Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.High-Frequency Ventilation: Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.High-Frequency Jet Ventilation: Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.Noninvasive Ventilation: Techniques for administering artificial respiration without the need for INTRATRACHEAL INTUBATION.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.One-Lung Ventilation: Techniques for supplying artificial respiration to a single lung.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Maximal Voluntary Ventilation: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Krypton Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Krypton: A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Barotrauma: Injury following pressure changes; includes injury to the eustachian tube, ear drum, lung and stomach.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Airway Extubation: Removal of an endotracheal tube from the patient.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Interactive Ventilatory Support: Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Middle Ear Ventilation: Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated: Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).Capnography: Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.APACHE: An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.ManikinsPneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Infant, Premature, DiseasesSheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Mice, Inbred C57BLSupine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.
Analysis of pulmonary gas exchange, particularly ventilation-perfusion relationships. Effects of gravity on lung mechanics. ... particularly ventilation-perfusion relationships. Measurement of inequality of ventilation and blood flow in the lung by using ... predominantly in the following areas of pulmonary physiology: Investigation of pulmonary function, ... respiratory physiologist who made major research contributions in the area of ventilation-perfusion relationships in the lung. ...
The most common indication for lung scintigraphy is to diagnose pulmonary embolism, e.g. with a ventilation/perfusion scan. ... In the ventilation phase of a ventilation/perfusion scan, a gaseous radionuclide xenon or technetium DTPA in an aerosol form ( ... Less common indications include evaluation of lung transplantation, preoperative evaluation, evaluation of right-to-left shunts ... Guideline for Lung Scintigraphy. Version 3.0, approved February 7, 2004 [1] George J. Taylor (2004). Primary Care Cardiology. ...
... is a cavity in the lung parenchyma filled with air that may result from pulmonary trauma during mechanical ventilation. A ... Pulmonary lacerations that fill with blood are called pulmonary hematomas. In some cases, both pneumatoceles and hematomas ... pneumatocele results when a lung laceration, a cut or tear in the lung tissue, fills with air. A rupture of a small airway ... Differential diagnoses, other conditions that could cause similar symptoms as pneumatocele, include lung cancer, tuberculosis, ...
A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in lung ventilation comes from a reconstruction of the air ... O'Connor, P. & Claessens, L. (July 2005). "Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod ... Ruben, J.A., Jones, T.D., Geist, N.R. and Hillenius, W. J. (November 1997). "Lung structure and ventilation in theropod ... Hicks, J.W. & Farmer, C.G. (November 1997). "Lung Ventilation and Gas Exchange in Theropod Dinosaurs". Science. 278 (5341): ...
Various pathologies and anomalies cause conditions such as diffusion limitation, ventilation/perfusion mismatch, and pulmonary ... That is, factors such as the ability of the lung to oxygenate the blood must also be considered. ...
Whenever there is poor pulmonary ventilation, the carbon dioxide levels in the blood are expected to rise. This leads to a rise ... This allows much more carbon dioxide to escape the body through the lungs, thus increasing the pH by having less carbonic acid ... the PaCO2 is determined entirely by its elimination through ventilation.[10] A high PaCO2 (respiratory acidosis, alternatively ...
12 h before symptoms of pulmonary edema develop. Acute lung injury (ALI), also called non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, is ... Currently, mechanical ventilation remains the therapeutic mainstay for pulmonary dysfunction following acute inhalation injury ... Pulmonary edema rarely occurs because mustard rarely affects the lung parenchyma and alveoli. Methyl isocyanate is an ... The hydrochloric acid triggers an inflammatory response that attracts neutrophils to the lungs, which causes pulmonary edema. ...
... provides information about CO 2 production, pulmonary (lung) perfusion, alveolar ventilation, respiratory patterns ... Conditions such as pulmonary embolism and congenital heart disease, which affect perfusion of the lung, do not, in themselves, ... the tube feedings will go into the lungs, which is a life-threatening situation. Integrated Pulmonary Index Medical equipment ... Indirectly, it reflects the production of CO 2 by tissues and the circulatory transport of CO 2 to the lungs. When expired CO 2 ...
The development of pulmonary surfactant, which facilitates the oxygenation and ventilation of underdeveloped lungs, has been ... Typically, the ventilator takes the role of the lungs while treatment is administered to improve lung and circulatory function. ... A special aspect of NICU stress for both parents and staff is that infants may survive, but with damage to the brain, lungs or ... Ventilator: This is a breathing machine that delivers air to the lungs. Babies who are severely ill will receive this ...
