A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
Absence of menstruation.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.
The 17-alpha isomer of TESTOSTERONE, derived from PREGNENOLONE via the delta5-steroid pathway, and via 5-androstene-3-beta,17-alpha-diol. Epitestosterone acts as an antiandrogen in various target tissues. The ratio between testosterone/epitestosterone is used to monitor anabolic drug abuse.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to HALOPERIDOL for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.
Sexual activities of animals.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.
Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
Hormones produced in the testis.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.

Plasma concentration changes in LH and FSH following electrochemical stimulation of the medial preoptic are or dorsal anterior hypothalamic area of estrogen- or androgen-sterilized rats.(1/6154)


Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (2/6154)

This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics.  (+info)

Luteinizing hormone inhibits conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in luteal cells from rats on day 19 of pregnancy. (3/6154)

We have previously reported that intrabursal ovarian administration of LH at the end of pregnancy in rats induces a decrease in luteal progesterone (P4) synthesis and an increase in P4 metabolism. However, whether this local luteolytic effect of LH is exerted directly on luteal cells or on other structures, such as follicular or stromal cells, to modify luteal function is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of LH on isolated luteal cells obtained on Day 19 of pregnancy. Incubation of luteal cells with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/ml of ovine LH (oLH) for 6 h did not modify basal P4 production. The addition to the culture medium of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC, 10 microgram/ml), a membrane-permeable P4 precursor, or pregnenolone (10(-2) microM) induced a significant increase in P4 accumulation in the medium in relation to the control value. When luteal cells were preincubated for 2 h with oLH, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the 22R-HC- or pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation was observed. Incubation of luteal cells with dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM, a cAMP analogue) plus isobutylmethylxanthine (1 mM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) also inhibited pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation. Incubation with an inositol triphosphate synthesis inhibitor, neomycin (1 mM), or an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, (8,9-N, N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1 mM), did not prevent the decrease in pregnenolone-stimulated P4 secretion induced by oLH. It was concluded that the luteolytic action of LH in late pregnancy is due, at least in part, to a direct action on the luteal cells and that an increase in intracellular cAMP level might mediate this effect.  (+info)

Activities of glucose metabolic enzymes in human preantral follicles: in vitro modulation by follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, and transforming growth factor beta1. (4/6154)

Modulation of glucose metabolic capacity of human preantral follicles in vitro by gonadotropins and intraovarian growth factors was evaluated by monitoring the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), two regulatory enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a key mitochondrial enzyme of the Krebs cycle. Preantral follicles in classes 1 and 2 from premenopausal women were cultured separately in vitro in the absence or presence of FSH, LH, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), or transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) for 24 h. Mitochondrial fraction was separated from the cytosolic fraction, and both fractions were used for enzyme assays. FSH and LH significantly stimulated PFK and PK activities in class 1 and 2 follicles; however, a 170-fold increase in MDH activity was noted for class 2 follicles that were exposed to FSH. Although both EGF and TGFbeta1 stimulated glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzymes for class 1 preantral follicles, TGFbeta1 consistently stimulated the activities of both glycolytic enzymes more than that of EGF. IGF-I induced PK and MDH activities in class 1 follicles but negatively influenced PFK activity for class 1 follicles. In general, only gonadotropins consistently stimulated both glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzyme activities several-fold in class 2 follicles. These results suggest that gonadotropins and ovarian growth factors differentially influence follicular energy-producing capacity from glucose. Moreover, gonadotropins may either directly influence glucose metabolism in class 2 preantral follicles or do so indirectly through factors other than the well-known intraovarian growth factors. Because growth factors modulate granulosa cell mitosis and functionality, their role on energy production may be related to specific cellular activities.  (+info)

Changes in basement membrane thickness in the human endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. (5/6154)

We have examined aspects of the fine structure of the basal laminae associated with the luminal and glandular epithelium and small blood vessels in the human endometrium. Four short studies are presented and reviewed. Study 1 examined biopsies from 20 fertile women taken on days after the luteinizing hormone surge (LH): LH +2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The basal lamina (both lamina densa and lucida) increased in thickness over the period studied. Study 2 again studied the glandular epithelium and examined the effect of RU486 (a progesterone receptor blocker) administered on day LH +3 and biopsied on day LH +6. The basal laminae were found to be the same as LH +2 control group but thinner than LH +6 control. Study 3 documented increased thickness of the basal laminae between LH +6, 8 and 13 in the luminal epithelium. The within-group coefficient of variation was 16% and 27% for LH +6 and LH +13 groups but only 2 % for LH +8. Study 4 demonstrated an increase in basal lamina thickness associated with small blood vessels between LH +6 and LH +10 in normal fertile women. The basal lamina provides the interface between epithelial and mesenchymal environments; changes in its structure can alter the phenotypic expression of the epithelia. It is one of the maternal barriers that must be transgressed by the trophoblast during implantation. Together, these combined studies provide quantitative baseline structural information on the electron microscopical appearance of the basal lamina during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.  (+info)

Melatonin inhibits release of luteinizing hormone (LH) via decrease of [Ca2+]i and cyclic AMP. (6/6154)

The role of [Ca2+]i and cAMP in transduction of the melatonin inhibitory effect on GnRH-induced LH release from neonatal rat gonadotrophs has been studied, because melatonin inhibits the increase of both intracellular messengers. Treatments increasing Ca2+ influx (S(-) Bay K8644 or KCI) or cAMP concentration (8-bromo-cAMP or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) potentiated the GnRH-induced LH release and partially diminished the inhibitory effect of melatonin. Combination of the treatments increasing cAMP and calcium concentrations blocked completely the melatonin inhibition of LH release. The combined treatment with 8-bromo-cAMP and S(-) Bay K8644 also blocked the melatonin inhibition of GnRH-induced [Ca2+]i increase in 89 % of the gonadotrophs, while any of the treatments alone blocked the melatonin effect in about 25 % of these cells. These observations suggest that a cAMP-dependent pathway is involved in regulation of Ca2+ influx by melatonin and melatonin inhibition of LH release may be mediated by the decrease of both messengers.  (+info)

The mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha on aromatase activity in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. (7/6154)

We investigated aromatization and the mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) on oestradiol biosynthesis in freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. Freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries incubated for only 3 h under basal conditions secreted significantly (P< 0.001) greater amounts of oestradiol-17beta than that of granulosa cells from normal ovaries. 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), but not follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH), further enhanced this activity. Both EGF and TGFalpha inhibited gonadotrophinor 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated, but not basal, oestradiol production. LH receptor (LHR) binding, estimated by immunolabelling the bound LH, was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries when compared with cells from normal ovaries. EGF or TGFalpha significantly reduced the binding in cultured cells from all patient groups (P< 0.05). More interestingly, a further increase of the inhibitory effect was seen in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries contain high levels of basal aromatase activity in vitro, which is probably inherited from the in-vivo condition. EGF and TGFalpha suppress oestradiol synthesis at a step beyond the production of cAMP and also LHR binding with more effect in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries.  (+info)

Reproductive experience and opioid regulation of luteinizing hormone release in female rats. (8/6154)

