Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Anti-inflammatory analgesic.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Excision of the uterus.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Liquid components of living organisms.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.

Luteal regression in the normally cycling rat: apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inflammatory cell involvement. (1/323)

In hypophysectomized rats, prolactin induces regression of the corpora lutea. Luteal regression is accompanied by infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, declines in luteal mass and plasma progestins, and increased staining for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We investigated whether similar events are induced during the estrous cycle, after the proestrous prolactin surge. Rats were killed on proestrus or on estrus, and one ovary was frozen for immunohistochemical detection of MCP-1, monocytes/macrophages (ED1-positive), and differentiated macrophages (ED2-positive) and for in situ detection of apoptotic nuclei. Corpora lutea of the current (proestrus) or preceding (estrus) cycle were dissected from the ovaries of additional rats and frozen for the same analyses and for determination of total protein content. In sections of whole ovaries, intensity and distribution of MCP-1 staining were increased in corpora lutea of multiple ages on estrus as compared to proestrus, as were numbers of differentiated macrophages and apoptotic nuclei per high-power field. Sections of isolated corpora lutea showed these increases on estrus, and the number of monocytes/macrophages per high-power field was also significantly increased. Accompanying these inflammatory/immune events, the corpora lutea on estrus showed decreased weight and total protein per corpus luteum, as compared to corpora lutea on proestrus. These changes are consistent with a proposed role for prolactin in the initiation of luteal apoptosis and of a sequence of inflammatory/immune events that accompany regression of the rat corpus luteum during the normal estrous cycle.  (+info)

Control of luteolysis in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). (2/323)

Blood plasma concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2 alpha (PGFM) were measured in groups of mature non-pregnant and pregnant camels to study PGF2 alpha release patterns around the time of luteolysis and the timing of the signal for pregnancy recognition. Injection of each of four camels with 10 and 50 mg of PGF2 alpha showed clearly that five times the dose of exogenous hormone produced five times the amount of PGFM in peripheral plasma, thereby indicating that, as in other animal species, PGFM is the principal metabolite of PGF2 alpha in the camel. Serial sampling of three non-pregnant camels on each of days 8, 10 and 12, and three pregnant camels on day 10, after ovulation for 8 h showed a significant (P < 0.05) rise in mean plasma PGFM concentrations only on day 10 in the non-pregnant, but not the pregnant, animals. A single intravenous injection of 20, 50 or 100 iu oxytocin given to three groups of three non-pregnant camels on day 10 after ovulation did not increase their basal serum PGFM concentrations. However, daily treatment of six non-pregnant camels between days 6 and 15 (n = 3) or 20 (n = 3) after ovulation with 1-2 g of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, meclofenamic acid, inhibited PGF2 alpha release and thereby resulted in continued progesterone secretion throughout the period of meclofenamic acid administration. These results showed that, as in other large domestic animal species, release of PGF2 alpha from, presumably, the endometrium controls luteolysis in the dromedary camel. Furthermore, reduction in the amount of PGF2 alpha released is associated with luteal maintenance and the embryonic signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy must be transmitted before day 10 after ovulation if luteostasis is to be achieved. However, the results also indicate that, in contrast to ruminants, the release of endometrial PGF2 alpha in the non-pregnant camel may not be controlled by the release of oxytocin.  (+info)

A quantitative study of changes in the human corpus luteum microvasculature during the menstrual cycle. (3/323)

Endothelial cells are the most abundant cell type in the corpus luteum (CL), and changes in blood vessels have been proposed to play a pivotal role in CL regression. We have studied quantitatively the changes in the human granulosa-luteal microvasculature in CL of various ages: young (Days 17-19 of the cycle), mature (Days 20-24), old (Days 25-27), early regressing (follicular phase of the following cycle), and late regressing (luteal phase of the following cycle). Blood vessels were identified by immunohistochemical staining for the endothelial cell marker CD34. Because of the anisotropy of blood vessels, both vertical and transverse sections of the granulosa-lutein layer (GLL) were used to estimate relative (volume, surface, and length densities) and absolute (mean cross-sectional area) vascular variables. Full luteinization from young to mature CL was accompanied by a 61% increase in the mean cross-sectional area of vascular profiles and a 52% increase in the mean volume of granulosa-lutein cells, as an estimator of changes in the volume of the GLL. In old and early regressing CL, there was a progressive increase in relative structural vascular variables, due to the shrinkage of the GLL, whereas the mean cross-sectional area of capillaries showed a 53% decrease from mature to old CL. Finally, in late regressing CL, there was a decrease in most relative structural variables, in spite of the increasingly shrunken GLL. The decrease in the capillary diameter found at the late luteal phase most likely leads to a decreased blood flow, and early changes in blood vessels could initiate and/or accelerate CL regression.  (+info)

The effect of indomethacin on uterine contractility and luteal regression in pregnant rats at term. (4/323)

