Lutein: A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.Xanthophylls: Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vaccinium myrtillus: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM.Molluginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain triterpenoid saponins.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Calendula: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Portulaca: A plant genus of the family PORTULACACEAE.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Catalogs, LibraryCatalogs as Topic: Ordered compilations of item descriptions and sufficient information to afford access to them.London

The food matrix of spinach is a limiting factor in determining the bioavailability of beta-carotene and to a lesser extent of lutein in humans. (1/470)

Carotenoid bioavailability depends, amongst other factors, on the food matrix and on the type and extent of processing. To examine the effect of variously processed spinach products and of dietary fiber on serum carotenoid concentrations, subjects received, over a 3-wk period, a control diet (n = 10) or a control diet supplemented with carotenoids or one of four spinach products (n = 12 per group): whole leaf spinach with an almost intact food matrix, minced spinach with the matrix partially disrupted, enzymatically liquefied spinach in which the matrix was further disrupted and the liquefied spinach to which dietary fiber (10 g/kg wet weight) was added. Consumption of spinach significantly increased serum concentrations of all-trans-beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, (and consequently total beta-carotene), lutein, alpha-carotene and retinol and decreased the serum concentration of lycopene. Serum total beta-carotene responses (changes in serum concentrations from the start to the end of the intervention period) differed significantly between the whole leaf and liquefied spinach groups and between the minced and liquefied spinach groups. The lutein response did not differ among spinach groups. Addition of dietary fiber to the liquefied spinach had no effect on serum carotenoid responses. The relative bioavailability as compared to bioavailability of the carotenoid supplement for whole leaf, minced, liquefied and liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber for beta-carotene was 5.1, 6.4, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively, and for lutein 45, 52, 55 and 54%, respectively. We conclude that the bioavailability of lutein from spinach was higher than that of beta-carotene and that enzymatic disruption of the matrix (cell wall structure) enhanced the bioavailability of beta-carotene from whole leaf and minced spinach, but had no effect on lutein bioavailability.  (+info)

A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (2/470)

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

Carotenoid intakes, assessed by dietary questionnaire, are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations in an elderly population. (3/470)

High intakes of fruits and vegetables and of carotenoids are associated with a lower risk for a variety of chronic diseases. It is therefore important to test the validity of dietary questionnaires that assess these intakes. We compared intakes of five carotenoids, as calculated from responses to the Willett 126-item food-frequency questionnaire, with corresponding biochemical measures. Subjects included 346 women and 201 men, aged 67-93 y, in the Framingham Heart Study. Unadjusted correlations were higher among women than men as follows: alpha-carotene 0.33 and 0.18, beta-carotene, 0.36 and 0.25; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.44 and 0.32; lycopene, 0.35 and 0.21; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.27 and 0.10, respectively. Adjustment for age, energy intake, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), plasma cholesterol concentrations and smoking reduced the gender differences, respectively, to the following: alpha-carotene 0.30 and 0.28; beta-carotene, 0.34 and 0.31; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.45 and 0.36; lycopene, 0.36 and 0.31; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.24 and 0.14. Plots of adjusted mean plasma carotenoid concentration by quintile of respective carotenoid intake show apparent greater responsiveness among women, compared with men, to dietary intake of alpha- and beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, but similar blood-diet relationships for lycopene and lutein + zeaxanthin. Reported daily intake of fruits and vegetables correlated most strongly with plasma beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene among women and with plasma alpha- and beta-carotene among men. With the exception of lutein + zeaxanthin, this dietary questionnaire does provide reasonable rankings of carotenoid status among elderly subjects, with the strongest correlations for beta-cryptoxanthin. Appropriate adjustment of confounders is necessary to clarify these associations among men.  (+info)

Comparison of serum carotenoid responses between women consuming vegetable juice and women consuming raw or cooked vegetables. (4/470)

The objective of this study was to examine serum concentrations of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin due to consumption of vegetable juice versus raw or cooked vegetables. Subjects included female breast cancer patients who had undergone surgical resection and who were enrolled in a feasibility study for a trial examining the influence of diet on breast cancer recurrence. A high-vegetable, low-fat diet was the focus of the intervention, and some of the subjects were specifically encouraged to consume vegetable juice. At 12 months, blood samples were collected and analyzed for carotenoid concentrations via high-performance liquid chromatography methodology. Matched analysis and paired t test were conducted on two groups: those who consumed vegetable juice (the juice group) and those who consumed raw or cooked vegetables (no juice group). Serum concentrations of alpha-carotene and lutein were significantly higher in the vegetable juice group than in the raw or cooked vegetable group (P < 0.05 and P = 0.05, respectively). Paired t test analysis did not demonstrate a significant difference in serum values of beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin between subjects consuming juice and those not consuming any juice. These results suggest that alpha-carotene and lutein appear to be more bioavailable in the juice form than in raw or cooked vegetables. Therefore, the food form consumed may contribute to the variability in serum carotenoid response to vegetable and fruit interventions in clinical studies.  (+info)

