A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
An alkaloid that occurs in the extract of leaves of wild tomato plants. It has been found to inhibit the growth of various fungi and bacteria. It is used as a precipitating agent for steroids. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Diseases of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The club-moss plant family of the order Lycopodiales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. The common name of clubmoss applies to several genera of this family. Despite the name this is not one of the true mosses (BRYOPSIDA).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Temporal and multiple quantitative trait loci analyses of resistance to bacterial wilt in tomato permit the resolution of linked loci. (1/2576)

Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterium that causes the serious disease known as bacterial wilt in many plant species. In tomato, several QTL controlling resistance have been found, but in different studies, markers spanning a large region of chromosome 6 showed strong association with the resistance. By using two different approaches to analyze the data from a field test F3 population, we show that at least two separate loci approximately 30 cM apart on this chromosome are most likely involved in the resistance. First, a temporal analysis of the progression of symptoms reveals a distal locus early in the development of the disease. As the disease progresses, the maximum LOD peak observed shifts toward the proximal end of the chromosome, obscuring the distal locus. Second, although classical interval mapping could only detect the presence of one locus, a statistical "two-QTL model" test, specifically adapted for the resolution of linked QTL, strongly supported the hypothesis for the presence of two loci. These results are discussed in the context of current molecular knowledge about disease resistance genes on chromosome 6 and observations made by tomato breeders during the production of bacterial wilt-resistant varieties.  (+info)

Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. (2/2576)

The epidemiologic literature in the English language regarding intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene (a compound derived predominantly from tomatoes) level in relation to the risk of various cancers was reviewed. Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites. About half of the relative risks for comparisons of high with low intakes or levels for tomatoes or lycopene were approximately 0.6 or lower. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data are from observational studies, a cause-effect relationship cannot be established definitively. However, the consistency of the results across numerous studies in diverse populations, for case-control and prospective studies, and for dietary-based and blood-based investigations argues against bias or confounding as the explanation for these findings. Lycopene may account for or contribute to these benefits, but this possibility is not yet proven and requires further study. Numerous other potentially beneficial compounds are present in tomatoes, and, conceivably, complex interactions among multiple components may contribute to the anticancer properties of tomatoes. The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption.  (+info)

Protective effect of dietary tomato against endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice. (3/2576)

The effects of dietary ingestion of tomato were studied in mice that had been made hypercholesterolemic by feeding atherogenic diets. Mice which had been fed on the atherogenic diet without tomato for 4 months had significantly increased plasma lipid peroxide, and the vaso-relaxing activity in the aorta induced by acetylcholine (ACh) was harmed when compared with mice fed on a common commercial diet. On the other hand, mice which had been fed on the atherogenic diet containing 20% (w/w) lyophilized powder of tomato showed less increase in the plasma lipid peroxide level, and ACh-induced vaso-relaxation was maintained at the same level as that in normal mice. These results indicate that tomato has a preventive effect on atherosclerosis by protecting plasma lipids from oxidation.  (+info)

LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen. (4/2576)

During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes.  (+info)

Tissue tropism related to vector competence of Frankliniella occidentalis for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. (5/2576)

The development of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infection in the midgut and salivary glands of transmitting and non-transmitting thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was studied to elucidate tissue tropism and the virus pathway within the body of this vector. Immunohistological techniques used in this study showed that the midgut, foregut and salivary glands were the only organs in which virus accumulated. The first signals of infection, observed as randomly distributed fluorescent granular spots, were found in the epithelial cells of the midgut, mainly restricted to the anterior region. The virus subsequently spread to the circular and longitudinal midgut muscle tissues, a process which occurred late in the larval stage. In the adult stage, the infection occurred in the visceral muscle tissues, covering the whole midgut and foregut, and was abolished in the midgut epithelium. The infection of the salivary glands was first observed 72 h post-acquisition, and simultaneously in the ligaments connecting the midgut with these glands. The salivary glands of transmitting individuals appeared heavily or completely infected, while no or only a low level of infection was found in the glands of non-transmitting individuals. Moreover, the development of an age-dependent midgut barrier against virus infection was observed in second instar larvae and adults. The results show that the establishment of TSWV infection in the various tissues and the potential of transmission seems to be regulated by different barriers and processes related to the metamorphosis of thrips.  (+info)

A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. (6/2576)

Evidence for the involvement of a Bemisia tabaci GroEL homologue in the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is presented. A approximately 63-kDa protein was identified in B. tabaci whole-body extracts using an antiserum raised against aphid Buchnera GroEL. The GroEL homologue was immunolocalized to a coccoid-shaped whitefly endosymbiont. The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the whitefly GroEL homologue showed 80% homology with that from different aphid species and GroEL from Escherichia coli. Purified GroEL from B. tabaci exhibited ultrastructural similarities to that of the endosymbiont from aphids and E. coli. In vitro ligand assays showed that tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) particles displayed a specific affinity for the B. tabaci 63-kDa GroEL homologue. Feeding whiteflies anti-Buchnera GroEL antiserum before the acquisition of virions reduced TYLCV transmission to tomato test plants by >80%. In the haemolymph of these whiteflies, TYLCV DNA was reduced to amounts below the threshold of detection by Southern blot hybridization. Active antibodies were recovered from the insect haemolymph suggesting that by complexing the GoEL homologue, the antibody disturbed interaction with TYLCV, leading to degradation of the virus. We propose that GroEL of B. tabaci protects the virus from destruction during its passage through the haemolymph.  (+info)

Proteolytic processing of tomato ringspot nepovirus 3C-like protease precursors: definition of the domains for the VPg, protease and putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (7/2576)