Treatment of pregnant rats with 1 mg indomethacin/kg twice daily i.m. beginning on Day 20 delayed the onset of parturition by about 21 hr and prolonged the duration of spontaneous parturition by 4 hr. Plasma progesterone and oestradiol levels were determined in daily samples of peripheral blood, and uterine contractions were recorded before and during parturition by means of small, chronically implanted intrauterine balloons which were connected to pressure transducers via fluid-filled catheters. Indomethacin treatment did not inhibit or suppress spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions, which were of the same intensity in indomethacin-treated as in control rats. Parturition was induced with oxytocin in the same proportion of treated and control rats, but its induction was not successful in treated rats until 1 day later than in control rats, but its induction was not successful in treated rats until 1 day later than in controls. The onset of parturition was always related to the plasma progesterone level, which declined at a slower rate in indomethacin-treated than in control rats, reaching baseline values approximately 1 day later in the treated animals. The appearance of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the CL of pregnant rats normally occurs on Day 21 of gestation, but activity was not observed until about 1 (0-3) day later in the indomethacin-treated rats, indicating that luteolysis was retarded. Prostaglandin F-2alpha infusions given on Day 21 reversed the effects of indomethacin treatment on plasma progesterone, luteal 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and the timing and duration of parturition, and reduced the high perinatal mortality associated with indomethacin treatment, suggesting that the effects of indomethacin were related to its inhibitory action on prostaglandin synthetase activity. It is concluded that, in rats, indomethacin exerts its effects on parturition through inhibition of luteal regression which was significantly retarded but not prevented, and that indomethacin does not have a direct effect on myometrial contractility.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist has the ability to induce increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and membrane type 1-MMP expression in corpora lutea, and structural luteolysis in rats. (5/323)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its agonist analog (GnRHa) are well known to have luteolytic effects. We previously reported that prolactin (PRL) stimulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity to degrade collagen type IV as a mechanism of structural luteolysis. The effects of GnRHa treatment on developed corpora lutea are unknown. In this study we assessed the effect of GnRH on MMP expression and induction of structural involution of developed corpora lutea of superovulated rats using GnRHa. Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-synchronized ovulation and luteinization were induced in immature female rats, followed by daily treatment with GnRHa from 5 days after hCG treatment. GnRHa-induced involution of corpora lutea was evident 3 days after the treatment, as shown by their markedly smaller size (60% of the control weight). Nine days after hCG injection, serum progesterone and 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone concentrations were as low as those associated with structural luteolysis. These findings revealed that GnRHa has the ability to induce structural luteolysis in superovulated rats in the same way that PRL does. To gain information on mechanisms of luteal involution induced by GnRHa, we performed gelatin zymography. This showed a significant increase in the active form of MMP-2 in the luteal extract of GnRHa-treated rats (more than twofold that of the control). Activation of pro-MMP-2 by membrane type-MMP (MT-MMP) is reported to be a rate-limiting step for catalytic function. Another function of MT-MMP is to degrade collagen types I and III. The plasma membrane fraction of corpora lutea of GnRHa-treated rats activated pro-MMP-2 of fetal calf serum, resulting in a marked shift of the 68-kDa band to the 62-kDa band in the zymogram. A Northern hybridization study also revealed simultaneous significant increases in expression of MMP-2 mRNA and MT1-MMP mRNA in corpora lutea of GnRHa-treated rats (more than threefold the control level). In summary, hormonal and histological features of corpora lutea of GnRHa-treated superovulated rats correspond to those of structural luteolysis. GnRHa stimulated the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in developed corpora lutea associated with involution. These findings support the conclusion that MMP-2, activated by MT1-MMP, and MT1-MMP itself, remodel the extracellular matrix during structural luteolysis induced by GnRHa.  (+info)

Immune cells and cytokine production in the bovine corpus luteum throughout the oestrous cycle and after induced luteolysis. (6/323)

Immune cells and their cytokine products have powerful local effects within body tissues. There has been great interest in the potential role of these cells, not only during destruction of the corpus luteum but also during its functional lifespan. In this study, lymphocytes, macrophages and major histocompatibility complex class II molecules were quantified using immunohistochemistry and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mRNA for tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma within corpora lutea from three groups of cows: (1) corpora lutea collected at an abattoir and assessed visually into four stages (stage I (days 1-5), stage II (days 6-12), stage III (days 13-18) and stage IV (days 19-21) of the oestrous cycle); (2) corpora lutea collected around natural luteolysis (days 14-20); and (3) corpora lutea collected 6, 12 and 24 h after prostaglandin F 2 alpha-induced luteolysis. The numbers of T lymphocytes (CD5+ and CD8+) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) at stage IV and from day 16 onwards, before functional luteolysis. There were significantly higher numbers (P < 0.01) of macrophages at stages I, III and IV compared with stage II in visually staged tissue. Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules were increased (P < 0.05) at stages I and IV compared to stage II and at all times after induced luteolysis. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, mRNA encoding tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma was detected in all luteal tissue collected around natural luteolysis and after induced luteolysis. These findings, particularly the increase in T lymphocytes before functional luteolysis, provide further evidence of a significant role for the immune system in affecting reproductive function in cows.  (+info)

Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression in human corpus luteum. (7/323)

Invasion of the corpus luteum by macrophages is a characteristic of luteal regression. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), a chemokine that recruits macrophages, is expressed in the rat corpus luteum where it increases in amount during luteolysis. In this study we examined the temporal and spatial expression of MCP-1 and changes in macrophage concentration in the human corpus luteum. Corpora lutea (n = 39) were grouped according to menstrual cycle phase and were examined by immunohistochemistry for MCP-1 and macrophages, and by Northern blot for MCP-1 mRNA. We found increasing amounts of macrophages with progressing luteolysis (P < 0.001). Staining for MCP-1 was stronger in the regressing corpora lutea compared with the staining in corpora lutea of early luteal phase (P < 0.05). MCP-1 was more prominent in blood vessel walls surrounding the corpus luteum than in vessels located far from it. The mean MCP-1 mRNA expression in regressing corpora lutea was higher than that observed in corpora lutea of the early and mid-luteal phase (P = 0.003). In conclusion, we found that MCP-1 expression and the number of macrophages increase with regression of the corpus luteum. MCP-1 is mostly expressed in blood vessel walls surrounding the corpus luteum and may play a role in the recruitment of macrophages to the corpus luteum during its regression.  (+info)

Effect of sodium cloprostenol and flunixin meglumine on luteolysis and the timing of birth in bitches. (8/323)