Determination of the stoichiometry and strength of binding of xanthophylls to the photosystem II light harvesting complexes. (5/470)

Xanthophylls have a crucial role in the structure and function of the light harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHCII) in plants. The binding of xanthophylls to LHCII has been investigated, particularly with respect to the xanthophyll cycle carotenoids violaxanthin and zeaxanthin. It was found that most of the violaxanthin pool was loosely bound to the major complex and could be removed by mild detergent treatment. Gentle solubilization of photosystem II particles and thylakoids allowed the isolation of complexes, including a newly described oligomeric preparation, enriched in trimers, that retained all of the in vivo violaxanthin pool. It was estimated that each LHCII monomer can bind at least one violaxanthin. The extent to which different pigments can be removed from LHCII indicated that the relative strength of binding was chlorophyll b > neoxanthin > chlorophyll a > lutein > zeaxanthin > violaxanthin. The xanthophyll binding sites are of two types: internal sites binding lutein and peripheral sites binding neoxanthin and violaxanthin. In CP29, a minor LHCII, both a lutein site and the neoxanthin site can be occupied by violaxanthin. Upon activation of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase, the highest de-epoxidation state was found for the main LHCII component and the lowest for CP29, suggesting that only violaxanthin loosely bound to LHCII is available for de-epoxidation.  (+info)

Algae displaying the diadinoxanthin cycle also possess the violaxanthin cycle. (6/470)

According to general agreement, all photosynthetic organisms using xanthophyll cycling for photoprotection contain either the violaxanthin (Vx) cycle or the diadinoxanthin (Ddx) cycle instead. Here, we report the temporal accumulation of substantial amounts of pigments of the Vx cycle under prolonged high-light stress in several microalgae thought to possess only the Ddx cycle. In the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, used as a model organism, these pigments also participate in xanthophyll cycling, and their accumulation depends on de novo synthesis of carotenoids and on deepoxidase activity. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest a biosynthetic sequence from Vx via Ddx to fucoxanthin in P. tricornutum. This gives experimental support to the long-stated hypothesis that Vx is a common precursor of all carotenoids with an allenic or acetylenic group, including the main light-harvesting carotenoids in most chlorophyll a/c-containing algae. Thus, another important function for xanthophyll cycling may be to optimize the biosynthesis of light-harvesting xanthophylls under fluctuating light conditions.  (+info)

Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in plasma after dietary supplementation with egg yolk. (7/470)

BACKGROUND: The food matrix in which carotenoids are found affects their bioavailability. Lutein and zeaxanthin are abundant in egg yolks and accumulate in the macular region of the retina, where they may affect visual function. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations are elevated after dietary supplementation with egg yolk. DESIGN: Eleven moderately hypercholesterolemic men and women consumed 2 separate baseline diets, which contained 29-33% of energy as total fat, with 20% of energy as either beef tallow or corn oil. These diets were supplemented with cooked chicken egg yolks (1.3 egg yolks/d for an intake of 10.4 MJ). Each subject consumed all 4 diets. Each diet was consumed for 4.5 wk, with a washout period of >/=2 wk between diet phases. At the end of each diet phase, fasting morning plasma samples were collected and stored for carotenoid analysis by HPLC. Commercial chicken egg yolks were analyzed for carotenoids and cholesterol. RESULTS: Egg yolk supplementation of the beef tallow diet increased plasma lutein by 28% (P < 0.05) and zeaxanthin by 142% (P < 0.001); supplementation of the corn oil diet increased plasma lutein by 50% (P < 0.05) and zeaxanthin by 114% (P < 0.001). Changes in plasma lycopene and beta-carotene were variable, with no consistent trend. Egg yolk supplementation increased plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations by 8-11% (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin. The benefit of introducing these carotenoids into the diet with egg yolk is counterbalanced by potential LDL-cholesterol elevation from the added dietary cholesterol.  (+info)

Bioavailability of lutein from vegetables is 5 times higher than that of beta-carotene. (8/470)