Tomato ringspot nepovirus (TomRSV) RNA-1 encodes a putative NTP-binding protein (NTB), a putative viral genome-linked protein (VPg), a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol) and a serine-like protease (Pro), which have been suggested to be involved in viral RNA replication. Proteolytic processing of protease precursors containing these proteins was studied in Escherichia coli and in vitro. The TomRSV protease could cleave the precursor proteins and release the predicted mature proteins or intermediate precursors. Although processing was detected at all three predicted cleavage sites (NTB-VPg, VPg-Pro and Pro-Pol), processing at the VPg-Pro cleavage site was inefficient, resulting in accumulation of the VPg-Pro intermediate precursor in E. coli and in vitro. In addition, the presence of the VPg sequence in the precursor resulted in increased cleavage at the Pro-Pol cleavage site in E. coli and in vitro. Direct N-terminal sequencing of the genomic RNA-linked VPg, of the mature protease purified from E. coli extracts and of radiolabelled mature polymerase purified from in vitro translation products revealed the sequences of the NTB-VPg, VPg-Pro and Pro-Pol dipeptide cleavage sites to be Q/S, Q/G and Q/S, respectively. In vitro processing at the NTB-VPg and Pro-Pol cleavage sites was not detected upon mutation or deletion of the conserved glutamine at the -1 position of the cleavage site. These results are discussed in light of the cleavage site specificity of the TomRSV protease.  (+info)

Does tomato consumption effectively increase the resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage? (8/2576)

BACKGROUND: Lycopene, the main carotenoid in tomato, has been shown to be a potent antioxidant in vitro. However, there is no significant evidence of its antioxidant action in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of tomato intake on plasma carotenoid concentrations and lymphocyte resistance to oxidative stress. DESIGN: Ten healthy women (divided into 2 groups of 5 subjects each) ate a diet containing tomato puree (providing 16.5 mg lycopene) and a tomato-free diet for 21 d each in a crossover design. Before and after each diet period, plasma carotenoid concentrations and primary lymphocyte resistance to oxidative stress (evaluated by means of single-cell gel electrophoresis) were analyzed. RESULTS: After the first 21-d experimental period, total plasma lycopene concentrations increased by 0.5 micromol/L (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87) in the group that consumed the tomato diet and decreased by 0.2 micromol/L (95% CI: -0.11, -0.30) in the group that consumed the tomato-free diet (P < 0.001). Tomato consumption also had an effect on cellular antioxidant capacity: lymphocyte DNA damage after ex vivo treatment with hydrogen peroxide decreased by 33% (95% CI: 0.8%, 61%; P < 0.05) and by 42% (95% CI: 5.1%, 78%; P < 0.05) in the 2 groups of subjects after consumption of the tomato diet. CONCLUSION: The consumption of tomato products may reduce the susceptibility of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage.  (+info)

"Lycopersicon esculentum" is the scientific name for the common red tomato. It is a species of fruit from the nightshade family (Solanaceae) that is native to western South America and Central America. Tomatoes are widely grown and consumed in many parts of the world as a vegetable, although they are technically a fruit. They are rich in nutrients such as vitamin C, potassium, and lycopene, which has been studied for its potential health benefits.

'Fagopyrum' is the genus name for buckwheat plants, which belong to the family Polygonaceae. There are several species within this genus, including Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat) and Fagopyrum tataricum (Tartary buckwheat). These plants are not related to wheat or grasses, despite their name. They are important crops in some parts of the world, particularly in Asia, and their seeds are used as a source of food and flour. Buckwheat is also valued for its high protein content and unique nutritional profile.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Ethylenes" is not a medical term or a medical condition. Ethylene is actually a colorless gas with a sweet and musky odor, which belongs to the class of hydrocarbons called alkenes. It is used widely in industry, including the production of polyethylene, antifreeze, and other chemicals.

However, if you meant something else or need information on a specific medical topic related to ethylene or its derivatives, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I would be happy to help.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

"Solanaceae" is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, referring to the Nightshade family of plants. This family includes several plants that have economic and medicinal importance, as well as some that are toxic or poisonous. Some common examples of plants in this family include:

- Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)
- Solanum tuberosum (potato)
- Capsicum annuum (bell pepper and chili pepper)
- Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
- Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)
- Hyoscyamus niger (henbane)

While Solanaceae isn't a medical term itself, certain plants within this family have medical significance. For instance, some alkaloids found in these plants can be used as medications or pharmaceutical precursors, such as atropine and scopolamine from Atropa belladonna, hyoscine from Hyoscyamus niger, and capsaicin from Capsicum species. However, it's important to note that many of these plants also contain toxic compounds, so they must be handled with care and used only under professional supervision.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Structures" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of botany to refer to the different parts of a plant, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Each of these structures has specific functions that contribute to the overall growth, reproduction, and survival of the plant. If you have any questions related to biology or botany, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

Tomatine is not a medical term, but a chemical compound found in plants, specifically in the leaves and stems of green tomatoes and in higher concentrations in the roots and flowers. It is a glycoalkaloid, which is a type of toxic compound that some plants produce to deter pests.

In the context of human health, tomatine has been studied for its potential effects on the body. Some research suggests that it may have anti-cancer properties, but more studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine whether it has any therapeutic value. It's important to note that tomatine can be toxic in high concentrations, so it should not be consumed in large amounts or as a supplement without medical supervision.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are natural or synthetic chemical substances that, when present in low concentrations, can influence various physiological and biochemical processes in plants. These processes include cell division, elongation, and differentiation; flowering and fruiting; leaf senescence; and stress responses. PGRs can be classified into several categories based on their mode of action and chemical structure, including auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and others. They are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield and quality, regulate plant growth and development, and enhance stress tolerance.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

Gibberellins (GAs) are a type of plant hormones that regulate various growth and developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination of seeds, leaf expansion, and flowering. They are a large family of diterpenoid compounds that are synthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) in the plastids and then modified through a series of enzymatic reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm.