At birth, the physiological role of prostaglandins in bitches is unclear. Bitches were treated before parturition with either saline, the prostaglandin analogue, sodium cloprostenol, or the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, flunixin meglumine. The animals were examined regularly to determine the onset of parturition and a series of blood samples were taken to define the hormonal profiles before, during and after birth. Animals treated with cloprostenol whelped earlier than did controls. In addition, the prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite surge and decrease in plasma progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were earlier than in controls. Flunixin meglumine disrupted the normal 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2 alpha profile but did not abolish prostaglandin synthesis completely or delay the onset of labour in treated animals. This study confirms that prostaglandins induce luteolysis and the onset of labour in the bitch. However, the partial inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis does not prevent parturition.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic changes in gene expression that occur during the period of spontaneous functional regression in the rhesus macaque corpus luteum. AU - Bogan, Randy L.. AU - Murphy, Melinda J.. AU - Hennebold, Jon D.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Luteolysis of the corpus luteum (CL) during nonfertile cycles involves a cessation of progesterone (P4) synthesis (functional regression) and subsequent structural remodeling. The molecular processes responsible for initiation of luteal regression in the pri mate CL are poorly defined. Therefore, a genomic approach was used to systematically identify differentially expressed genes in the rhesus macaque CL during spontaneous luteolysis. CL were collected before [d 10-11 after LH surge, mid-late (ML) stage] or during (d 14-16, late stage) functional regression. Based on P4 levels, late-stage CL were subdivided into functional-late (serum P4 , 1.5 ng/ml) and functionally regressed ...
article{CIS-139656, Author = {Sandoval, Monica C. and Bolfarine, Heleno and Lima, Claudia R. O. P. and Sandoval, Mônica C.}, Title = {Linear calibration in functional regression models}, Journal = {Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods}, Volume = {26}, Year = {1997}, Pages = {2307--2328}, Keywords = {Maximum likelihood estimator, Bias ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in progesterone and oestrogen receptor mRNA and protein during maternal recognition of pregnancy and luteolysis in ewes. AU - Ott, T. L.. AU - Zhou, Y.. AU - Mirando, M. A.. AU - Stevens, C.. AU - Harney, J. P.. AU - Ogle, T. F.. AU - Bazer, F. W.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - This study characterized changes in levels of mRNA and protein for endometrial oestrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) during luteolysis and maternal recognition of pregnancy. For cyclic and pregnant ewes, endometrium was collected on days 10, 12, 14, or 16 post-oestrus (4 ewes/day for each status) for the measurement of ER and PR mRNA and protein. The amount of receptor mRNA is expressed in relative units above back-ground, measured from radiographs of dot-blot hybridization of total endometrial RNA with ER and PR cDNAs. At hysterectomy, jugular vein blood samples were collected and assayed for progesterone, total corpus luteum weight was recorded and, in vitro, endometrial ...
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The origin and physiological significance of high pulses of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in uterine venous blood that occur 2-3 days after luteolysis are not well understood. We studied the relationship between contractions of the uterus evoked by exogenous oxytocin (OT) and PGF2α concentration in uterine venous blood on day 17 of the porcine oestrous cycle. The infusion of OT into the uterine artery produced an immediate increase in the uterine intraluminal pressure (UIP) (p , 0.001) and a simultaneous elevation in PGF2α concentration in uterine venous blood (p , 0.0001). The infusion of indomethacin (IND) into the uterine artery slightly decreased PGF2α concentration in uterine venous blood, but it did not suppress uterine contraction or the rapid increase in PGF2α concentration in uterine venous blood just after OT infusion (p , 0.0001), which was lower that in gilts not treated with IND. We conclude that the spikes of PGF2α concentration in uterine venous blood occurring after OT ...
We propose a new approach to functional regression based on fuzzy evidence theory. This method uses a training set for computing a fuzzy belief structure which quantiies diierent types of uncertainties, such as nonspeciicity, connict, or low density of input data. The method can cope with a very large class of training data, such as numbers, intervals , fuzzy numbers, and, more generally, fuzzy belief structures. In order to limit calculations and improve output readability, we propose a belief structure simpliication method, based on similarity between fuzzy sets and signiicance of these sets. The proposed model can provide predictions in several diierent forms, such as numerical, probabilistic, fuzzy or as a fuzzy belief structure. To validate the model, we propose two simulations and compare the results with classical or fuzzy regression methods.
Title: Wavelet-based functional linear mixed models: an application to measurement error-corrected distributed lag models.. Authors: Malloy, Elizabeth J; Morris, Jeffrey S; Adar, Sara D; Suh, Helen; Gold, Diane R; Coull, Brent A. Published In Biostatistics, (2010 Jul). Abstract: Frequently, exposure data are measured over time on a grid of discrete values that collectively define a functional observation. In many applications, researchers are interested in using these measurements as covariates to predict a scalar response in a regression setting, with interest focusing on the most biologically relevant time window of exposure. One example is in panel studies of the health effects of particulate matter (PM), where particle levels are measured over time. In such studies, there are many more values of the functional data than observations in the data set so that regularization of the corresponding functional regression coefficient is necessary for estimation. Additional issues in this setting are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of superoxide dismutase and prostaglandin F2α production in bovine luteal endothelial cells. AU - Lee, Seunghyung. AU - Acosta, Tomas J.. AU - Nakagawa, Yuji. AU - Okuda, Kiyoshi. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/8. Y1 - 2010/8. N2 - Prostaglandin F2α (PGF) induces a rapid reduction in progesterone production (functional luteolysis) followed by tissue degeneration and cell death (structural luteolysis). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including nitric oxide (NO) play crucial roles in the luteolytic action of PGF. The local concentration of intraluteal ROS is controlled by superoxide dismutase (SOD), the main enzyme involved in the control of intraluteal ROS. To clarify the roles of NO in the regulation of SOD in luteolysis, we examined the effects of NO on SOD expression and activity in cultured bovine luteal endothelial cells (LECs) during short-term (2 h, mimicking functional luteolysis) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide in bovine corpus luteum. T2 - Possible mechanisms of action in luteolysis. AU - Korzekwa, Anna. AU - Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela. AU - Okuda, Kiyoshi. AU - Acosta, Tomas J.. AU - Skarzynski, Dariusz J.. PY - 2007/6/1. Y1 - 2007/6/1. N2 - Although prostaglandin (PG) F2α is considered as the principal luteolytic factor, its action on the bovine corpus luteum (CL) is mediated by other intraovarian factors. Among them, nitric oxide (NO) seems to play a mandatory role in luteolysis. In this article we review the background and current status of work on possible roles of NO in the CL function, based on available information and our own experimental data. NO is produced in all three main types of bovine CL cells: steroidogenic, endothelial and immune cells. PGF2α and some luteolytic cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interferon) increase NO production and stimulate NO synthase expression in the bovine CL. NO inhibits progesterone production, stimulates the secretion of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of microarray data from the macaque corpus luteum; the search for common themes in primate luteal regression. AU - Bishop, C. V.. AU - Bogan, R. L.. AU - Hennebold, J. D.. AU - Stouffer, R. L.. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - The factors and processes involved in regression of the primate corpus luteum (CL) are complex and not fully understood. Systemic identification of those genes that are differentially expressed utilizing macaque model systems of luteal regression could help clarify some of the important molecular events involved in loss of primate luteal structure and function during luteolysis. In addition, examining gene pathways involved in luteal regression may help elucidate novel approaches for overcoming infertility or designing ovary-based contraceptives. This review provides an overview of the current published microarray experiments evaluating the transcriptome of the macaque CL, and compares and contrasts the data from spontaneous, GnRH antagonist and ...
The mechanisms causing luteolysis of the primate corpus luteum are unknown. There is an increase in expression of liver x receptor (LXR) target genes and reduced low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) during spontaneous luteolysis in primates. The LXRs belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and increase cholesterol efflux by inducing transcription of their target genes. Uptake of cholesterol into primate luteal cells occurs primarily via LDL, and LDLR transcription is regulated by sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 (SREBF2). Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) maintain luteal function by binding to the LH/CG receptor (LHCGR), which stimulates progesterone (P4) synthesis via protein kinase A (PKA). It has also been previously reported that there is an increase in 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OH) concentrations during spontaneous luteolysis in primates. Pregnenolone and P4 inhibit the enzyme activity of CYP27A1 (cytochrome p450, family 27, ...
Corpus luteum persisten (CLP) merupakan suatu keadaan dimana corpus luteum tidak mengalami regresi dan tetap tinggal di ovarium dalam jangka waktu yang lama (,1 siklus birahi) meskipun hewan tidak bunting. Disebut persisten karena corpus luteum tetap besar ukurannya dan tetap berfungsi menghasilkan progesteron dalam waktu yang lama. Hormon progesteron berfungsi untuk mempertahankan kebuntingan, sehingga adanya progesteron akan menghambat pematangan folikel, ovulasi tidak terjadi dan menyebabkan hewan anestrus.. Corpus luteum persisten berasal dari corpus luteum normal seperti corpus luteum periodikum dan corpus luteum graviditatum. Corpus luteum periodikum adalah corpus luteum yang secara periodik ada pada setiap siklus birahi kemudian mengecil menjadi corpus albican akibat pelisisan karena pengaruh hormon PGF2α yang meningkat di akhir siklus birahi. Corpus luteum graviditatum adalah corpus luteum periodikum yang dipertahankan karena adanya kebuntingan dan lisis setelah hewan melahirkan atas ...
The development of the corpus luteum (CL), which secretes large amounts of progesterone to establish pregnancy, is accompanied by active angiogenesis, vascularization, and lymphangiogenesis. Negative feedback regulation is a critical physiological mechanism. Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) was recently discovered as a novel endothelium-derived negative feedback regulator of vascularization. We therefore investigated the expression of VASH1 in the bovine CL. Expression of VASH1 mRNA and protein was predominantly localized to luteal endothelial cells (LECs). VASH1 expression in the CL was constant through the early to late luteal phases and decreased during CL regression relating with the action of luteolytic prostaglandin F(2)(α) in vivo. To investigate the role of VASH1, we determined whether VASH1 treatment affects angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis using LECs and lymphatic endothelial cells (LyECs) in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) stimulated the expression of VASH1 in LECs but ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Sows that fail to become pregnant show luteal regression at day 13 after mating. AU - Björkman, S.. AU - Oliviero, C.. AU - Soede, N.M.. AU - Peltoniemi, O.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - In mated sows, corpus luteum (CL) function is important for the establishment of the pregnancy. The maximum CL size is established at day 8 - 9 of the pregnancy and maintained autonomous until day 12. Then, CL maintenance will depend on hormones such as LH and PGF2α. PGF2α is released from the endometrium at day 14 and triggers CL regression. This regression can be prevented in pregnant sows due to estradiol production from the attaching conceptuses; which decreases endocrine PGF2α release.We hypothesized that a negative CL development between day 12 and 13 has a negative effect on the pregnancy rate in mated sows and on litter size in pregnant sows.. AB - In mated sows, corpus luteum (CL) function is important for the establishment of the pregnancy. The maximum CL size is established at day 8 ...
Transforming growth factor-alpha: identification in bovine corpus luteum by immunohistochemistry and northern blot analysis Academic Article ...
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This study reports a number of key findings. Both the mass and P4-synthesising capacity of a CL formed following induced ovulation of a first-wave DF (i.e. CLs from group B in this study) were reduced relative to a CL formed following spontaneous ovulation (i.e. CLs from group A). Indeed, the P4 synthetic capacity of these induced (i.e. group B) CLs was similar to that of a regressing CL (i.e. group C) during the pro-oestrous phase of the cycle and, at a molecular level, they were characterised as having reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes (i.e. STAR and HSD3B1) involved in cholesterol transfer into mitochondria and conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone. These induced CLs were further characterised as having reduced expression of LHCGR (required for luteal support; Niswender et al. 2007) and VEGFA (a key angiogenic regulator; Robinson et al. 2007), together with increased expression of BMP2 (linked to luteolysis in regressing CLs; Nio-Kobayashi et al. 2015).. Regarding follicular ...
Principal Investigator:OKUDA Kiyoshi, Project Period (FY):2013-04-01 - 2015-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research, Research Field:Animal production science
Estrumate is used as a luteolytic agent in cattle. The luteolytic action of Estrumate can be utilized to manipulate the estrous cycle to better fit certain management practices, terminal pregnancies resulting from mismatings, and to treat certain conditions associated with prolonged luteal function ...
