No data available that match "luteolysis"


Luteal regression in the normally cycling rat: apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inflammatory cell involvement. (1/323)

In hypophysectomized rats, prolactin induces regression of the corpora lutea. Luteal regression is accompanied by infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, declines in luteal mass and plasma progestins, and increased staining for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We investigated whether similar events are induced during the estrous cycle, after the proestrous prolactin surge. Rats were killed on proestrus or on estrus, and one ovary was frozen for immunohistochemical detection of MCP-1, monocytes/macrophages (ED1-positive), and differentiated macrophages (ED2-positive) and for in situ detection of apoptotic nuclei. Corpora lutea of the current (proestrus) or preceding (estrus) cycle were dissected from the ovaries of additional rats and frozen for the same analyses and for determination of total protein content. In sections of whole ovaries, intensity and distribution of MCP-1 staining were increased in corpora lutea of multiple ages on estrus as compared to proestrus, as were numbers of differentiated macrophages and apoptotic nuclei per high-power field. Sections of isolated corpora lutea showed these increases on estrus, and the number of monocytes/macrophages per high-power field was also significantly increased. Accompanying these inflammatory/immune events, the corpora lutea on estrus showed decreased weight and total protein per corpus luteum, as compared to corpora lutea on proestrus. These changes are consistent with a proposed role for prolactin in the initiation of luteal apoptosis and of a sequence of inflammatory/immune events that accompany regression of the rat corpus luteum during the normal estrous cycle.  (+info)

Control of luteolysis in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). (2/323)

Blood plasma concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2 alpha (PGFM) were measured in groups of mature non-pregnant and pregnant camels to study PGF2 alpha release patterns around the time of luteolysis and the timing of the signal for pregnancy recognition. Injection of each of four camels with 10 and 50 mg of PGF2 alpha showed clearly that five times the dose of exogenous hormone produced five times the amount of PGFM in peripheral plasma, thereby indicating that, as in other animal species, PGFM is the principal metabolite of PGF2 alpha in the camel. Serial sampling of three non-pregnant camels on each of days 8, 10 and 12, and three pregnant camels on day 10, after ovulation for 8 h showed a significant (P < 0.05) rise in mean plasma PGFM concentrations only on day 10 in the non-pregnant, but not the pregnant, animals. A single intravenous injection of 20, 50 or 100 iu oxytocin given to three groups of three non-pregnant camels on day 10 after ovulation did not increase their basal serum PGFM concentrations. However, daily treatment of six non-pregnant camels between days 6 and 15 (n = 3) or 20 (n = 3) after ovulation with 1-2 g of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, meclofenamic acid, inhibited PGF2 alpha release and thereby resulted in continued progesterone secretion throughout the period of meclofenamic acid administration. These results showed that, as in other large domestic animal species, release of PGF2 alpha from, presumably, the endometrium controls luteolysis in the dromedary camel. Furthermore, reduction in the amount of PGF2 alpha released is associated with luteal maintenance and the embryonic signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy must be transmitted before day 10 after ovulation if luteostasis is to be achieved. However, the results also indicate that, in contrast to ruminants, the release of endometrial PGF2 alpha in the non-pregnant camel may not be controlled by the release of oxytocin.  (+info)

A quantitative study of changes in the human corpus luteum microvasculature during the menstrual cycle. (3/323)

Endothelial cells are the most abundant cell type in the corpus luteum (CL), and changes in blood vessels have been proposed to play a pivotal role in CL regression. We have studied quantitatively the changes in the human granulosa-luteal microvasculature in CL of various ages: young (Days 17-19 of the cycle), mature (Days 20-24), old (Days 25-27), early regressing (follicular phase of the following cycle), and late regressing (luteal phase of the following cycle). Blood vessels were identified by immunohistochemical staining for the endothelial cell marker CD34. Because of the anisotropy of blood vessels, both vertical and transverse sections of the granulosa-lutein layer (GLL) were used to estimate relative (volume, surface, and length densities) and absolute (mean cross-sectional area) vascular variables. Full luteinization from young to mature CL was accompanied by a 61% increase in the mean cross-sectional area of vascular profiles and a 52% increase in the mean volume of granulosa-lutein cells, as an estimator of changes in the volume of the GLL. In old and early regressing CL, there was a progressive increase in relative structural vascular variables, due to the shrinkage of the GLL, whereas the mean cross-sectional area of capillaries showed a 53% decrease from mature to old CL. Finally, in late regressing CL, there was a decrease in most relative structural variables, in spite of the increasingly shrunken GLL. The decrease in the capillary diameter found at the late luteal phase most likely leads to a decreased blood flow, and early changes in blood vessels could initiate and/or accelerate CL regression.  (+info)

