of medically important bacteria, such as:

* Treponema: This genus includes the bacterium that causes syphilis (Treponema pallidum) and other treponemal diseases like yaws and pinta.
* Borrelia: This genus includes the spirochetes responsible for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis).
* Leptospira: This genus contains the bacteria that cause leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease transmitted through the urine of infected animals.

Spirochetes are often found in aquatic environments and can be part of the normal microbiota of some animals, including humans. However, certain species can cause significant diseases in humans and animals, making them important pathogens. Proper identification and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing spirochetal infections.

I believe you are looking for a medical definition or association with the name "Connecticut." However, I couldn't find any specific medical condition or term named after Connecticut. Connecticut is one of the 50 states in the United States and has no direct relation to medical terminology. If you have more context or information, please let me know so I can provide a more accurate response.

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a group of illnesses that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected ticks. These diseases are caused by various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Some common TBDs include Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Tularemia. The symptoms of TBDs can vary widely depending on the specific disease but may include fever, rash, fatigue, muscle aches, and headaches. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are crucial to prevent potential long-term complications associated with some TBDs. Preventive measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of TBDs.

Erythema is a term used in medicine to describe redness of the skin, which occurs as a result of increased blood flow in the superficial capillaries. This redness can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, infection, trauma, or exposure to heat, cold, or ultraviolet radiation. In some cases, erythema may also be accompanied by other symptoms such as swelling, warmth, pain, or itching. It is a common finding in many medical conditions and can vary in severity from mild to severe.

Flagellin is a protein that makes up the structural filament of the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure found on many bacteria that enables them to move. It is also known as a potent stimulator of the innate immune response and can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host's immune system, triggering an inflammatory response. Flagellin is highly conserved among different bacterial species, making it a potential target for broad-spectrum vaccines and immunotherapies against bacterial infections.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by infection with Ehrlichia bacteria. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick. The symptoms of ehrlichiosis can include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. If left untreated, ehrlichiosis can cause serious complications, including damage to the central nervous system and other organs. It is important to seek medical attention if you think you may have been exposed to ehrlichiosis and are experiencing symptoms of the disease. A healthcare provider can diagnose ehrlichiosis through laboratory tests and can recommend appropriate treatment, which typically involves antibiotics. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can help reduce the risk of ehrlichiosis and other tick-borne diseases.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to damage or dysfunction of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). This nerve controls the muscles involved in facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, and closing the eyes. Damage to one side of the facial nerve can cause weakness or paralysis on that side of the face.

Facial paralysis can result from various conditions, including:

1. Bell's palsy - an idiopathic (unknown cause) inflammation of the facial nerve
2. Trauma - skull fractures, facial injuries, or surgical trauma to the facial nerve
3. Infections - Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), HIV/AIDS, or bacterial infections like meningitis
4. Tumors - benign or malignant growths that compress or invade the facial nerve
5. Stroke - damage to the brainstem where the facial nerve originates
6. Congenital conditions - some people are born with facial paralysis due to genetic factors or birth trauma

Symptoms of facial paralysis may include:

* Inability to move one or more parts of the face, such as the eyebrows, eyelids, mouth, or cheeks
* Drooping of the affected side of the face
* Difficulty closing the eye on the affected side
* Changes in saliva and tear production
* Altered sense of taste
* Pain around the ear or jaw
* Speech difficulties due to weakened facial muscles

Treatment for facial paralysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as Bell's palsy, spontaneous recovery may occur within a few weeks to months. However, physical therapy, medications, and surgical interventions might be necessary in other situations to improve function and minimize complications.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. It belongs to the tetracycline class of antibiotics. Doxycycline works by inhibiting the production of proteins that bacteria need to survive and multiply.

Doxycycline is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and severe acne. It is also used to prevent malaria in travelers who are visiting areas where malaria is common.

Like all antibiotics, doxycycline should be taken exactly as directed by a healthcare professional. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections harder to treat in the future.

It's important to note that doxycycline can cause photosensitivity, so it is recommended to avoid prolonged sun exposure and use sun protection while taking this medication. Additionally, doxycycline should not be taken during pregnancy or by children under the age of 8 due to potential dental and bone development issues.

Dermacentor is a genus of ticks that includes several species known to transmit diseases to humans and animals. Some of the notable species in this genus are:

1. Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain wood tick): This species is widely distributed across western North America and can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, and tularemia.
2. Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick): Found throughout the United States, this tick can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and human ehrlichiosis.
3. Dermacentor reticulatus (Ornate cow tick or Marsh tick): This species is distributed in Europe and parts of Asia and can transmit diseases like tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, and babesiosis.
4. Dermacentor marginatus (Marginated tick): Found primarily in Europe, this tick transmits various pathogens causing diseases such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and rickettsialpox.
5. Dermacentor nitens (Brazilian pampas tick): This species is native to South America and can transmit Rickettsia rickettsii, the bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Dermacentor ticks are known for their hard, shield-like structures called scutums on their backs and their long mouthparts called hypostomes, which they use to feed on the blood of their hosts. They typically prefer large mammals as hosts but will also feed on humans and other animals if necessary.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Muridae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically it is a family of rodents that includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, and many other species. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those.

Spirochaetales is an order of bacteria that includes several species known to cause infections in humans. The term "Spirochaetales infections" generally refers to diseases caused by these spirochete bacteria. The most well-known Spirochaetales infections include:

1. Syphilis - Caused by Treponema pallidum, syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It progresses through several stages, with symptoms ranging from painless sores to rashes, and may eventually affect the heart, brain, and other organs.

2. Lyme disease - Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted through tick bites, Lyme disease is an inflammatory illness that can cause a variety of symptoms, such as rash, fever, fatigue, and joint pain. In later stages, it may lead to neurological and cardiac complications if not treated promptly.

3. Leptospirosis - Caused by Leptospira spp., leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that humans usually acquire through exposure to infected animal urine or contaminated water. Symptoms can range from mild flu-like illness to severe complications, such as kidney and liver failure, meningitis, and respiratory distress.

4. Relapsing fever - Caused by Borrelia recurrentis and transmitted through the bite of lice, relapsing fever is characterized by recurring episodes of high fever, chills, headache, and muscle aches. The disease can be severe and may lead to complications such as myocarditis, hepatitis, and neurological issues.

5. Pinta - Caused by Treponema carateum, pinta is a tropical skin infection that primarily affects the outer layers of the skin, causing lesions and discoloration. While not typically life-threatening, it can lead to significant disfigurement if left untreated.

Treatment for Spirochaetales infections generally involves antibiotics, such as penicillin or doxycycline, depending on the specific infection and its severity. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, using insect repellent to prevent insect bites, avoiding contact with potentially infected animals, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms develop after potential exposure.

Acrodermatitis is a term that describes several inflammatory skin conditions characterized by redness, swelling, and blistering that typically affect the hands, feet, and face. The medical definition of acrodermatitis includes various subtypes, each with its own specific causes and symptoms. Here are some of the most common forms of acrodermatitis:

1. Acrodermatitis enteropathica: A rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency in zinc absorption. Symptoms include redness, swelling, blistering, and crusting around the mouth, eyes, and genitals, as well as the hands and feet.
2. Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau: A rare chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects the fingertips and toes. Symptoms include redness, swelling, blistering, and crusting, which can lead to nail deformities and loss.
3. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (acrodermatitis papulosa): A viral exanthem that typically affects children between 6 months and 15 years of age. Symptoms include red, raised bumps on the face, buttocks, and extremities, which can be itchy and painful.
4. Pustular acrodermatitis: A rare skin condition characterized by pustules (pus-filled bumps) that form on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Symptoms may also include fever, chills, and fatigue.
5. Infantile acrodermatitis: A rare inflammatory skin disorder that affects infants and young children. Symptoms include redness, swelling, and blistering around the mouth, eyes, and genitals, as well as the hands and feet.

Treatment for acrodermatitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, topical creams or ointments may be sufficient to manage symptoms, while in others, systemic treatments such as antibiotics or immunosuppressive drugs may be necessary.

"Rodentia" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to the largest order of mammals, comprising over 40% of all mammal species. Commonly known as rodents, this group includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, squirrels, prairie dogs, capybaras, beavers, and many others.

While "Rodentia" itself is not a medical term, certain conditions or issues related to rodents can have medical implications. For instance, rodents are known to carry and transmit various diseases that can affect humans, such as hantavirus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV). Therefore, understanding the biology and behavior of rodents is important in the context of public health and preventive medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wisconsin" is a U.S. state located in the Midwest and is not a medical term or condition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with those!

"Coyotes" is not a medical term. It refers to a species of canine native to North America, also known as Canis latrans. They are often the subject of study in fields such as zoology and ecology. If you're looking for medical definitions or information, I would be happy to help with that instead!

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Maryland" is a proper noun and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. However, if you are referring to a specific medical term or concept that includes "Maryland," could you please provide more context? I'll do my best to help with accurate information based on the provided context.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

I apologize for any confusion, but "deer" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of hooved mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus Babesia that infect red blood cells. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The incubation period for babesiosis can range from one to several weeks, and symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, body aches, fatigue, and nausea or vomiting. In severe cases, babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Babesiosis is most common in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but it has been reported in other parts of the world as well. It is treated with antibiotics and, in severe cases, may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Insect bites and stings refer to the penetration of the skin by insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, or bees, often resulting in localized symptoms including redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The reaction can vary depending on the individual's sensitivity and the type of insect. In some cases, systemic reactions like anaphylaxis may occur, which requires immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with topical creams, antihistamines, or in severe cases, epinephrine. Prevention measures include using insect repellent and protective clothing.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

Ehrlichia is a genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that infect and replicate within the vacuoles of host cells. These bacteria are transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected arthropods, such as ticks. Infection with Ehrlichia can cause a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle aches, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Some species of Ehrlichia, such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, are known to cause human disease, including ehrlichiosis.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease that can range in severity from mild to severe and can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Symptoms of ehrlichiosis may include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as neurological problems, respiratory failure, or kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is typically treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline, which are effective against the bacteria. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you may have been infected with Ehrlichia, as early treatment can help prevent serious complications. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can also help reduce the risk of infection.