GAs exert their effects by binding to specific receptors, which activate downstream signaling pathways that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cellular responses. The biosynthesis and perception of GAs are tightly regulated, and disruptions in these processes can result in various developmental abnormalities and growth disorders in plants.

In addition to their role in plant growth and development, GAs have also been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as stress tolerance, nutrient uptake, and senescence. They have also attracted interest as potential targets for crop improvement, as modulating GA levels and sensitivity can enhance traits such as yield, disease resistance, and abiotic stress tolerance.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in plants refers to the long, single-stranded molecules that are essential for the translation of genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins. RNA is a nucleic acid, like DNA, and it is composed of a ribose sugar backbone with attached nitrogenous bases (adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine).

In plants, there are several types of RNA that play specific roles in the gene expression process:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): This type of RNA carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a sequence of three-base code units called codons. These codons specify the order of amino acids in a protein.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): tRNAs are small RNA molecules that serve as adaptors between the mRNA and the amino acids during protein synthesis. Each tRNA has a specific anticodon sequence that base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA, and it carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to that codon.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): rRNAs are structural components of ribosomes, which are large macromolecular complexes where protein synthesis occurs. In plants, there are several types of rRNAs, including the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S/28S rRNAs, that form the core of the ribosome and help catalyze peptide bond formation during protein synthesis.
4. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA): These are small RNA molecules that play a role in RNA processing, such as splicing, where introns (non-coding sequences) are removed from pre-mRNA and exons (coding sequences) are joined together to form mature mRNAs.
5. MicroRNA (miRNA): These are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in target mRNAs, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

Overall, these different types of RNAs play crucial roles in various aspects of RNA metabolism, gene regulation, and protein synthesis in plants.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

'Cladosporium' is a genus of fungi that are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil, decaying plant material, and indoor air. These fungi are known for their dark-pigmented spores, which can be found in various shapes and sizes depending on the species. They are important causes of allergies and respiratory symptoms in humans, as well as plant diseases. Some species of Cladosporium can also produce toxins that may cause health problems in susceptible individuals. It is important to note that medical definitions typically refer to specific diseases or conditions that affect human health, so 'Cladosporium' itself would not be considered a medical definition.

Carbon-carbon lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in a substrate, resulting in the formation of two molecules with a double bond between them. This reaction is typically accompanied by the release or addition of a cofactor such as water or a coenzyme.

These enzymes play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. They are also involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, such as terpenoids and alkaloids.

Carbon-carbon lyases are classified under EC number 4.1.2. in the Enzyme Commission (EC) system. This classification includes a wide range of enzymes with different substrate specificities and reaction mechanisms. Examples of carbon-carbon lyases include decarboxylases, aldolases, and dehydratases.

It's worth noting that the term "lyase" refers to any enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a group of atoms from a molecule, leaving a double bond or a cycle, and it does not necessarily imply the formation of carbon-carbon bonds.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Polygalacturonase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glycosidic linkages in polygalacturonic acid, which is a major component of pectin in plant cell walls. This enzyme is involved in various processes such as fruit ripening, plant defense response, and pathogenesis by breaking down the pectin, leading to softening and breakdown of plant tissues. It is also used in industrial applications for fruit juice extraction, tea fermentation, and textile processing.

Beta-fructofuranosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of certain sugars, specifically those that have a fructose molecule bound to another sugar at its beta-furanose form. This enzyme is also known as invertase or sucrase, and it plays a crucial role in breaking down sucrose (table sugar) into its component parts, glucose and fructose.

Beta-fructofuranosidase can be found in various organisms, including yeast, fungi, and plants. In yeast, for example, this enzyme is involved in the fermentation of sugars during the production of beer, wine, and bread. In humans, beta-fructofuranosidase is present in the small intestine, where it helps to digest sucrose in the diet.

The medical relevance of beta-fructofuranosidase lies mainly in its role in sugar metabolism and digestion. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to various genetic disorders, such as congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID), which is characterized by the inability to digest certain sugars properly. This condition can cause symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain after consuming foods containing sucrose or other affected sugars.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

In the context of medical terminology, "germination" is not typically used as a term to describe a physiological process in humans or animals. It is primarily used in the field of botany to refer to the process by which a seed or spore sprouts and begins to grow into a new plant.

However, if you are referring to the concept of germination in the context of bacterial or viral growth, then it could be defined as:

The process by which bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms become active and start to multiply, often after a period of dormancy or latency. This can occur when the microorganisms encounter favorable conditions, such as moisture, warmth, or nutrients, that allow them to grow and reproduce. In medical contexts, this term is more commonly used in relation to infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

A hypocotyl is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of botany, which is a branch of biology that deals with the study of plants. Therefore, I'd be happy to provide you with a definition of hypocotyl in a botanical context:

The hypocotyl is the portion of the embryo or seedling of a plant that lies between the cotyledons (the embryonic leaves) and the radicle (the embryonic root). In other words, it is the stem-like structure that connects the shoot and the root systems in a developing plant.

When a seed germinates, the hypocotyl elongates and pushes the cotyledons upward through the soil, allowing the young plant to emerge into the light. The hypocotyl can vary in length depending on the species of plant, and its growth is influenced by various environmental factors such as light and temperature.

While the term "hypocotyl" may not be commonly used in medical contexts, understanding basic botanical concepts like this one can still be useful for healthcare professionals who work with patients who have plant-related allergies or other health issues related to plants.

Cyclic amino acids are a type of modified amino acid where the side chain of the amino acid forms a ring structure. This is different from the typical structure of amino acids, which have a linear side chain. The formation of the ring can occur within the same amino acid molecule or between two amino acid molecules.