The objective of the present study was to determine whether reproductive experience that produces shifts in opioid regulation of prolactin secretion and behavioural functions also alters opioid regulation of LH during the oestrous cycle or lactation. In Expt 1 the effect of naloxone administration (i.v.) on LH was compared between age-matched, nulliparous and primiparous, catheterized female rats on dioestrus II. In Expt 2, the effects of multiple reproductive experiences on opiate control of LH were investigated using cyclic, nulliparous and multiparous (three litters) rats. In both experiments, no differences in naloxone-stimulated LH release were found between groups even though multiple reproductive experiences resulted in the prolongation of oestrous cyclicity. In Expt 3, day 8 lactating primiparous rats were administered 2, 5, 10 or 25 mg naloxone kg-1 i.v. The three lowest naloxone doses, but not the 25 mg kg-1 dose, significantly increased LH concentrations. The possible effects of prior reproductive experience on opioid control of LH during lactation were then investigated. Naloxone at 0.5 mg kg-1, but not at 2 mg kg-1 or 10 mg kg-1, stimulated a significantly greater rise in LH in multiparous (two litters) than in primiparous females. Overall, these data indicate that while modest differences were found in naloxone-induced LH responses between multiparous and primiparous animals during lactation, reproductive experience did not significantly alter opioid regulation of LH during subsequent oestrous cycles at the naloxone doses examined. Hence, the effects of reproductive experience on opioid regulation of LH are less pronounced than those previously found for opioid regulation of prolactin and behaviour.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Does cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor mediate suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in response to psychosocial stress?. AU - Breen, Kellie M. AU - Oakley, Amy E. AU - Pytiak, Andrew V. AU - Tilbrook, Alan John. AU - Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R. AU - Karsch, Fred J. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - This study assessed the importance of cortisol in mediating inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion in sheep exposed to a psychosocial stress. First, we developed an acute psychosocial stress model that involves sequential layering of novel stressors over 3-4 h. This layered-stress paradigm robustly activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and unambiguously inhibited pulsatile LH secretion. We next used this paradigm to test the hypothesis that cortisol, acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mediates stress-induced suppression of pulsatile LH secretion. Our approach was to determine if an antagonist of the type II GR (RU486) reverses ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of pituitary luteinizing hormone releasing hormone receptors by sex steroids and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the rat. AU - Marchetti, B.. AU - Reeves, J. J.. AU - Pelletier, G.. AU - Labrie, F.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - The effect of sex steroids on pituitary luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor number and affinity was studied in adult castrated male and female rats treated for 2 weeks with 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or progesterone (P) alone or in combination. The effect of chronic treatment with the potent LHRH agonist [D-Ser(TBU)6, des-Gly-NH210] LHRH ethylamide, Buserelin, was studied in intact and castrated animals. [125I]-Buserelin was used as tracer to measure LHRH receptors in individual pituitaries. Daily treatment of intact male rats for 2 weeks with Buserelin (200 ng) increased pituitary LHRH receptor concentration while the same treatment in castrated animals reversed by 60% the ...
Patterns of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion before and during the onset of puberty in boys: a study using an immunoradiometric assay.: To study spontane
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changing dose of progesterone results in sudden changes in frequency of luteinizing hormone pulses and secretion of 17β-estradiol in bovine females. AU - Bergfeld, E. G.M.. AU - Kojima, F. N.. AU - Cupp, A. S.. AU - Wehrman, M. E.. AU - Peters, K. E.. AU - Mariscal, V.. AU - Sanchez, T.. AU - Kinder, J. E.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. N2 - The aim of the present study was to elucidate the time course according to which changes in circulating concentrations of progesterone influence pulsatile secretion of LH and secretion of 17β-estradiol. Our working hypothesis was that changing the dose of progesterone would result in changes in frequency of LH pulses and secretion of 17β-estradiol within 72 h. Five days after behavioral estrus, thirty-three cows were randomly assigned to one of five groups: 1) control, no treatment (CONT, n = 5); 2) treatment with two progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices (PRIDs) for 11 days (2PRID, 5-6 ng/ml plasma progesterone, n = 7); 3) treatment ...
Recent studies have shown that LH secretion is pulsatile and that LH pulse characteristics are affected by the prevailing steroid environment in both male and female rats. In the present study, a cell perifusion system was used to examine the effects of testosterone (T) and 17 beta-estradiol (E) on LHRH-stimulated pulsatile LH secretion. T inhibited LH secretion, increasing the EC50 for LHRH, while E stimulated secretion, lowering the EC50. Steroid effects were independent of both LHRH pulse amplitude and frequency. E also affected the pattern of LH secretion by facilitating both LHRH self-priming and desensitization to LHRH. These results show that steroids can affect pulsatile LH secretion by actions exerted at the pituitary level and that steroids can induce both quantitative and qualitative changes in LH secretion in the presence of an invariant LHRH stimulus. These results help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying steroid feedback in vivo, since reduction in pituitary responsiveness to LHRH may
Concentrations of bioavailable testosterone decline by 1.0-1.5% annually as men age. Reduced systemic testosterone availability is associated with decreased muscle mass, strength and aerobic capacity, decreased bone-mineral density and increased risk of hip fracture, waning sexual interest, inpaired spatial cognition and increased risk of visceral obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and coronary artery disease. Luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion often fails in healthy older individuals. In addition, aging is marked by an acceleration of LH pulse frequency, loss of high-amplitude LH pulses and disorderly release of LH and testosterone, as measured by the approximate entropy statistic. The mechanisms that underlie such complex adaptations are not known, but appear to involve multiple loci of regulatory failure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exposure to alcohol in utero alters the adult patterns of luteinizing hormone secretion in male and female rats. AU - Handa, Robert J.. AU - McGivern, Robert F.. AU - Noble, Ernest SP. AU - Gorski, Roger A.. PY - 1985/11/4. Y1 - 1985/11/4. N2 - Luteinizing hormone (LH) secretory patterns were characterized in adult male and female rats exposed to ethanol during the last week of fetal life. Gonadectomized fetal alcohol exposed (FAE) males and females had significantly reduced plasma LH titers as compared to those of pair-fed (PF) controls. The phasic afternoon LH secretory response to estrogen and progesterone priming was also significantly reduced in FAE females. These differences do not appear to be a result of altered pituitary sensitivity to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), since the infusion of LHRH resulted in an equal response in PF and FAE females. Subsequent characterization of the episodic pattern of LH secretion in FAe males revealed significantly reduced ...
Mechanisms regulating gonadotropin surges and gonadotropin requirements for follicle emergence and selection were studied in heifers. Experiment 1 evaluated whether follicular inhibins regulate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) surges elicited by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection (Hour = 0) and the subsequent periovulatory FSH surge. Treatments included control (n = 6), steroid-depleted bovine follicular fluid (bFF) at Hour -4 (n = 6), and bFF at Hour 6 (n = 6). Gonadotropins in blood were assessed hourly from Hours -6 to 36, and follicle growth tracked by ultrasound. Consistent with inhibin independence, bFF at Hour -4 did not impact the GnRH-induced preovulatory FSH surge, whereas treatment at Hour 6 delayed onset of the periovulatory FSH surge and impeded growth of a new follicular wave. Experiment 2 examined GnRH and estradiol (E2) regulation of the periovulatory FSH surge. Treatment groups were control (n = 8), GnRH-receptor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist given during combination chemotherapy on posttherapy fertility in male patients with lymphoma. T2 - Preliminary observations. AU - Johnson, D. H.. AU - Linde, R.. AU - Hainsworth, J. D.. AU - Vale, W.. AU - Rivier, J.. AU - Stein, R.. AU - Flexner, J.. AU - Van Welch, R.. AU - Greco, F. A.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Six men undergoing potentially curative chemotherapy for advanced lymphomas received daily injections (50 μg) of an analogue of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RHa) in an attempt to protect posttreatment gonadal function. The median duration of combined LH-RHa-chemotherapy administration was 25 weeks (range, 14 to 31 weeks). During the simultaneous administration of LH-RHa and chemotherapy, plasma testosterone levels decreased to subnormal levels, while both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone levels declined to the lower limit of normal. All subjects became oligospermic or ...
REVERSAL type experiment was con- ducted in which measurements were made of plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone in six Holstein heifers dur- ing three estrous cycles when they were main- tained on either 100% or 62% of Morrisons TDN allowances. A progressive increase in plasma LH was noted from the first to third estrous cycle in heifers on the low energy in- take. This increase was first seen in the estrous peaks, but by the third cycle the basal mean for the low TDN group (2.7 ng/ml) was also significantly higher than that of the control heifers (1.9 ng/ml, P(0.005). During the first cycle, plasma progesterone was slightly higher in the low calorie group, but became progressively lower in the subsequent cycles (P,0.05 and P~0.01). Both total progester- one and progesterone concentration in corpora lutea taken on the 10th day of the third cycle were lower in the low-TDN heifers than in their normal counterparts, P,0.01 and ,0.05, respectivley. The results show that ...
The reaction of iodoacetic acid with bovine lutropin (luteinizing hormone) at pH 3.0 was specific for methionine residues; it was slow and reached its equilibrium after 12 h at 37 degrees C. The number of modified methionine residues increased proportionately with the amount of the alkylating reagent in the reaction mixture. In the presence of a 20-fold molar excess of iodoacetic acid with respect to methionine, essentially all methionine residues in both subunits of bovine lutropin were carboxymethylated. Studies of various recombinations of modified and native alpha and beta subunits showed that methionine residues in bovine lutropin were not essential for interactions between subunits. Various recombinants were characterized by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and gel filtration of Sephadex G-100. Immunological cross-reactivity by radioimmunoassay of the recombinants of modified alpha and beta subunits was relatively similar to that of the native subunits. However, the biological activity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The in vitro perifused rat ovary. T2 - V. The significance of the follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone ratio on steroid release. AU - Soendoro, T.. AU - Diamond, M. P.. AU - Pepperell, J. R.. AU - Naftolin, F.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by NIH grant HD 22970.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - In these studies, an in vitro perifusion model was used to compare stimulation of ovarian tissue with either human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), which is an equal mixture of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), or with hMG plus added human FSH. Eight-hour perifusion studies were conducted on either whole, or dissected clusters of follicles from pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG)-treated rats. In the two groups, similar stimulatory protocols were used, consisting of a ramp stimulation over 60 min with either hMG (0-8 mlU/ml) or hMG plus FSH (0-8 mlU/ml hMG + 0-8 mlU/ml FSH), followed by hourly pulse stimulation with hMG (8-18 ...
The possible differential regulation of pulsatile follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in pre-pubertal children and in post-menopausal women was investigated. Children were studied for 4 h and post-menopausal women for 6 h; blood samples were taken every 10 min. Post-menopausal women were studied before and 21 days after administration of a single i.m. dose of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Eight post-menopausal women and 18 children (nine boys and nine girls) were enrolled. The children were divided into two groups: A, at Tanner stages 0-1 (four boys and three girls); B, at Tanner stage 2-3 (five boys and six girls). Plasma LH and FSH concentrations were determined using an immunofluorimetric assay. Time series were analysed and the specific concordance (SC) index was computed to determine the degree of concordance between episodes of LH and FSH secretion. While children of group A had LH concentrations below the minimal detectable dose of ...
The current search experiments designed to study the effect of chronic and acute heat stress on the relationship between HSP70, leptin and luteinizing hormones level in female rats. 45 female pups were used in the age of weaning, were randomly divided into three equal groups. 1st group was a control group, 2nd group exposed to chronic heat stress at 38 ºC for 1hour a day since the age of weaning until onset of puberty and the 3rd group exposed to acute heat stress at 38 ºC for 4 hours per day for 5 consecutive days from 35 day age of rat and each group above were secondary divided into 3 age groups consisted of pre-puberty, at puberty and post-puberty. Results of study showed female rats exposed to chronic and acute stress led to significant increase in the level of luteinizing hormone at onset of the puberty. The result showed correlation coefficient between the level of HSP70 and leptin hormone significantly in the females acute stressed group at onset of puberty, as well as female exposed to