The effect of indomethacin on uterine contractility and luteal regression in pregnant rats at term. (4/323)

Treatment of pregnant rats with 1 mg indomethacin/kg twice daily i.m. beginning on Day 20 delayed the onset of parturition by about 21 hr and prolonged the duration of spontaneous parturition by 4 hr. Plasma progesterone and oestradiol levels were determined in daily samples of peripheral blood, and uterine contractions were recorded before and during parturition by means of small, chronically implanted intrauterine balloons which were connected to pressure transducers via fluid-filled catheters. Indomethacin treatment did not inhibit or suppress spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions, which were of the same intensity in indomethacin-treated as in control rats. Parturition was induced with oxytocin in the same proportion of treated and control rats, but its induction was not successful in treated rats until 1 day later than in control rats, but its induction was not successful in treated rats until 1 day later than in controls. The onset of parturition was always related to the plasma progesterone level, which declined at a slower rate in indomethacin-treated than in control rats, reaching baseline values approximately 1 day later in the treated animals. The appearance of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the CL of pregnant rats normally occurs on Day 21 of gestation, but activity was not observed until about 1 (0-3) day later in the indomethacin-treated rats, indicating that luteolysis was retarded. Prostaglandin F-2alpha infusions given on Day 21 reversed the effects of indomethacin treatment on plasma progesterone, luteal 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and the timing and duration of parturition, and reduced the high perinatal mortality associated with indomethacin treatment, suggesting that the effects of indomethacin were related to its inhibitory action on prostaglandin synthetase activity. It is concluded that, in rats, indomethacin exerts its effects on parturition through inhibition of luteal regression which was significantly retarded but not prevented, and that indomethacin does not have a direct effect on myometrial contractility.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist has the ability to induce increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and membrane type 1-MMP expression in corpora lutea, and structural luteolysis in rats. (5/323)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its agonist analog (GnRHa) are well known to have luteolytic effects. We previously reported that prolactin (PRL) stimulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity to degrade collagen type IV as a mechanism of structural luteolysis. The effects of GnRHa treatment on developed corpora lutea are unknown. In this study we assessed the effect of GnRH on MMP expression and induction of structural involution of developed corpora lutea of superovulated rats using GnRHa. Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-synchronized ovulation and luteinization were induced in immature female rats, followed by daily treatment with GnRHa from 5 days after hCG treatment. GnRHa-induced involution of corpora lutea was evident 3 days after the treatment, as shown by their markedly smaller size (60% of the control weight). Nine days after hCG injection, serum progesterone and 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone concentrations were as low as those associated with structural luteolysis. These findings revealed that GnRHa has the ability to induce structural luteolysis in superovulated rats in the same way that PRL does. To gain information on mechanisms of luteal involution induced by GnRHa, we performed gelatin zymography. This showed a significant increase in the active form of MMP-2 in the luteal extract of GnRHa-treated rats (more than twofold that of the control). Activation of pro-MMP-2 by membrane type-MMP (MT-MMP) is reported to be a rate-limiting step for catalytic function. Another function of MT-MMP is to degrade collagen types I and III. The plasma membrane fraction of corpora lutea of GnRHa-treated rats activated pro-MMP-2 of fetal calf serum, resulting in a marked shift of the 68-kDa band to the 62-kDa band in the zymogram. A Northern hybridization study also revealed simultaneous significant increases in expression of MMP-2 mRNA and MT1-MMP mRNA in corpora lutea of GnRHa-treated rats (more than threefold the control level). In summary, hormonal and histological features of corpora lutea of GnRHa-treated superovulated rats correspond to those of structural luteolysis. GnRHa stimulated the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in developed corpora lutea associated with involution. These findings support the conclusion that MMP-2, activated by MT1-MMP, and MT1-MMP itself, remodel the extracellular matrix during structural luteolysis induced by GnRHa.  (+info)