Insect repellents are substances that are applied to the skin, clothing, or other surfaces to deter insects from landing or crawling on that surface. They work by masking the scents that attract insects or by repelling them with unpleasant odors. Insect repellents can be chemical-based, such as those containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), picaridin, or IR3535, or they can be natural, such as those containing oil of lemon eucalyptus or citronella. These substances work by interfering with the insect's ability to detect human scent, making it less likely that they will come into contact with the person using the repellent. Insect repellents are an important tool in preventing insect-borne diseases such as Lyme disease, West Nile virus, and Zika virus.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New York" is not a medical term or concept. New York refers to a state in the United States, as well as its largest city. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Interpretation and Guidance Regarding Lyme Disease Serologic Test Results NIH - Lyme Disease NICE Guidelines - Lyme Disease ( ... "Lyme disease rashes and look-alikes". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 December 2018. Archived from ... "Lyme Disease Data and surveillance". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 February 2019. Archived from ... Afzelius's disease, Montauk Knee or sheep tick fever. Since 1976 the disease is most often referred to as Lyme disease, Lyme ...
"What Happens When Lyme Disease Becomes an Identity?". The Cut. "Lyme disease FAQ". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Chronic Lyme disease is distinct from post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, a set of lingering symptoms which may persist after ... Chronic Lyme disease is distinct from untreated late-stage Lyme disease, which can cause arthritis, peripheral neuropathy and/ ... Chronic Lyme disease is also distinct from the post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), when symptoms linger after ...
"DVBID: Disease Upward Climb - CDC Lyme Disease". 2006-10-02. Retrieved 2007-08-23. "Lyme Disease Statistics". Centers for ... "Description of Lyme disease-like syndrome in Brazil: is it a new tick-borne disease or Lyme disease variation?". Braz J Med ... the rate of Lyme disease infection is 7.9 cases for every 100,000 persons. In the 10 states where Lyme disease is most common, ... s tick-borne Lyme disease may manifest with arthritis-like symptoms. In contrast, B. garinii's tick-borne Lyme disease may ...
... especially in countries where Lyme disease is common. Lyme disease is caused by a tick-borne parasite, and Lyme Disease ... Lyme Disease Awareness Day is also observed on May 1 every year. During May, Lyme disease prevention, awareness or research may ... Dumler, Stephen; Elman, Noel; Smith, Rebecca (2015-05-06). "Lyme Disease Awareness Month - Spotlight on TBDRP FY18 Lyme Disease ... "Council declares May as Lyme Disease Awareness Month". Municipality of Pictou County. Retrieved 2020-06-18. "Lyme Disease ...
... "chronic Lyme disease". ILADS was formed by advocates for the recognition of "chronic Lyme disease" including physicians, ... 1116 from patients who have not had well-documented Lyme disease; the consensus accepts the existence of post-Lyme disease ... "Chronic Lyme Disease" Fact Sheet". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. September 3, 2015. Cooper JD, Feder ... False chronic Lyme disease diagnoses are frequently justified due to non-specific symptoms. However, a questionnaire of non- ...
"Lyme Disease." American Lyme Disease Foundation. http://www.aldf.com/lyme.shtml. 26 April 2010. Web. 5 December 2011. "CDC - ... Utrecht Centre for Tick-borne Diseases. 2007. Retrieved 2011-11-28. N.L. Breisch, N.L. and Thorne, B.L.. "Lyme Disease and the ... "CDC - Transmission - Lyme Disease." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/transmission/index. ... "CDC - Cases by State - Lyme Disease." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/stats/chartstables/ ...
Lyme is the eponym of Lyme disease. In February 1665, the portion of the territory of the Saybrook Colony east of the ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lyme, Connecticut. Connecticut portal Town of Lyme official website Lyme-Old Lyme Public ... The eastern portion of Lyme (bordering the town of Waterford) separated from Lyme in 1823 and became part of East Lyme. The ... lived in Lyme 1940s to 1975; photographer Gladys Kelley Fitch (1896-1971), lived in Lyme; artist; member Old Lyme Art Colony ...
Lyme disease was named after the town. It was discovered in 1975 after a mysterious outbreak of what appeared to be juvenile ... Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Old Lyme. Town of Old Lyme official website LymeLine.com Community News for Lyme & Old Lyme ( ... and South Lyme, a beach resort area of Old Lyme. The place name "Lyme" is derived from Lyme Regis, a small port on the coast of ... Lyme-Old Lyme Middle School is for grades 6 through 8, and Lyme-Old Lyme High School is for grades 9 through 12. Regional ...
"Lyme Disease". Lyme Institute. Lisa Bevill. Retrieved 27 January 2012. Lisa Bevill official site Lisa Bevill at IMDb (Articles ... Bevill also spends her time advocating for those newly diagnosed with Lyme disease. She herself spent 12 years in treatment and ... She advocates/educates and helps other Lyme sufferers get properly tested thru I-Genex and to find a LLMD in their area. Dove ...
Lyme disease Sjögren's disease Hashimoto's thyroiditis Celiac disease Non-celiac gluten sensitivity Inflammatory bowel disease ... "Lyme Disease". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 22 August 2021. "What Is Sjögren's Syndrome? Fast Facts". NIAMS ... Arthritis is predominantly a disease of the elderly, but children can also be affected by the disease. Arthritis is more common ... "Bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis can be repaired through reduction in disease activity with conventional disease-modifying ...
Several species cause Lyme disease, also called Lyme borreliosis, a zoonotic, vector-borne disease transmitted by ticks. Other ... Eight are known to cause Lyme disease or Borreliosis. The major Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi ... 2021). Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: Genomics, Molecular Biology, Host Interactions, and Disease Pathogenesis. ... Marques AR (June 2015). "Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease: advances and challenges". Infectious Disease Clinics of North ...
"Lyme disease graphs , Lyme Disease , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-11-06. Retrieved 2018-05-18. "Transmission of Lyme disease , CDC ... Ixodes scapularis is the main vector of Lyme disease in North America. The CDC reported over 30,000 new cases of the disease in ... It is a vector for several diseases of animals, including humans (Lyme disease, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, Powassan virus ... which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), respectively. Among early Lyme disease patients ...
For example, the deer tick Ixodes scapularis acts as a vector for diseases including Lyme disease, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis ... the cause of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, is transmitted by vectors, ticks of the genus Ixodes, from the diseases' ... Steere, A. C. (July 2001). "Lyme disease". New England Journal of Medicine. 345 (2): 115-125. doi:10.1056/NEJM200107123450207. ... Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention KSU: Parasitology Research-parasitology articles and ...
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 55 (12): 1642-9. doi:10.1093/cid/cis784. PMID 22972867. "Lyme disease. Treatment". 21 December ... doxycycline is frequently used to treat Lyme disease, chronic prostatitis, sinusitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, acne, ... It is used to treat bacterial pneumonia, acne, chlamydia infections, Lyme disease, cholera, typhus, and syphilis. It is also ... July 2001). "Prophylaxis with single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease after an Ixodes scapularis tick bite ...
"Bartonellosis". Lyme Disease. 2018-04-11. Retrieved 2023-04-10. "Bartonella henselae infection or cat scratch disease (CSD) , ... "Cat Scratch Disease in Connecticut-Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Evaluation of a New Diagnostic Test." New England Bartonella ... "Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures." Advances in Dermatology and Allergology/Postȩpy Dermatologii i ... Some cases have been found in children who had previous heart-valve disease; these children got endocarditis from B. henselae ...
"Lyme disease rashes and look-alikes". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 18, 2019. "Lyme ... Lyme disease" (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (18): 1724-1731. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1314325. PMC 4487875. PMID ... Wright WF, Riedel DJ, Talwani R, Gilliam BL (June 2012). "Diagnosis and management of Lyme disease". American Family Physician ... disease: erythema migrans". Lyme disease NICE guideline [NG95]. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Retrieved ...
Lyme disease is one of a group of diseases which have earned the name the "great imitator" for their propensity to mimic the ... Lyme disease; is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete bacterium transmitted by the Deer tick ( ... Lyme disease is an underdiagnosed illness, partially as a result of the complexity and unreliability of serologic testing. " ... Fallon BA, Kochevar JM, Gaito A, Nields JA (September 1998). "The underdiagnosis of neuropsychiatric Lyme disease in children ...
A genus of bacteria called Borrelia is named after him, as is borreliosis (i.e., Lyme disease). Moreover, "Borrel bodies", ...
Lyme disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (18): 1724-31. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1314325. PMC 4487875. PMID 24785207. ... Halperin JJ (2015). "Nervous System Lyme Disease". Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 35 (4): 779-95. doi:10.1016/j.cll.2015.07. ... Sanchez JL (2015). "Clinical Manifestations and Treatment of Lyme Disease". Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 35 (4): 765-78. doi ... Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, one of the diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis, which ...
Fife, William P; Freeman, DM (1998). "Treatment of Lyme disease with hyperbaric oxygen therapy". Undersea and Hyperbaric ... Chronic Lyme disease. HyperTrak clinical documentation software, marketed by Intellicure, Inc., was started at Texas A&M ... On his 78th birthday in 1995, Fife and a team from Diving Diseases Research Centre received "The Duke of Edinburgh's Prize of ...
"Lyme Disease Data and surveillance". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019-02-05. Retrieved April 12, ... "Lyme Disease risk areas map". Risk of Lyme disease to Canadians. Government of Canada. 2015-01-27. Retrieved May 8, 2019. ... Other possible causes of radiculopathy include neoplastic disease, infections such as shingles, HIV, or Lyme disease, spinal ... Pachner AR (1989-10-01). "Neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease, the new "great imitator"". Reviews of Infectious Diseases ...
"Lyme Disease Vaccine". Lyme Info. Retrieved April 24, 2013. Bagnoli, F.; Bertholet, S.; Grandi, G. (2012). "Inferring Reasons ... A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed ... fever vaccine Caries vaccine Gonorrhea vaccine Ehrlichiosis vaccine Helicobacter pylori vaccine Leprosy vaccine Lyme disease ... McGuinness, R. (November 20, 2012). "Search for leprosy vaccine continues as disease still affects thousands". Metro News. ...
"Lyme Disease Debacle". Lymediseasedebacle.blogspot.com. July 7, 2012. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. "BCLASS- ... "Lyme Disease Foundation pulls support from BC clinic - NEWS 1130". www.citynews1130.com. CityNews. 28 August 2013. Archived ... and advocacy for chronic Lyme disease. David Cubberley's political career began in 1990 as a Saanich councillor. He was elected ...
"Lyme Disease", Dynamic Modeling of Diseases and Pests, Springer New York, pp. 115-136, 2009, doi:10.1007/978-0-387-09560-8_7, ... "Transmission - Lyme Disease". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019-02-06. Media related to Ixodes pacificus at ... I. pacificus is a member of the family Ixodidae (hard ticks). It is the principal vector of Lyme disease in that region. I. ... "Ticks and Lyme Disease". www.interiorhealth.ca. Retrieved 2018-05-11. Padgett, KA; Lane, RS (2001). "Life cycle of Ixodes ...