Cyclic amino acids play important roles in various biological processes. For example, some cyclic amino acids are involved in the structure and function of proteins, while others serve as signaling molecules or neurotransmitters. Some common examples of cyclic amino acids include proline, hydroxyproline, and sarcosine.

It is worth noting that not all modified amino acids with ring structures are considered cyclic amino acids. For example, some amino acids may have a sulfur atom in their side chain that forms a disulfide bond with another cysteine residue, but this is not considered a cyclic structure because the ring is formed between two separate molecules rather than within a single molecule.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

Plant transpiration is the process by which water vapor escapes from leaves and other aerial parts of plants to the atmosphere. It is a type of evapotranspiration, which refers to both evaporation from land surfaces and transpiration from plants. Water molecules are absorbed by plant roots from the soil, move up through the xylem tissue to the leaves, and then evaporate from the leaf surface through stomatal pores. This process helps in the transportation of nutrients from the soil to various parts of the plant, regulates the temperature of the plant, and maintains the turgor pressure within the cells. Plant transpiration is influenced by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipid molecules derived from the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They play crucial roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cellular signaling. Oxylipins can be further categorized based on their precursor PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid (LA). These oxylipins are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, and pain perception. They exert their effects through various receptors and downstream signaling pathways, making them important targets for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

Cyclopentanes are a class of hydrocarbons that contain a cycloalkane ring of five carbon atoms. The chemical formula for cyclopentane is C5H10. It is a volatile, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of polymers. Cyclopentanes are also found naturally in petroleum and coal tar.

Cyclopentanes have a unique structure in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a pentagonal shape, with each carbon atom bonded to two other carbon atoms and one or two hydrogen atoms. This structure gives cyclopentane its characteristic "bowl-shaped" geometry, which allows it to undergo various chemical reactions, such as ring-opening reactions, that can lead to the formation of other chemicals.

Cyclopentanes have a variety of industrial and commercial applications. For example, they are used in the production of plastics, resins, and synthetic rubbers. They also have potential uses in the development of new drugs and medical technologies, as their unique structure and reactivity make them useful building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Plant Epidermis" is not a medical term. Instead, it is a term used in botany to describe the outermost layer of cells in plant tissues. The epidermis serves as a protective barrier for the plant, regulating gas exchange and water loss through stomata, and producing cutin, a waxy substance that helps prevent water loss.

In summary, "Plant Epidermis" is a term related to plant biology and not medicine.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including seed dormancy, bud dormancy, leaf senescence, and response to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold temperatures. It is a sesquiterpene compound that is synthesized in plants primarily in response to environmental stimuli that trigger the onset of stress responses.

ABA functions by regulating gene expression, cell growth and development, and stomatal closure, which helps prevent water loss from plants under drought conditions. It also plays a role in the regulation of plant metabolism and the activation of defense mechanisms against pathogens and other environmental stressors. Overall, abscisic acid is an essential hormone that enables plants to adapt to changing environmental conditions and optimize their growth and development.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "vegetables" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a dietary category that includes various plant-based foods, typically referring to the edible parts of herbaceous plants excluding fruit (but including seeds), such as leaves, stems, roots, tubers, and bulbs.

However, in a nutritional or clinical context, vegetables are often defined by their nutrient content. For example, they may be classified as foods that are high in certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber, and low in calories and fat. Different healthcare professionals or organizations might have slightly different definitions or classifications of what constitutes a vegetable, but there is no single medical definition for this term.

Gravitropism is the growth or movement of a plant in response to gravity. It is a type of tropism, which is the growth or movement of an organism in response to a stimulus. In gravitropism, plant cells can sense the direction of gravity and grow or bend towards or away from it. Roots typically exhibit positive gravitropism, growing downwards in response to gravity, while shoots exhibit negative gravitropism, growing upwards against gravity. This growth pattern helps plants establish themselves in their environment and optimize their access to resources such as water and light.

A lyase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds in a molecule, often resulting in the formation of two new molecules. Lyases differ from other types of enzymes, such as hydrolases and oxidoreductases, because they create double bonds or rings as part of their reaction mechanism.

In the context of medical terminology, lyases are not typically discussed on their own, but rather as a type of enzyme that can be involved in various biochemical reactions within the body. For example, certain lyases play a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, among other molecules.

One specific medical application of lyase enzymes is in the diagnosis of certain genetic disorders. For instance, individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) lack the enzyme aldolase B, which is a type of lyase that helps break down fructose in the liver. By measuring the activity of aldolase B in a patient's blood or tissue sample, doctors can diagnose HFI and recommend appropriate dietary restrictions to manage the condition.

Overall, while lyases are not a medical diagnosis or condition themselves, they play important roles in various biochemical processes within the body and can be useful in the diagnosis of certain genetic disorders.

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is not exactly a medical term, but rather a scientific term used in the field of biochemistry and physiology. It is a type of auxin, which is a plant hormone that regulates various growth and development processes in plants. IAA is the most abundant and best-studied natural auxin.

Medically, indole-3-acetic acid may be mentioned in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments related to plants or plant-derived substances. For example, some research has investigated the potential use of IAA in promoting wound healing in plants or in agricultural applications. However, it is not a substance that is typically used in medical treatment for humans or animals.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

Plant lectins are proteins or glycoproteins that are abundantly found in various plant parts such as seeds, leaves, stems, and roots. They have the ability to bind specifically to carbohydrate structures present on cell membranes, known as glycoconjugates. This binding property of lectins is reversible and non-catalytic, meaning it does not involve any enzymatic activity.

Lectins play several roles in plants, including defense against predators, pathogens, and herbivores. They can agglutinate red blood cells, stimulate the immune system, and have been implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Some lectins also exhibit mitogenic activity, which means they can stimulate the proliferation of certain types of cells.