Immune cells and cytokine production in the bovine corpus luteum throughout the oestrous cycle and after induced luteolysis. (6/323)

Immune cells and their cytokine products have powerful local effects within body tissues. There has been great interest in the potential role of these cells, not only during destruction of the corpus luteum but also during its functional lifespan. In this study, lymphocytes, macrophages and major histocompatibility complex class II molecules were quantified using immunohistochemistry and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mRNA for tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma within corpora lutea from three groups of cows: (1) corpora lutea collected at an abattoir and assessed visually into four stages (stage I (days 1-5), stage II (days 6-12), stage III (days 13-18) and stage IV (days 19-21) of the oestrous cycle); (2) corpora lutea collected around natural luteolysis (days 14-20); and (3) corpora lutea collected 6, 12 and 24 h after prostaglandin F 2 alpha-induced luteolysis. The numbers of T lymphocytes (CD5+ and CD8+) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) at stage IV and from day 16 onwards, before functional luteolysis. There were significantly higher numbers (P < 0.01) of macrophages at stages I, III and IV compared with stage II in visually staged tissue. Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules were increased (P < 0.05) at stages I and IV compared to stage II and at all times after induced luteolysis. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, mRNA encoding tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma was detected in all luteal tissue collected around natural luteolysis and after induced luteolysis. These findings, particularly the increase in T lymphocytes before functional luteolysis, provide further evidence of a significant role for the immune system in affecting reproductive function in cows.  (+info)

Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression in human corpus luteum. (7/323)

Invasion of the corpus luteum by macrophages is a characteristic of luteal regression. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), a chemokine that recruits macrophages, is expressed in the rat corpus luteum where it increases in amount during luteolysis. In this study we examined the temporal and spatial expression of MCP-1 and changes in macrophage concentration in the human corpus luteum. Corpora lutea (n = 39) were grouped according to menstrual cycle phase and were examined by immunohistochemistry for MCP-1 and macrophages, and by Northern blot for MCP-1 mRNA. We found increasing amounts of macrophages with progressing luteolysis (P < 0.001). Staining for MCP-1 was stronger in the regressing corpora lutea compared with the staining in corpora lutea of early luteal phase (P < 0.05). MCP-1 was more prominent in blood vessel walls surrounding the corpus luteum than in vessels located far from it. The mean MCP-1 mRNA expression in regressing corpora lutea was higher than that observed in corpora lutea of the early and mid-luteal phase (P = 0.003). In conclusion, we found that MCP-1 expression and the number of macrophages increase with regression of the corpus luteum. MCP-1 is mostly expressed in blood vessel walls surrounding the corpus luteum and may play a role in the recruitment of macrophages to the corpus luteum during its regression.  (+info)

Effect of sodium cloprostenol and flunixin meglumine on luteolysis and the timing of birth in bitches. (8/323)

At birth, the physiological role of prostaglandins in bitches is unclear. Bitches were treated before parturition with either saline, the prostaglandin analogue, sodium cloprostenol, or the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, flunixin meglumine. The animals were examined regularly to determine the onset of parturition and a series of blood samples were taken to define the hormonal profiles before, during and after birth. Animals treated with cloprostenol whelped earlier than did controls. In addition, the prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite surge and decrease in plasma progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were earlier than in controls. Flunixin meglumine disrupted the normal 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2 alpha profile but did not abolish prostaglandin synthesis completely or delay the onset of labour in treated animals. This study confirms that prostaglandins induce luteolysis and the onset of labour in the bitch. However, the partial inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis does not prevent parturition.  (+info)

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