While exposure of vertebrates to estrogens during early development has been shown to alter adult reproductive behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology, effects on gonadotropin secretion have not been studied. We conducted the present studies to assess the effects of neonatal exposure to xenobiotic estrogens on luteinizing hormone secretion in castrated adult rats. Rat pups
Bartke, A, Effects of prolactin and luteinizing hormone on the cholesterol stores in the mouse testis. (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 2423 ...
An investigation of the effects of an acute 180 degree reversal of the sleep/wake cycle on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion was studied in three pubertal boys and the data collected was combined with that from the study of a fourth boy. Two 24 hour periods of blood sampling every 20 minutes were carried out in each of the boys, aged 14 to 15 years. The first study was conducted during a normal s
Dive into the research topics of Effects of testosterone on spermatogenesis and luteinizing hormone release in Japanese quail. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Flurkey, K; Gee, D M.; Sinha, Y N.; Wisner, J R.; J; and Finch, C E., Age effects on luteinizing hormone, progesterone and prolactin in proestrous and cyclic c57bl/6j mice. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3618 ...
Hormonal diseases If luteinizing hormone increased, it can be a symptom of diseases such as endometriosis, polycystic ovaries or exhaustion.All these ailments have additional features, chief of which is infertility.. Treatment should be adjusted individually and only after additional research.. benign or malignant tumors High levels of LH may indicate that a woman has health problems that are not related to the production of hormones.So, it could be a tumor of the adrenal or pituitary disease.The nature of the tumors may be different.. External factors that influence the amount of LH If too high luteinizing hormone (normal) women on day 4 of the cycle later, it may indicate that the fairer sex is not quite the right way of life.Often, these indicators are at the exhausting long workouts, malnutrition, starvation and stress.. ...
File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome) using Capture Perfect 3.0.82 on a Canon DR-9080C in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR ...
Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone - What does luteinizing hormone LH mean? Turns yellow. Luteining hormone is a peptide (not a steroid) hormone in the pituitary gland of both females and males. Its name (lh) comes from one of its actions in females, which is luteinization of ovarian granulosa cells. Luteinization means literally to turn yellow. luteinization is a necessary change in the ovary so that it can produce Progesterone after ovulation.
To investigate whether endogenous GABA participates in the control of gonadotropin secretion during the menstrual cycle, placebo or sodium valproate (DPA), an anticonvulsant drug which enhances endogenous GABA content by blocking GABA degradation, were administered to regularly cycling women both during early follicular and midluteal phase. In a first set of experiments, the effect of DPA administration (400 mg, orally) on basal gonadotropin secretion was evaluated in 13 subjects. During early follicular phase (n = 6), no significant changes in plasma gonadotropin levels were observed after DPA or placebo administration. Conversely, during midluteal phase (n = 7), DPA administration resulted in a significant fall (p less than 0.01) in plasma LH concentrations, with a maximal percent decrease of 41.8 +/- 6.7% after 120 min. No changes in plasma FSH levels were observed. In a second set of experiments, the effect of DPA pretreatment (400 mg, orally) on gonadotropin release stimulated by a pulse of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Luteinizing hormone in women is secreted in superimposed pulse patterns. AU - Murdoch, A. P.. AU - Diggle, P. J.. AU - White, M. C.. AU - Harris, M.. AU - Kendall-Taylor, P.. AU - Dunlop, W.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - The pulsatile nature of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion has recognized physiological and clinical importance, but because of the difficulties with statistical analysis of serial data the precise nature of this pulsed signal is poorly understood. Several groups have noted small-amplitude, high-frequency pulses superimposed on large slower pulses, but, using conventional methods of analysis, it is not possible to distinguish these from assay variation or to characterize them. In an alternative approach we have applied the methods of time series analysis which identify the harmonic patterns within data. Twenty-four healthy women in the early follicular phase of the cycle had blood samples taken at intervals of 1,5 or 10 min for up to 6 h. We found that LH secretion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - LH and FSH subunit mRNA concentrations during the progesterone-induced gonadotropin surge in ovariectomized estrogen-primed immature rats. AU - Brann, Darrell. AU - OConner, James. AU - Wade, Marlene. AU - Mahesh, Virendra. PY - 1992/4. Y1 - 1992/4. N2 - Progesterone is able to bring about an LH and FSH surge in the estrogen-primed ovariectomized rat while dexamethasone brings about selective FSH release. The purpose of this study was to determine if progesterone and desamethasone-induced gonadotropin secretion is accompanied by changes in LHβ and FSHβ mRNA levels. Gonadotropin α-subunit, LHβ-subunit, and FSHβ-subunit mRNA levels in the pituitary of ovariectomized rats were suppressed by estrogen treatment and dexamethasone brought about a significant increase in FSHβ mRNA within 1 h. Progesterone treatment (0900 h) led to a surge in serum LH levels, with peak values at 1400 h. LHβ mRNA levels were slightly elevated by progesterone at 1400 h. However, an elevation of LHβ ...
A luteinizing hormone test measures the amount of luteinizing hormone (LH) in a sample of blood or urine. LH is produced by the pituitary gland. In women, LH helps regulate the menstrual cycle and egg production ( ovulation). How much LH is in a womans body depends on the phase of her menstrual cycle. This hormone...
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To investigate the mechanism controlling the fall in maternal pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, LH synthesis and pituitary GnRH receptor content during pregnancy, maternal pituitaries were collected from sheep on days 35, 45, 60, 90, 110, 125 and 135 of pregnancy. Circulating steroids and gonadotrophins were determined in blood samples collected from these ewes immediately before death. Pituitary blocks from each ewe were perifused with either medium alone (control) or medium supplemented with oestradiol, oestradiol plus progesterone or oestradiol plus RU486, for 150 min before administration of two 15 s GnRH pulses 90 min apart. The amounts of mRNA encoding LHβ and GnRH receptor were determined in pituitary tissue fragments snap-frozen in liquid N2 at the time of collection from the ewes. While basal LH secretion fell during pregnancy, pituitary responsiveness to GnRH remained high (up to seven times basal LH concentrations). After day 90, the first GnRH pulse elicited LH peaks equivalent to ...
Book LH Luteinizing Hormone Lab Test appointment online at Home. View details of LH Luteinizing Hormone: procedure, normal range and Get the reports Online
Book LH Luteinizing Hormone Lab Test appointment online at Home. View details of LH Luteinizing Hormone: procedure, normal range and Get the reports Online
Pituitary gland produces Luteinizing Hormone (LH) - a gonadotropin hormone. LH is important for fertility, sexual health and pregnancy. It is helpful in ovulation in women and testosterone production in males. The LH test is used to measure the levels of LH in the blood.. Why is the test ordered?. The test is helpful in assessing infertility and hypogonadism, as well as in predicting ovulation and diagnosing the condition of the pituitary glands. It is also helpful in diagnosing both ovarian and testicular dysfunction. The test may be ordered in children to help diagnose early or late puberty. In women, the test may be ordered as a supportive test for assessing menstrual irregularities.. When is the test ordered?. The test may be ordered for a woman with irregular menstrual periods, or absence of periods and if she is not getting pregnant. The test may be recommended for a man if he has low testosterone and low sex drive. The test may also be recommended when pituitary disorder is suspected. A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of pregnancy on pulsatile secretion of LH and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-induced LH release in sheep: a longitudinal study. AU - Al-Gubory, K H AU - Hervieu, J AU - Fowler, P A PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Pulsatile LH secretion and its control throughout pregnancy have not been fully determined in sheep. Expt 1 determined the patterns of LH secretion in five ewes on days 10, 20, 60 and 120 of pregnancy and on day 10 postpartum, compared with those on day 10 of the oestrous cycle. Mean (+/- SEM) concentrations of LH declined steadily throughout pregnancy (ANOVA, P , 0.01) and were lower (P , 0.01) on day 60 (0.19 +/- 0.3 ng ml(-1)) and on day 120 (0.18 +/- 0.4 ng ml(-1)) of pregnancy than on day 10 of the oestrous cycle (0.55 +/- 0.04 ng ml(-1)). This decrease was due to a significant reduction in the number and the amplitude of LH pulses. Only on day 120 of pregnancy were progesterone concentrations higher (P , 0.01) than on day 10 of the oestrous cycle. Although ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deficient melanocortin-4 receptor causes abnormal reproductive neuroendocrine profile in female mice. AU - Chen, Xiaolin. AU - Huang, Lili. AU - Tan, Hwee Y.. AU - Li, Hongzhuo. AU - Wan, Ying. AU - Cowley, Michael. AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D. AU - Chen, Chen. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Deletion of the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) gene in mice causes hyperphagia, followed by hyperinsulinemia, obesity and progressive infertility. Evidence shows that the number of developed corpora lutea is reduced in obese MC4R-knockout (MC4R KO) female mice, but the mechanism is unclear. The effect of hyperphagia and obesity by MC4R KO on pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and ovulation remains unknown. In MC4R KO mice and wild-type littermates (WT LM) during the diestrus period throughout different ages, we examined and monitored their metabolic status, pulsatile LH profiles, follicular morphology and the number of corpora lutea. MC4R KO mice were hyperphagic, obese, hyperglycemic, ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [The effect of althesin-N2O anesthesia and surgery on plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone, estradiol and progesterone in woman (authors transl)]. by Akira Maeda et al.
The functional characteristics and control mechanisms of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis were explored by examining the patterns of pituitary and testicular hormone secretion in pubertal subjects and in adults with impaired spermatogenesis. The overnight hormone profile and the pituitary response to repeated GnRH stimulation were studied on 1-4 occasions in 16 patients (mean age 16.3 ± 2.7 years) with delayed sexual development while their clinical progress was followed for a mean duration of 22.4 ± 8.5 months. Changes in testis and genital size were confirmed to be the two physical markers which correlated best with the hormonal patterns. The earliest detectable evidence of pubertal onset was an increase in frequency and amplitude of pulsatile LH secretion during nocturnal sleep. Further progress in puberty was characterized by quantitative and qualitative changes in the pattern of LH secretion resulting from the combined effects of changing frequency of hypothalamic GnRH pulses, ...
Postpartum interval to estrus and patterns of luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in first-calf suckled beef cows exposed to mature ...
Backer, L.C., Rubin, C.S., Marcus, M., Kieszak, S.M., Schober, S.E. . Serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in women aged 35-60 in the U.S. population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) ...
en] In all mammalian females, follicular growth and maturation are essentially dependent on the pituitary gonadotropins, FSH and LH. These glycoprotein hormones have many similarities, but their action, based on high affinity binding to specific membrane receptors, are quite different. The purpose of this study was to perform a sensitive localization of FSH and LH in secretory granules of gonadotrophs using highly specific antisera. This morphological study included light microscopy (PAP) and electron microscopy (immunogold single and double labeling) procedures. Histologically, approximatively 11.5% of cells were positive for LH, whereas only 5.4% of cells were positive for FSH. With the electron microscope, single labeling allowed identification of morphologically distinct LH-containing cells and FSH-containing cells. Double immunostaining confirmed that no cells contained both hormones. The finding that FSH and LH are produced in separate pituitary cells is in agreement with recent studies ...
The LH test measures the LH blood level. This luteinizing hormone test helps evaluate fertility. Get an LH blood test near you and fast results for a low cost - Accesa Labs
Describes how the luteinizing hormone (LH) test is used, when an LH test is ordered, and what the results of an LH test might mean
I got some very stange lab results in today. Luteinizing Hormone Result |0.1 Flagged Low Units IU/L Range 1.7-8.6 FSH Serum Result 0.3 Flagged Low
Heifers experienced either a: 1) large magnitude of change in progesterone; 2) medium magnitude of change in progesterone; or 3) small magnitude of change in progesterone. During the 24 hours following the progesterone shift, heifers with the large magnitude progesterone shift had a greater LH pulse frequency than heifers with a medium or small magnitude of shift in progesterone. Despite the large or medium magnitude progesterone shift, LH pulse frequency did not differ from heifers in which a small change in progesterone occurred. We conclude that amount of progesterone in circulation is more important in regulation of LH secretion than magnitude of shift in amount of progesterone.