"Lyme disease FAQ". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 8 January 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2022. "UK buys "safe" blood ... and the amount of caution used for screening donors varies based on how dangerous the disease is. Most of the viral diseases ... Sex with a person who has had a positive test or was at high risk for a disease that can be spread in blood transfusions. The ... Other vectors exist.[citation needed] Whether a donor is considered to be at "too high" of a risk for a disease to be allowed ...
"Lyme Disease Vaccine". Lyme Info. Retrieved April 24, 2013. "Lymphatic filariasis". www.who.int. Retrieved 2023-06-16. Hampton ... including specific infectious diseases and classes thereof List of human disease case fatality rates List of vaccine topics ... Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (13th ed.). Washington D.C.: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and ... This is a list of infectious diseases arranged by name, along with the infectious agents that cause them, the vaccines that can ...
Unrest' - UK Screenings". Lyme Disease UK. 1 October 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2023. "WINNERS". Prague Music Awards. Retrieved 1 ... He was misdiagnosed with depression, bipolar disorder, and Chronic fatigue syndrome and later was diagnosed with Lyme disease ...
Ticks are well known for carrying diseases, such as Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Chiggers are known primarily ... Lyme disease" (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (18): 1724-1731. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1314325. PMC 4487875. PMID ... have also been implicated in the human skin disease rosacea, although the mechanism by which demodex contributes to the disease ... acting as vectors for disease transmission, and causing or contributing to allergenic diseases. Mites which colonize human skin ...
"Lyme disease: Symptoms". MayoClinic.com. Diseases and Conditions. Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic Staff. "Lyme disease: Treatments and ... "The economic burden of Lyme disease and the cost-effectiveness of Lyme disease interventions: A scoping review". PLOS ONE. 14 ( ... Major tick-borne diseases include: Lyme disease or borreliosis Organism: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bacterium) Vector: at ... "Lyme and Other Tickborne Diseases Increasing". Centers for Disease Control. 21 October 2021. Retrieved 4 March 2022. Chrobak, ...
"Lyme Disease Data and surveillance". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019-02-05. Retrieved April 12, ... "Lyme Disease risk areas map". Risk of Lyme disease to Canadians. Government of Canada. 2015-01-27. Retrieved May 8, 2019. ... Lyme disease" (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (18): 1724-1731. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1314325. PMC 4487875. PMID ... Lyme can also cause a milder, chronic radiculopathy an average of 8 months after the acute illness. Sciatica can be managed ...
Can breastfeeding mothers undergoing treatment for Lyme disease continue to breastfeed their infants? Learn more. ... Can Lyme disease be transmitted through breast milk?. There are no reports of Lyme disease being spread to infants through ... Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ... Is it safe for a mother to continue breastfeeding while treating Lyme disease with antibiotics?. Yes. Some antibiotics are ...
Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this ... Lyme disease is caused by infection with bacteria rather than by genetic changes. The risk of developing Lyme disease is ... which is called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.. A characteristic feature of Lyme disease, and the key feature of early ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/lyme-disease/ Lyme disease. ... Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia ...
The disease is transmitted to humans via tick bites, from infected ticks of the genus Ixodes. ... Lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and the bodys immune ... Treatment of Lyme disease is as follows:. * Adult patients with early localized or early disseminated Lyme disease associated ... Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. More than 30,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported ...
Lyme disease is nationally notifiable.. Serological tests used to diagnose domestically acquired Lyme disease might not ... Lyme disease is occasionally reported in travelers to the United States returning to their home countries. Consider Lyme ... Lyme disease is caused by spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, including B. afzelii, B. ... Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(9):677.. Lantos PM, Rumbaugh J, Bockenstedt LK, Falck-Ytter YT, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, ...
Life cycle of Lyme disease ticks. Lyme disease in domestic animals. Symptoms and signs of Lyme disease. Lyme disease and ... Lyme disease research. POINT OF CONTACT FOR THIS DOCUMENT:. LYME DISEASE. Lyme disease was first recognized in the United ... Symptoms and signs of Lyme disease. Early Lyme Disease: The early stage of Lyme disease is usually marked by one or more of the ... nervous system problems are the only evidence of Lyme disease. Lyme disease and pregnancy. In rare cases, Lyme disease acquired ...
Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States. The number of confirmed and probable ... Identify the appropriate use of diagnostic tests for Lyme disease.. *Cite the appropriate use of antibiotics to treat Lyme ... https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/diagnosistesting/index.html. CDC-Lyme Disease Treatment Resources. https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/treatment/ ... Medical Epidemiologist, Bacterial Diseases Branch. Division of Vector-Borne Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and ...
Interpretation and Guidance Regarding Lyme Disease Serologic Test Results NIH - Lyme Disease NICE Guidelines - Lyme Disease ( ... "Lyme disease rashes and look-alikes". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 December 2018. Archived from ... "Lyme Disease Data and surveillance". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 February 2019. Archived from ... Afzeliuss disease, Montauk Knee or sheep tick fever. Since 1976 the disease is most often referred to as Lyme disease, Lyme ...
Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Why is CDC concerned about Lyme disease?plus icon *Lyme disease ... Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia ... Most cases of Lyme disease can be treated successfully with a few weeks of antibiotics. Steps to prevent Lyme disease include ... The ticks that transmit Lyme disease can occasionally transmit other tickborne diseases as well. ...
Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States. The number of confirmed and probable ... Identify the appropriate use of diagnostic tests for Lyme disease.. *Cite the appropriate use of antibiotics to treat Lyme ... https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/diagnosistesting/index.html. CDC-Lyme Disease Treatment Resources. https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/treatment/ ... Medical Epidemiologist, Bacterial Diseases Branch. Division of Vector-Borne Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and ...
Could Lyme Disease Be Worse Than Ever This Year?. What is clear is that incidences of Lyme disease are on the rise. Over the ... "post-Lyme disease syndrome." Explains Auwaerter: "Doctors might label something as chronic Lyme disease when they dont ... who researches Lyme disease for the CDCs National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. ... How to Spot Lyme Disease Symptoms. Farrell was treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medication to reduce the swelling ...
If Lyme disease is diagnosed quickly and treated with antibiotics, most people feel better quickly. ... Lyme disease can affect the skin, joints, nervous system, and other organ systems. ... What Is Post-Lyme Disease Syndrome?. Post-Lyme disease syndrome (also known as chronic Lyme disease) is when someone with Lyme ... Who Gets Lyme Disease?. Anyone bitten by an infected deer tick can get Lyme disease. Most U.S. cases of Lyme disease happen in ...
Watch the latest videos about #lymedisease on TikTok. ... lyme. #florida. #nc. #duke. #mold. #toxicity. Beyond thankful ... lymedisease. #dinner. #eatdinnerwithme. #mustard. #applesausage. #veggieswithmustard. #asmr. #crunchy. #crunchylunch. # ... lymedisease. #chronicillness. #chronicallyill. #autoimmunedisease. #chronicpain. #chronicallychill. #narcolepsy. #fibromyalgia ... privileged to have parents that wouldnt accept "Its just Mono" for an answer and found a Lyme-literate doctor. 💖🫶✨. Please ...
Learn more about how to treat fatigue from Lyme disease. ... Lyme disease is a tick-borne infection that can have serious ... Chronic Lyme disease occurs when a person who has already received treatment for Lyme disease continues to have symptoms in the ... COVID-19 and Lyme disease share some similar symptoms. Learn more about whether COVID-19 can trigger Lyme disease here. ... Can diet help treat Lyme disease?. Doctors typically prescribe antibiotics to treat Lyme disease. However, an anti-inflammatory ...
... (LymeNet): a non-profit org dedicated to providing physicians, patients and researchers with current info ... Tweets about Lyme Disease. Tweets about Lyme Disease. Past headlines. LymeNet Flash discussion forum. The Lyme Disease Network ... Lyme Disease Association and also the Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation to raise awareness about Lyme and funds for Lyme disease ... Lyme Disease Has Surged 320% in America. July 15, 2015. Lyme disease is not only becoming more rampant in its normal hotspot of ...
... (LymeNet): a non-profit org dedicated to providing physicians, patients and researchers with current info ... Tweets about Lyme Disease. Tweets about Lyme Disease. Past headlines. LymeNet Flash discussion forum. The Lyme Disease Network ... Lyme Disease Association and also the Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation to raise awareness about Lyme and funds for Lyme disease ... Lyme Disease Has Surged 320% in America. July 15, 2015. Lyme disease is not only becoming more rampant in its normal hotspot of ...
... potentially disabling illnesses-Lyme disease and its lesser-known […] ... you may not think much about diseases transmitted by ticks. If you do live there, or spend part of the summer along the coastal ... To date, the Lyme disease maps published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have pinpointed Lyme disease ... Lyme disease is spreading fast-is a vaccine on the way?. Several vaccines and new treatments are in the works as the ticks that ...
Lyme is an infectious disease caused by the deer tick, which has expanded its range in Maine over the past 20 years. Lyme ... Maines Lyme disease cases declined sharply in 2018. Experts believe the nearly 30 percent drop imay be related to the dry ... If caught early, Lyme disease can be treated with antibiotics, but untreated it can cause long-term health problems, especially ... Maine experienced a dramatic drop-off in reported Lyme disease cases in 2018, and the dry weather this past summer may have ...
... scientists expect to see the reported cases of Lyme disease to increase, as well as the disease to be able to occur in areas it ... The disease is caused by a bite of a deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) leading to a bacterial infection (Borrelia burgdorferi). ... The first case of Lyme disease to be reported in the United States was in the town of Lyme, Connecticut, in 1975. ... Prey and Lyme Disease.. Climate Change: What it Means for Lyme Disease. Climate change will have the following effects on Lyme ...
Lyme disease "doesnt kill you, but it squeezes every drop of life from you" 01:02 Lyme disease patients were nearly five times ... disease in patients younger than 65 who were treated with antibiotics within 30 days of a Lyme disease test order and/or Lyme ... Lyme disease lies - and truths 12 photos "Our study looks at the actual costs of treating patients in the year following their ... "Regardless of what you call it, our data show that many people who have been diagnosed with Lyme disease are in fact going back ...
The first symptom of Lyme disease in most people is an expanding red skin rash (called erythema migrans or an EM rash). In ... The most well-known is Lyme disease. For more information on Lyme Disease, visit BC Centre for Disease Control - Lyme Disease ( ... If Lyme disease is not detected and treated while early symptoms are present, or if a person never has early symptoms that ... The first symptom of Lyme disease in most people is an expanding red skin rash (called erythema migrans or an EM rash). In ...
In addition, chronic Lyme.... Curing Lyme disease - Causes and solutions. 3/17/2016 - Although about 30,000 cases of Lyme ... What Is Lyme disease and why the controversy?. 9/9/2015 - Lyme disease is no longer an obscure malady that can only be caught ... Scoop on Lyme disease and progress. 8/19/2014 - On May 22 and May 23 members from the Lyme disease community held a protest at ... Treat Lyme Disease with Apple Cider Vinegar. 3/17/2010 - Lyme disease is an infection in the blood that is spread by tick bites ...