SUGINO Norihiro , OKUDA Kiyoshi Luteolysis is defined as the loss of function and subsequent involution of the luteal structure. The luteolytic process is usually subdivided, whereby the decline in progesterone is described as funct … Journal of Reproduction and Development 53(5), 977-986, 2007-10-01 J-STAGE Ichushi Web References (65) Cited by (4) ...
As the blood is resorbed, a solid Corpus Luteum is formed by proliferation of granulosa and theca intera cells as well as blood vessels. This remains on the surface of the ovary ...
As the blood is resorbed, a solid Corpus Luteum is formed by proliferation of granulosa and theca intera cells as well as blood vessels. This remains on the surface of the ovary ...
Sotiris, A. and Prokopiou, S. A. and Byrne, H. M. and Jeffrey, M. R. and Robinson, R. S. and Mann, G. E. and Owen, M. R. (2013) Mathematical analysis of a model for the growth of the bovine corpus luteum. Journal of Mathematical Biology . (Submitted) ...
The corpus luteum (CL) is a temporary organ involved in the maintenance of pregnancy. In the course of its life-cycle, the CL undergoes two distinct and consecutive processes for its inevitable removal through apoptosis: functional and structural luteolysis. We isolated a gene encoding for a novel rat zinc finger protein (ZFP), named rat ZFP96 (rZFP96) from an ovarian lambda cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed close sequence and structural similarity to mouse ZFP96 and human zinc finger protein 305 (ZNF305). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed a positive correlation with the end of pregnancy, that is, the onset of structural luteolysis of the CL. Messenger RNA levels increased 3-fold (P < 0.01) between days 13 and 22 of pregnancy and 8-fold (P < 0.01) between day 13 of pregnancy and day 1 post-partum. In addition, we detected rZFP96 expression in mammary, placenta, heart, kidney and skeletal muscle. Sequence analysis predicted that rZFP96 has a ...
Ma, T.; Jiang, H.; Gao, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Dai, L.; Xiong, Q.; Xu, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhang, J., 2012: Microarray analysis of differentially expressed microRNAs in non-regressed and regressed bovine corpus luteum tissue; microRNA-378 may suppress luteal cell apoptosis by targeting the interferon gamma receptor 1 gene
Immature Lucilia sericata (Meigen) raised on beef liver, beef heart, pork liver and pork heart at a mean temperature of 20.6°C took a minimum of 20 days to complete development. Minimum development time differences within stages were observed between the meat types (pork/beef), but not the organ types (liver/heart). Daily hyperspectral measurements were conducted and a functional regression was completed to examine the main effects of meat and organ type on daily spectral measurements. The model examined post feeding larval spectral measurements of insects raised on beef liver alone, the effect of those raised on pork compared with those raised on beef, the effect of those raised on heart compared with those raised on liver and the interactional effect of those raised on pork heart compared with those raised on beef liver ...
In ruminants, uterine pulses of prostaglandin (PG) F 2α characterize luteolysis, while increased PGE 2 /PGE 1 distinguish early pregnancy. This study evaluated intrauterine (IU) infusions of PGF 2α and PGE 1 pulses on corpus luteum (CL) function and gene expression. Cows on day 10 of estrous cycle received 4 IU infusions (every 6 h; n = 5/treatment) of saline, PGE 1 (2 mg PGE 1), PGF 2α (0.25 mg PGF 2α), or PGE 1 + PGF 2α. A luteal biopsy was collected at 30 min after third infusion for determination of gene expression by RNA-Seq. As expected, IU pulses of PGF 2α decreased (P , 0.01) P4 luteal volume. However, there were no differences in circulating P4 or luteal volume between saline, PGE 1, and PGE 1 + PGF 2α, indicating inhibition of PGF 2α -induced luteolysis by IU pulses of PGE 1. After third pulse of PGF 2α, luteal expression of 955 genes were altered (false discovery rate [FDR] , 0.01), representing both typical and novel luteolytic transcriptomic changes. Surprisingly, after ...
Thus, it turns out that the corpus luteum in the ovary is formed in the body of a woman every month, and every month resolved.Its perfectly normal to experience and because of this is meaningless.However, there is a likelihood that in case of pregnancy, the corpus luteum does not resolve, and continue to produce progesterone, or after pregnancy the corpus luteum will continue to grow.In this case we speak of the corpus luteum cyst.. cystic corpus luteum usually has a larger than usual size.In this case, the symptoms are the same as during pregnancy: delayed menstruation, nagging feeling in the stomach, its all a result of the work of the hormone.However, pregnancy test gives a negative result.However, most of this state and is not at risk, even during pregnancy.. However, a cyst could still be a problem, if it is too large.In this case, the cyst may burst as a result of mechanical action.For example, if a large impact or physical exertion.And it is internal bleeding, ie the state, threatening ...
Corpus luteum cysts could be agonizing and might set off alterations in menstrual bleeding. Generally this type of cyst will dissolve on its own personalized inside of of various months of forming. At other situations, nonetheless, these are in a position to expand becoming rather substantial and heavy. The fat in the cyst may well trigger the ovary to increase for being twisted. A twisted ovary is incredibly agonizing and may phone for well-being-related consideration. And it actually is this ache that typically leads females to look for out the support of their health care medical doctor ...
Genestran 75mg/ml Solution for Injection 20ml is used to induce luteolysis in mares with functional corpus luteum. Light sweating and diarrhea
Answer (1 of 1): A corpus luteum cyst is considered to be a functional, or simple, ovarian cyst. A corpus luteum cyst may develop after an egg has been released from the follicle. Ideally after the release of an egg, the follicle will become what is called the corpus luteum. If fertilization occurs and a pregnancy results, the corpus luteum will work in providing the young embryo with progesterone until the placenta can take over later in the first trimester. However, if pregnancy does not result the corpus luteum should shrink and dissolve. In some cases the corpus luteum will continue to grow and may fill with fluid or blood. It will then be considered to be a corpus luteum cyst. A corpus luteum cyst, although usually rather small, can continue to grow, sometimes causing much pain and discomfort. If the cyst does not dissolve on its own, which is often the case, a simple laparoscopic surgery, to remove the cyst, may be suggested.
Prostaglandin F2α. Prostaglanin is a C2O fatty acid and is produced within the uterine endometrium and vesicular glands. Estradiol stimulates prostaglandin synthesis while progesterone inhibits it. The target tissue in the female is the corpus luteum, uterine myometrium and ovulatory follicles. In the female PGF2α cause luteolysis and can also cause the induction of tone and contractions within the uterus. It plays an important role in partuition in ruminants.. If a pregnancy is to remain viable then luteolysis needs to be avoided and this is achieved where concentrations of PGF2α remain below a threshold level allowing the corpus luteum to continue to secrete progesterone and thus maintain pregnancy. There are two main factors involved in the regulation of uterine secretions of PGF2α; oxytocin secretions from the corpus luteum and molecules secreted by the developing embryo that facilitate the maternal recognition of pregnancy.. Oxytocin secretion via the corpus luteum stimulates ...