Small, C.J., Goubillon, M.-L., Murray, Joanne F., Siddiqui, A., Grimshaw, S.E., Young, H., Sivanesan, V., Kalamatianos, T., Kennedy, A.R., Coen, C.W., Bloom, S.R. and Wilson, C.A. (2003) Central orexin A has site-specific effects on luteinizing hormone release in female rats. Endocrinology, 144 (7). pp. 3225-3236. ISSN 0013-7227 ...
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This test measures the level of luteinizing hormone in your blood. It can help figure out the cause of infertility or diagnose a pituitary disorder.
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Figure 10.5 Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian pathway. GnRH, gonadotrophin releasing hormone; LH, luteinising hormone; FSH, follicle stimulating hormone.. The neurons have rhythmic intrinsic depolarisation and secretory activity with g self-generated pulsatile secretion, involving short periods of abrupt secretion °. d separated by large periods of low or undetectable secretion. g. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone travels by axonomic flow to the axon g terminals of the median eminence. It binds to anterior pituitary gonadotrophs ■,. g that secrete FSH and LH. The activation mechanism is calcium-dependent ,. activation of a specific membrane receptor adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP process. The GnRH receptor is a member of the seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled family of receptors.. The reproductive cycles commence at puberty as a hypothalamic pulse generator is activated and stimulates the GnRH neurons. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone simultaneously regulates FSH and LH secretion. It has a ...
岡山大学審査学位論文 Peptides Volume 76, February 2016, Pages 96-101 掲載. Author Version. [ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2016.01.011 ] © 2016. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 ...
Islh official publication validation of the coulter lh 750 in a ... Abstract validation of the coulter lh 750 was carried out in our central hospital laboratory, which processes 1500 hemo-grams per day for patients admitted into the...(urine) one step luteinizing hormone (lh) test d=c-17 2 one step luteinizing hormone (lh) test (urine) for in vitro diagnostic use intended use one step luteinizing hormone (lh) test is a rapid...
Von turbid launched its consumer sales royally? Play games, take quizzes, print and more with Easy Notecards REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. Jonathon livelier fustigating his sentence thudded and desensitized! By Lara Pizzorno, MDiv, MA, LMT. Many amino acid and peptide hormones are elaborated by neural tissue, with ultimate impact on the entire system. This is done both directly on the parietal cell and. Reproduction in all species borders on the miraculous. 07. 05. Maternity Wintles Rutledge, its very hortatively beams. 03. Interstitial cell stimulating hormone; luteinizing hormone; lutropin; LH. 2017 · Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein gonadotropin secreted by the anterior pituitary in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone …. Its an animal hormone and never found in plants.. 03. 2017 · Study Chapter 18 Endocrine System flashcards taken from the book Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology The endocrine system is the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones ...
Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone (Intramuscular Route, Subcutaneous Route) Side effects. From Mayo Clinic. ... LH (Luteinizing hormone) preparations[edit]. Prepared from recombinant DNA.. Generic lutropin alfa for injection. Brands ... Preparations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) mainly include those derived from the urine of menopausal women, as well as ... "Comparison of the efficacy and safety of a highly purified human follicle-stimulating hormone (Bravelle) and recombinant ...
Stimulates release of luteinizing hormone (LH). Stimulates release of somatoliberin and somatotrophin secretion and inhibits ... melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH). It is abundant ... Koval'zon VM (1994). "[DSIP: the sleep peptide or an unknown hypothalamic hormone?]". Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. (in Russian). ... "Evidence for a role of delta sleep-inducing peptide in slow-wave sleep and sleep-related growth hormone release in the rat". ...
Levels of luteinizing hormone, conversely, remained unchanged. In general, progestogens can maximally suppress testosterone ... 2009). "Sex hormones and their modulators". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference (36th ed.). London: Pharmaceutical Press. p ... ISBN 978-94-009-8195-9. Joachim Ufer (1969). The Principles and Practice of Hormone Therapy in Gynaecology and Obstetrics. de ... ISBN 978-1-4200-0890-6. G. Raspé (22 October 2013). Hormones and Embryonic Development: Advances in The Biosciences. Elsevier ...
Schwanzel-Fukuda, Marlene; Pfaff, Donald W. (March 1989). "Origin of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons". Nature. ... His laboratory worked out the first nerve cell circuit for a mammalian behavior, discovered hormone-sensitive genes in the ... Pfaff, Donald W. (1980). Estrogens and Brain Function : Neural Analysis of a Hormone-Controlled Mammalian Reproductive Behavior ... Hormones and Behavior. 61 (1): 1-3. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.12.015 - via Elsevier Science Direct. Pfaff, Donald; Keiner, ...
eCG is actually an equine luteinizing hormone. Endometrial cups behave somewhat like cells from metastatic tumors, in that they ...
The four important sexual hormones are oxytocin, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone.[page needed ... A surge of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) triggers ovulation. On day 14, the LH surge causes a Graafian follicle to surface the ovary ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) triggers ovulation, which is the release of a mature egg.[page needed] Males also have both internal ... The ovaries also produce female hormones progesterone and estrogen. Within the ovaries, each ovum is surrounded by other cells ...
Bruchovsky N, Goldenberg SL, Akakura K, Rennie PS (September 1993). "Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in prostate ... markedly suppresses circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) at sufficiently high ... In addition to its AR antagonistic activity and suppression of gonadal sex-hormone production, high-dose CPA has been found to ... Wierckx K, Gooren L, T'Sjoen G (May 2014). "Clinical review: Breast development in trans women receiving cross-sex hormones". ...
Theca cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH). LH kicks off the production of androgens by the theca cells, most ... "The antral follicle count is a better marker than basal follicle-stimulating hormone for the selection of older patients with ... Antral follicles can attain a tremendous size that is hampered only by the availability of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), ... usually accompanied by high follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Several studies show that an AFC test is more accurate ...
"The Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Estradiol on Luteinizing Hormone Biosynthesis in Cultured Rat Anterior ... AIYER, M. S.; CHIAPPA, SHARON A.; FINK, G. (1974). "A Priming Effect of Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Factor on the Anterior ... GnSAF is involved in regulating the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary and the ovarian cycle. ... Homburg, R; Armar, NA; Eshel, A; Adams, J; Jacobs, HS (1989). "Influence of serum luteinising hormone concentrations on ...
Luteinizing hormone mutation and hypogonadism in men and women. N Engl J Med 2007 357:897-904. Achard C, Courtillot C, Lahuna O ... Hypogonadism caused by a single amino acid substitution in the beta subunit of luteinizing hormone N Engl J Med. 1992; 326(3): ... Hypogonadism in a patient with a mutation in the luteinizing hormone beta-subunit gene. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351(25):2619-25. ... Normal spermatogenesis in a man with mutant luteinizing hormone. N Engl J Med 2009 361:1856-1863. Basciani S, Watanabe M, ...
... unsuccessful treatment with luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone analogues". Eur J Med. 2 (6): 377-8. PMID 8252188. Zhe, X; ... "Response to treatment with an analog of the luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone in a patient with pulmonary ...
He conducted elaborate studies on the molecular mechanism of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), a hormone which has significant role in ... Moudgal, N. R.; Moyle, W. R.; Greep, R. O. (1971). "Specific binding of luteinizing hormone to Leydig tumor cells". The Journal ... At Harvard, he also collaborated with W. R. Moyle and established the presence of Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin ... Specific binding of luteinizing hormone to Leydig tumor cells, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry in 1971. He ...
... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) luteinizing hormone (LH) estrogen progesterone GnRH stimulates the release of FSH and LH ... Theca interna cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH). LH induces the production of androgens by the theca cells, ... Five hormones participate in an intricate process of positive and negative feedback to regulate folliculogenesis. They are: ... At this stage in development, they become dependent on hormones, particularly FSH which causes a substantial increase in their ...
... was found to more than double luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels and to triple estradiol levels. In ... "Sex Steroids and Pulsatile Luteinizing Hormone Release in Men. Studies in Estrogen-Treated Agonadal Subjects and Eugonadal ... "Adverse Effects of Hormones and Hormone Antagonists on the Liver". Drug-Induced Liver Disease. pp. 605-619. doi:10.1016/B978-0- ... It has also been studied as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women and to treat acne and seborrhea in ...
As follicles grow, they acquire receptors for luteinizing hormone, a pituitary hormone that reinitiates meiosis in the oocyte ... Luteinizing hormone acts on receptors in the outer layers of granulosa cells of the follicle, causing a decrease in cyclic GMP ... Luteinizing hormone also stimulates gene expression leading to ovulation. Oogenesis starts with the process of developing ... and precise growth factors and hormones depending on the developmental stage. In 2016, two papers published by Morohaku et al. ...
Nilutamide by itself more than doubled luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels and tripled estradiol levels. The ... with Anastrozole and Bicalutamide in a Boy with a Novel Mutation in the Luteinizing Hormone Receptor". Journal of Pediatric ... "Sex steroids and pulsatile luteinizing hormone release in men. Studies in estrogen-treated agonadal subjects and eugonadal ... In Hormone Research (Vol. 72, pp. 266-267). Mitre, N.; Lteif, A. (2009). "Treatment of Familial Male-limited Precocious Puberty ...
gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone a follicle-stimulating hormone). *glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, an integrin found on platelets that ... Hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Enzyme Various, e.g., alkaline phosphatase, ... Various proteins involved in cell-cell (e.g., sperm-oocyte), virus-cell, bacterium-cell, and hormone-cell interactions ...
"Effects of Alcohol on Plasma Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone Levels". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2 (3 ... "Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on pituitary-gonadal axis hormones, pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, beta-endorphin and ... Mendelson, JH; Mello, NK; Ellingboe, J (1977). "Effects of acute alcohol intake on pituitary-gonadal hormones in normal human ... Ellingboe, J (1987). "Acute effects of ethanol on sex hormones in non-alcoholic men and women". Alcohol and Alcoholism ...
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is secreted during sleep at the onset of pubertal maturation, pointing to a important relationship ... "Synchronization of Augmented Luteinizing Hormone Secretion with Sleep during Puberty". New England Journal of Medicine. 287 (12 ...
Testosterone release is controlled by the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone; whereas sperm production is controlled both ... Testes may shrink or atrophy during hormone replacement therapy or through chemical castration. In all cases, the loss in ... Similarly, stimulation of testicular functions via gonadotropic-like hormones may enlarge their size. ... by the anterior pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone and gonadal testosterone. Males have two testicles of similar size ...
... as well as regulating the release of several other peptide hormones including vasopressin, luteinizing hormone, and oxytocin. ... "Neuromedin s as novel putative regulator of luteinizing hormone secretion". Endocrinology. 148 (2): 813-23. doi:10.1210/en.2006 ...
They produce testosterone in the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH). Leydig cells are polyhedral in shape, and have a large ... when stimulated by the luteinizing hormone (LH) which is released from the anterior pituitary in response to gonadotrophin ... Leydig cells release a class of hormones called androgens (19-carbon steroids). They secrete testosterone, androstenedione and ... the patient's testosterone may fall despite higher-than-normal levels of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Lateral ...
The luteinizing hormone pulses are the consequence of pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion by the hypothalamus ... An American physiologist, Ernst Knobil, discovered that the anterior pituitary produces pulses of Luteinizing hormone at about ... "gonadotropin releasing hormone pulse generator"). Boyar demonstrated that in children approaching puberty the Luteinizing ... "Synchronization of augmented luteinizing hormone secretion with sleep during puberty". The New England Journal of Medicine. 287 ...
LH (luteinizing hormone) is a larger protein hormone secreted into the general circulation by gonadotrope cells of the anterior ... Boyar R, Finkelstein J, Roffwarg H, Kapen S, Weitzman E, Hellman L (1972). "Synchronization of augmented luteinizing hormone ... FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is another protein hormone secreted into the general circulation by the gonadotrope cells of ... GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is a peptide hormone released from the hypothalamus which stimulates gonadotrope cells of ...