DISCLAIMER: The Lyme Disease Association, Inc. provides referrals to health care providers who treat Lyme disease, and often ... Lyme Disease Association, Inc. (LDA). Subscriber information will not be shared outside of the Lyme Disease Association, Inc. ... 2019, 2020 Lyme Disease Association , Lyme Treatment Guidelines , Dr. Referrals , Funding & Research ... and pharmacies that are knowledgeable about chronic Lyme disease and often about many other tick-borne diseases (TBD). Many of ...
2.2 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to understand how Lyme disease is able to escape ... Lyme disease accounted for 82 percent of reported cases of tick-borne diseases between 2004 and 2016. Lyme disease is more ... Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ... But because Lyme diseases symptoms can be mistaken for many other conditions, treatment can be missed or delayed and the ...
Lyme disease, his wife, Hailey Bieber, shut down Twitter users that were making fun of Justin and belittling his struggles. ... For those who are trying to downplay the severity of Lyme disease. Please do your research and listen to the stories of people ... For those who are trying to downplay the severity of Lyme disease. Please do your research and listen to the stories of people ... they failed to realize Ive been recently diagnosed with Lyme disease, not only that but had a serious case of chronic mono ...
Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, is a bacterial infection spread by infected ticks. Human infection is uncommon, because only ... However, those ticks that may carry Lyme disease are common in the countryside, especially woodlands and parks with deer, such ... Please see the Government advice on tick bites and the prevention of Lyme disease for more information. ...
Lyme disease is a serious illness caused by the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. Canadians are encouraged to take ... Treating Lyme disease. Lyme disease is treated with antibiotics. The earlier you receive treatment for Lyme disease, the ... Symptoms of Lyme disease. Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease can vary from person to person after being bitten by a tick. ... Lyme disease occurs in stages. The signs and symptoms of each stage can overlap. In some people, Lyme disease may present in a ...
... correct diagnosis is the best way to prevent the development of Lyme arthritis in individuals with the tick-borne illness, ... More about Lyme disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), about 30,000 cases of Lyme disease were confirmed ... "Lyme arthritis occurs commonly in patients with Lyme disease and should be considered when evaluating patients with joint ... About 60 percent of patients who are left untreated for Lyme disease in its early stages will develop Lyme arthritis, Dr. Cruz ...
Lyme disease is transmitted by Ixodes ticks, also known as deer ticks. Lyme can cause flu-like conditions, neurological ... Justin Bieber says that he has been battling Lyme disease.. In an Instagram post on Wednesday, the pop star wrote that "its ... Justin Bieber Says Hes Battling Lyme Disease The Grammy-winning singer said he will discuss battling the tick-borne infection ... they failed to realize Ive been recently diagnosed with Lyme disease, not only that but had a serious case of chronic mono ...
... or to make a different diagnosis if the signs dont point to Lyme disease. ... physicians ask four key questions to help them catch a Lyme infection early -- ... Four Questions to Ask Before Diagnosing Lyme Disease. Lyme disease is on the rise, with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ... Swelling in the hip joint and temporomandibular joint may also indicate Lyme disease. Some cases of Lyme disease may also cause ...
  • Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne illness in the United States, is a multisystem illness usually caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (see the image below) and the body's immune response to the infection. (medscape.com)
  • Lyme disease is caused by spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, including B. afzelii , B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and B. garinii . (cdc.gov)
  • Some laboratories offer testing for additional Borrelia species that cause Lyme disease in Europe but are not found in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme disease is an infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a member of the family of spirochetes, or corkscrew-shaped bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme disease is spread by the bite of ticks of the genus Ixodes that are infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is a vector-borne disease caused by Borrelia bacteria, which are spread by ticks in the genus Ixodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In North America, the bacterial species Borrelia burgdorferi and B. mayonii cause Lyme disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Europe and Asia, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, B. spielmanii and four other species also cause the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and rarely, Borrelia mayonii . (cdc.gov)
  • Making the issue even more confusing, there's controversy about whether patients who have chronic conditions, such as "brain fog," anxiety , irritability, and hearing and vision problems, are truly infected by the Lyme bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi -or if they should be classified as having "post-Lyme disease syndrome. (thedailybeast.com)
  • The disease is caused by a bite of a deer tick ( Ixodes scapularis ) leading to a bacterial infection ( Borrelia burgdorferi) . (carleton.edu)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is the name of the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. (carleton.edu)
  • If the source of their meal is infected with the Lyme disease-causing bacteria ( Borrelia burgdorferi ) then it is passed onto the tick. (carleton.edu)
  • For more information on Lyme Disease, visit BC Centre for Disease Control - Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi infection) . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria causes Lyme disease and arthritis, manifesting in a multitude of symptoms ranging from rheumatoid arthritis, to. (naturalnews.com)
  • Lyme disease is an infection caused by the bacterium borrelia burgdorferia , which is transmitted to animals and humans by ticks. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • Only blacklegged [deer] ticks transmit Borrelia burgdorferi -the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. (sharecare.com)
  • Not all ticks in high-risk areas are infected with Borrelia burgdorferi , and even those that are infected may not always transmit Lyme disease . (sharecare.com)
  • This should be contrasted to Lyme disease, which is a real diagnosis and a real disease caused by the tick-borne bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . (scienceblogs.com)
  • In areas where Lyme disease is endemic or emerging, vaccinate dogs against Borrelia burgdorferi and reducing the risk of infection through year-round tick control and avoiding areas with ticks. (capcvet.org)
  • The bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi cause Lyme disease. (msdmanuals.com)
  • During the transmission of the disease the Lyme bacterium known as Borrelia burgdorferi moves through the tick and is coated with a salivary protein known as Salp15. (stanford.edu)
  • Lyme disease is a bacterial infection known as Borrelia burgdorferi which is spread by the black-legged tick (also known as the deer tick). (oradell.com)
  • Those are the words--and the multiple exclamation points--of Tara Moriarty, proprietor of the Moriarty Lab , an infectious diseases research lab that studies primarily Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. (huffpost.com)
  • Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ticks effectively transmit Borrelia burgdorferi mainly by feeding on small mammals, such as deer mice, which are chronically infected with the Lyme disease bacterium. (medscape.com)
  • A temperature -driven seasonal model of Borrelia burgdorferi ( Lyme disease ) transmission among four host types is constructed as a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Examples include the virus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and Borrelia, which causes Lyme disease. (who.int)
  • Most cases of Lyme disease can be treated successfully with a few weeks of antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • Not all cases of Lyme disease can be prevented. (kidshealth.org)
  • Every year, U.S. state health departments report about 30,000 cases of Lyme disease to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (lymenet.org)
  • The map displays counties where cases of Lyme disease are at least twice as high as epidemiologists would predict based on the size of the county's population. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • With the impending changes to the climate, scientists expect to see the reported cases of Lyme disease to increase, as well as the disease to be able to occur in areas it previously had not. (carleton.edu)
  • 3/17/2016 - Although about 30,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported in the U.S. each year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention acknowledges the number of actual cases is about 10 times that. (naturalnews.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports that about 30,000 cases of Lyme disease are documented by state health departments each year, with countless others going undiagnosed and unreported. (naturalnews.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), about 30,000 cases of Lyme disease were confirmed in 2009. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Some cases of Lyme disease may also cause cardiac symptoms like atrioventricular block, myocarditis and mild left ventricular dysfunction. (childrens.com)
  • More than 23,000 cases of Lyme disease were reported in the United States in 2002, and unfortunately, this number has been increasing steadily. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • In the case of Lyme disease, that usually includes a two-step process to test the blood for the presence of antibodies against the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, the first step being an enzyme immunoassay, which, if negative rules out Lyme disease. (scienceblogs.com)
  • What causes Lyme disease? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Understanding the behavior of the bacterium that causes Lyme disease is essential to figuring out how to treat it effectively--just as figuring out how HIV works was essential to preventing the development of AIDS. (huffpost.com)
  • The bacterium that causes Lyme disease is related to the one that causes syphilis , and the symptoms of untreated, progressive Lyme unsurprisingly are likewise similar , ranging from nerve pain and arthritis to severe neuropsychiatric dysfunction and deadly sudden heart failure . (huffpost.com)
  • Steps to prevent Lyme disease include using insect repellent, removing ticks promptly, applying pesticides, and reducing tick habitat. (cdc.gov)
  • Spotting ticks and removing them quickly is one of the best ways to prevent Lyme disease . (sharecare.com)
  • How can I prevent Lyme disease? (msdmanuals.com)
  • The first human clinical trial of Lyme PrEP, a seasonal shot to prevent Lyme disease, has begun enrolling volunteers to evaluate the safety and pharmacology of the treatment. (umassmed.edu)
  • How Do I Prevent Lyme Disease In My Dog? (oradell.com)
  • The most important thing you should ask yourself is how do you prevent Lyme disease? (oradell.com)
  • Many people with Lyme disease suffer the same widespread pain and tender points as fibromyalgia sufferers do. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • The researchers found that, on average, people with Lyme disease cost the system $2,968 more than matched controls. (aacc.org)
  • Most people with Lyme disease develop erythema migrans, which is the characteristic bull's-eye rash, but not everyone. (sharecare.com)
  • Some people with Lyme disease never have the spot or rash. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Only 50 percent of people with Lyme disease are properly diagnosed. (theorion.com)
  • Do All Tick Bites Cause Lyme Disease? (kidshealth.org)
  • Only deer ticks (also called black-legged ticks) can spread the bacteria that cause Lyme disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • Ticks are most active from April to September, which means now is prime time for bites that can cause Lyme disease. (lymenet.org)