happen your Kindle successfully, or carefully a FREE Kindle Reading App. download Ovarian Follicular and Corpus: Harper Extraterrestrials; 1 support( Sept. If you please a cheerleader for this year, would you have to learn laptops through fellow Structure? William Zinsser is a download Ovarian Follicular and Corpus Luteum Function, series and program.
Free essay sample about Corpus Luteum, a hormone-secreting structure, one of medical writing topics. Find more free medicine essays and research papers on our site.
Gecaj, Rreze M.; Schanzenbach, Corina I.; Kirchner, Benedikt; Pfaffl, Michael W.; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tweedie-Cullen, Ry Y.; Berisha, Bajram (2017): The Dynamics of microRNA Transcriptome in Bovine Corpus Luteum during Its Formation, Function, and Regression. In: Frontiers in Genetics, Vol. 8, 213 [PDF, 2MB] ...
What role does progesterone play in the desire to have children and in pregnancy? Why progesterone is important for the female cycle...
This will probably be a long one but on Monday 15th I got a positive clearblue 1-2 weeks and then On Tuesday 23rd I nearly collapsed in my garden then...
Buglossidium luteum - Tuilleadh faoin speiceas seo: Ainmnithe tráchtála, Córais Tháirgeachta agus Trealaimh Iascaireachta, Scéimeanna cáilíochta agus luachanna cothaitheacha AE, Bearta Caomhnaithe, Caighdeáin Mhargaíochta, Dáileadh agus Gnáthóg Speicis, Tuairiscí ar Speicis, Chomhainmníocht
中文: 经气相色谱分析PGF-为葡聚糖,PGF-、PGF- 和PGF-由葡萄糖、甘露糖和半乳糖组成,摩尔比分别为:. :.、:0. :0.和:0.:0. 8。 更详细... ...
A Corpus luteum cyst is a type of ovarian cyst which may rupture about the time of menstruation, and take up to three months to disappear entirely. A corpus luteum cyst rarely occurs at age 50+, because eggs are no longer being released in menopausal women. Corpus luteum cysts may contain blood and other fluids. The physical shape of a corpus luteum cyst may appear as an enlargement of the ovary itself, rather than a distinct mass -like growth on the surface of the ovary. This type of functional cyst occurs after an egg has been released from a follicle. The follicle then becomes a secretory gland that is known as the corpus luteum. The ruptured follicle begins producing large quantities of estrogen and progesterone in preparation for conception. If a pregnancy doesnt occur, the corpus luteum usually breaks down and disappears. It may, however, fill with fluid or blood, causing the corpus luteum to expand into a cyst, and stay in the ovary. Usually, this cyst is on only one side, and does not ...
Define corpus luteum hormone. corpus luteum hormone synonyms, corpus luteum hormone pronunciation, corpus luteum hormone translation, English dictionary definition of corpus luteum hormone. n another name for progesterone
Optimizing CL regression in specific groups of cows may be particularly challenging; hence, new alternatives should be explored to increase CL regression during the TAI protocols. The current study is the first to show the effect of administrating the luteolytic dose of PG in two injections on days 5 and 6 of the TAI protocol after of estrus expression comparing to the Cosynch protocol in a large dairy herd. This is the first study to demonstrate that the two PG injections can increase P/AI in different seasons without any P4 supplementation.. As in the previous study (Alnimer and Ababneh, 2014), the interval between the PG injection and the start of the treatment was an approach that simulated Presynch 14 protocol with one less PG injection and increased stage synchronization at the beginning of the protocols (Moreira et al., 2001; Vasconcelos et al., 1999). However, the interval from the setup injection of PG on Day 30 pp to the detection of estrus in the EPG-PG and ECO-72 groups complicated ...
In Experiment 1, lactating dairy cows (n = 1,230) in 6 herds were treated with 2 injections of prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) 14 days apart (Presynch), with the second injection administered 12 to 14 days before the onset of a timed AI protocol (Ovsynch). Cows were inseminated when detected in estrus after the Presynch PGF2αinjections. Cows not inseminated were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol and were assigned randomly to be treated with either Estrumate or Lutalyse as part of a timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol. Blood samples were collected before treatment injection (0 hour) and 48 and 72 hours later. In cows having progesterone concentrations ≥1 ng/mL at 0 hour and potentially having a functional corpus luteum (CL) responsive to a luteolytic agent, Lutalyse increased (P | 0.05) luteal regression from 83.9 to 89.3%. Despite a significant increase in luteolysis, pregnancy rate per AI did not differ between treatments. Fertility was improved in both treatments in cows having reduced
Looking for online definition of corpora lutea in the Medical Dictionary? corpora lutea explanation free. What is corpora lutea? Meaning of corpora lutea medical term. What does corpora lutea mean?
This article starts with a review of the literature regarding the normal reproductive physiology of the mare, normal luteolysis, different causes of prolonged luteal phase and theories behind these. The article also presents a study where it was examined if treatment with human choriongonadotropic hormone (hCG) during the luteal phase induces prolonged luteal phase in mares, thus preventing estrus. The study consisted of two parts: one intensive study of eight mares at the former Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at SLU, Uppsala, Sweden and one field study of seven mares at a stud farm 70 km north of Uppsala. The mares in the intensive study were divided in two groups: one with four mares that were injected with hCG in luteal phase when they had a follicle of minimum 30 mm and a second group with four mares that were injected with sodium chloride at the same time. These mares were examined with ultrasonography and blood samples. The blood samples were analyzed for progesterone with a ...
The corpus luteum (plural: corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early pregnancy. During ovulation, the primary follicle forms the secondary follicle and subsequently the mature vesicular follicle. At ovula...
View Notes - Sexual Structures from BIO BSC1010 at Broward College. a luteal phase (presence of the corpus luteum ). These cyclic phases are interrupted only by pregnancy and continue until
Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a second PGF2α treatment (25 mg of dinoprost) or a double dose of PGF2α (50 mg of dinoprost) during a Resynch protocol on luteal regression and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 1,100) were randomly assigned at a nonpregnancy diagnosis to receive (1) Ovsynch (control: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 25 mg of PGF2α; 56 h, 100 µg of GnRH), (2) Ovsynch with a second PGF2α treatment (GPPG: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 25 mg of PGF2α; 24 h, 25 mg of PGF2α; 32 h, 100 µg of GnRH), or (3) Ovsynch with a double dose of PGF2α (GDDP: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 50 mg of PGF2α; 56 h, 100 µg of GnRH ...
1. Sepharose 6B gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum is described. Both zonal and frontal techniques of analysis were used. 2. Under conditions of zonal analysis recoveries of activity were low. It was concluded that dissociation of two or more components of the adenylate cyclase complex was occurring on the column and that the maintenance of the complex was essential for the high-activity state of the catalytic unit. Two peaks of adenylate cyclase activity, of approximate mol. wts. 45,000 and 160,000 were detected. 3. The theory of frontal analysis (or steady-state gel filtration), applied to the study of the interacting components of the adenylate cyclase complex is discussed, and activity profiles are predicted. Activity profiles obtained experimentally be frontal analysis compared well with the theoretically predicted profile and provide evidence that dissociation of a high-activity complex, with concomitant loss of activity, does occur. Recoveries ...