This musculoskeletal disorder often leads to other issues in patients, such as under-ventilation of lungs, pulmonary ...
Pulmonary anton ventilation (and hence external parts of respiration) is achieved through manual insufflation of the lungs ... artificial ventilation using exhaled air from the rescuer Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, a form of artificial ventilation, is ... This means that there is more than enough residual oxygen to be used in the lungs of the patient, which then enters the blood. ... After gaseous exchange has taken place in the lungs, with waste products (notably carbon dioxide) moved from the bloodstream to ...
Low oxygen levels lead to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, the tightening of small blood vessels in the lung to create an ... The low oxygen level leads to physiologic constriction of the pulmonary arteries to correct ventilation-perfusion mismatching, ... To distinguish between OHS and various other lung diseases that can cause similar symptoms, medical imaging of the lungs (such ... Persistently low oxygen levels causing chronic vasoconstriction leads to increased pressure on the pulmonary artery (pulmonary ...
... excessive ventilation of the alveoli, brought on in relation to perfusion, in people with chronic obstructive lung disease, and ... Diffusion in the alveoli allows for the exchange of O2 into the pulmonary capillaries and the removal of CO2 and other gases ... Smoke in the lungs causes them to harden and become less elastic, which prevents the lungs from expanding or shrinking as they ... In order for the lungs to expel air the diaphragm relaxes, which pushes up on the lungs. The air then flows through the trachea ...
Pulmonary edema Death CPR Mechanical ventilation Intubation Iron lung Intensive care medicine Liquid breathing ECMO Oxygen ... air into the lungs where the process of gas exchange takes place between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary ... In animals with lungs, physiological respiration involves respiratory cycles of inhaled and exhaled breaths. Inhalation ( ... Thus, in precise usage, the words breathing and ventilation are hyponyms, not synonyms, of respiration; but this prescription ...
Positive pressure ventilation can cause pulmonary embolism by forcing air out of injured lungs and into blood vessels. ... pulmonary laceration involves disruption of the architecture of the lung, while pulmonary contusion does not. Pulmonary ... A pulmonary laceration is a chest injury in which lung tissue is torn or cut. An injury that is potentially more serious than ... A pulmonary laceration can cause air to leak out of the lacerated lung and into the pleural space, if the laceration goes ...
More specifically, intrapulmonary shunt refers to areas in the lung where perfusion exceeds ventilation. Pulmonary shunting is ... Pulmonary shunting causes the blood supply leaving a shunted area of the lung to have lower levels of oxygen and higher levels ... A pulmonary shunt often occurs when the alveoli fill with fluid, causing parts of the lung to be unventilated although they are ... A pulmonary shunt is a pathological condition which results when the alveoli of the lungs are perfused with blood as normal, ...
"Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography vs ventilation-perfusion lung scanning in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism ... Otherwise a CT pulmonary angiography, lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or ultrasound of the legs may confirm the diagnosis. ... A ventilation/perfusion scan (or V/Q scan or lung scintigraphy) shows that some areas of the lung are being ventilated but not ... Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body ...
Pulmonary anton ventilation (and hence external parts of respiration) is achieved through manual insufflation of the lungs ... sucked into the lungs. Tracheal intubation is often used for short term mechanical ventilation. A tube is inserted through the ... or it may be mechanical ventilation involving the use of a mechanical ventilator to move air in and out of the lungs when an ... a metabolic process referring to the overall exchange of gases in the body by pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and ...
These tubes enable one to ventilate both lungs, or either lung independently. Single-lung ventilation (allowing the lung on the ... They may even be immediately life-threatening, such as laryngospasm and negative pressure pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs ... Several open techniques exist, such as spontaneous ventilation, apnoeic ventilation or jet ventilation. Each has its own ... the left lung may be unable to participate in ventilation, which can lead to decreased oxygen content due to ventilation/ ...
In condition such as pulmonary embolism, the pulmonary blood flow is affected, thus the ventilation of the lung is adequate, ... Ventilation Perfusion mismatch or "V/Q defects" are defects in total lung ventilation perfusion ratio. It is a condition in ... A ventilation perfusion scan or lung scintigraphy shows some areas of lungs being ventilated but not adequately perfused. This ... as normal lungs are not perfectly matched., which means the rate of alveolar ventilation to the rate of pulmonary blood flow is ...
"Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiography vs Ventilation-Perfusion Lung Scanning in Patients With Suspected Pulmonary Embolism ... A V/Q lung scan may be performed in the case of serious lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or ... A ventilation/perfusion lung scan, also called a V/Q lung scan, is a type of medical imaging using scintigraphy and medical ... Ventilation/perfusion ratio "Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan". University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 3 January ...
... is more frequent in premature infants who require mechanical ventilation for severe lung ... Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a collection of air outside of the normal air space of the pulmonary alveoli, found ... or other infections Mechanical ventilation Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is created when air bursts or ruptures through ... The prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema widely varies with the population studied. In a 1987 study 3% of infants ...
PAM is one of the rare lung diseases currently being studied by the Rare Lung Diseases Consortium (RLDC). Pulmonary Alveolar ... Pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases, ventilation perfusion relationships, and O2 diffusing capacity are normal in ... Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, inherited disorder of lung phosphate balance that is associated with small ... 2004). "Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: report on 576 cases published in the literature". Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis ...
Ventilation-perfusion mismatch (parts of the lung receive oxygen but not enough blood to absorb it, e.g. pulmonary embolism) ... The most common causes are (in no particular order) infections, interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary oedema. ... It is typically caused by a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch; the volume of air flowing in and out of the lungs is not ... Conditions which reduce the flow of air into and out of the lungs, including physical obstruction by foreign bodies or masses, ...
2007). "Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography vs ventilation-perfusion lung scanning in patients with suspected pulmonary ... V/Q scans can offer lower radiation doses, and may be adapted to further reduce the dose by omitting the lung ventilation ... It is regarded as a highly sensitive and specific test for pulmonary embolism. CTPA is typically only requested if pulmonary ... such as direct pulmonary angiography, as the gold standard for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. The patient receives an ...
Lung function tests. spirometry. body plethysmography. peak flow meter. nitrogen washout. Circulation. *pulmonary circulation ... Ventilation (physiology). *Work of breathing. References[edit]. *^ Passàli, D; Lauriello, M; Bellussi, L; Passali, GC; Passali ... Examples include pulmonary function testing (e.g. nitrogen washout test, diffusion capacity testing (carbon monoxide, helium, ... Air enters, inflating the lung through either the nose or the mouth into the pharynx (throat) and trachea before entering the ...
6) Thus, under conditions of constant lung ventilation, PETCO2 monitoring can be used as a monitor of pulmonary blood flow. (5, ... pulmonary blood flow was more than 5 L/min (CI , 2.5 L).(16) Thus, under conditions of constant lung ventilation, PETCO2 ... Arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in children undergoing mechanical ventilation of the lungs during general ... 6) Capnography as a non invasive monitoring of ventilation. Continuous ETCO2 can be used to optimize ventilation to the desired ...
At initial review all patients were found to have reduced gas transfer (median predicted DLCO 74%) with preservation of lung ... Pulmonary sequelae of severe H1N1 infection treated with high frequency oscillatory ventilation. ... We conclude that the effects on respiratory function and pulmonary radiological appearance are similar to those observed ... We detail outcomes of clinical examination, pulmonary function testing, quality of life assessment and radiographic appearance ...
7. congenital lung diseases or malformations or pulmonary hypoplasia.. 8. parents reject to join ... Selective High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) for Neonates. Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of ... "Elective High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) Versus Conventional Mechanical Ventilation(CMV) for Acute Respiratory ...
MANAGEMENT OF LUNG CONDITIONS. - Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. - Pneumonia and Tuberculosis. - Lung tumours ... Lung cancer screening. - Smoking cessation. - Sleep studies. - Non-invasive ventilation. - Home ventilator management. - ... Lung infections such as Tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchitis. - Lung cancer. - Pleural disease (e.g. water in the lung). - ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease & Emphysema. - Pneumonia. - Suspected Lung Cancer. - Tuberculosis. - Pleural Effusion. - ...