  • A deer tick gets the bacteria that cause Lyme disease when it feeds on infected mice. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Doctors can diagnose early Lyme disease if they see a tick bite or the telltale rash, especially if the person lives in an area where Lyme disease is common. (kidshealth.org)
  • Treatment for early Lyme disease is antibiotics taken by mouth for 10-14 days. (kidshealth.org)
  • If caught early, Lyme disease can be treated with antibiotics, but untreated it can cause long-term health problems, especially in the joints and nervous system, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (pressherald.com)
  • I've encountered a lot of these problems, and they can lead you down a rabbit hole to where it becomes easy to misdiagnose the problem and treat the wrong disease," says Jeffrey Kahn, M.D., Ph.D. , Chief of Infectious Disease at Children's Health℠ and Division Director of Infectious Disease at UT Southwestern, "Physicians need to use their clinical judgement when diagnosing early Lyme disease. (childrens.com)
  • The possibility of co-infection with another tick-borne pathogen should be considered if the patient's condition does not respond to treatment as expected with ordinary early Lyme disease. (medscape.com)
  • Is it safe for a mother to continue breastfeeding while treating Lyme disease with antibiotics? (cdc.gov)
  • If not treated with antibiotics, Lyme disease follows three stages: early localized, early disseminated, and late disseminated infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individuals with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome report ongoing exhaustion (fatigue), muscle and joint achiness, headache, or difficulty concentrating even after treatment with antibiotics, when there is no evidence of the bacteria in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cite the appropriate use of antibiotics to treat Lyme disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Farrell was treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medication to reduce the swelling in her neck from meningitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal cord membranes), a common symptom of Lyme disease. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Now, during an exceptionally painful recovery from late-stage Lyme and several co-infections, she's been taking antibiotics for eight months. (thedailybeast.com)
  • How long Lyme patients should be treated with antibiotics is another source of debate. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Treatment with antibiotics usually cures Lyme disease, especially when started early. (kidshealth.org)
  • Someone with late Lyme disease needs antibiotics for a longer period, either taken by mouth or through an IV (intravenous) line . (kidshealth.org)
  • Post-Lyme disease syndrome (also known as chronic Lyme disease) is when someone with Lyme disease still has symptoms after treatment with antibiotics. (kidshealth.org)
  • If your child is diagnosed with Lyme disease, give the antibiotics exactly as the doctor directs. (kidshealth.org)
  • Antibiotics are currently the only treatments available for Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses, but researchers at Duke Health are working to expand the medical toolkit by identifying vulnerable areas of disease-causing bacteria that could lead to innovative therapies. (lymenet.org)
  • Most Lyme disease sufferers clamor for antibiotics forever, which the medical. (naturalnews.com)
  • The disease is currently treated with antibiotics, which are more successful when patients are diagnosed early. (ucf.edu)
  • In most patients, Lyme arthritis can be successfully treated with oral antibiotics," Dr. Cruz said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • A four-week course of oral antibiotics is given for those suffering from the early stages of Lyme disease. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • About 10% to 20% of those treated for Lyme disease with a course of antibiotics for 2-4 weeks continue to have symptoms after completing treatment, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (aacc.org)
  • The usual treatment for Lyme disease is 2-4 weeks of antibiotics , which is highly effective. (scienceblogs.com)
  • However, there is no evidence that this syndrome is caused by chronic B. burgdorferi infection, nor is there any good evidence that prolonged treatment with antibiotics benefits patients with persistent symptoms after treatment for Lyme disease-quite the contrary, actually. (scienceblogs.com)
  • At least five five randomized, placebo-controlled studies have shown that prolonged courses of IV antibiotics do not improve long-term outcome for patients with a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease (e.g., this one ). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Yet these "Lyme literate" physicians and a coterie of naturopaths treat patients with symptoms after Lyme disease for weeks, months, or even years of antibiotics, and there are many known complications to long term antibiotic treatment. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Patients with a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease have been provided a wide range of medications as treatment, including long courses of intravenous (IV) antibiotics (3,4). (scienceblogs.com)
  • It can be treated with antibiotics if diagnosed early, but if the disease remains untreated, it can lead to serious problems in the joints, heart and nervous system. (theorion.com)
  • Many longtime sufferers of Lyme disease use antibiotics and probiotics to treat the disease, but this often provides only temporary relief and the side effects of taking antibiotics are very severe and cause discomfort. (theorion.com)
  • Due to the seriousness and progression of the disease, she received six weeks of intravenous treatment, a year of antibiotics, and a year of physical therapy. (aljazeera.com)
  • After missing several days of school, they were diagnosed with Lyme disease and another tick-borne illness, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, respectively, treated with antibiotics, and eventually recovered. (aljazeera.com)
  • A doctor attributed my chronic daily headaches and rashes to Lyme disease and successfully treated me with antibiotics, too. (aljazeera.com)
  • The numbers also do not reflect the prevalence of post-treatment Lyme disease (a case of Lyme that does not improve after the usual course of antibiotics), which affects as many as two million people in the US alone. (aljazeera.com)
  • As of 2023[update] clinical trials of proposed human vaccines for Lyme disease were being carried out, but no vaccine was available. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the midst of their $500 million program to build a Covid-19 vaccine with BioNTech, Pfizer has announced a sizable deal to commercialize a vaccine for a far different disease. (lymenet.org)
  • Pfizer and Valneva have agreed to an up-to $308 million deal on the French biotech's Lyme disease vaccine. (lymenet.org)
  • Lyme disease is spreading fast-is a vaccine on the way? (nationalgeographic.com)
  • A first of its kind Lyme disease vaccine trial ran into a road block last weekend as the developers announced they had discontinued the study for about half of the thousands of participants in the U.S. - including those on Martha's Vineyard. (mvgazette.com)
  • Organizers of a first-of-its-kind Lyme disease vaccine trial on Martha's Vineyard are still looking for signups, after an initial wave of recruitment has slowed down in recent months. (mvgazette.com)
  • Just as medical professionals on the Vineyard are feeling encouraged by the start of a Lyme vaccine trial, Island doctors are reporting numerous instances of itchy, painful rashes caused by lone star tick larvae in so-called "tick bombs. (mvgazette.com)
  • Statistically home to one of the highest percentages of tick-borne illnesses in the world, Martha's Vineyard will soon be the setting for a clinical trial of a vaccine aimed at preventing Lyme disease. (mvgazette.com)
  • A protein found in the saliva of ticks may spur the development of a new Lyme disease vaccine. (stanford.edu)
  • A Lyme vaccine was removed from the market in 2002 and to date no other antigen has been tested in phase III clinical trials. (stanford.edu)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a vaccine, called LymeRx, against Lyme in 1998, but it had limitations and was taken off the market three years later. (umassmed.edu)
  • That vaccine targeted the outer protein of the bacteria that causes Lyme. (umassmed.edu)
  • First talk to your veterinarian about the Lyme vaccine. (oradell.com)
  • This vaccine is strongly recommended in New England since Lyme disease is so prevalent. (oradell.com)
  • However, the vaccine is not 100% effective, so to help give your dog the best chance of not contracting Lyme disease you should also use flea and tick prevention . (oradell.com)
  • Some methods of preventing Lyme disease include limiting exposure to ticks in residential areas and getting a Lyme disease vaccine. (theorion.com)
  • Why are we at this point where people are looking at dealing with vectors or reservoirs of Lyme disease, when we have had an effective Lyme disease vaccine in the past that is no longer marketed? (medscape.com)
  • PTLDS is different from chronic Lyme disease, a term no longer supported by scientists and used in different ways by different groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explains Auwaerter: "Doctors might label something as chronic Lyme disease when they don't understand what's going on. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Because of the limited number of physicians treating chronic Lyme disease nationwide, some states, and in some instances, entire regions, may not have any treating physicians who follow flexible treating approaches such as those in the International Lyme & Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) Guidelines, Evidence Assessments and Guideline Recommendations in Lyme Disease: The Clinical Management of Known Tick Bites, Erythema Migrans Rashes and Persistent Disease . (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • Chronic lyme disease, called post Lyme disease, does not respond well to treatment and can lie dormant in your body for years. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • Often referred to as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), or chronic Lyme disease, the prolonged illness is controversial because doctors disagree on whether it can be a severe and chronic problem, or if it can be managed with reassurance for the patient and symptomatic therapy. (aacc.org)
  • And contrary to popular belief, chronic Lyme disease isn't a recognized medical diagnosis, according to Danial Kaswan, MD, an infectious disease specialist affiliated with Aventura Hospital and Medical Center in Aventura, Florida. (sharecare.com)
  • Chronic lyme disease is another prototypical fake medical diagnosis . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Alternative medicine practitioners claim that Lyme infection can become chronic and attribute a vague constellation of symptoms not unlike the vague constellation of symptoms attributed to adrenal fatigue to chronic Lyme infection, a condition they commonly refer to as chronic Lyme disease . (scienceblogs.com)
  • These potential complications have been illustrated in a recent article in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Serious Bacterial Infections Acquired During Treatment of Patients Given a Diagnosis of Chronic Lyme Disease . (scienceblogs.com)
  • The term "chronic Lyme disease" is used by some health care providers as a diagnosis for various constitutional, musculoskeletal, and neuropsychiatric symptoms (1,2). (scienceblogs.com)
  • These [chronic lyme disease] patients are in a condition worse than patients with marked congestive heart failure. (lymeinfo.net)
  • 10-15% of those with the Lyme bacteria progress to chronic Lyme disease. (lymeinfo.net)
  • Chronic Lyme disease, which is surrounded by much controversy, is a systemic, debilitating condition which persists despite antibiotic therapy. (lymeinfo.net)
  • Chronic Lyme disease is also unique in that it is widely misunderstood and surrounded by controversy, leading to problems with physicians, friends and family, insurance companies, disability coverage, etc. (lymeinfo.net)
  • There is no established cure for chronic Lyme disease. (lymeinfo.net)
  • Increasing numbers of those with chronic Lyme disease are being found to have other tick-borne illnesses as well. (lymeinfo.net)
  • The state recorded 1,310 Lyme cases through Dec. 27, according to the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention, down from 1,852 in 2017. (pressherald.com)
  • The 1,852 Lyme cases in 2017 represented an all-time high, and the tick-borne illness h as persisted in Maine as a public health threat, as there have been more than 1,000 reported cases per year since 2011. (pressherald.com)