In the medical field, plant lectins have gained attention due to their potential therapeutic applications. For instance, some lectins have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties and are being investigated as potential cancer treatments. However, it is important to note that some lectins can be toxic or allergenic to humans and animals, so they must be used with caution.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

'Toxic plants' refer to those species of plants that contain toxic substances capable of causing harmful effects or adverse health reactions in humans and animals when ingested, touched, or inhaled. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms from mild irritation to serious conditions such as organ failure, paralysis, or even death depending on the plant, the amount consumed, and the individual's sensitivity to the toxin.

Toxic plants may contain various types of toxins, including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, resinous substances, and essential oils. Some common examples of toxic plants include poison ivy, poison oak, nightshade, hemlock, oleander, castor bean, and foxglove. It is important to note that some parts of a plant may be toxic while others are not, and the toxicity can also vary depending on the stage of growth or environmental conditions.

If you suspect exposure to a toxic plant, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, bring a sample of the plant for identification.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Salicylic Acid is a type of beta hydroxy acid (BHA) that is commonly used in dermatology due to its keratolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. It works by causing the cells of the epidermis to shed more easily, preventing the pores from becoming blocked and promoting the growth of new skin cells. Salicylic Acid is also a potent anti-inflammatory agent, which makes it useful in the treatment of inflammatory acne and other skin conditions associated with redness and irritation. It can be found in various over-the-counter skincare products, such as cleansers, creams, and peels, as well as in prescription-strength formulations.

Acclimatization is the process by which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment, enabling it to maintain its normal physiological functions and thus survive and reproduce. In the context of medicine, acclimatization often refers to the body's adaptation to changes in temperature, altitude, or other environmental factors that can affect health.

For example, when a person moves from a low-altitude area to a high-altitude area, their body may undergo several physiological changes to adapt to the reduced availability of oxygen at higher altitudes. These changes may include increased breathing rate and depth, increased heart rate, and altered blood chemistry, among others. This process of acclimatization can take several days or even weeks, depending on the individual and the degree of environmental change.

Similarly, when a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, their body may adjust by increasing its sweat production and reducing its heat production, in order to maintain a stable body temperature. This process of acclimatization can help prevent heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Overall, acclimatization is an important physiological process that allows organisms to adapt to changing environments and maintain their health and well-being.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Genetic markers are specific segments of DNA that are used in genetic mapping and genotyping to identify specific genetic locations, diseases, or traits. They can be composed of short tandem repeats (STRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), or variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). These markers are useful in various fields such as genetic research, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and breeding programs. They can help to track inheritance patterns, identify genetic predispositions to diseases, and solve crimes by linking biological evidence to suspects or victims.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Innate immunity, also known as non-specific immunity or natural immunity, is the inherent defense mechanism that provides immediate protection against potentially harmful pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) without the need for prior exposure. This type of immunity is present from birth and does not adapt to specific threats over time.

Innate immune responses involve various mechanisms such as:

1. Physical barriers: Skin and mucous membranes prevent pathogens from entering the body.
2. Chemical barriers: Enzymes, stomach acid, and lysozyme in tears, saliva, and sweat help to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
3. Cellular responses: Phagocytic cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages) recognize and engulf foreign particles and pathogens, while natural killer (NK) cells target and eliminate virus-infected or cancerous cells.
4. Inflammatory response: When an infection occurs, the innate immune system triggers inflammation to increase blood flow, recruit immune cells, and remove damaged tissue.
5. Complement system: A group of proteins that work together to recognize and destroy pathogens directly or enhance phagocytosis by coating them with complement components (opsonization).

Innate immunity plays a crucial role in initiating the adaptive immune response, which is specific to particular pathogens and provides long-term protection through memory cells. Both innate and adaptive immunity work together to maintain overall immune homeostasis and protect the body from infections and diseases.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Lycopodiaceae is a family of non-flowering plants in the class Lycopodiopsida, also known as clubmosses. These are small, vascular plants that typically grow in damp habitats such as forests, swamps, and bogs. They have slender, creeping stems that produce small, scale-like leaves and reproduce by means of spores produced in strobili or cones.

The family Lycopodiaceae includes several genera, including Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, and Diphasiastrum. These plants have been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, such as treating wounds and skin conditions, but there is limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness. Some species of clubmosses contain alkaloids that can be toxic if ingested in large quantities.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Enzyme induction is a process by which the activity or expression of an enzyme is increased in response to some stimulus, such as a drug, hormone, or other environmental factor. This can occur through several mechanisms, including increasing the transcription of the enzyme's gene, stabilizing the mRNA that encodes the enzyme, or increasing the translation of the mRNA into protein.

In some cases, enzyme induction can be a beneficial process, such as when it helps the body to metabolize and clear drugs more quickly. However, in other cases, enzyme induction can have negative consequences, such as when it leads to the increased metabolism of important endogenous compounds or the activation of harmful procarcinogens.