The objective of the present study was to investigate in rabbit corpora lutea (CL), at both the cellular and molecular level, intraluteal cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin (PG) E2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) enzymatic activities as well as in vitro PGE2 and PGF2alpha synthesis following PGF2alpha treatment at either early- (day-4) or mid-luteal (day-9) stage of pseudopregnancy. By immunohistochemistry, positive staining for COX-2 was localized in luteal and endothelial cells of stromal arteries at both the stages. In CL of both stages, basal COX-2 mRNA levels were poorly expressed, but rose (P , 0.01) 4- to 10-fold 1.5-6 h after treatment and then gradually decreased within 24 h. Compared to mid-stage, day-4 CL had lower (P , 0.01) COX-2 and PGE2-9-K basal activities, and PGF2alpha synthesis rate, but higher (P , 0.01) PGE2 production. Independent of luteal stage, PGF2alpha treatment did not affect COX-1 activity. In day-4 CL, PGF2alpha induced an increase (P , 0.01) in both COX-2 ...
MiR-29b affects the secretion of PROG and promotes the proliferation of bovine corpus luteum cells[3] The regulatory role of miRNAs has been explored in ovarian cells, and their effects on gonadal development, apoptosis, ovulation, steroid production and corpus luteum (CL) development have been revealed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of miR-29b at different stages of bovine CL development and predicted the target genes of miR-29b. We confirmed that miR-29b reduces the expression of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), affects progesterone (PROG) secretion and regulates the function of the CL. RT-PCR showed that the expression of miR-29b was significantly higher in functional CL phases than in the regressed CL phase. Immunohistochemistry showed that OXTR was expressed in both large and small CL cells and was mainly located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of these cells. We analyzed the expression levels of OXTR and found that transfection with a miR-29b mimic decreased OXTR expression, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Prostaglandins and progesterone secretion in the in vitro perfused pseudopregnant rabbit ovary. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Looking for online definition of cloprostenol in the Medical Dictionary? cloprostenol explanation free. What is cloprostenol? Meaning of cloprostenol medical term. What does cloprostenol mean?
A synthetic analogue of the naturally occurring prostaglandin F2 alpha. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates myometrial activity, relaxes the cervix, inhibits corpus luteal steroidogenesis, and induces luteolysis by direct action on the corpus luteum. (NCI04)
Tytuł projektu: Udostępnianie cyfrowe zasobów polskich czasopism z nauk przyrodniczych i rolniczych w bazie AGRO. Nr umowy: POPC.02.03.01-00-0038/18-00 (okres realizacji 2018-2021). Kwota dofinansowania: 7 442 980,00 z. W ramach Programu Operacyjnego Polska Cyfrowa na lata 2014-2020, Oś Priorytetowa nr 2 E-administracja i otwarty rząd Działanie nr 2.3 Cyfrowa dostępność i użyteczność informacji sektora publicznego Poddziałanie nr 2.3.1 Cyfrowe udostępnienie informacji sektora publicznego ze źródeł administracyjnych i zasobów nauki (typ projektu: cyfrowe udostępnienie zasobów nauki) Instytucja Finansująca: Centrum Projektów Polska Cyfrowa ...
Created page with Adams EC. and {{Hertig AT.}} Studies on the human corpus luteum 1. (1969) J Cell Biol. 21:397-427. [https://www.ncbi.nlm...) ...
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A hormone produced by the corpus luteum that prepares a uterus for the impanation of fertilized ovum, maintains pregnancy and also promotes development of the mammary glands.
Polütsüstilised munasarjad ehk munasarjade polütsüstiline haigus (lühend PCO) - munasarjad on mahult suurenenud ja sisaldavad arvukalt perifeerselt paiknevaid tsüste, mille suurus võib ulatuda kuni 8 millimeetrini. Tsüstide näol on tegemist lõpuni küpsemata folliikulitega (munarakualged). PCOSi kandvad naised ongi sageli viljatud tulenevalt sellest, et munarakk ei ole lõpuni arenenud, ei teki ovulatsiooni (munarakk ei vabane) ning ei moodustu kollakeha (corpus luteum). [5] Polütsüstilised munasarjad tekivad, kui munasarjad on mingil põhjusel hakanud tootma ülemäärast kogust androgeene (meessuguhormoone), eelkõige testosterooni, mille põhjuseks võivad olla kas hüpofüüsi poolt toodetud liigne luteiniseeriv hormoon (LH) või liigne insuliin veres (hüperinsulineemia), naiste hulgas, kelle munasarjad on tundlikud liigsele insuliinile. [2] [8] [7] ...
Menstru ci s zavarok s vagy medd s g luteum praemenstruati s syndroma oedema-k pz d s fejf j s sz kreked s psych s fibrocyst s mastopathia.
Dinolytic can be given to induce luteolysis.. More info Skip to the end of the images gallery ...
Rx: Script Form Required Used to induce luteolysis in beef and dairy cattle. Lasts longer and more potent than other cattle ... Rx: Script Form Required Used to induce luteolysis in beef and dairy cattle. Lasts longer and more potent than other cattle ...
These drugs cause luteolysis-the regression of the corpus luteum if its mature enough to respond to the effects of ...
Interval between aspiration and luteolysis varied from 16,0±0,5 to 19,0±1,4 days and between ablation and next ovulation varied ...
  • Time of luteolysis was evaluated by multiple measures of corpus luteum (CL) structure (area, volume) and function (progesterone [P4], luteal blood flow). (
  • Luteolysis is characterized by a reduction in progesterone (P4) production and tissue degeneration in the corpus luteum (CL). (
  • Nevertheless, the supply of progesterone (P4) depends on corpora lutea (CL) as its primary source in both conditions, resulting in P4 levels that are similar in pregnant and non-pregnant bitches during almost the entire luteal life span prior to the prepartum luteolysis. (
  • This study characterized changes in levels of mRNA and protein for endometrial oestrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) during luteolysis and maternal recognition of pregnancy. (
  • NO inhibits progesterone production, stimulates the secretion of PGF2α and leukotriene C4, reduces the number of viable luteal cells and, finally, participates in functional luteolysis. (
  • One strategy for improving fertility in cattle is mid-cycle administration of GnRH to increase progesterone secretion and delay luteolysis. (
  • Luteolysis was considered to have occurred when three consecutive samples contained less than 1 ng progesterone/ml plasma. (
  • Five regularly cycling domestic mares were treated with 2 g of long-acting progesterone two days after luteolysis. (
  • In mammals, corpus luteum (CL), formed after ovulation on ovary, is endocrine organ which repeats formation and regression (luteolysis). (
  • Thus their inhibition may prevent ovulation and provide contraception prior to fertilization and implantation, or prevent implantation and pregnancy by causing premature luteolysis (ovulation failure). (
  • However, premature luteolysis could provide a mechanism for emergency contraception that would provide superior protection than the currently available forms of hormonal emergency contraception since protection against pregnancy would occur even after ovulation. (