  • Anaplasmosis, another disease caused by the deer tick, also experienced a sharp decline in 2018, from 663 cases in 2017 to 476 cases through Dec. 27 this year. (pressherald.com)
  • Griffin Dill, integrated pest management professional at the University of Maine Cooperative Extension, said it's difficult to tell whether 2017 was an aberration or whether 2018 represents a one-year drop-off before Lyme cases climb again. (pressherald.com)
  • In most cases, a tick must be attached for 36 to 48 hours or more before the Lyme disease bacterium can be transmitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • courtesy of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (medscape.com)
  • The content and conclusions in this presentation are those of the authors and presenters and do not necessarily represent the views of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • To better understand, prevent and treat diseases passed from insects to people, the Cornell-led Northeast Regional Center for Excellence in Vector Borne Diseases will launch later this month, thanks to a $10 million grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (lymenet.org)
  • Lyme disease is not only becoming more rampant in its normal hotspot of the northeast United States, it's spreading across the country, a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns. (lymenet.org)
  • To date, the Lyme disease maps published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have pinpointed Lyme disease clusters with literal pinpoints-one point per reported case, as in the map below from 2013. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • A recent report from the Centers for Disease Control suggests that vector-borne diseases are on the rise in United States. (ucf.edu)
  • Lyme disease is on the rise, with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reporting that cases of tick-borne illnesses more than doubled from 2004 to 2016, from 22,000 to 48,000. (childrens.com)
  • In this module, Data Clubs participants put themselves in the shoes of epidemiologists at the Centers for Disease Control who use large data sets to track the spread of this dangerous disease. (terc.edu)
  • It is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States, with 30,000 cases reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) each year by state health departments, although experts believe true numbers are at least 10 times higher. (aljazeera.com)
  • If you thought previous years were bad for ticks and Lyme disease, then you haven't seen anything yet, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (mercola.com)
  • The best way to avoid problems with diagnosis is to follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines regarding diagnosis (see Workup), to use a reputable laboratory with experience in testing for Lyme disease, and to obtain the assistance of an infectious disease expert when any questions arise. (medscape.com)
  • The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations are that Western blot should be used to confirm equivocal and positive results before the results are reported. (medscape.com)
  • In Europe, Lyme disease is endemic from southern Scandinavia into the northern Mediterranean countries of Greece, Italy, and Spain, and east from the British Isles into central Russia. (cdc.gov)
  • Some case reports describe Lyme disease in Australian and US travelers returning from Europe and endemic regions of the United States, but no data are available regarding the incidence of travel-acquired infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In people with a history of recent travel to an endemic area (with or without a recollection of a tick bite) a diagnosis of Lyme disease can be made by identifying an EM rash. (cdc.gov)
  • Understanding Lyme disease's epidemiology and clinical features is valuable for clinicians in emerging areas, clinicians in endemic regions who need a refresher course, and healthcare providers in non-endemic regions who see travel-related cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Has the patient been to a Lyme endemic area? (childrens.com)
  • Even if they don't remember being bitten, it's important to keep Lyme disease in mind if they've been to a Lyme-endemic region. (childrens.com)
  • If a child does not have a bullseye rash and especially if they have not been to a Lyme-endemic area, Lyme disease is probably not what's causing them. (childrens.com)
  • Despite the common findings of antibodies reactive to B. burgdorferi in cats in endemic areas, natural disease caused by infection in cats - if it occurs at all - is poorly understood. (capcvet.org)
  • This initial clinical trial is being done in the Upper Midwest region of the United States where Lyme disease is not endemic. (umassmed.edu)
  • The rash on the ankle seen in this photo is consistent with both cellulitis (deep red hue, acral location, mild tenderness) and erythema migrans (presentation in July, in an area highly endemic for Lyme disease). (medscape.com)
  • The second issue is that for this experiment to succeed, the proposal is to release these mice on an island in a controlled experiment on Martha's Vineyard or Nantucket, where Lyme disease is endemic and a major problem. (medscape.com)
  • In 2016, Lyme cases were down in the summer but came back stronger in the fall, and Maine ended up with 1,464 cases that year. (pressherald.com)
  • This year, Lyme cases started strong in the spring and early summer but fell off in the late summer, compared to previous years, and did not rebound in the fall, as they did in 2016. (pressherald.com)
  • 6/9/2016 - More than 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease in the United States - each year. (naturalnews.com)
  • 1/22/2016 - Lyme disease is a common, yet serious, problem for many regions of the United States. (naturalnews.com)
  • Lyme disease accounted for 82 percent of reported cases of tick-borne diseases between 2004 and 2016. (ucf.edu)
  • The risk of developing Lyme disease is influenced by a variety of lifestyle and environmental factors that reflect how likely a person is to get bitten by an infected tick, such as where a person lives, how much time is spent outdoors, and the time of year. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lyme disease is caused by infection with bacteria rather than by genetic changes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnosis and management of disseminated infection can be complicated and may require referral to an infectious disease specialist or rheumatologist. (cdc.gov)
  • Tick larvae are smaller than the nymphs, but they rarely carry the infection at the time of feeding and are probably not important in the transmission of Lyme disease to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Adult ticks can transmit the disease, but since they are larger and more likely to be removed from a person's body within a few hours, they are less likely than the nymphs to have sufficient time to transmit the infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme disease is an infection caused by a type of bacteria. (kidshealth.org)
  • If Lyme disease is not detected and treated while early symptoms are present, or if a person never has early symptoms that trigger the need for treatment, the infection may spread to the heart, the joints, the brain and spinal cord (nervous system), or sites on the skin. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • But because Lyme disease's symptoms can be mistaken for many other conditions, treatment can be missed or delayed and the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, potentially causing long lasting damage. (ucf.edu)
  • But for a patient to acquire the disease, the infection must move quickly through the blood to the joints, heart and brain, a process called dissemination. (ucf.edu)
  • Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, is a bacterial infection spread by infected ticks. (royalparks.org.uk)
  • Diagnosing Lyme arthritis can be problematic, especially in patients who do not report a rash and who have fever, since it can be confused with a bacterial joint infection, particularly in children," Dr. Cruz said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • And the only FDA-approved antibody test identifies later stages of Lyme disease but often misses the infection in its earlier stages. (childrens.com)
  • If a child presents with symptoms, Dr. Kahn recommends physicians ask four key questions to help them catch a Lyme infection early -- or to make a different diagnosis if the signs don't point to Lyme disease. (childrens.com)
  • Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), The Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Emerging Infectious Diseases, The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Infection, Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, JSTBD, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, and Infection and Immunology and has been presented at both national and international Lyme conferences. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • Local or early symptoms of Lyme disease are those that occur within the first two months of infection. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • Disseminated Lyme disease symptoms occur after eight weeks of infection. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • Lyme disease treatment can be effective, especially when caught within 8 weeks of infection. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • A group of physicians who like to refer to themselves as "Lyme literate" physicians describe patients whom they believe have persistent B. burgdorferi infection, claiming that the condition requires long-term antibiotic treatment. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Now, there is a condition known as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome, which is the proper term for patients with a verified previous B. burgdorferi infection who experience fatigue, arthralgias, or other symptoms six months or more after antibiotic treatment when all other conditions have been ruled out. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Accordingly, little is known about the prevalence of infection, disease manifestations, and treatment recommendations for feline infections with this agent. (capcvet.org)
  • Currently, we are working to determine if this strategy is likely to be important for West Nile virus infection, dengue fever, and malaria, among other diseases. (stanford.edu)
  • MassBiologic's Lyme PrEP prevents infection by delivering a single, human anti-Lyme antibody, or blood protein, directly to a person rather than triggering their own immune system to make many antibodies as vaccines do. (umassmed.edu)
  • Since in-house testing shows exposure and not necessarily an active infection, the positive result was confirmed at an outside lab by measuring the Lyme levels in Howie's blood. (oradell.com)
  • Lyme disease is an infection that is transmitted from the bites of ticks. (theorion.com)
  • Because antibodies may persist for years following an infection, repeat infection is a difficult diagnosis without specific signs of Lyme disease (eg, erythema migrans). (medscape.com)
  • To add to the confusion, ehrlichial infection may cause a false-positive result for Lyme disease on immunoglobulin M (IgM) Western blot analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Making a definite temporal association between detectable anti- B burgdorferi and the disease is impossible, owing to the fact that these antibodies do not indicate any time frame of actual infection with B burgdorferi or any actual presence of active Lyme disease. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, a positive result may be the true evidence of a prior infection with B burgdorferi and not at all related to the current disease process. (medscape.com)
  • A positive result is not definitive for current active infection with B burgdorferi , and a negative result can be found in a patient with active Lyme disease. (medscape.com)
  • Research in the eastern United States has indicated that, for the most part, ticks transmit Lyme disease to humans during the nymph stage, probably because nymphs are more likely to feed on a person and are rarely noticed because of their small size (less than 2 mm). (cdc.gov)
  • For Lyme disease to exist in an area, at least three closely interrelated elements must be present in nature: the Lyme disease bacteria, ticks that can transmit them, and mammals (such as mice and deer) to provide food for the ticks in their various life stages. (cdc.gov)
  • The ticks that transmit Lyme disease can occasionally transmit other tickborne diseases as well. (cdc.gov)
  • Even though the 30-year-old advertising executive lived in the woodsy town of Summit, New Jersey, she hadn't been hiking in an area where she could have been exposed to infected ticks that transmit the disease. (thedailybeast.com)
  • In most cases, the tick must be attached for at least 36 hours before it can transmit the disease. (childrens.com)