Enzyme induction is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology, as it can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs and other xenobiotics. It is also relevant to the study of drug interactions, as the induction of one enzyme by a drug can lead to altered metabolism and effects of another drug that is metabolized by the same enzyme.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydroponics" is not a medical term. It is an agricultural technique and term. Hydroponics refers to the practice of growing plants in nutrient-rich water solutions, without soil. This method allows plants to obtain their necessary nutrients directly from the water, which is enriched with dissolved minerals. Common hydroponic systems include wick systems, deep water culture, nutrient film technique, ebb and flow system, aeroponics, and drip systems.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Rutin is a flavonoid, a type of plant pigment that is found in various plants and foods including citrus fruits, buckwheat, and asparagus. It has antioxidant properties and is known to help strengthen blood vessels and reduce inflammation. In medical terms, rutin may be mentioned in the context of discussing treatments for conditions related to these effects, such as varicose veins or hemorrhoids. However, it's important to note that while rutin has potential health benefits, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and proper dosages.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

In 1768, Philip Miller moved it to its own genus, naming it Lycopersicon esculentum. The name came into wide use, but was ... "Lycopersicon esculentum". International Plant Name Index. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. "International Code of ... A rad51 homolog is present in the anther of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), suggesting that recombinational repair occurs ... but since Lycopersicon esculentum has become so well known, it was officially listed as a nomen conservandum in 1983, and would ...
"Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme, nomen.at". Nomen.at. Retrieved 24 October 2014. Kiple, Kenneth F., ed. (2000). The ... Nesbitt, TC; Tanksley, SD (2002). "Comparative sequencing in the genus Lycopersicon. Implications for the evolution of fruit ...
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Lycopodiella affinis (Bory) Pic. Serm. Macaranga schweinfurthii Pax Macledium sessiliflorum (Harv ... Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. Abildgaardia ovata (Burm.f.) Kral Abrus canescens Welw. ex ... Cyperus distans L.f. Cyperus dives Delile Cyperus esculentus L. Cyperus exaltatus Retz. Cyperus haspan L. Cyperus imbricatus ... Coldenia procumbens L. Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Combretum aculeatum Vent. Combretum acutum M.A.Lawson Combretum ...
"TOMATO Scorpio Lycopersicon esculentum". Retrieved 1 September 2021. "TOMATO - SCORPIO-AUST". Retrieved 1 September 2021. " ... "Chocolate Pear Tomato Seeds - (Lycopersicon lycopersicum)". Terroir Seeds , Underwood Gardens. Retrieved 2020-07-09. TOMATE ...
Zacharisen MC, Elms NP, Kurup VP (2002). "Severe tomato allergy (Lycopersicon esculentum)". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 23 ...
H.Hara Lycopersicon esculentum (†) (M) Mill. var. esculentum Lysichiton americanus (†) Hultén & St. John Malephora crocea (†) ( ... Colocasia esculenta (†) (M) (L.) Schott Commelina diffusa (†) (M) Burm. F. Conyza bonariensis (†) (L.) Cronq.: 121 Conyza ...
It is species Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme. List of tomato cultivars Matt's Wild Cherry Archived 2012-04-10 at the ...
Solanum tuberosum, Lycopersicon esculentum and Nicotiana tabacum. Chapman et al. 1992 introduced the use of transgenic PVX as a ... esculentum and N. tabacum) and by Tameling et al. 2007 to investigate plant nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeats (NB-LRRs). ...
"Germacrene C synthase from Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT cherry tomato: cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial ...
Lycopersicon esculentum, Physalis floriana, tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and nightshade (Solanum sp.) (2,4). It was its reaction on ...
Dimitrov, Atanas Georgiev (2005). Integrierte Produktion von Tomaten (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) im Gewächshaus unter ... Lycopersicon esculentum) in a glasshouse with an emphasis on integrated and biological pest control against the greenhouse ...
Lycopersicon esculentum)". Plant Cell Reports. 12 (11): 644-647. doi:10.1007/bf00232816. PMID 24201880. S2CID 37463613.{{cite ...
The larvae feed on Capsicum annuum and Lycopersicon esculentum. "CATE Creating a Taxonomic eScience - Sphingidae". Cate- ...
Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Hezuo 908) with improved efficiency". Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 29 (5): 861- ...
Menzel, Margaret Y.; Price, J. M. (November 1966). "Fine Structure of Synapsed Chomosomes in F Lycopersicon esculentum- Solanum ... Menzel, Maegaret Y.; Price, J. M. (1966). "Fine Structure of Synapsed Chomosomes in F1 Lycopersicon Esculentum-Solanum ... Menzel, Margaret Y. (July 1962). "Pachytene Chromosomes of the Intergeneric Hybrid Lycopersicon Esculentum x Solanum ...
Differentiation of the Tapetum During Microsporogenesis in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), with Special Reference to ...
Hibiscus esculentus, Abelmoschus esculentus, Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum). This species can be found in ...
Lycopersicon esculentum), and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.). It also infects many perennial weed species that can act as virus ...
Effects of supplemental light duration on greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants and fruit yields. DA Demers ... Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants and fruit yields". Scientia Horticulturae. 74 (4): 295-306. doi:10.1016/S0304-4238(98) ...
The use of jasmonic acid on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) resulted in plants with fewer but larger fruits, longer ripening ... Fitness cost of jasmonic acid-induced defense in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum. Oecologia. 2001;126:380-5. Giovannoni JJ. ... Due to the consequences of induced defences on fruit characteristics, L. esculentum are less able to attract seed dispersers ...
tomato attacks the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) causing it to fruit less. "Pseudomonas tomato" pv. viburni attacks Viburnum ...
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants and fruit yields". Scientia Horticulturae. 74 (4): 295-306. doi:10.1016/S0304-4238(98) ...