Lung: One-lung Ventilation: Expression of Pulmonary Inflammatory Mediators After Deflation and Re-expansion of the Lung During ... One-lung ventilation measurement in the re-ventilated lung after short-period pulmonary collapse [ Time Frame: Sep 07 ]. ... One-lung ventilation; organ protection; volatile anesthetics. One-lung ventilation has become a common procedure for ... One-lung Ventilation: Expression of Pulmonary Inflammatory Mediators. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
Lung Protective Ventilation in Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy (PTE) Patients. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Efficacy of a Low-Tidal Volume Ventilation Strategy to Prevent Reperfusion Lung Injury after Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy. ... Hypertension, Pulmonary. Lung Injury. Acute Lung Injury. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult. Vascular Diseases. ... A Prospective Single Blind Controlled Study to Assess the Efficacy of a Lung Protective Ventilation Strategy in the Prevention ...
Difficulty in diagnosing pulmonary embolism; Advantage of ventilation-perfusion lung scans; Ultrasound examinations of the legs ... Presents a study that assessed the diagnostic usefulness of the Ventilation/Perfusion lung scans in acute pulmonary embolism. ... Discusses the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Standard diagnostic tests for PE; Ventilation-perfusion lung scan studies; ... The low specificity of ventilation-perfusion lung scanning complicates the management of patients with suspected pulmonary ...
Pulmonary embolism revealed on helical CT angiography: comparison with ventilation-perfusion radionuclide lung scanning.. ... On the basis of concordance of the results for ventilation-perfusion radionuclide lung scanning and helical CT angiography and ... CT angiography and ventilation-perfusion radionuclide lung scanning as initial tests in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary ... Helical CT angiography could replace ventilation-perfusion radionuclide lung scanning as the initial test for screening ...
Registry of Stable Hypercapnic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treated With Non-Invasive Ventilation ... Registry of Stable Hypercapnic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treated With Non-Invasive Ventilation Brief description of ... There is robust scientific evidence that non-invasive ventilation (NIV) therapy is an effective option for most COPD patients ... The prevalence of chronic respiratory disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is increasing in ...
Lung-Protective Ventilation With Low Tidal Volumes and the Occurrence of Pulmonary Complications in Patients Without Acute ... A Few Milliliters of Prevention: Lung-Protective Ventilation Decreases Pulmonary Complications. [Crit Care Med. 2015] ... Ventilation with low tidal volumes is associated with a lower risk of development of pulmonary complications in patients ... Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume.. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was development of a ...
Lung Protective One-lung Ventilation With Fix and Variable Tidal Volume. During One-lung ventilation, the use of lower tidal ... Pulmonary Effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in a Porcine Model of Ventilation-induced Lung Injury. ... BACKGROUNDː: One-lung ventilation (OLV) may result in lung injury due to increased mechanical stress and tidal recruitment. As ... Variable ventilation can stabilize lung mechanics by avoiding the monotonic tidal volume and protect lung parenchyma as tidal ...
CT pulmonary angiography was not inferior to ventilation-perfusion lung scanning for ruling out pulmonary embolism Andrew Dunn ... Dunn A. CT pulmonary angiography was not inferior to ventilation-perfusion lung scanning for ruling out pulmonary embolism. Ann ... Pulmonary Angiography, Ventilation Lung Scanning, and Venography for Clinically Suspected Pulmonary Embolism with Abnormal ... Differentiation of Pulmonary Vascular from Parenchymal Diseases by Ventilation/Perfusion Scintiphotography Annals of Internal ...
Computed tomography pulmonary angiography versus ventilation-perfusion lung scanning for diagnosing pulmonary embolism during ... Computed tomography pulmonary angiography versus ventilation-perfusion lung scanning for diagnosing pulmonary embolism during ... Computed tomography pulmonary angiography versus ventilation-perfusion lung scanning for diagnosing pulmonary embolism during ...
To evaluate the utilization of independent pulmonary ventilation with protective lung strategies and recruitment maneuvers in ... Independent pulmonary ventilation was introduced in the 1930s and allows the utilization of different ventilatory strategies ... A thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed unilateral lung affection: three patients with left lung disease and two ... The contralateral lung was ventilated with VCV, half of the ideal Vt calculated to the ideal body weight of each patient (3.5 ...
Differential pulmonary and circulatory effects of preventive lung protective ventilation in an experimental postoperative ... ventilation combined with higher PEEP should be used in patients with risk of developing postoperative lung injury instead of ... Twenty-five healthy pigs were randomized to three ventilation groups: I: PEEP 10 cmH2O, VT 6 ml/kg; II: PEEP 5 cmH2O, VT 10 ml/ ... During the endotoxin infusion, PaO2/FiO2 was higher in groups I and II than in group III, whereas in pulmonary compliance or ...