BACKGROUND: To gain more insight into the relation between vegetable consumption and the risk of chronic diseases, it is important to determine the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and the effect of vegetable consumption on selected biomarkers of chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the bioavailability of beta-carotene and lutein from vegetables and the effect of increased vegetable consumption on the ex vivo oxidizability of LDL. DESIGN: Over 4 wk, 22 healthy adult subjects consumed a high-vegetable diet (490 g/d), 22 consumed a low-vegetable diet (130 g/d), and 10 consumed a low-vegetable diet supplemented with pure beta-carotene (6 mg/d) and lutein (9 mg/d). RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and carotenoids (ie, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin) were significantly higher after the high-vegetable diet than after the low-vegetable diet. In addition to an increase in plasma beta-carotene and lutein, the pure carotenoid-supplemented diet induced a significant decrease in plasma lycopene concentration of -0.11 micromol/L (95% CI: -0.21, -0.0061). The responses of plasma beta-carotene and lutein to the high-vegetable diet were 14% and 67%, respectively, of those to the pure carotenoid- supplemented diet. Conversion of beta-carotene to retinol may have attenuated its plasma response compared with that of lutein. There was no significant effect on the resistance of LDL to oxidation ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Increased vegetable consumption enhances plasma vitamin C and carotenoid concentrations, but not resistance of LDL to oxidation. The relative bioavailability of lutein from vegetables is higher than that of beta-carotene.  (+info)

  • Lutein is also one of the dominant pigments found in the macular region of the retina in the eye. (
  • While far from a cure for vision loss, it is clear that lutein as well as zeaxanthin are powerful tools for protecting the retina and possibly preventing macular degeneration and the development of cataracts. (
  • Moreover, there have been reports that lutein supplementation helps improve symptoms of loss of vision such as flashing lights (indicative of damage to the retina) and foggy vision. (
  • The American Optometric Association says that research shows that individuals should take 10mg of Lutein a day either through food or in supplement form. (
  • Colladeen ® Visage 4.8/5 based on 215 customer reviews High strength anthocyanidins, lutein & green tea extract Formulated to provide nutrients known to support the body's defences against sun damage to skin. (
  • In a Department of Veterans Affairs study published in Optometry in 2004 on the effects of lutein supplementation and the progression of macular degeneration it was found that lutein alone is capable of improving visual function in patients suffering from age-related degeneration. (
  • There are no documented side effects of Lutein but it is recommended that you do not take too much of the nutrient as it can possibly accumulate in the body. (
  • Lutein has powerful antioxidant properties and is intended to provide nutritive support for eye health. (
  • According to the American Optometric Association a study of older men and women in England found that people with a high amount of lutein in their blood have a lower risk for some types of cataracts. (
  • There is believed to be a link between the consumption of lutein and the reduced risk of developing both age-related macular degeneration and cataracts. (
  • Owing to its beneficial effects on human health, lutein has been of great interest to the food processing and pharmaceutical industries. (
  • This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between a carotenoid important for brain health across the lifespan, lutein, and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. (
  • While lutein is of course beneficial as an antioxidant, what is more important for eye health is where it becomes concentrated. (
  • The lutein used in fortification of the formula was derived from the marigold flower ( Tagetes erecta L) . The raw material used was Lutein 20% liquid in Safflower Oil sourced from Kemin Health L.C. (Des Moines, Iowa, USA). (
  • Lutein is a carotenoid antioxidant and essential nutrient for eye health and good vision. (
  • According to the American Optometric Association, 'Beyond reducing the risk of developing eye disease, separate studies have shown that lutein and zeaxanthin improve visual performance in AMD patients, cataract patients and individuals with good health. (
  • Recently, researchers have found that adding vegetables high in the phytonutrient lutein to your diet helps support macular health . (
  • Lutein may also support breast health and may be of particular importance to women. (
  • We examined 76 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 to investigate the relationship between serum lutein, tests of crystallized intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence), and gray matter volume of regions within the temporal cortex. (
  • The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the temporal cortex, the right parahippocampal cortex (Brodmann's Area 34), partially mediates the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence. (
  • These results suggest that the parahippocampal cortex acts as a mediator of the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. (
  • Prior findings substantiate the individual relationships reported within the mediation, specifically the links between (i) serum lutein and temporal cortex structure, (ii) serum lutein and crystallized intelligence, and (iii) parahippocampal cortex structure and crystallized intelligence. (
  • Source Naturals Lutein is extracted from the marigold flower and purified by an exclusive patented process (US Patent No. 5,382,714). (
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