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)". Plant Growth Regulation. 30 (2): 117. doi:10.1023/A:1006300326975. S2CID 30219558. Pal, ...
Rick, C. M., Uhlig, J. W., Jones, A. D.; High R-tomatine content in ripe fruit of Andean Lycopersicon esculentum Var. ... Rick, C. M.; Uhlig, J. W.; Jones, A. D. (1994). "High alpha-tomatine content in ripe fruit of Andean Lycopersicon esculentum ... to isolate tomatine from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium and the cultured species Lycopersicon esculentum ... esculentum var. cerasiforme, better known as the "cherry tomato", indigenous to Peru) with very high tomatine content (in the ...
"Genetic control and evolution of sesquiterpene biosynthesis in Lycopersicon esculentum and L. hirsutum". The Plant Cell. 12 (11 ...
michiganensis is the causative agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). When the infection ...
Lycopersicon esculentum)". Plant Physiol. 92 (1): 41-47. doi:10.1104/pp.92.1.41. PMC 1062245. PMID 16667263. Strack D, Gross W ...
... and Invertase Activities in Developing Fruit of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and the Sucrose Accumulating Lycopersicon ... Lycopersicon esculentum var UC82B)". Plant Physiology. 101 (2): 535-543. doi:10.1104/pp.101.2.535. PMC 160601. PMID 12231708. ...
... esculentum ssp. intermedium Luckwill, L. esculentum ssp. pimpinellifolium (L.) Brezhnev in Zhukovskii, L. ... Lycopersicon glandulosum C.H.Mull.) Solanum habrochaites S.Knapp & D.M.Spooner (= Lycopersicon agrimoniifolium Dunal in DC., L ... Lycopersicon parviflorum C.M.Rick, Kesicki, Fobes & M.Holle) Lycopersicon group Solanum cheesmaniae (L.Riley) Fosberg (= ... Lycopersicon peruvianum var. parviflorum Hook.f.) Solanum galapagense S.C.Darwin & Peralta (= Lycopersicon cheesmaniae f. minor ...
It is considered a pest on Zea mays (corn or maize) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Kemal, Muhabbet & Koçak, Ahmet Ömer ( ...
Will reach maturity in 78 days. Foliage is green and fruit is red, round and smooth.
Will reach maturity in 78 days. Foliage is green and fruit is red, round and smooth. Fruit has good flavor!
Lycopersicon esculentum) [TaxId:4081] from g.69.1.1 Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor-II: *Species Tomato (Lycopersicon ... Lycopersicon esculentum) [TaxId:4081] from g.15.1.2 Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor-II. *Species Tomato (Lycopersicon ... PDB entries in Species: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) [TaxId: 4081]:. *Domain(s) for 1oyv: *. Domain d1oyvi1: 1oyv I:16-73 [ ... Species Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) [TaxId:4081] from g.69.1.1 Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor-II appears in the ...
Effect of Biocyclic Humus Soil on Yield and Quality Parameters of Processing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). *June 2019 ... Effects of Tomato Pomace Composts on Yield and Quality of Processing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum.... November 2019 · ... Mobilization of carbohydrates to fruits of 2 genotypes of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) differing in total fruit ... Effects of Tomato Pomace Composts on Yield and Quality of Processing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) ...
Lycopersicon esculentum Lectin (LEL) / Lycopersicon Esculentum (Tomato) Lectin (LEL, TL), Texas Red™. ... The Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) lectin has been widely reported as an effective blood vessel marker for in vivo vascular ... Can the biotinylated Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) lectin be used for in vivo perfusion studies to trace blood vessels in ... Tomato lectin (from Lycopersicon esculentum) is an effective marker of blood vessels and microglial cells in rodents. ...
... in enhancing tolerance to NaCl stress in Lycopersicon esculentum. Uncover the potential of these eco-friendly solutions for ... tolerance of Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. kuber geeta plants. A small rise in protein content was recorded under salinity ... Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Lycopersicon esculentum under Salinity Stress () Shummu Slathia, Anil Sharma, ... Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Lycopersicon esculentum under Salinity Stress," American Journal of Plant ...
... von Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker nachgewiesen werden. In einem 6-stufigen Reinigungsverfahren wurde das native Enzym ... MeJA esterase activity was also found in flowers, roots, stems and leaves of L. esculentum (cv. Moneymaker). MeJA esterase was ... Southern blot analysis of genomic cDNA from cell suspension cultures of L. esculentum was carried out to estimate gene copies ... Aus Lycopersicon esculentum Zellsuspensionskulturen konnte ein bisher unbekanntes Enzym isoliert und beschrieben werden, das ...
Lycopersicon Esculentum 200 ml online on 24S. Shop the latest trends - Express delivery & free returns. ... Room spray Tomato - Lycopersicon Esculentum 200 ml. .. *Ingredients : Formaldehyde Cyclododecyl Ethyl Acetal, 3,7-Dimethyl-1,6- ... CARRIERE_FRERESRoom spray Tomato - Lycopersicon Esculentum 200 ml. $130 (US$96) ...
Title : ( Genetic Variation Study of 29 lines and modern cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using RAPD Markers ) ... T Genetic Variation Study of 29 lines and modern cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using RAPD Markers. %A ... title = {Genetic Variation Study of 29 lines and modern cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using RAPD Markers}, ...
This concept has been deprecated. Do not use this concept for annotation!. ...
Manage your garden online, receive specific information for your garden and share your knowledge with others.
Tovar už nemáme v ponuke, náhradu nájdete tu: https://www.osiva-semena.sk/218-paradajky Paradajka Rosalita je odroda paradajky s dlhými plodmi, na ktorých visí veľa malých plodov. Paradajka sa hodí na priamu konzumáciu. Tyčková odroda.
An old-time favourite that has been popular for many years due to its excellent productivity and wonderful taste. Vigorous vines produce 250-500gm fruit, slightly ribbed, bright-red tomatoes that have spectacularly delicious, sweet flavours. This tomatos excellent taste and meaty flesh make it an ideal tomato for eating fresh or cooking. Ideal for sandwiches and great for preserving or drying
An appealing heirloom variety of pale yellow cherry tomatoes with a good mild taste. Plants produce good yields of fruit over a long season for continuous picking.
Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) Candle $55.00 Called the "golden apple" in Italian, and "wolf peach" in scientific terms, the ...