Cheong, K.F. (1999). Re-expansion pulmonary oedema following one-lung ventilation - A case report. Annals of the Academy of ...
... pulmonary ventilation and perfusion PET/CT allows for functionally adapted intensity modulated radiotherapy in lung cancer ...
Changes in Pulmonary Blood Flow during Gaseous and Partial Liquid Ventilation in Experimental Acute Lung Injury. Anesthesiology ... The severe ventilation-perfusion mismatch in the posterior lung segments caused by ALI is likely to cause hypoxic pulmonary ... Changes in Pulmonary Blood Flow during Gaseous and Partial Liquid Ventilation in Experimental Acute Lung Injury ... Changes in Pulmonary Blood Flow during Gaseous and Partial Liquid Ventilation in Experimental Acute Lung Injury ...
Partial liquid ventilation influences pulmonary histopathology in an animal model of acute lung injury. Journal of Critical ... Partial liquid ventilation influences pulmonary histopathology in an animal model of acute lung injury. / Rotta, Alexandre T.; ... title = "Partial liquid ventilation influences pulmonary histopathology in an animal model of acute lung injury", ... T1 - Partial liquid ventilation influences pulmonary histopathology in an animal model of acute lung injury ...
... we attempted to determine whether the lung clearance index (LCI) as a measure of ventilation inhomogeneities could be a d … ... Based on serial lung function measurements performed in 142 children (68 males; 74 females) with cystic fibrosis (CF), ... pulmonary hyperinflation, airway obstruction, and ventilation inhomogeneities are important pathophysiologic processes that ... Ventilation inhomogeneities in relation to standard lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis Am J Respir Crit Care Med. ...
Excess CO2 stimulates pulmonary ventilation. H+ RESPIRATION. LUNGS. THE CORI CYCLE. H+ + HCO3 H2CO3 H2O + CO2. Normal With ...
You may be advised to have a ventilation/perfusion test if you have symptoms of pulmonary embolism. A pulmonary embolism occurs ... Key notes about lung ventilation/perfusion tests. *A lung ventilation/perfusion test examines air and blood flow in the lungs. ... Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan A lung ventilation/perfusion test, commonly referred to as a VQ test, is carried out to test ... What does a lung ventilation/perfusion test show?. A lung ventilation/perfusion test displays the movement of air and blood ...
In ten eucapnic patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) we evaluated the breathing pattern during induced ... Lung Diseases, Obstructive / physiopathology*. Male. Middle Aged. Physical Exertion*. Pulmonary Ventilation. Respiration*. ... When compared to hypercapnia, the increase in ventilation (VE) during exercise was associated with a smaller increase in tidal ... In ten eucapnic patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) we evaluated the breathing pattern during induced ...
Lungs (71-86%). Patients may have severe pulmonary hypertension requiring assisted ventilation. ... Mitsialis SA, Kourembanas S. Stem cell-based therapies for the newborn lung and brain: Possibilities and challenges. Semin ...
Pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange; Mixed venous oxygen tension; Lung volumes; Lung mechanics and work of breathing; ... Other indices of pulmonary oxygen transfer and lung function. 7 RESPIRATORY SUPPORT:. Negative-pressure ventilation; Positive- ... Beneficial effects of mechanical ventilation; Indications for mechanical ventilation; Dangers of mechanical ventilation; ... Pulmonary embolism. 6 ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF RESPIRATORY FUNCTION:. Measurement of lung volumes; Assessing airways ...
  • We detail outcomes of clinical examination, pulmonary function testing, quality of life assessment and radiographic appearance on CT Thorax at follow-up at 6 months. (lenus.ie)
  • Further clinical assessment and pulmonary function testing were performed at median 19months (range 18-21 months) post-discharge. (lenus.ie)
  • Due to clinical course with confirmed history of opiate abuse in spite of negative UDS, resolution of mental status depression with Narcan, and improvement with increased PEEP and plateau pressures during intubation, patient was suspected to have opioid induced non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema as a contributing cause to his hypoxia and decline in respiratory function. (meyeringmethod.com)
  • Adjuvant pharmacological strategies in addition to lung-protective ventilation to attenuate VILI are lacking. (bmj.com)
  • 4 However, preinjured lungs in particular are sensitive for the development of VILI even in the setting of lung-protective ventilation. (bmj.com)