  • As an initial step toward understanding the potential contraceptive effects of prostaglandin inhibitors, we propose to test the hypothesis that the use of a prostaglandin inhibitor will result in premature luteolysis (ovulation failure) in women. (
  • Although Lutalyse was slightly more effective than Estrumate in inducing luteolysis in lactating dairy cows exposed to an Ovsynch or Ovsynch-Resynch protocol, resulting pregnancy outcomes did not differ between products. (
  • Among the most interesting of these are the lack of an acute luteolytic mechanism, coinciding with the apparent luteal independency of a uterine luteolysin in absence of pregnancy, contrasting with the acute prepartum luteolysis observed in pregnant animals. (
  • Therefore, PGF2α uterine role in regulating luteal regression has been confined to mammalian species and a different mechanism appears to control luteolysis in primates. (
  • The origin and physiological significance of high pulses of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in uterine venous blood that occur 2-3 days after luteolysis are not well understood. (
  • These results suggest that the high spikes in PGF2α concentration that occur 2-3 days after luteolysis in pigs, sheep, cows and mares all have a similar origin. (
  • We suggested that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade extracellular matrix, secreted by luteal cells have important roles to achieve outflow of luteal cells, and showed that MMPs expression in luteal cells is regulated by PGF2α and IFNG inducing luteolysis. (
  • PGF2-alpha mediates luteolysis. (
  • While 5 mg PGF2 alpha was not luteolytic in intact heifers, it caused luteolysis in 3 of 4 heifers after hysterectomy. (
  • The experimental results indicate that with beginning within 18 h of treatment, elevated oestrogen secretion may participate in the luteolysis begun by exogenous PGF2 alpha. (
  • We have discovered that one of these proteins, SOCS-3, is upregulated in the corpus luteum of the ovary by prostaglandins and propose that induction of prolactin or GH resistance is a hitherto unrecognised and critical step in luteolysis. (
  • These results suggest that in miniature pigs, administration of at least 3.0 mg of PGF2alpha is required for the induction of luteolysis and injection of PGF2alpha into the vaginal vestibule is a useful method of estrus induction. (
  • Induction of luteolysis with ALFAGLANDIN C usually results in the expulsion of the mummified fetus from the uterus. (
  • Al Mamun, M. Increased Frequency of Double Ovulations after Induction of Luteolysis with Exogenous Prostaglandin F2[alpha]. (
  • The hypothesis was tested that estradiol (E2) from the ovarian follicles controls time of luteolysis. (
  • The hypothesis of experiment 2 was that exogenous treatment with E2 would stimulate prostaglandin F 2alpha (PGF) secretion and prevent the delay in luteolysis associated with follicular ablations. (
  • The hypothesis for experiment 1 was that repeated ablation of follicles would reduce circulating E2 and delay luteolysis. (
  • Greatly reduced doses of cloprostenol (25 mcg) also effectively induce luteolysis in mares while virtually eliminating the unwanted adverse effects of PGF 2α . (
  • Furthermore, during functional luteolysis a truncated variant could modulate the cell surface expression and activity of full-length LHR. (
  • Prostaglandin causes luteolysis of a mature corpus luteum and so does not induce estrus in anestrous mares. (
  • Luteolysis (also known as luteal regression) is the structural and functional degradation of the corpus luteum (CL), which occurs at the end of the luteal phase of both the estrous and menstrual cycles in the absence of pregnancy. (
  • In spite of increased availability of these hormones, luteal regression/luteolysis still takes place. (
  • In domestic animals, luteolysis is initiated by the hormones prostaglandin F2alpha and oxytocin and is dependent on the presence of the uterus. (
  • What role does oxytocin play in luteolysis? (
  • In sheep, communication between the pars nervosa (posterior lobe of the pituitary gland), corpus luteum, and the uterus endometrium via the circulatory system is required for luteolysis. (
  • Luteolysis was induced by an injection of 500 μg cloprostenol (a prostaglandin (PG) analogue) in pregnant (P) Holstein heifers on Days 17 or 24 of gestation and in non-pregnant (NP) Holstein heifers on Day 17 of the oestrous cycle (oestrus = Day 0). (
  • Injection of PAF or SP-A into AF at 17.5 days post coitum enhanced uterine NF-κB activation and contractile gene expression, promoted luteolysis, and rescued delayed parturition in SRC-1/-2-deficient embryo-bearing dams. (
  • Uterine infection causes prostaglandin release which causes loss of embryo due to luteolysis. (
  • Our results suggest that embryo development needs to continue beyond 22 days after AI to effectively prevent luteolysis and extend the luteal phase. (
  • Although the PGFM concentrations were higher in the biopsy group, the biopsy and control groups had similar length of estrous cycle showing that repeated endometrial biopsy on the side contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum does not affect luteolysis and the length of the estrous cycle . (
  • Initiates luteolysis in the corpus luteum. (
  • This study revealed that luteolysis mechanism involve outflow of luteal cells from the CL to lymphatic vessels. (
  • Estradiol secreted from the dominant follicle (DOM) plays a key role in triggering luteolysis in the cow. (
  • Role of the DLL4-NOTCH system in PGF2alpha-induced luteolysis in the pregnant rat. (
  • These include the crystallization of activin in complex with the activin type II receptor ActRIIB, or with the binding proteins follistatin and follistatin-like 3, as well as identification of activin's roles in gonadal sex development, follicle development, luteolysis, beta-cell proliferation and function in the islet, stem cell pluripotency and differentiation into different cell types and in immune cells. (
  • Expression of FP (PTGFR) and of EP2 and EP4 (PTGER2 and PTGER4, respectively) was determined by Real Time (TaqMan) PCR (mean ± SD) in the interplacental sites of canine uterus from the pre-implantation period until mid-gestation (A,C,E) and during Aglepristone®-induced luteolysis/abortion ( B,D,F , compared with the mid-gestation group as non-treated control). (
  • In Experiment 2, complete and partial luteolysis were detected in mares from the PGF-D8 and 1/10PGF-D8 groups, respectively. (
  • Meira, C. / Hemodynamics of the corpus luteum in mares during experimentally impaired luteogenesis and partial luteolysis . (
  • However, its main disadvantage is a significantly lower pregnancy rate, hypothesized to result from a process called "luteolysis" (demise of the corpora lutea). (
  • Despite a significant increase in luteolysis, pregnancy rate per AI did not differ between treatments. (
  • No major alterations in follicular function were observed after the onset of luteolysis. (
  • If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates at the end of the luteal phase in a process called luteolysis. (
  • The initial events involved in luteolysis occur within minutes, and they are intimately linked to inhibition of LH action. (
  • If fertilization and pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, through a process called luteolysis, that eliminates the corpus luteum, initially forming a large blood-filled cavity, then the corpus albicans . (
  • exposure before a PGF -induced luteolysis. (
  • Among them, nitric oxide (NO) seems to play a mandatory role in luteolysis. (

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