Theyre incredibly sweet, meaty, and flavorful. It has a full-bodied tomato flavour. Salads, slicing, sandwiches, and sauces all benefit from this versatile ingredient. Golden Sunray Tomato is another name for this tomato. Its a hybrid of a Pan American tomato and a Jubilee tomato. The plant has thick foliage that pro
Be the first to review "13410 Agora F1 - Lycopersicon esculentum" Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. ... 13428 Zuckertraube - Lycopersicon esculentum. 6.00€ * 13418 Yellow Pearshaped - Lycopersicon esculentum. 6.00€ * 13427 Miel du ...
syn.: Lycopersicon cerasiforme Dunal, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ssp. galenii (Mill.) Luckwill, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ... Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Dunal) Alef. Engl.: cherry tomato. Suom.: kirsikkatomaatti. Sven.: körsbärstomat. Bot ...
Names with host Lycopersicon esculentum. *family: Miridae. *subfamily: Bryocorinae. *tribe: Dicyphini. *subtribe: Dicyphina. ...
Lycopersicon esculentum Black Ruffle). https://terrepromise.ca/shop/281-black-ruffle-tomato-lycopersicon-esculentum-black- ...
Be the first to review "MT 5114 Brandywine Red - Lycopersicon esculentum" Cancel reply Your email address will not be published ... Home / SEEDS / VEGETABLE SEEDS / Tomato Seeds / MT 5114 Brandywine Red - Lycopersicon esculentum. ... Lycopersicon esculentum. 6.00€ * 13421 Tamarillo - Cyphomandra betacea. 6.00€ * 13424 Pink Brandywine - Lycopersicon esculentum ...
Lycopersicon esculentum) - 50 Seeds for only $2.49 at Southern Seed Exchange! ...
Lycopersicon esculentum) Vegetable Heirloom theseedsmaster Tomato Bajaja 40-60 Seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum) Vegetable ... Tomato Bajaja 40-60 Seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum) Vegetable Heirloom. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 ...
For lovers of diversity BOTANICAL INFORMATION Latin name: Lycopersicon esculentum and/or Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Common ... Latin name: Lycopersicon esculentum and/or Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium. Common name(s): Tomato. English: Tomato. Family: ... Lycopersicon esculentum). https://terrepromise.ca/shop/299-tomato-the-seed-girl-got-it-wrong-mix-lycopersicon-esculentum-527 ...
Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) - medium late, dwarf raspberry tomato heirloom harvest in 110 days. Resistant to fungal diseases ... Cherry Tomato Raspberry Baby (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) M.Late Vegetable Heirloom, 20-30 Seeds. Regular price $5.80 Sale ... Raspberry Tomato Raspberry Baby (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) - medium late, dwarf raspberry tomato heirloom harvest in 110 ...
In 1768, Philip Miller moved it to its own genus, naming it Lycopersicon esculentum. The name came into wide use, but was ... "Lycopersicon esculentum". International Plant Name Index. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. "International Code of ... A rad51 homolog is present in the anther of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), suggesting that recombinational repair occurs ... but since Lycopersicon esculentum has become so well known, it was officially listed as a nomen conservandum in 1983, and would ...
  • PDF) Effect of Biocyclic Humus Soil on Yield and Quality Parameters of Processing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (researchgate.net)
  • Can the biotinylated Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) lectin be used for in vivo perfusion studies to trace blood vessels in mice? (vectorlabs.com)
  • The Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) lectin has been widely reported as an effective blood vessel marker for in vivo vascular perfusion studies in rodent species. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Tomato lectin (from Lycopersicon esculentum ) is an effective marker of blood vessels and microglial cells in rodents. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Genetic Variation Study of 29 lines and modern cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (ac.ir)
  • inproceedings{paperid:1024274, author = {Mirshamsi Kakhki, Amin and Farsi, Mohammad and Shahriari Ahmadi, Farajollah and Nemati, Seyyed Hossein}, title = {Genetic Variation Study of 29 lines and modern cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (ac.ir)
  • Tomato 'Sejk' 40-60 Seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (theseedsmaster.com)
  • Cherry Tomato 'Raspberry Baby' (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. (singaporehydroponics.com)
  • Involvement of ethylene in the etiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) infected with the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) was investigated. (brocku.ca)
  • Studies on Heterosis for various qualitative and quantitative characters in Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L. (journalcra.com)
  • Potassium and calcium nitrate ameliorates the adverse effect of Nacl on in vitro induced tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill. (journalcra.com)
  • An in vitro tissue culture experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of supplementary potassium and calcium nitrate applied to basal media on morphogenesis of saline stressed tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (journalcra.com)
  • The tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) is a member of the potato family and the nightshade genus, and it originates from western South America. (lush.com)
  • Performance of greenhouse tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (ishs.org)
  • The small-fruited cherry tomato accession PI 27048 (Lycopersicon esculentum var. (usda.gov)
  • The tomatoes (Lycopersiconesculentum) belong to the family of solanaceae. (codemint.net)
  • In the present investigation, we evaluated the co-application efficacy of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, a highly active BR) and putrescine (Put, a PA) on the NaCl stress (75 mM and 150 mM) tolerance of Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. (scirp.org)
  • The co-applications of EBR and Put were able to significantly enhance the activities of CAT, SOD and GPOX in L. esculentum under salinity stress (75 mM and 150 mM) when compared with NaCl stressed plants alone. (scirp.org)
  • Our findings provide evidence that EBR and Put co-applications are effective in amelioration of NaCl stress in L. esculentum . (scirp.org)
  • S. Slathia, A. Sharma and S. Choudhary, "Influence of Exogenously Applied Epibrassinolide and Putrescine on Protein Content, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Lycopersicon esculentum under Salinity Stress," American Journal of Plant Sciences , Vol. 3 No. 6, 2012, pp. 714-720. (scirp.org)