A commonly used ovulation predictor is the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge urine stick or ovulation predictor stick that helps ... Ov-Watch Clinical Trial "Luteinizing Hormone". Women.webmd.com. 2011-05-18. Retrieved 2013-09-27. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
The androgen sensitivity index (ASI), defined as the product of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T), is frequently ... Testosterone levels may be elevated despite normal levels of luteinizing hormone. Conversion of testosterone (T) to ... Hormones (Athens). 7 (3): 217-29. doi:10.14310/horm.2002.1201. PMID 18694860. Quigley CA, De Bellis A, Marschke KB, el-Awady MK ...
Inactivating mutations in PROP1 result in deficiencies of luteinizing hormone (LH; MIM 152780), follicle-stimulating hormone ( ... and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; MIM 188540). See combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD; MIM 262600).[supplied by ... 2000). "Combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by a novel mutation of a highly conserved residue (F88S) in the ... 1998). "The PROP1 2-base pair deletion is a common cause of combined pituitary hormone deficiency" (PDF). J. Clin. Endocrinol. ...
It is characterized by an inability of the body to respond to luteinizing hormone (LH), a gonadotropin which is normally ... However, the cause of the condition in males, luteinizing hormone insensitivity, does affect females, and because LH plays a ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Wu SM, Leschek EW, Rennert OM, Chan WY (March 2000). "Luteinizing hormone receptor ... "Menstrual disorders and infertility caused by inactivating mutations of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene". Fertility and ...
Perkins A, Fitzgerald JA, Price EO (July 1992). "Luteinizing hormone and testosterone response of sexually active and inactive ... the elevated hormone levels increase the likelihood of homosexual behavior. Additionally, boosting the levels of sex hormones ... The behaviour is hormone driven and synchronizes with the emergence of estrus (heat), particularly in the presence of a bull. ... Numerous scholars are of the opinion that varying levels (either higher or lower) of the sex hormones in the animal, in ...
Ghosh AK, Steele R, Ray RB (2003). "Modulation of human luteinizing hormone beta gene transcription by MIP-2A". J. Biol. Chem. ...
LH levels = Luteinizing hormone levels relative to baseline of ovariectomized rats after 24 to 72 hours of continuous ...
Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human ... This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the ... "Hormones and Behavior. 53 (5): 613-26. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.01.013. PMC 2706155 . PMID 18374335.. ... An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates ...
Gonadotropins include luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and are peptide hormones that signal the ... Msaouel P, Diamanti E, Tzanela M, Koutsilieris M (2007). "Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone antagonists in prostate cancer ... Vitamins and Hormones. Academic Press. 18 May 1976. pp. 682-. ISBN 978-0-08-086630-7.. ... Steroidal AR antagonists tend to have off-target hormonal actions due to their structural similarity to other steroid hormones. ...
... the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the gonadal steroids.. .mw-parser- ... the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4.. •The hypothalamic- ... Vasopressin can be thought of as "water conservation hormone" and is also known as "antidiuretic hormone." It is released when ... Schematic of the HPA axis (CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone). ...
The ratio of LH (Luteinizing hormone) to FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone), when measured in international units, is elevated ... Free testosterone, luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio and pelvic sonography in relation to skin ... and amenorrhea because of luteinizing hormone-resistant cystic ovaries.. 缺少或. ,url=. 为空 (帮助) ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is increased in PCOS, and may become part of its diagnostic criteria.[66][67][68] ...
... due to mutations in luteinizing hormone receptors) and hyperthyroidism (due to mutations in thyroid-stimulating hormone ... Steroid and thyroid-hormone receptors are examples of such receptors.[5]. Membrane receptors may be isolated from cell ... Cells can increase (upregulate) or decrease (downregulate) the number of receptors to a given hormone or neurotransmitter to ... Often, it is hard to determine whether the receptor is nonfunctional or the hormone is produced at decreased level; this gives ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ...
... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ... A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.[1 ... of Paraphilic Disorders in Sexual Offenders or Men With a Risk of Sexual Offending With Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone ... When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes.[2][3][4][5] ...
The polypeptide hormones luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone are usually not ... are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate steroid hormone receptors.[1] The sex hormones include the androgens, ... "Hormone Research. 71 (4): 194-200. doi:10.1159/000201107. PMID 19258710.. *^ Brook, CG (1999). "Mechanism of puberty". Hormone ... Production rates, secretion rates, clearance rates, and blood levels of major sex hormones Sex Sex hormone Reproductive. phase ...
LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ... in the production of the gonadotropin hormones normally released by the anterior pituitary gland known as luteinising hormone ( ... Hormone replacement therapy[edit]. The method and dose of treatment will vary depending on the individual being treated. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the major form of treatment with the aim to replace the missing testosterone or oestrogen ...
... (GnRH), takođe poznat kao LHRH (engl. Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone) i luliberin, je ... Yang-Feng TL, Seeburg PH, Francke U (1986). "Human luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone gene (LHRH) is located on short arm of ... Seeburg PH, Adelman JP (1984). "Characterization of cDNA for precursor of human luteinizing hormone releasing hormone". Nature ... "Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (3): 972-6. ...
hormone secretion. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • response to peptide. • cellular response to hormone stimulus. ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were considerably elevated (30-33 mIU/mL and 34-37 mIU/mL, ... follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were 6.7-19.1 mIU/mL and 5.8-13.2 mIU/mL, respectively), and ... anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were normal, while levels of inhibin A and inhibin B were significantly increased.[6] In ... Sex hormone-binding globulin levels were mildly elevated (6.0-10.0 nmol/L), while thyroxine-binding globulin, corticosteroid- ...
Shome B, Parlow AF (1973). "The primary structure of the hormone-specific, beta subunit of human pituitary luteinizing hormone ... biologically inactive luteinizing hormone: characterization of the abnormal hormone". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 52 (6): 1143- ... Elter K, Erel CT, Cine N, et al. (1999). "Role of the mutations Trp8 =, Arg and Ile15 =, Thr of the human luteinizing hormone ... Herrlich A, Kühn B, Grosse R, et al. (1996). "Involvement of Gs and Gi proteins in dual coupling of the luteinizing hormone ...
... follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, LHRH. gamolenic acid, gonadotropin release inhibitor, progestogen, dopamine ... androgens, antiandrogens, estrogens, gonadotropin, corticosteroids, human growth hormone, insulin, antidiabetics (sulfonylureas ... NSAIDs, anticholinergics, haemostatic drugs, antifibrinolytics, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), bone regulators, beta- ... cytotoxic drugs, therapeutic antibodies, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitors, somatostatin inhibitors, recombinant interleukins ...
... together with luteinizing hormone (LH). Thus, IGF2 acts as a co-hormone together with both FSH and LH.[10] ... hormone activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth factor activity. • insulin-like growth factor receptor binding. • ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin. The MeSH ... Fowden AL, Sibley C, Reik W, Constancia M (2006). "Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth". Hormone Research. ...
... and luteinizing hormone (LH) and resulting in hypogonadism (low sex hormone (e.g., testosterone, estradiol) levels).[36] As ... The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the ... Along with prolactin, domperidone has, to a lesser extent, been found to increase the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone ... Hyperprolactinemia can suppress the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, in turn ...
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), through control of ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) are very important galactopoietic hormones whose ... This hormone is closely associated with prolactin and appears to be instrumental in breast, nipple, and areola growth before ... Using birth control pills to mimic the hormone levels of pregnancy, then discontinuing the birth control, followed by use of a ...
negative regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion. • positive regulation of cell death. • associative learning. • ion ... hormone activity. • corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 binding. • corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 binding. • ... Hormones (Athens). 2016. PMID 27377597.. *"Brain disorders associated with corticotropin-releasing hormone expression in the ... neuropeptide hormone activity. • receptor binding. • corticotropin-releasing hormone activity. Cydrannau o'r gell. • cytoplasm ...
... identification of the sexual phase by noninvasive measurement of luteinizing hormone. Journal of Sex Research. February 2004, ...
Schally AV, Kastin AJ, Arimura A (November 1971). "Hypothalamic follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH ... "Tumor growth inhibition in patients with prostatic carcinoma treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists". Proc ... Most hormone dependent cancers become resistant to treatment after one to three years and resume growth despite hormone therapy ... Active surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy[2]. Prognosis. 5-year survival rate 99% (US)[4] ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ...
... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), from the pituitary gland.[2][3] The secreted gonadotropins ... Hormones[edit]. The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone ... and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine (and by extension thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone ( ... In contrast to the female-associated sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, the male-associated sex hormones, the androgens, ...
LH (Luteinizing hormone): levels are highest 2 days following ovulation, then slowly decrease over 4-5 days, dipping to their ... Hormones involved in the estrous cycle, during foaling, and after birthEdit. The cycle is controlled by several hormones which ... FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone): secreted by the pituitary, causes the ovarian follicle to develop. Levels of FSH rise ... Changes in hormone levels can have great effects on the physical characteristics of the reproductive organs of the mare, ...
... also called luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) stimulates the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating ... luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and growth hormone) remains under ... For example, the secretion of growth hormone is controlled by two neuroendocrine systems: the growth hormone-releasing hormone ... the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the gonadal steroids.. ...
"Impaired adrenocorticotropic hormone response to bacterial endotoxin in mice deficient in prostaglandin E receptor EP1 and EP3 ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ...
peptide hormone binding. • galanin receptor activity. • protein binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. *Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ...
Luteinizing hormone (LH): in females, it triggers ovulation. In males it stimulates testosterone (acts with next). ... Hormones releasedEdit. The gland releases several kinds of hormones. Anterior pituitaryEdit. The endocrine cells of the ... Here one hormone is produced: *Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): stimulates the production and release of melanin by ... The anterior pituitary cells synthesizes and secretes these important endocrine hormones: *Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): ...
Mezo G, Manea M (December 2009). "Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists". Expert Opin Ther Pat. 19 (12): 1771-85. ... blocking the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary.[22][23] In ... clinical use of agonists and antagonists of luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone. Nat. Clin. Pract. Endocrinol. Metab.: 3: 157 ... Lee TH, Lin YH, Seow KM, et al (July 2008). Effectiveness of cetrorelix for the prevention of premature luteinizing hormone ...
"Intrinsic pulsatile secretory activity of immortalized luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-secreting neurons". Proceedings of ... Leutinizing Hormone & Follicle Stimulating Hormone[edit]. Main Article: Leutinizing Hormone LH is released from the pituitary ... WHO International Standard, Luteinizing Hormone, Human, Recombinant. National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. ... World Health Organization Proposed International Standard for Luteinizing Hormone. WHO Expert Committee on Biological ...
choriogonadotropin hormone receptor activity. • follicle-stimulating hormone receptor activity. • luteinizing hormone receptor ... The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LCGR) or luteinizing ... luteinizing hormone signaling pathway. • positive regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. • cellular response to luteinizing ... "Androgen biosynthesis in Leydig cells after testicular desensitization by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and human ...