  • Participants investigate geographical data about Lyme, trends in its spread over time, and factors that make it likely that ticks will thrive and transmit the disease. (terc.edu)
  • It is only the black-legged ticks, commonly called deer ticks, that transmit the disease. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • These methods do not work and will only increase the likelihood the tick will transmit Lyme disease to you. (binghamton.edu)
  • You want something that will repel ticks or kill them before the 24-hour mark when they attach (remember it takes 24-48 hours to transmit Lyme disease). (oradell.com)
  • Ticks will feed on mice that no longer have Lyme disease, so they will no longer effectively transmit it to humans. (medscape.com)
  • Lyme arthritis can be defined as a painful, swollen joint, that causes a stiffness similar to osteoarthritis, and occurs most commonly in the late stages of Lyme disease, usually several months after the onset of the disease. (sciencedaily.com)
  • There are no reports of Lyme disease being spread to infants through breast milk. (cdc.gov)
  • Since then, reports of Lyme disease have increased dramatically, and the disease has become an important public health problem in some areas of the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers at Yale University have seen clear implications that as the planet warms, more reports of Lyme disease will be expected in the upper Midwest to match the amount of cases in the upper Northeast. (carleton.edu)
  • a non-profit foundation dedicated to public education of the prevention and treatment of Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses. (lymenet.org)
  • As a particularly pervasive summer for ticks on the Island winds down, the Infectious Disease Society of America has released new draft guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. (mvgazette.com)
  • Lyme Disease Action: Striving for the prevention and treatment of Lyme disease and associated tick borne diseases. (lymediseaseaction.org.uk)
  • The case studies are designed to educate physicians and clinicians on the proper diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease, as well as provide an opportunity to better understand the IDSA guidelines. (aldf.com)
  • The deer (or bear) tick, Ixodes dammini, which normally feeds on the white-footed mouse, the white-tailed deer, other mammals, and birds, is responsible for transmitting Lyme disease bacteria to humans in the northeastern and north-central United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme disease is transmitted to humans by the bites of infected ticks of the genus Ixodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Felicia Keesing, Associate Professor of Biology at Bard College explains why the complicated species interactions between ticks, mice, deer and humans make Lyme disease an especially challenging crisis to control. (lymenet.org)
  • Lyme disease is passed to humans and animals through ticks, which are small bugs that live in forested and grassy areas. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • Lyme disease is not limited to humans. (binghamton.edu)
  • Just as with humans, it is important for animals to avoid tick bites and receive prompt treatment for Lyme disease. (binghamton.edu)
  • The goals for the Phase I clinical trial, which began last week, are to test for the safety of Lyme PrEP and to determine how long it lasts in the bloodstream in humans," said Klempner. (umassmed.edu)
  • I took three key points from the article as a clinician, thinking about how we tackle a human disease, perhaps outside of humans. (medscape.com)
  • During this COCA Call, presenters will review updates in Lyme disease epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention and share new educational tools for both healthcare providers and their patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Effectively promote clinician and patient education on early signs and symptoms of Lyme disease, tick bite prevention, and post-exposure prophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
  • Promote health improvement, wellness, and disease prevention in cooperation with patients, communities, at-risk populations, and other members of an interprofessional team of healthcare providers. (cdc.gov)
  • There are several vaccines for the prevention of Lyme disease in dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's absolutely necessary that we support LymeNet to continue educating the public about the prevention and treatment of Lyme and other tick borne diseases. (lymenet.org)
  • Please see the Government advice on tick bites and the prevention of Lyme disease for more information. (royalparks.org.uk)
  • There is a real unmet public health need for the prevention of Lyme disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • The initial sign of about 80% of Lyme infections is an erythema migrans (EM) rash at the site of a tick bite, often near skin folds such as the armpit, groin, or back of the knee, on the trunk, under clothing straps, or in children's hair, ears, or neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings (e.g., rash), and the possibility of exposure to infected ticks. (cdc.gov)
  • Though 70 percent of patients develop a rash within three to 30 days of a tick bite, many don't connect symptoms like fatigue, chills, fever, headaches, muscle aches, and joint pain to Lyme disease. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States, but it can be confused with similar conditions, including Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI). (lymenet.org)
  • The first symptom of Lyme disease in most people is an expanding red skin rash (called erythema migrans or an EM rash). (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Dr. Mollie Jewett, head of the Division of Immunity and Pathogenesis Research at the College of Medicine's Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, focuses her research on earlier detection and better treatments for Lyme disease, which causes fever, headache, fatigue and a characteristic skin rash. (ucf.edu)
  • Dr. Cruz said that although rash occurs in the majority of patients exposed to the Lyme bacteria, in many patients who develop Lyme arthritis, the rash either never develops or goes unnoticed. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In the classic form of Lyme disease, a rash occurs, which resembles a bull's eye," he said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The fact that this rash does not always occur or is not reported in patients with Lyme arthritis makes the condition even more difficult to accurately diagnose. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Lyme disease is characterized by a myriad of symptoms: rash, fatigue, and fever are often present while joint swelling, heart conduction abnormalities, specifically heart block and meningitis, are far less common. (childrens.com)
  • Not every child who has Lyme disease will have this rash, but most will. (childrens.com)
  • Not everyone with Lyme disease develops a 'bull's-eye' rash. (sharecare.com)
  • If someone presents with a rash that they're convinced is the bull's-eye associated with Lyme disease, they often develop other symptoms as well. (sharecare.com)
  • Lyme disease symptoms include fever, headache, and fatigue, and it's characterized by a skin rash known as erythema migrans. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based o nits symptoms, physical findings (e.g., the characteristic skin rash, which looks like a bull's eye), and a history of being in an area where exposure to ticks is possible. (scienceblogs.com)
  • While Lyme disease (also called Lyme disease) affects 50,000 people in France, and this tick bite causes fever, rash, headache, muscle and joint aches, but also a great deal of fatigue. (bioprepwatch.com)
  • Some people don't become ill at all or might not remember getting bitten," explains Paul Auwaerter, MD, clinical director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Johns Hopkins Medicine. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Compiling the map, which appears in a paper published online last week in the CDC's journal Emerging Infectious Diseases , made two things clear. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases, August 2015. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • 8/19/2014 - On May 22 and May 23 members from the Lyme disease community held a protest at the headquarters of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) in Arlington, Virginia. (naturalnews.com)
  • Clinical Infectious Diseases Of eight websites with "Lyme" in the domain name, only the American Lyme Disease Foundation provides accurate information . (aldf.com)
  • Title : Lyme disease : a public information guide Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (U.S.). Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • This is Paul Auwaerter, speaking for Medscape Infectious Diseases. (medscape.com)
  • The conventional 2-tiered serologic testing protocol for Lyme disease (LD), an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G Western blots, performs well in late-stage LD but is insensitive in patients with erythema migrans (EM), the most common manifestation of the illness. (nih.gov)
  • In most patients with erythema migrans, a carefully elicited history (including definitions of epidemiologic context) and a physical examination are all that is required to establish the diagnosis of Lyme disease. (medscape.com)
  • However, although many patients with Lyme disease present with erythema migrans, others first present with extracutaneous symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • The late disseminated stage of Lyme disease can occur months to years after the tick bite. (medlineplus.gov)
  • That very regionalized awareness occurs both because Lyme can be a dreadful illness, causing arthritis and neurological problems years after the tick bite that transmitted it, and also because Lyme is oddly geographically limited. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • When an infected tick bites someone and begins to feed on their blood, Lyme-causing bacteria can slowly travel from the tick's gut to its salivary glands and then transfer the bacteria to the site of the bite. (umassmed.edu)
  • The signs and symptoms of Lyme disease result from the body's immune response to the bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease vary by disease stage. (medscape.com)
  • Describe early signs and symptoms of Lyme disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme disease is transmitted by Ixodes ticks, also known as deer ticks. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Dr. Cameron is the President of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society. (cbsnews.com)
  • He's specialized in treating Lyme for 10 years and is a member of the ILADS (International Lyme and Associated Disease Society). (flashlightworthybooks.com)
  • The location was chosen so that clinicians can avoid testing the Lyme PrEP antibody on volunteers who may have already been exposed to the Lyme bacteria and have developed responses to the bacteria that could confuse the results. (umassmed.edu)
  • Anyone bitten by an infected deer tick can get Lyme disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • Lyme is an infectious disease caused by the deer tick, which has expanded its range in Maine over the past 20 years. (pressherald.com)
  • When the larval deer tick is born it is not born as a carrier of the disease. (carleton.edu)
  • If the larval tick gets a blood meal from a deer or in a more likely case, a mouse already carrying the disease, the larval tick is then infected with B. burgdorferi . (carleton.edu)
  • Deer have been the main suspect in being the carrier of the B. burgdorferi , but research shows that this may not be the case because the deer has the ability to flush the disease out of its system. (carleton.edu)
  • However, those ticks that may carry Lyme disease are common in the countryside, especially woodlands and parks with deer, such as Richmond Park and Bushy Park. (royalparks.org.uk)
  • Lyme disease can only be transmitted through bites from infected deer ticks (also called black-legged ticks). (childrens.com)
  • Deer ticks, the primary carriers of Lyme disease, have spread to some areas of the US, but not to others. (terc.edu)
  • A type of tick called the deer tick spreads Lyme disease. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If you're bitten by a deer tick, you don't get Lyme disease right away. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It's play-outside season for all of us now, finally, and with new reports that more deer ticks survived the winter, we need to arm ourselves with the facts about Lyme disease. (wyrk.com)
  • 9/1/2015 - The bacteria that cause Lyme can be found in the skin, heart, joints, and nervous system. (naturalnews.com)
  • An initiative led by the Johns Hopkins Spatial Science for Public Health Center, in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Medicine Lyme Disease Research Center and the Johns Hopkins Lyme and Tickborne Diseases Research and Education Institute. (lymenet.org)
  • Serological tests used to diagnose domestically acquired Lyme disease might not reliably identify infections acquired internationally. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood tests can only help diagnose Lyme disease later in the illness, several weeks after it started. (kidshealth.org)
  • The key is to diagnose Lyme disease early to avoid development of arthritis, and to differentiate between Lyme arthritis and other types of arthritis in symptomatic patients. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Making matters worse, the disease is sometimes tricky to diagnose. (childrens.com)
  • It's also not uncommon for people to try and self-diagnose Lyme disease. (sharecare.com)
  • You can diagnose or rule out Lyme disease based on the epidemiology and the testing that you do. (sharecare.com)
  • Naturopaths, for instance, like to diagnose people with "adrenal fatigue," which is one of the prototypical "fake diseases. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Clinicians unfamiliar with Lyme disease or Lyme testing may falsely exclude the diagnosis by testing too early in the disease course, or falsely diagnose disease by following up negative enzyme immunoassay (EIA) results with Western blot testing (the latter is indicated only in patients with a positive or indeterminate EIA result). (medscape.com)
  • The most common feature of this stage, Lyme arthritis, is characterized by episodes of joint pain and swelling, usually affecting the knees. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This complication is called antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While there is no evidence that genetic factors play a role in susceptibility to Lyme disease, such factors may affect the severity of the disease, particularly whether antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis develops. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Certain genes that help mediate the body's immune response have been associated with the development of antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some of the genes thought to be associated with the development of antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis provide instructions for making proteins called Toll-like receptors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In patients with late disease, the typical physical finding is arthritis. (medscape.com)
  • Lyme disease was first recognized in the United States in 1975, after a mysterious outbreak of arthritis near Lyme, Connecticut. (cdc.gov)
  • Early, correct diagnosis is the best way to prevent the development of Lyme arthritis in individuals with the tick-borne illness, according to a new study. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Lyme arthritis occurs commonly in patients with Lyme disease and should be considered when evaluating patients with joint complaints and who live in areas where the disease occurs," said study author Aristides Cruz, MD, chief orthopaedic resident, Yale-New Haven Hospital. (sciencedaily.com)
  • When diagnosed early, most patients do not develop Lyme arthritis. (sciencedaily.com)
  • About 60 percent of patients who are left untreated for Lyme disease in its early stages will develop Lyme arthritis, Dr. Cruz said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Lyme arthritis occurs when the spirochete, the bacteria that causes the disease, invades the joints and causes inflammation to the tissue that lines the joints," he said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Dr. Cruz said most cases of Lyme arthritis are brief and involve a single joint, most typically the knee. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Lyme arthritis has an excellent prognosis with appropriate treatment," Dr. Cruz said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Overtreating for Lyme disease can draw attention away from conditions that present with similar symptoms like lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. (childrens.com)
  • They may be confused with diseases such as chronic fatigue syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, depression, and even Alzheimer's disease . (sharecare.com)
  • Can rheumatoid arthritis (RA) be confused with Lyme disease? (sharecare.com)
  • If left untreated, Lyme arthritis can develop, which could mimic other inflammatory joint diseases, [such as RA]. (sharecare.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis may also cause morning stiffness, which may not be the case with Lyme. (sharecare.com)
  • Diagnosing Lyme disease based on a combination of clinical signs, including arthritis and renal disease, and positive serology. (capcvet.org)
  • It was first recognized in 1975 when researchers started investigating why so many children were developing juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in Lyme, Connecticut, and several surrounding towns. (oradell.com)
  • Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. (medlineplus.gov)
  • That's not to say Lyme disease can't be severe, but for most people, it's a treatable illness that won't result in the ruination of your life. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Researchers say they've identified a set of biomarkers that could make early diagnosis of Lyme disease easier, a possible first step for more effectively treating the estimated 476,000 people diagnosed with, and treated for, the tick-borne illness every year in the United States. (lymenet.org)
  • In fact, sadly, if you've been suffering with Lyme disease for some time, you've probably been labeled with a mental illness and largely ignored. (naturalnews.com)
  • 9/9/2013 - Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in North America and Europe. (naturalnews.com)
  • Lyme disease causes a prolonged illness in some patients that may be more serious and widespread than previously understood-and it costs the U.S. healthcare system an estimated $712 million to $1.3 billion per year, or nearly $3,000 per patient on average, according to a study by researchers at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. (aacc.org)
  • A little context for the uninitiated: Lyme disease is a complex illness that is arguably the most politically controversial disease since the emergence of HIV/AIDS --and one of the most widespread. (huffpost.com)
  • Lyme disease is a vector-borne illness transmitted by ticks. (medscape.com)
  • Breastfeeding mothers diagnosed with Lyme disease should consult with their healthcare providers who can prescribe an antibiotic that is safe to use while breastfeeding. (cdc.gov)
  • With appropriate antibiotic treatment, most patients with early-stage Lyme disease recover rapidly and completely. (medscape.com)
  • Antibiotic selection, route of administration, and duration of therapy for Lyme disease are guided by the patient's clinical manifestations and stage of disease, as well as the presence of any concomitant medical conditions or allergies. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers identified 52,795 Lyme disease patients under age 65 who had received antibiotic treatment within 30 days of either a Lyme disease diagnosis or a test order for the disease. (aacc.org)
  • After blood tests came back overwhelmingly positive for Lyme, he too received an IV for six weeks, as well as two-and-a-half years of oral antibiotic treatment. (aljazeera.com)
  • These properties make hygromycin an attractive candidate for antibiotic development for targeted therapy of Lyme disease, the researcher emphasized. (bioprepwatch.com)
  • Two Controlled Trials of Antibiotic Treatment in Patients with Persistent Symptoms and a History of Lyme Disease", M.S. Klempner, L.T. Hu, J. Evans, et al. (aldf.com)
  • If a person is having issues with symptoms after having Lyme disease, they should reach out to a knowledgeable doctor if they can. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What Is Post-Lyme Disease Syndrome? (kidshealth.org)
  • Most people with post-Lyme disease syndrome usually get better with time, but it can take months to feel well again. (kidshealth.org)
  • This book also explains the importance of finding the right doctor, literate in the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme as well as treatments that have proven helpful. (flashlightworthybooks.com)
  • It aims to raise awareness of when Lyme disease should be suspected and ensure that people have prompt and consistent diagnosis and treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • For information on ticks, removing ticks, and how to avoid being bitten, see HealthLinkBC File #01 Tick Bites and Disease . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • While most tick bites do not result in diseases, some can. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The bigger question we hope to answer is how long will the antibody last in the circulation so when a tick bites you will be protected from Lyme disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • Since many tick bites go unnoticed, many people don't even know that they have the disease. (theorion.com)
  • A small percentage of individuals have symptoms that persist months or years after treatment, which is called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chronic symptoms following treatment are known as "post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome" (PTLDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent fatigue can be part of a condition known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) or chronic Lyme. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sadly, many more suffer from this disease but get misdiagnosed with fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome or any number of the so-called 'psychiatric' conditions. (naturalnews.com)
  • The first case of Lyme disease to be reported in the United States was in the town of Lyme, Connecticut, in 1975. (carleton.edu)
  • If you are experiencing symptoms of widespread pain, muscle stiffness , and fatigue it is important for you to get tested and diagnosed by a number of health care professionals in order to rule out Lyme disease. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • The early disseminated stage of Lyme disease occurs as the bacteria is carried throughout the body in the bloodstream. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treatment depends on the stage of Lyme disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • Not everyone with Lyme disease has all of the symptoms and many of the symptoms are not specific to Lyme disease, but can occur with other diseases, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with Lyme disease might be unaware that they were ever bitten. (cdc.gov)
  • There is no convincing evidence that Lyme disease can be transmitted by insects such as mosquitoes, flies, or fleas. (cdc.gov)
  • There is evidence that Lyme disease was present in wildlife all the way back to the late 1800s. (oradell.com)
  • Fatigue is a potential symptom of Lyme disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with post Lyme disease can suffer from recurrent symptom outbreaks for many years. (fibromyalgia-symptoms.org)
  • None of these patients had been diagnosed with Lyme while alive, although one was prescribed medication to treat sudden-onset severe anxiety (a common and commonly dismissed Lyme symptom) the very day before his sudden death. (huffpost.com)
  • Ticks only carry Lyme disease in certain parts of the world. (childrens.com)
  • Read on for five ways to treat fatigue from Lyme disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Those with Lyme disease were nearly five times more likely to have any PTLDS-related diagnosis -fatigue, nerve pain, joint pain, cognitive troubles-within that year and were 5.5 times more likely to have a diagnosis of debility and excessive fatigue. (aacc.org)
  • Symptoms of the disease include fevers, headaches, fatigue and skin rashes. (theorion.com)
  • If you or someone in your family have Lyme Disease, been bitten by a tick or mosquito, been ill without diagnosis, been undertreated or mistreated. (flashlightworthybooks.com)
  • Since many people do not know they have been bitten by a tick and many do not know they may be infected with Lyme disease, this leads to misdiagnosis and improper treatment. (theorion.com)
  • Not all people who have been bitten by a tick develop Lyme disease, since only one species of tick, out of hundreds of species, is affected, and it is also necessary for that tick to be infected, and to be in sufficient contact with the host to be able to do so. (bioprepwatch.com)
  • Florida's proximity to the Caribbean and South America and the fact that we are a tourism state makes us a unique place to study these emerging vector-borne diseases. (ucf.edu)