... test measures the level of this hormone in the bloodstream. LH plays an important role in sexual development. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) plays an important role in sexual development and is produced by the pea-sized pituitary gland in the ... GnRH signals the pituitary gland to release two puberty hormones into the bloodstream: LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ... the major male sex hormone) and estradiol (a form of estrogen, the major female sex hormone). Taken together, the results can ...
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the ... Häggström M (2014). "Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during ... The luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene is localized in the LHB/CGB gene cluster on chromosome 19q13.32. In contrast to the ... Tests for luteinizing hormone may be combined with testing for estradiol in tests such as the Clearblue fertility monitor.[ ...
This test measures the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the blood. LH plays an important role in sexual development and ... www.hormone.org/your-health-and-hormones/glands-and-hormones-a-to-z/hormones/luteinizing-hormone ... What is a luteinizing hormone (LH) levels test?. This test measures the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in your blood. LH is ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/luteinizing-hormone-lh-levels-test/ Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Levels Test. ...
Learn about hormone therapy options for treating ovarian cancer including luteinizing hormones, tamoxifen, and aromatase ... Hormone Therapy for Ovarian Cancer. Hormone therapy is the use of hormones or hormone-blocking drugs to fight cancer. This type ... Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists. LHRH agonists (sometimes called GnRH agonists) switch off estrogen ... Aromatase inhibitors are drugs that block an enzyme (called aromatase) that turns other hormones into estrogen in post- ...
This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta subunit of luteinizing hormone (LH). ... Shome B, Parlow AF (1973). "The primary structure of the hormone-specific, beta subunit of human pituitary luteinizing hormone ... biologically inactive luteinizing hormone: characterization of the abnormal hormone". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 52 (6): 1143- ... The luteinizing hormone beta subunit is encoded by a single gene in all mammals. In primates, this gene is located within a ...
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin[1]) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the ... luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle". WikiJournal of Medicine. 1 (1). doi:10.15347/ ... The luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene is localized in the LHB/CGB gene cluster on chromosome 19q13.32. In contrast to the ... Tests for luteinizing hormone may be combined with testing for estradiol in tests such as the Clearblue fertility monitor.[ ...
... surges at ovulation Luteinizing hormone beta polypeptide Identifiers Symbol LHB Entrez 3972 HUGO 6584 OMIM 152780 RefSeq ... Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin[1]) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe ... Endocrine system: hormones/endocrine glands (Peptide hormones, Steroid hormones). Hypothalamic-pituitary. Hypothalamus: TRH, ... The luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene is localized in the LHB/CGB gene cluster on chromosome 19q13.32. In contrast to the ...
most patients who receive hormonal therapy choose luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh) analogs. these drugs work by ... How are luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs used to treat prostate cancer?. ANSWER ... How are luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists used to treat prostate cancer? ... Most patients who receive hormonal therapy choose luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs. These drugs work by ...
... Identifiers Symbol(s) LHCGR; ... The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LCGR) is a ... Dufau ML (1998). "The luteinizing hormone receptor". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60: 461-96. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.60.1.461. PMID ... Jia XC, Oikawa M, Bo M, et al. (1991). "Expression of human luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor: interaction with LH and ...
Anterior Pituitary Hormones: Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH) Develops the oocyte in the follicle. Ovarian Hormones Oestrogen ... follicle stimulating hormone ) and LH ( luteinizing hormone) estrogen and progesterone  Sexual maturity in women is marked by ... Luteinising Hormone (LH):       Stimulates the development of a primary follicles (oocytes). Following puberty human ... illustrating the relationship between changes in hormone levels and ovulation.Annotate graph showing hormone levels in the ...
Luteinising hormone (LH) is a hormone produced by gonadotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Like other hormones of the ... Gonadotrophs also produce another hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); the synthesis and secretion of LH and FSH are ... LH secretion is regulated by the actions of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH, also known as gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, GnRH). ... Its structure is similar to those of (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The ...
522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone powder for injection.. (a)Specifications. The drug is a lyophilized pituitary extract. ... Each 6-milliliter vial contains an amount equivalent to 25 milligrams of standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is ...
Luteinizing Hormone Agonistic Behavior Nictitate Membrane Luteinizing Hormone Release Hormone Intraventricular Injection These ... Silverman, A. J., Krey, L. C, & Zimmerman, E. A. A comparative study of the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) ... Evans, I. M., & Distiller, L. A. Effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone on sexual arousal in normal men. Archives of ... Silverman, A. J. Distribution of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the guinea pig brain. Endocrinology, 1976, 99, 30-41. ...
Episodic Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Man PULSE ANALYSIS, CLINICAL INTERPRETATION, PHYSIOLOGIC MECHANISMS. R. J. Santen and ... The demonstration that luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary is episodic rather than constant raises fundamental ... The concordance of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) with LH pulses progressively increased as LH pulse height increased (P , ...
... and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were developed, based on commercial IFMA kits designed for determining LH and FSH. Both ... Time resolved immunofluorometric assays (IFMAs) for determining luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ... Time-resolved immunofluorometric assays for urinary luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.. ... NIOSH-Author; Analytical-methods; Urinalysis; Fluorometry; Gonadotropic-hormones; Immunochemistry; Reproductive-system; ...
There are several connections between luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, including the fact that luteinizing ... While predominantly known as female reproductive hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone are both ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are both gonadotropins that are created by the pituitary ... Both luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone play a major role in ovulation. ...
LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is ... The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. ... Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. ... common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its ...
The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LCGR) or luteinizing ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1, 2) · GHB receptor · Ghrelin · Histamine (H1, H2, H3, H4) · Kisspeptin · Luteinizing hormone/ ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (1, 2) · EMR (1, 2, 3) · Glucagon (GR, GIPR, GLP1R, GLP2R) · Growth hormone releasing hormone · ... Dufau ML (1998). "The luteinizing hormone receptor". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60: 461-96. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.60.1.461. PMID ...
This test measures the level of luteinizing hormone in your blood. It can help figure out the cause of infertility or diagnose ... Luteinizing Hormone (Blood). Does this test have other names?. LH. What is this test?. This test measures the level of ... luteinizing hormone (LH) in your blood.. LH is made by your pituitary gland. In women, the pituitary sends out LH during the ... If youre a woman, your provider may order other hormone-level blood tests and basal body temperature testing. He or she may ...
Intranasal treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonist in women with endometriosis.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) ... Intranasal treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonist in women with endometriosis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) ... Intranasal treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonist in women with endometriosis. ... Intranasal treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonist in women with endometriosis. ...
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a small glycoprotein hormone made up of alpha subunit (comprised of 92 amino acids in humans ... noun, plural: luteinizing hormones A gonadotropin released by the gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary, and, together with ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a gonadotropin produced and released by the gonadotropic cells. The gonadotropic cells are one of ... In males, LH is referred to as interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH). It stimulates the interstitial cells of the testis ...
Luteinizing hormone (IU/L). Variable Name: LB2LHSI. SAS Label: Luteinizing hormone (IU/L). English Text: Luteinizing hormone ( ... Luteinizing hormone (mIU/mL). Variable Name: LB2LH. SAS Label: Luteinizing hormone (mIU/mL). English Text: Luteinizing hormone ... Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Serum FSH and LH levels and questionnaire data on menstrual ... Standard Biochemistry Profile, Follicle Stimulating Hormone & Luteinizing Hormone, Second Exam (L40_2_B) Data File: L40_2_B.xpt ...
Basically, the LH is the hormone (along with follicle stimulating hormone) that stimulates your ovary to release the egg during ... The good news is that you can be treated with hormones: Clomid (clomiphene citrate) or gondratophins (spelling?) that will ...
Luteinizing hormone pulsatility is disrupted at a threshold of energy availability in regularly menstruating women.. Loucks AB1 ... and cortisol and contrasted with the dependencies displayed by the other metabolic hormones (simultaneously P , 0.05). These ...
Marihuana smoking suppresses luteinizing hormone in women.. J H Mendelson, N K Mello, J Ellingboe, A S Skupny, B W Lex and M ... Marihuana smoking suppresses luteinizing hormone in women.. J H Mendelson, N K Mello, J Ellingboe, A S Skupny, B W Lex and M ... Marihuana smoking suppresses luteinizing hormone in women.. J H Mendelson, N K Mello, J Ellingboe, A S Skupny, B W Lex and M ... Marihuana smoking suppresses luteinizing hormone in women. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ...
We investigated the hydrolysis of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) by homogeneous human ACE. Although this ... and COOH-terminal tripeptides from the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... and COOH-terminal tripeptides from the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. R A Skidgel and E G Erdös ... and COOH-terminal tripeptides from the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ...
Dietary restriction reduces luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency during waking hours and increases LH pulse amplitude ...
Incomplete testosterone suppression with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists: does it happen and does it matter?. ... Failure to achieve castrate levels of testosterone during luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist therapy: the case for ... Failure to maintain a suppressed level of serum testosterone during long-acting depot luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ... Testosterone levels in patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy: ...
  • At this time the hypothalamus, an almond-sized area of the brain that links the nervous system with the hormone-producing endocrine system, releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that starts the changes of puberty. (kidshealth.org)
  • GnRH signals the pituitary gland to release two puberty hormones into the bloodstream: LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). (kidshealth.org)
  • In persons with evidence of poor ovarian or testicular function, LH is sometimes measured in response to administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to distinguish between disorders involving the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. (labtestsonline.org)
  • GnRH is the hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the pituitary to release LH and FSH. (labtestsonline.org)
  • The release of LH at the pituitary gland is controlled by pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. (bionity.com)
  • LH secretion is regulated by the actions of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH, also known as gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, GnRH). (citizendium.org)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a persistently rapid gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse frequency, an abnormality that may account for many of the hormonal manifestations of PCOS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons increase their expression of Fos and galanin coincident with the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in the female rat. (jneurosci.org)
  • On the afternoon of proestrus in the rat, the combined actions of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) increase the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which in turn induces a preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) (see Freeman, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is dependent on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH)-stimulated synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gonadotroph. (asm.org)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) is produced by hypothalamic neurosecretory cells and released in a pulsatile manner into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation, through which the hormone is transported to the anterior pituitary gland. (asm.org)
  • GNRH bound to its receptor on pituitary gonadotrophs results in an increase in GNRH receptor density and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) into the circulation ( 14 , 30 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • The production of LH is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addition of synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to the incubation medium was followed by a dose-dependent increase in release and synthesis of both LH and FSH. (eurekamag.com)
  • The possible role of sex steroid hormones in regulating in vitro secretion of gonadotropins and pituitary sensitivity to exogenous GnRH is discussed. (eurekamag.com)
  • ABSTRACT: We model the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) by the ovine pituitary. (cellml.org)
  • kfb, kdf, and kbd are kinetic constants, F, B, and D represent the free, bound, and desensitised states of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor, while R represents releasable LH and B is bound LH. (cellml.org)
  • Experiment 1 evaluated whether follicular inhibins regulate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) surges elicited by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection (Hour = 0) and the subsequent periovulatory FSH surge. (psu.edu)
  • In adult rat brain, LH and hCG are involved in the feedback regulation of synthesis and secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus and LH in the pituitary gland. (docphin.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH, GnRH) is a 10-amino acid peptide produced in the brain that regulates the release of LH from the pituitary gland. (iastate.edu)
  • The objective of this meta-analysis is to assess the impact of LH supplementation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most patients who receive hormonal therapy choose luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs. (webmd.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone I (LHRH-I) and its metabolite in peripheral tissues. (abcam.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), a deca-peptide pGlu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly NH 2 is synthesized and released by the hypothalamus. (springer.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neuronal system in the rat. (acnp.org)
  • Triplet pregnancy occurred by in vitro fertilization using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) injections. (hindawi.com)
  • Feedback regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons by estradiol plays important roles in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. (nih.gov)
  • Presence of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) mRNA in rat spleen lymphocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2,3] Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs produce response rates that are comparable to those seen with DES and orchiectomy but without the cardiovascular complications or potential psychological distress. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The brain starts to secrete a hormone called luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in periodic bursts, which causes the pituitary gland to release hormones called gonadotropins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ozarelix is a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonist. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We previously reported favorable biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) in high-risk Pca patients treated with a neoadjuvant therapy comprising a luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist plus low dose estramustine phosphate (EMP) (LHRH+EMP) followed by radical prostatectomy (RP). (urotoday.com)
  • A double-blind study comparing application of 1.0 mg LHRH [luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone] nasal spray per day against a placebo was performed in a group of 20 sexually impotent patients in whom no clinical endocrinological pathology was evident. (eurekamag.com)
  • After 4 wk of LHRH medication there were no changes in basal LH/FSH [luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone] levels or in the LH response after administration of 25 .mu.g LHRH. (eurekamag.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH) a hormone released by the pituitary gland in response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) [ 1 ]. (selfhacked.com)
  • An understanding of the LHRH neuronal network within the brain and hormones and exteroceptive factors that affect its secretion of LHRH that, in turn, causes gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone) secretion by the pituitary gland will reveal neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating reproduction in the pig. (iastate.edu)
  • The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor ( LHCGR ), also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor ( LCGR ) or luteinizing hormone receptor ( LHR ) is a transmembrane receptor found predominantly in the ovary and testis , but also many extragonadal organs such as the uterus and breasts . (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor interacts with both luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropins (such as hCG in humans) and represents a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been called luteinizing hormone receptor ( LHR ). (bionity.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone signaling in preovulatory follicles involves early activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hazum, E., 1982, Receptor regulation by hormones: Relevance to secretion and other biological functions. (springer.com)
  • Impact of RNA structure on ZFP36L2 interaction with luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We have shown that only one of three putative AREs within the 3' UTR of murine luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA, ARE2197 (UAUUUAU), is capable of interacting with L2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether a testosterone receptor blocker (flutamide) will normalize sleep-wake luteinizing hormone pulse frequency relationships in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The role of luteinizing hormone (LH) and its receptor (LHCGR) signaling in the adrenal gland remains unknown. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH), one of the two gonadotropin hormones released from the anterior pituitary gland, binds to its receptor (LHR) in the gonads to stimulate steroid hormone production, in addition to ovulation and gametogenesis. (siu.edu)
  • In order to understand how chronic ligand-mediated activation of the LHR affects gonadal development and function, a mouse model expressing a yoked hormone-receptor (YHR) complex, engineered by covalently linking the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin to the rat LHR, has been studied. (siu.edu)
  • Based the phenotype exhibited by the YHR+ mice, it was hypothesized that increased levels of testosterone in addition to decreased gonadotropin hormone levels in neonatal and prepubertal mice that results from premature activation of the luteinizing hormone receptor causes spermatogenesis to be impaired. (siu.edu)
  • 1996). "Involvement of Gs and Gi proteins in dual coupling of the luteinizing hormone receptor to adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies suggest that neurokinin B and its receptor, neurokinin 3 receptor, have an essential role in the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone (LH) release in several mammalian species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The beta subunits vary, and LH has a beta subunit of 121 amino acids that confers the specific biologic action and is responsible to interact with the LH-receptor .The sugar part of the hormone is composed of fructose , galactose , mannose , galactosamine , glucosamine , and sialic acid , the latter being critical for its biologic half-life . (academickids.com)
  • It specifically acts to up-regulate the enzyme cholesterol side chain cleaving enzyme , which leads to the greater conversion of cholesterol into androgen precursors required to make many steroid hormones, including testosterone and estrogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In boys, LH and FSH work together to get the testes to begin producing testosterone, the hormone responsible for the physical changes of puberty and the production of sperm. (kidshealth.org)
  • Because LH and FSH work so closely with each other, doctors often perform these tests together, as well as tests for testosterone (the major male sex hormone) and estradiol (a form of estrogen, the major female sex hormone). (kidshealth.org)
  • The test for luteinizing hormone (LH), a hormone associated with reproduction and the stimulation of the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation) in women and testosterone production in men, has several uses. (labtestsonline.org)
  • In males, where LH had also been called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone ( ICSH ), [3] it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the male , where LH had also been called Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone ( ICSH ), [4] it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone . (bionity.com)
  • In the male, LH acts upon the Leydig cell of the testis and is responsible for the production of testosterone , the "male hormone" that exerts both endocrine activity and intratesticular activity such as spermatogenesis . (bionity.com)
  • These drugs work by decreasing testosterone production to very low levels by depleting the pituitary gland of the hormone needed to produce testosterone. (webmd.com)
  • Being gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone are messengers that trigger gonads to release estrogen and testosterone and to complete specific reproductive functions. (wisegeek.com)
  • In males, LH influences Leydig cells to create and release testosterone, a key male hormone that guides development of the prostate and of masculine characteristics, such as body hair growth and muscle growth. (wisegeek.com)
  • These proteins then bind to testosterone and other hormones to generate sperm. (wisegeek.com)
  • Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys: relation to age, stage of puberty, and follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and estradiol levels. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Incomplete testosterone suppression with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists: does it happen and does it matter? (wiley.com)
  • Perachino M , Cavalli V , Bravi F . Testosterone levels in patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy: prognostic significance? (wiley.com)
  • Long term treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonists and maintenance of serum testosterone to castration concentrations. (bmj.com)
  • No increase in the serum concentrations of luteinising hormone or testosterone were detected at any time between one and 24 months' treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Labrie F , Dupont A , Belanger A , Lachance R , Giguere M . Long term treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonists and maintenance of serum testosterone to castration concentrations. (bmj.com)
  • To see whether the woman is ovulating (producing eggs) her blood is tested for the levels of some hormones called progesterone, luteinising hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • A new study measured the efficacy of estrogen, progesterone, Prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone on women with the disorder. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • When luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists are first prescribed, there is a temporary flare of testosterone production that may last for 30 days before testicular testosterone production shuts down. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Failure to maintain a suppressed level of serum testosterone during long-acting depot luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that premature elevation in testosterone and persistently lower levels of circulating follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are affecting Sertoli cell function, which is causing a reduced germ cell to Sertoli cell ratio in the YHR+ mice. (siu.edu)
  • In the male, LH causes Leydig cells in the testis to secrete testosterone, a hormone essential for male sexual behavior secretory activity of accessory glands of the reproductive tract, muscle accretion, and spermatogenesis. (iastate.edu)
  • Synchronicity of frequently sampled, 24-h concentrations of circulating leptin, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol in healthy women. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This is a description for a series of diagrams showing the reference ranges for the blood content of the hormones estradiol (the main estrogen), progesterone , follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during the menstrual cycle , as established on a reference group in Switzerland using the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer. (wikiversity.org)
  • In weeks 1 - 2 of the cycle, LH is required to stimulate the ovarian follicles in the ovary to produce the female sex hormone, estradiol . (selfhacked.com)
  • Oral contraceptives inhibit pituitary production of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone by providing synthetic estrogen and progesterone to the user. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • luteinizing hormone ( LH ) ( loo -ti-i-nyz-ing) n. a hormone (see gonadotrophin ), synthesized and released by the anterior pituitary gland , that stimulates ovulation, corpus luteum formation, progesterone synthesis by the ovary, and androgen synthesis by the testes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A hormone, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in mammals, that stimulates in males the production of sex hormones ( androgens ) by the interstitial cells of the testes and in females ovulation, progesterone synthesis, and corpus luteum formation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • You may be asked to stop taking medicines (including birth control pills) that contain estrogen or progesterone or both for up to 4 weeks before your luteinizing hormone (LH) test. (nkch.org)
  • Oyeyemi A.O* And Akinlua I Department of Biochemistry, Ekiti State University, Ekiti state, Nigeria * email:[email protected] Abstract Investigations were carried out on the association between some reproductive hormones (Progesterone, oestrogen, leutenizing and follicle stimulating hormones), and fibroid cases in Nigerian women. (scribd.com)
  • Fibroid growth is strongly dependent on reproductive hormones such as oestrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormones, luteinizing hormones etc The growth of fibroid has been associated with oestrogen during reproductive years (Cesen cunmmings et al 2003). (scribd.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone (P₄) concentrations were compared following natural or hormone-induced ovulation. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Abstract The results of several studies about the effectiveness of recombinant luteinizing hormone (rLH) supplementation in poor responder in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients were conflicting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • interstitial-cell-stimulating hormone ( ICSH ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In males, LH is referred to as interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH). (biology-online.org)
  • In males, it is also called the Interstitial cell stimulating hormone ( ICSH ) [ 2 ]. (selfhacked.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone ( LH , also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin [1] ) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland . (wikipedia.org)
  • Luteinizing hormone ( LH , also known as lutropin [1] ) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland . (bionity.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland.In the female, an acute rise of LH - the LH surge - triggers ovulation. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Luteinizing hormone subunit beta also known as lutropin subunit beta or LHβ is a polypeptide that in association with an alpha subunit common to all gonadotropin hormones forms the reproductive signaling molecule luteinizing hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basically, the LH is the hormone (along with follicle stimulating hormone) that stimulates your ovary to release the egg during ovulation. (mumsnet.com)
  • A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates ovulation in females and the synthesis of androgen in males. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone stimulates the testes in males and the ovaries in females. (selfhacked.com)
  • Intranasal treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonist in women with endometriosis. (bmj.com)
  • An agonist analogue of luteinising hormone releasing hormone (buserelin) was successfully used to treat women with endometriosis. (bmj.com)
  • Shaw R W , Fraser H M , Boyle H . Intranasal treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonist in women with endometriosis. (bmj.com)
  • Cheng, M. F. Role of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the reproductive behavior of female ring-doves. (springer.com)
  • While predominantly known as female reproductive hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone are both crucial in male reproduction because they send messages to cells in the testes . (wisegeek.com)
  • Glycoprotein hormone involved in the regulation of reproductive processes. (abcam.com)
  • save Save Reproductive Hormones and Fibroid Cases in Nigeria. (scribd.com)
  • Our finding indicates that the alteration in these reproductive hormone levels might be related with the pathogenesis of fibroid in Nigerian women. (scribd.com)
  • Reproductive hormones generally are connected with fibroid growth. (scribd.com)
  • This hormone is vital for reproductive health. (selfhacked.com)
  • However, the hCG beta subunit contains an additional 24 amino acids, and the two hormones differ in the composition of their sugar moieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene is localized in the LHB/CGB gene cluster on chromosome 19q 13.32. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibin , activin , and sex hormones do not affect genetic activity for the beta subunit production of LH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene is localized in the LHB/CGB gene cluster on chromosome 19q13.32. (bionity.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a small glycoprotein hormone made up of alpha subunit (comprised of 92 amino acids in humans whereas 96 amino acids in other vertebrates) and beta subunit (comprised of 120 amino acids). (biology-online.org)
  • LH and FSH are heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting of a common α-subunit and hormone-specific β-subunit encoded by the Lhb and Fshb genes, respectively. (asm.org)
  • The luteinizing hormone beta subunit is encoded by a single gene in all mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In equids the beta subunit polypeptides of luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin are identical in sequence, differing only in their carbohydrate side-chains, and are the product of a single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta subunit of luteinizing hormone (LH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoprotein hormones are heterodimers consisting of a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit (this protein) which confers biological specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant Luteinizing Hormone supplementation in poor responders undergoing IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is one of the gonadotropins , the other being follicle stimulating hormone ( FSH ). (academickids.com)
  • It is regulated by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus . (wikipedia.org)
  • The data show that daily subcutaneous administration of the two luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonists used at the appropriate dose can maintain concentrations of serum androgens equivalent to those after castration during long term treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Active immunization of heifers against luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone , human chorionic gonadotropin and bovine luteinizing hormone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effect of sleep-wake cycle reversal on luteinizing hormone secretory pattern in puberty. (cdc.gov)
  • Blizzard, Robert M. / Integrated concentrations of luteinizing hormone and puberty . (elsevier.com)
  • In girls, LH and FSH prompt the ovaries to begin producing the hormone estrogen, which causes a girl's body to mature and prepares her for menstruation. (kidshealth.org)
  • Aromatase inhibitors are drugs that block an enzyme (called aromatase ) that turns other hormones into estrogen in post-menopausal women. (cancer.org)
  • Luteinising hormone (LH) is a hormone produced by gonadotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland. (citizendium.org)
  • Kiss1 neurons in the forebrain as central processors for generating the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Its structure is similar to that of the other glycoprotein hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (wikipedia.org)
  • If pregnancy occurs, LH levels will decrease, and luteal function will instead be maintained by the action of hCG ( human chorionic gonadotropin ), a hormone very similar to LH but secreted from the new placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its structure is similar to the other glycoproteins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (bionity.com)
  • Penny, R., Olambiwonnu, N. O., and Frasier, S. D.: Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (LH-HCG) concentrations in paired maternal and cord sera. (aappublications.org)
  • Neural actions of luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin. (docphin.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH) and its homologue, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), are able to elicit multiple effects in the central nervous system (CNS) through binding to their receptors. (docphin.com)
  • Female laboratory macaques were studied under a variety of treatment protocols to determine if immunoreactive luteinizing hormone/gonadal chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CG) receptors were present in the adrenal cortex. (elsevier.com)
  • Both luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone play a major role in ovulation. (wisegeek.com)
  • Contraceptive methods, such as birth control pills, leverage luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to manipulate ovulation and avoid pregnancy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Oral contraceptives use luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to manipulate ovulation. (wisegeek.com)
  • This hormone goes up fast just before ovulation occurs, about midway through the cycle (day 14 of a 28-day cycle). (nkch.org)
  • These decreases may be important to support follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis and secretion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The cholinergic system is involved in the reproduction and the fertility control because some neuropeptides control the synthesis of selected glycoproteins like the luteinizing hormone (LH) and gonadotropin (Vijayan 1985). (scielo.sa.cr)
  • When release and synthesis of LH and FSH were expressed as percentages of hormone concentration at the beginning of the incubation period, the percentages of FSH were greater than those of LH at all stages of the cycle. (eurekamag.com)
  • Regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in prepubertal heifers fed an energy-deficient diet. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Both hormones exhibited maximum concentrations in tissue and medium on proestrus afternoon. (eurekamag.com)
  • Integrated serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone have been compared among 30- minute collections from 10 boys (6-18 years old) and 5 girls (5-11 years old). (elsevier.com)
  • Time-resolved immunofluorometric assays for urinary luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. (cdc.gov)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) manifests by defects in ovarian function (folliculogenesis, sex steroid hormone production), in hypothalamic-pituitary function and by abnormal androgen metabolism. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Influence of food restriction on neuropeptide-Y, proopiomelanocortin, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone gene expression in sheep hypothalami. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Smoking a single 1-g marihuana cigarette containing 1.8% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol induced a 30% suppression of plasma luteinizing hormone levels (P less than .02) in women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. (aspetjournals.org)
  • During the follicular phase of the normal menstrual cycle, luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency decreases during sleep. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hormone ranges vary between cases at the same biological stage of the menstrual cycle. (wikiversity.org)
  • In women, luteinizing hormone (LH) carries out different roles in the two halves of the menstrual cycle. (selfhacked.com)
  • The alpha subunits of LH, FSH, TSH, and hCG are identical, and contain 92 amino acids in human but 96 amino acids in almost all other vertebrate species (glycoprotein hormones do not exist in invertebrates). (wikipedia.org)
  • The two hormones are also both glycoproteins and have a similar structure: they are both comprised of alpha subunits and beta subunits. (wisegeek.com)
  • The protein dimer contains 2 glycopeptidic subunits (labeled alpha- and beta- subunits) that are non-covalently associated: The alpha subunits of LH, FSH, TSH, and hCG are identical, and contain 92 amino acids in human but 96 amino acids in almost all other vertebrate species (glycoprotein hormones do not exist in invertebrates). (wikipedia.org)
  • How are luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs used to treat prostate cancer? (webmd.com)
  • Small volumes of anti-Luteinizing Hormone (LH) antibody vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • In addition to their expression on pituitary cells, receptors for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) are found on most prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When the levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone decrease due to age or increase due to disease, physiological effects can occur. (wisegeek.com)
  • Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels rise and fall together during the monthly cycle. (nkch.org)
  • For women, more than one blood sample may be needed to get a true reading of the luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. (nkch.org)
  • Hormone levels represent usual ones, not necessarily related to what is healthy. (wikiversity.org)
  • The levels denoted Average refer to the (arithmetic) means for hormone levels. (wikiversity.org)
  • The ranges denoted By biological stage are the 90% prediction intervals for hormone levels for women at the same biological stage. (wikiversity.org)
  • The levels of these hormones were determined in 30 patients with chronic fibroid cases and another 30 patients with non chronic fibroid cases. (scribd.com)
  • This prompted us to undertake the present study whose aim was to examine the effect of litter separation for 48 h on 24-h changes in plasma prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of the doe. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • ii) could the changes in circulating hormone levels be related to augmentation of breeding efficiency found after litter separation from the doe? (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • High luteinizing hormone (LH) levels can cause fertility problems. (selfhacked.com)
  • Hormone injections with human gonadotrophin hormone (a mixture of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone) may be offered to you if clomiphene has not worked for you. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • LH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hormone ligand-binding receptors. (uniprot.org)
  • Another connection is that luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone carry out their duties by triggering the actions of second messengers once they bind to cell receptors in the gonads. (wisegeek.com)
  • After marihuana placebo cigarette smoking, no luteinizing hormone suppression was observed in the same women under double-blind conditions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A comparative study of the patterns of LH [luteinizing hormone] and FSH released and synthesized during the normal estrous cycle of the rat was performed in vitro. (eurekamag.com)
  • and Jacobson, Carol D., "Prepubertal Ontogeny of Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Immunoreactivity in Developing Pig Brain" (1998). (iastate.edu)
  • Kisspeptin Modulates Luteinizing Hormone Release and Ovarian Follicula" by Vishalkumar Pottapenjera, Srinivasa R. Rajanala et al. (uky.edu)